94 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2019
    1. Abstrac

      In his commentary, Alex Holcombe makes the argument that only ‘one or two exemplars of a color category’ are typically examined in color studies, and this is problematic because a color such as ‘red’ is a category, not a single hue.

      Although in some fields it is very important to examine a range of stimuli, and in general examining the generalizability of findings has an important place in research lines, I do not think that currently this issue is a pressing concern in color psychology. Small variations in hue and brightness naturally occur in online studies, and these are assumed not to matter for the underlying mechanism. Schietecat, Lakens, IJsselsteijn, and De Kort (2018) write: “In addition, we conducted Experiments 1 and 3 in a laboratory environment, but Experiments 2, 4, and 5 were conducted in participants’ homes with an internet-based method. Therefore, we could not be completely sure that the presentation of the stimuli on their personal computers was identical for every participant in those experiments. However, we expected that the impact of these variations on our results is not substantial. The labels of the IAT (i.e., red vs blue) increased the salience of the relevant hue dimension, and we do not expect our results to hold for very specific hues, but for colors that are broadly categorized as red, blue, and green. The similar associative patterns across Experiments 2 and 3 seem to support this expectation.”

      We wrote this because there is nothing specific about the hue that is expected to drive the effects in association based accounts of psychological effects of colors. If the color ‘red’ is associated with specific concepts (and the work by Schietecat at all supports the idea that red can activate associations related to either activity and evaluation, such as aggression or enthusiasm, depending on the context). This means that the crucial role of the stimulus is to activate the association with ‘red’, no the perceptual stimulation of the eye in any specific way. The critical manipulation check would thus be is people categorize a stimulus as ‘red’. As long as this is satisfied, we can assume the concept ‘red’ is activated, which can then activate related associations, depending on the context.

      Obviously, the author is correct that there are benefits in testing multiple variations of the color ‘red’ to demonstrate the generalizability of observed effects. However, the authors is writing too much as a perception researcher I fear. If there is a strong theoretical reason to assume slightly different hues and chromas will not matter (because as long as a color is recognized as ‘red’ it will activate specific associations) the research priority of varying colors is much lower than in other fields (e.g., research on human faces) where it is more plausible that the specifics of the stimuli matter. A similar argument holds for the question whether “any link is specifically to red, rather than extending to green, yellow, purple, and brown”. This is too a-theoretical, and even though not all color research has been replicable, and many studies suffered from problems identified during the replication crisis, the theoretical models are still plausible, and specific to predictions about certain hues. We know quite a lot about color associations for prototypical colors in terms of their associations with valence and activity (e.g., Russell & Mehrabian, 1977) and this can be used to make more specific predictions than to a-theoretically test the entire color spectrum.

      Indeed, across the literature many slightly different variations of red are used, or in online studies (Schietecat et al., 2018) studies have been performed online, where different computer screens will naturally lead to some variation in the exact colors presented. This doesn’t mean that more dedicated exploration of the boundaries of these effects can be worthwhile in the future. But currently, the literature is more focused on examining whether these effects are reliable to begin with, and explaining basic questions about their context dependency, than that they are concerned about testing the range of hues for which effects can be observed. So, although in principle it is often true that the generalizability of effects is understudies and deserved more attention, it is not color psychology’s most pressing concern, because we have theoretical predictions about specific colors, and because theoretically as long as a color activates the concept (e.g., ‘red’), the associated concepts that influence subsequent psychological responses are assumed to be activated, irrespective of minor differences in for example hue or brightness.

      Daniel Lakens


      Russell, J. A., & Mehrabian, A. (1977). Evidence for a three-factor theory of emotions. Journal of Research in Personality, 11(3), 273–294. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-6566(77)90037-X Schietecat, A. C., Lakens, D., IJsselsteijn, W. A., & Kort, Y. A. W. de. (2018). Predicting Context-dependent Cross-modal Associations with Dimension-specific Polarity Attributions. Part 2: Red and Valence. Collabra: Psychology, 4(1). https://doi.org/10.1525/COLLABRA.126

    2. A claim about a category requirestesting multiple examples of that category

      Submitted to Meta-Psychology. Contribute with peer review directly on this preprint. The editorial process can be found here:


  2. Feb 2019
    1. This is a way to comment on things here. It's just a test, so feel free to try it out and let me know what you think!

    1. the conditioning needed by the human being to bring his skills in using Means 1, 2, and 3 to the point where they are operationally effective.

