201 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2020
    1. The vaccine uses messenger RNA (mRNA), which are cells used to build proteins -- in this case, the proteins that are needed to build the coronavirus' spike protein, which the virus uses to attach itself to and infect human cells. Once the immune system learns to recognize this target -- thanks to the vaccine -- it can mount a response faster than if it encountered the virus for the first time due to an infection.

      This explanation is garbled and misstated. Genetic material is stored in DNA in the nucleus of the cell. Messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules carry the information stored within the DNA to the rest of the cell. Both DNA and RNA are a type of molecule called a "nucleic acid." Once outside the nucleus, the information in the messenger RNA can then be read, or "translated," to create proteins, such as the spike protein used by SARS-CoV-2. These proteins in turn carry out a wide variety of tasks that allow cells to function. This process is known as the "Central Dogma of Molecular Biology".

    1. and that is independent of the implementation of the encryptionscheme
    1. Though important, social distancing could be reduced to one metre instead of 2m

      In scientific terms, this virus is still very new so the data supporting an optimal physical distance to prevent transmission remains scarce. In the absence of data, public health agencies have used what they understand about this virus and similar viruses to infer a “best” answer. Public health agencies try to simplify the recommendation to a single answer, but the reality is much more complex.

      According to reports the WHO bases their recommendation for 1 meter (~3 ft) distancing off of an understanding that SARS-CoV-2 behaves like similar respiratory viruses that are primarily transmitted via larger droplets (as opposed to smaller aerosols). Assuming most spread is via droplets, the WHO reportedly follows the results of a 1934 study indicating most respiratory droplets fall to the ground within 3 feet.

      However, as with most things in nature, there are always exceptions – transmission occurring at greater distances than 3 ft and evidence of aerosolization have been reported.

      The evidence basis for the CDCs guidance for 6 feet of separation is less clear, but probably reflects lower risk tolerance, or greater weight to evidence of aerosolization or wider droplet spread.

      Even with further study, there may never be a clear answer for optimal physical distancing. This is because, (1) the area of high risk for transmission is probably dependent on the specific conditions of the interaction (e.g. loud talking, windy environment), and (2) the “optimal” distance is based on risk tolerance. There is no single distance between individuals where risk of transmission drops off precipitously to zero.

      All evidence indicates that greater distances are safer but, for example, consider how restrictive a physical distancing recommendation of >50 ft would be. In the end, because we can’t control how far others stand away from us, we ask governments to consider these tradeoffs and deliver a “best” answer to guide their citizenry.

    1. Asymptomatic spread of coronavirus is ‘very rare,’ WHO says

      The claim is that, according to the WHO, asymptomatic spread of coronavirus is ‘very rare’. This statement is attributed to WHO official Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove during a recent news conference. It deserves greater clarification from the WHO, but Dr. Van Kerkhove appears to make the distinction between “asymptomatic” and “pre-symptomatic” individuals during her comments. This distinction is essential for proper interpretation of her statement. “Asymptomatic” refers to persons who test positive, but who never display symptoms throughout the course of their SARS-CoV-2 infection. In contrast, “presymptomatic” individuals are those with confirmed infection, who do not currently display symptoms, but later go on to develop COVID-19 related symptoms (fever, cough, loss of taste/smell, etc).

      Importantly, the distinction between asymptomatic and presymptomatic can only be made retrospectively. From a clinical standpoint, if someone currently has no symptoms, but tests positive, there is no way of knowing at that time if they are “asymptomatic” or “presymptomatic”. Preliminary data estimates that around 20% of SARS-CoV-2 infections are truly “asymptomatic”.

      If “asymptomatic” individuals were rarely involved in transmission of the virus, this would be an important finding, but from a practical standpoint if “presymptomatic” individuals still spread the virus (as the data indicates), then the rationale for preventative measures still stands. Early studies [1] [2] have estimated that up to 40-60% of virus spread occurs when people don’t have symptoms. Preventative measures such as social distancing and universal mask wearing have been implemented to prevent the spread of virus from individuals not currently demonstrating symptoms.

      Bottom line: Dr. Van Kerkhove appeared to refer to only “asymptomatic” individuals and not “presymptomatic” individuals in her statement. Clarification from the WHO, and public availability of the data leading to the claim, is needed for proper interpretation. At the current time, existing published data indicates that a significant amount of SARS-CoV-2 infections are due to individuals who did not have symptoms when they spread the virus.

    1. The positivity rate — the percentage of tests with positive results — is 6.5%, well below the 10% recorded recently, he said.

      This is a particularly important metric for any testing program, because it gives a sense of whether enough testing is being done to accurately capture the true positive rate. For instance, the WHO recommends that to ensure adequate testing, the % positive rate should be at or below 5% for at least 14 consecutive days: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/testing/testing-positivity

    1. Если встретят они верующих, то [общаясь с ними] говорят: «Мы [так же, как и вы] уверовали». Когда же остаются наедине со своими дьяволами [оказываясь в привычной для них атмосфере бездуховности, неверия и порока], говорят: «Мы с вами [остаемся такими, какие есть]! Мы [над верующими] лишь насмехаемся (подшучиваем, издеваемся)» (Св. Коран, 2:14).
  2. Jun 2020
    1. I could get a lot more done in an 8-9 hour day with a PC and a desk phone than I get done now in a 9-10 hour day with a laptop /tablet / smartphone, which should allow me to be more a lot more productive but just interrupt me. I don't want the mobile flexibility to work anywhere. It sucked in management roles doing a full day then having dinner with friends and family then getting back to unfinished calls and mails. I much prefer to work later then switch off totally at home.
    1. The skill of writing is to create a context in which other people can think.— Edwin Schlossberg
  3. May 2020
    1. You can recommend articles based on the page customers are viewing, so they don't even have to search.
    1. One huge advantage to scaling up is that you’ll get far more feedback for your Insight through making process. It’s true that Effective system design requires insights drawn from serious contexts of use, but it’s possible to create small-scale serious contexts of use which will allow you to answer many core questions about your system.

      Even though a larger user base will increase your odds of getting more feedback, you can still get valuable contextual feedback with less users.

    1. In Flare 2020, context-sensitive help identifiers can now be associated with micro content phrases. Since micro content is intended to be short bits of content, this makes it ideal for field-level or embedded help within apps.
    1. The Microsoft Calculator program uses the former in its standard view and the latter in its scientific and programmer views.
    1. In the context of first-order logic, a distinction is maintained between logical validities, sentences that are true in every model, and tautologies, which are a proper subset of the first-order logical validities. In the context of propositional logic, these two terms coincide.

      A distinction is made between the kind of logic (first-order logic) where this other distinction exists and propositional logic, where the distinction doesn't exist (the two terms coincide in that context).

    1. The qualifier of ‘certain circumstances’ is important to highlight here, because it’s often the context in which information exists that determines whether it can identify someone.
    1. no longer have the forest nor the heavens.

      Kostenko represents Chernobyl not only as an environmental catastrophe, but also as the cause of total alienation from spirituality and heaven. It is possible to read this poem as engaging with one well-known reading of Chernobyl, which interprets the disaster as an inevitable apocalyptic moment