      Always interesting to read how Engelbart builds organizational schemes which build off of themselves, very very meta

  3. Jan 2019
    1. Under review at Meta-Psychology. Contribute with peer review here. The editorial process can be followed at:


    1. very difficult to track and may not involve a visible trace of usage that we can measure

      Unless, for example, annotation was baked into the platforms, and offered any reader the opportunity to collaboratively discuss.

  4. Dec 2018
    1. 2:16

      Well, here I am on YouTube, watching a Hypothes.is video and commenting using it. I'm annotating YouTube, which is pretty open in terms of what people can say in the comments, and almost universally derided as being where the dregs come to say whatever they want, bringing civil discourse along for the ride.

      I believe in freedom of speech and eliminating censorship, but what is it about this new platform that will prevent the problems of the old? Here we are, at the intersection.

  5. Oct 2018
    1. a good meta-review also discusses what comments you weighted more heavily from the reviewers, and why, in reaching your evaluation of the paper.

      good meta-review -> weight more heavily from reviews, and why

    2. Writing a good meta-review is a lot like writing a good review, only it takes into account the points raised by all of the reviewers, rather than just reflecting your own opinion.

      good meta-review: -> consider all of the reviewers' opinions

  6. Sep 2018
    1. In other words, this tool offers you the possibility to comment, highlight, and annotate text on the web

      Like this!

  7. Jul 2018
    1. Hello Hypo users. I've never really used it much, but was one of the backers when it launched its kickstarter in 2011. Very good to see it in action here, so I'm going to start using it to engage in conversations in the general area of open science.

      If you see this comment, please take a moment to register at http://hypothes.is and say hi, even if you don't want to engage in thematic discussions about our paper :)

  8. Jun 2018
    1. Guide to highlight colors Yellow–general highlights and highlights which don’t fit under another category below Orange–Vocabulary word; interesting and/or rare word Green–Reference to read Blue–Interesting Quote Gray–Typography Problem Red–Example to work through
  9. Mar 2018
  10. Feb 2018
    1. En el mundo de los insectos esta transformación se produce como el resultado de una auto-digestión, un fundirse total (meltdown) de la oruga en la que sólo permanecen intactos unos pocos focos de tejido vivo, los discos imaginales. Es a partir de ellos que emergen piernas, alas, antenas, segmentos corporales y otras estructuras de la forma adulta como un ser transformado e integrado, la mariposa. Sólo podemos especular qué pueden significar las correspondencias culturales de esta metáfora (2

      Pienso en cómo otros lenguajes y tecnologías se encuentran en Grafoscpio: Pandoc, Lua, Smalltalk, lo escritural, lo hacker y en la deconstrucción y diálogo que favorece esta herramienta, que otras maneras no logocéntricas están por venir.

    2. O, mejor, una metacultura que podría ser la plataforma para una multiplicidad de culturas [un pluriverso...] la cultura de una sociedad en la que los lugares y las comunidades no sean entidades aisladas sino nodos en una variedad de redes [...] ayudando a crear un planeta resiliente donde sería posible, para nosotros y para las generaciones futuras, vivir y, ojalá, vivir bien.

      ¿Metaherramientas para metaculturas?

    3. . Cambiar la forma de cambiar para cambiar de manera autónoma y construir una nueva realidad (comunidad, región, nación) desde abajo y a la izquierda, como los zapatistas gustan decir. La autonomía no se logra por medio de la ‘captura del Estado’ sino recuperando del Estado las áreas claves de la vida social que ha colonizado. Crea ámbitos de acción que son autónomos del Estado y nuevos arreglos institucionales con ese propósito (como las conocidas juntas de buen gobierno en los territorios zapatistas). La autonomía pretende el establecimiento de nuevas bases para la vida social.

      Para compartir el comienzo del Data Week.

      Como la tecnología nos cambia, cambiamos la forma de cambiarnos.

    4. . El diseño mismo se convierte en un proyecto en transición y se une a otros proyectos teórico-políticos que buscan enriquecer nuestro entendimiento de la vida y de lo humano.
    5. Reconoce que todo diseño crea un ‘mundo dentro del mundo’ en el que somos, simultáneamente, diseñados y diseñadores. Todos somos diseñadores y todos somos diseñados.
    6. se pueden diseñar dispositivos para transformar, gradualmente, nuestras maneras principales de entender y de ser

      el cuidado se puede estructurar en el diseño de herramientas y equipos a través de lo que denomina «presenciación” (presencing), un concepto relacionado con la noción del diseño transparente de las interfaces tecnológicas que es clave para la incorporación en las herramientas de hábitos ecológicos a través del diseño para transformar nuestras acciones rutinarias en formas de comportamiento ecológico; esto ha de lograrse mediante la incorporación de ‘guiones’ en el diseño de productos. De esta manera los diseñadores tendrían que ir mucho más allá del objetivo de satisfacer las necesidades de los usuarios para articular, de formas novedosas, las preocupaciones y deseos de una colectividad. Las nuevas rutinas encarnadas se volverían lentamente colectivas y transformarían, eventualmente, la conciencia social y las estructuras institucionales. [...] El enfoque, sin embargo, sigue siendo básicamente teórico y no aborda, explícitamente, la dimensión política.

      Esto pasa en alguna medida con Grafoscopio, pues debido a su caracter de metasistema y su condición de objeto activista, embebe prácticas referidas a la disponibilidad permanente del código fuente, tanto de la herramienta, como de los escritos creados en ella y ejemplifica otras ecologías del conocimiento, asociadas al conocimiento como bien común.

      La comunidad de práctica alrededor de Grafoscopio comparte, deconstruye e incorpora dichas formas de entender y ser, de modos progresivos, configurando una identidad propia, que es distinta al grueso del hackerspace. Una ventaja de nuestro enfoque es que lo político es explícito y la teoría y la práctica dialogan en él a través de dispositivos digitales hacktivistas..

  11. Jan 2018
    1. . Mediante el examen de la creación de prototipos como una compleja práctica cultural emergente y la introducción de una meta-reflexión sobre ‘los prototipos de la creación de prototipos’, este proyecto examinó, críticamente, la historicidad de esta práctica; además, destacó la productividad de una práctica de diseño basada en una lógica de experimentación, imaginación, orientación hacia el uso y colaboración que, argumenta, podría informar el trabajo antropológico de manera fructífera (

      La idea de meta-prototipado: prototipar la construcción de prototipos, implicaría el código fuente de las prácticas de prototipado y los prototipos mismos, como menciono en la primera parte de la tesis.

  12. Nov 2017
    1. But if they are learning how to build on the Web they probably need to know something about becoming findable (or unfindable) on the Web. And by extension they need to understand how the power behind that findability is impacting the course of human history. 12 months ago if I had said that, some people would have rolled their eyes at me, but I think it’s safe to say that in the last 9 months we’ve all realized just how powerful algorithms are in shaping the outcomes of our culture.

      This is a pretty useful example of a paragraph with subtext, don’t you think? Could easily imagine future readers and annotators coming to this passage and scratching their heads for a minute while looking at the date. What happened nine months before June 2017? Living outside the US, it took me a few seconds to guess it (and my guess may be wrong). Of course, Martha was “playing for the audience” (though DoOO is having an impact outside the US). There’s indeed a shared understanding that events in the political arena may be relevant in our work on digital literacies.

    1. if cross-format identifiers like DOIs are used, annotations made in one format (eg, EPUB) can be seen in the same document published in other formats (eg, HTML, PDF) and in other locations.

      Whaa..? This sounds seriously hard. But remarkably clever.

    1. We know that there are few sticky security and implementation issues

      Which is probably why @judell’s tate doesn’t show up in Chrome on my system and there’s weirdness with the scrolling once we accept to load unsafe scripts.

    1. Wiley (and a cluster of other OER advocates) insist that creators must use a CC-by license, allowing commercial use, if they want their work to be considered open.

      Ha! So that’s where the comment about Rory McGreal should come in.

    1. Students often lose access to their materials at the end of the semester Students also often lose access to their own work as well, in the form of highlights, notes, and other annotations

      Hence the need for #OpenAnnotation to pair up with some of the other opens. Hypothes.is people are doing their part, but still.

    1. Link suggestions don’t even have to live in a separate meta box.

      Years ago, link suggestions were pretty high on my wishlist for WP. Did notice early implementations of this feature but haven’t used the improved version. It does sound like the current version is pretty useful and can lead to something interesting. Might also work well with annotations, come to think of it.

  13. Oct 2017
    1. When is a Publisher not a Publisher? Cobbling Together the Pieces to Build a Workflow Business

      Roger on the pattern of productizing scholarly workflows.

  14. Sep 2017
    1. The Chan Zuckerberg Initiative’s investments in Meta and bioRxiv are also said to carry with them a strong preference for open source solutions.


    1. Hackerand maker spaces are meta-organizational assemblages. Entanglement – through the notion fo “do-ocracy” –stands in for typical organizational trappings of rules, hierarchies and roles. Hackerspaces morph and evolve to meet the desires of participants, draw on affordances of tools and materialities of the space itself.
  15. Apr 2017
    1. 결국 메타언어에 존재하는 정보를 프로그래밍 언어에 합리적으로 추가하면, 더 유용하게 사용할 수 있다.

  16. Mar 2017
    1. Argument, then, is not something we make outside ourselves; argument is what we are. Each of us is an argumen

      Corder is arguing that we are, each of us, an argument. That is hard to argue with.

    1. Meta, with the stated intent of making the “AI-powered research search engine…free to all in a few months after enhancing the product.”

      Interesting how they see this fitting in with their mission.

  17. Feb 2017
  18. Jan 2017
    1. Our experts ~ in philosophical criticism, instead, whenever they ~ arc confronted with some dubious point, are wont <Lek..., to say: "Give me some time 10 think it over!"

      Ah, so quizzes are fair for Rhetoric, I see.

    1. the refusal of a mental attitude turned toward the future (which, due to its uncertainty, causes anxiety and agitation of the soul) and the positive value given to the possession of a past that one can enjoy to the full and without disturbance.

      "Blueprints for the future are a fool's errand" - Ron Swanson

  19. Sep 2016
    1. But ultimately you have to stop being meta. As Jeff Kaufman — a developer in Cambridge who's famous among effective altruists for, along with his wife Julia Wise, donating half their household's income to effective charities — argued in a talk about why global poverty should be a major focus, if you take meta-charity too far, you get a movement that's really good at expanding itself but not necessarily good at actually helping people.

      "Stop being meta" could be applied in some sense to meta systems like Smalltalk and Lisp, because their tendency to develop meta tools used mostly by developers, instead of "tools" used by by mostly everyone else. Burring the distinction between "everyone else" and developers in their ability to build/use meta tools, means to deliver tools and practices that can be a bridge with meta-tools. This is something we're trying to do with Grafoscopio and the Data Week.



    1. Research: Student data are used to conduct empirical studies designed primarily to advance knowledge in the field, though with the potential to influence institutional practices and interventions. Application: Student data are used to inform changes in institutional practices, programs, or policies, in order to improve student learning and support. Representation: Student data are used to report on the educational experiences and achievements of students to internal and external audiences, in ways that are more extensive and nuanced than the traditional transcript.

      Ha! The Chronicle’s summary framed these categories somewhat differently. Interesting. To me, the “application” part is really about student retention. But maybe that’s a bit of a cynical reading, based on an over-emphasis in the Learning Analytics sphere towards teleological, linear, and insular models of learning. Then, the “representation” part sounds closer to UDL than to learner-driven microcredentials. Both approaches are really interesting and chances are that the report brings them together. Finally, the Chronicle made it sound as though the research implied here were less directed. The mention that it has “the potential to influence institutional practices and interventions” may be strategic, as applied research meant to influence “decision-makers” is more likely to sway them than the type of exploratory research we so badly need.

    1. If we must be gods, we should at least be cautious and well-informed gods, with the best possible tools for seeing, understanding, and debating our interventions, and the best possible meta-tools for improving those tools.

      Also applies for sensible & concerned humans, which are worried about their own relation with the planet and other beings on it, despite of not being gods (or aspiring to be). On the case of tools for understanding and metatools for improving those tools, again Perfection & Feedback Loops, or: why worse is better seems enlightening, particularly in the context of Smalltalk legacy. Grafoscopio could make a humble contribution on the seeing, understanding and debating part

  20. Aug 2016
  21. Jul 2016
    1. The remix should be thought of as a method of quotation, citation and commentary; as a form of pastiche, parody or homage; as a means of picking our way through the media-saturated labyrinth in which we find ourselves; a vital expression of our living culture in a confused and confusing time.

      Sounds like a description of Shepazu’s Annotation Architecture. Web Annotation Architecture

  22. Jun 2016
    1. I think it would be easier/better if Hypothes.is both accepted and sent webmentions.

      Cool thing is. Udell and the gang are pretty open to suggestions, it sounds like. At the same time, it’s quite possible that webmentions wouldn’t fit in their overall vision of the tool.

    1. Diigo’s Refocus Back to Annotation

      Had missed this announcement. The annotation scene has this interesting ambivalence between being old and new, forward-looking and somewhat nostalgic. Wish Diigo were forward-looking enough to get into Open Annotations.

  23. Apr 2016
    1. A who’s who of open pedagogy scholars and web annotation advocates joined, too, including Maha Bali, Robin DeRosa, Jamila Siddiqui, Joe Dillon, Jeremy Dean, Alexandre Enkerli, and Roy Kamada.

      Flattery will lead us nowhere… But it’s still a warm and fuzzy feeling to be in such illustrious company.

    1. Web Annotations

      Obvious case for h. Imagine the possibilities of linked open data used in annotating presentations which would be part of scholarly books along with all the necessary material? The mind wanders…

    1. The editor of News Genius joined in with snarky and hostile comments.

      Funny how frequently this terms comes up, when talking about Genius. The difference between annotation platforms is significantly a matter of usage. Usage of Genius has a lot to do with snarky comments made by “the smart kid at the back of the class”. My perception of Hypothesis is that it’s much more oriented towards diversifying voices. But that has less to do with technical features of the platform than with the community adopting it.

    1. DoyleOwl

      Just got in touch with @DoyleOwl. Neat approach to annotation. My sense is that Genius can have a useful effect similar to that of those programmes using basketball to keep kids off the streets.

    2. one of the annotations is simply a link to a Google search for a phrase that’s been used.

      Glad this was mentioned. To the Eric Raymonds of this world, such a response sounds “perfectly legitimate”. But it’s precisely what can differentiate communities and make one more welcoming than the other. Case in point: Arduino-related forums, in contrast with the Raspberry Pi community. Was looking for information about building a device to track knee movement. Noticed that “goniometer” was the technical term for that kind of device, measuring an angle (say, in physiotherapy). Ended up on this page, where someone had asked a legitimate question about Arduino and goniometers. First, the question:

      Trying to make a goniometer using imu (gy-85). Hoe do I aquire data from the imu using the arduino? How do I code the data acquisition? Are there any tutorials avaible online? Thanks =)

      Maybe it wouldn’t pass the Raymond test for “smart questions”, but it’s easy to understand and a straight answer could help others (e.g., me).

      Now, the answer:

      For me, google found 87,000,000 hits for gy-85. I wonder why it failed for you.

      Wow. Just, wow.

      Then, on the key part of the question (the goniometer):

      No idea what that is or why I should have to google it for you.

      While this one aborted Q&A is enough to put somebody off Arduino forever, it’s just an example among many. Like Stack Overflow, Quora, and geek hideouts, Arduino-related forums are filled with these kinds of snarky comments about #LMGTFY.

      Contrast this with the Raspberry Pi. Liz Upton said it best in a recent interview (ca. 25:30):

      People find it difficult to remember that sometimes when somebody comes along… and appears to be “not thinking very hard”, it could well be because they’re ten years old.

      And we understand (from the context and such) that it’s about appearance (not about “not thinking clearly”). It’s also not really about age.

      So, imagine this scenario. You’re teacher a class, seminar, workshop… Someone asks a question about using data from a device to make it into a goniometer. What’s the most appropriate strategy? Sure, you might ask the person to look for some of that information online. But there are ways to do so which are much more effective than the offputting ’tude behind #LMGTFY. Assuming they do search for that kind of information, you might want to help them dig through the massive results to find something usable, which is a remarkably difficult task which is misunderstood by someone who answer questions about goniometers without knowing the least thing about them.

      The situation also applies to the notion that a question which has already been asked isn’t a legitimate question. A teacher adopting this notion would probably have a very difficult time teaching anyone who’s not in extremely narrow a field. (Those teachers do exist, but they complain bitterly about their job.)

      Further, the same logic applies to the pedantry of correcting others. Despite the fact that English-speakers’ language ideology allows for a lot of non-normative speech, the kind of online #WordRage which leads to the creation of “language police” bots is more than a mere annoyance. Notice the name of this Twitter account (and the profile of the account which “liked” this tweet).

      Lots of insight from @BiellaColeman on people who do things “for the lulz”. Her work is becoming increasingly relevant to thoughtful dialogue on annotations.

    3. “The annotations I have seen are often more snark than substance,”

      Same experience, even in the Genius guidelines. The tool’s affordances (and name) revolve around snark. In the abstract, there’s nothing wrong with that. We need spaces for people to have fun, even if it’s at the expense of others. But the startup is based on a very specific idea of what constitutes useful commentary. That idea is closer to pedantry, snark, intellectual bullying, and animated gifs than on respectful exchange.

    1. spark even more discussion.

      That part never worked. But maybe these annotations will? That’d be neat.

    2. Academia, academic models, academic publishing, academics, arrogance, blog comments, Blogging, books, cluefulness, comment-fishing, commenting, constructivism, critical thinking, cultural capital, education systems, ethnocentrism, friends, hegemony, humanism, informal learning, intellectual property, intellectualism, journalism, knowledge, knowledge management, knowledge people, language ideology, language sciences, linguistic anthropology, linkfest, literature, Mali, mass media, media, mediascape, online publishing, opinions, participatory culture, performance, product and process, radio, rants, readership, relativism, respect, schools, shameless plug, social capital, social change, social networking, social networks, social publishing, sophistication, writing

      It may annoy many, but overtagging can be playful.

  24. Mar 2016
    1. see you in the margins!

      We’re here! We’re always here. You can hide us, but we’re in your webpages, annotating away. Obligatory LOLcat

    2. somewhere between close reading and distributed commentary

      In my wishlist to Jon Udell (still in draft), these two modes can be separate phases with Hypothesis. But in reverse order. First pass is the distributed commentary about the whole piece, similar to social bookmarking and potentially affording a very cursory look (or even just a glance at a headline). It says: “Hey, please read this and tell me what you think!” The second pass could be the deep reading, with one’s personal comments visible, but not influenced by other comments. Then comes the “fun part”, which is also a form of distributed commentary, but is much more conversational. “Distributed” might not be as appropriate, though. At least in computer lingo.

    3. more democratic pathway

      This one remains to be demonstrated. As we keep saying, exclusion may be passive but inclusion is by definition active. Open annotations may not sound so exclusive for those who appropriated it as a technology, the same way literacies are often taken for granted. But we often tend to take “democratization” as a given.

    4. Unlike the commenting feature of a blog

      Despite an important continuity.

  25. Feb 2016
    1. Educators

      Just got to think about our roles, in view of annotation. Using “curation” as a term for collecting URLs sounds like usurping the title of “curator”. But there’s something to be said about the role involved. From the whole “guide on the side” angle to the issue with finding appropriate resources based on a wealth of expertise.

  26. Jan 2016
  27. Dec 2015
    1. With SmartBooks, students can see the important content highlighted

      Like an algorithmic version of Hypothesis? Is McGraw-Hill part of the Coalition? Looks like it isn’t. Is it a “for us or against us” situation?

    1. Oops! Started annotating the Forbes version but this one might be better (no preload). Wish I could transfer my annotations from one version to the other…

    1. personal note taking, peer review, copy editing, post publication discussion, journal clubs, classroom uses, automated classification, deep linking

      Useful list, almost a roadmap or set of scenarios. The last two might be especially intriguing, in view of the Semantic Web.

    1. Anyone can say Anything

      The “Open World Assumption” is central to this post and to the actual shift in paradigm when it comes to moving from documents to data. People/institutions have an alleged interest in protecting the way their assets are described. Even libraries. The Open World Assumption makes it sound quite chaotic, to some ears. And claims that machine learning will solve everything tend not to help the unconvinced too much. Something to note is that this ability to say something about a third party’s resource connects really well with Web annotations (which do more than “add metadata” to those resources) and with the fact that no-cost access to some item of content isn’t the end of the openness.

  28. Nov 2015
    1. If you write a post and I write a post on my own blog referring to yours, my blog post also “is a response to” your blog post.

      Chain of attribution, as @Shepazu would have it.

    1. The future of news is still about journalism? We can annotate any content. This piece makes it sound as though journalism should become even more controlling.

  29. Oct 2015
    1. As they are distinguishable documents too, annotations can even be annotated themselves.

      Tell that to Genius! Image Description

  30. Sep 2015
    1. (If this intrigues you, check out Hypothes.is, a socially-conscious annotation service you can use today).
    1. Finally, something I haven’t used much yet, but which I imagine could be really useful for close reading, analysis, or debate, is Hypothes.is, an annotation tool for web documents.

      Indeed! The only tricky thing is the current bookmarklet, but this can be integrated into sites themselves.

  31. Jul 2015
  32. Jun 2015
    1. Inclusion Guidelines for Webmasters

      This documentation describes the technology behind indexing of websites with scholarly articles in Google Scholar. It's written for webmasters who would like their papers included in Google Scholar search results. Detailed technical information is helpful if you're trying to fix an error in indexing of your own website, or you need to make sure that your article hosting product is compatible with Google and Google Scholar search services.

  33. Apr 2015
  34. Feb 2014
    1. Ho w to R ead a Judicia l Opin ion: A G uid e for N ew L aw Stu den ts Professor Orin S. Kerr George Washington University Law School Washington, DC Version 2.0 (August 2005) This essay is desig ned to help entering law students understand ho w to read cas es for class. It explains what judicial opinions are, how they are structured, and what you should look for when you read them. Part I explains the various ingredients found in a typical judicial opinion, and is the most essential section of the essay . Par t II discusses what you should look for when you re ad an opinion for class. Part II I con clu des with a brief discussion of why law schools use the case method.

      I need a way to add tags to a document that will apply to all annotations in a particular document (except where explicitly canceled).

      The problem is that I often want to query all annotations related to a specific document, collection of documents, or type of activity.

      Type of activity requires further explanation: Given a document or collection of documents I may annotate the document for different reasons at different times.

      For example, while annotating the reading materials, video transcripts, and related documents for the CopyrightX course there are certain types of annotations that may be "bundled together" so that when I search for those things later I can easily narrow my searches to just that subset of annotations; but at the same time I need a way to globally group things together.

      While reading judicial opinions the first activity/mode of interaction with a particular document may be to identify the structure of the judicial opinion (the document attached to this annotation describes the parts of the judicial opinion I might want to identify: *caption, case citation, author, facts of the case, law of the case, disposition, concurring and/or dissenting opinions, etc).

      The above-described mode I may use for multiple documents in one session related to the course syllabus for the week.

      To connect each of these documents together I might add the tags: copyx (my shorthand for the name of the course, CopyrightX), week 1 (how far into the course syllabus), foundations (the subject matter in the syllabus which may span week 1, week 2, etc), judicial opinions (the specific topic I am focused on learning at the moment (may or may not be related to the syllabus).

      Later on another day I might update my existing annotations or add new ones when I am preparing to study for an exam. I might add tags like to study, on midterm, on final to mark areas I need to review.

      After the exam I might add more tags based on my test score, especially focusing on areas that received a poor score so I can study that section more or, if I missed some sections so didn't study and it resulted in a poor score in that area, add tags to study for later if necessary.

      I have many more examples and modes of interaction in mind that I can explain more later, but it all hinges on a rich and flexible tagging system that:

      • allows tagging a document once in a way that applies to all annotations in a document
      • allows tagging a session once in a way that applies to all annotations in all documents connected to a particular session
      • allows tagging a session and/or a document that bundles together new tags added to an annotation (e.g. tags for grammar/spelling, tags for rhetological fallacy classification, etc)
      • fast keyboard-based selection of content
      • batch selection of annotation areas with incremental filling-- I may want to simply select all the parts of a document to annotate first and then increment through each of those placeholders to fill in tags and commentary
      • Mark multiple sections of the document at once to combine into a single annotation
      • Excerpting only parts of a text selection, but still carry the surrounding textual context with the excerpt to easily expose the surrounding context when necessary
      • A summary view of a document that is the result of remixing parts of the original document with both clarifications or self-containing summary re-writes and/or commentary from the reader
      • structural tagging vs content tagging
  35. Jan 2014
    1. common appropriation regimes do not give a complete answer to the sustainability of motivation and organization for the truly open, large-scale nonproprietary peer production projects we see on the Internet.

      Towards the end of our last conversation the text following "common appropriation" seemed an interesting place to dive into further for our future discussions.

      I have tagged this annotation with "meta" because it is a comment about our discussion and where to continue it rather than an annotation focused on the content itself.

      In the future I would be interested in exploring the idea of "annotation types" that can be selectively turned on and off, but for now will handle that with ad hoc tags like "meta".

    2. The following selection from The Yale Law Journal is not paginated and should not be used for citation purposes.

      Note that this disclaimer only says the document should not be used for citation purposes, but doesn't say we can't use it for annotation purposes like testing out the Chrome PDF.js + Hypothes.is extension! :)

      You can install the extension from the Chrome Web Store with this link: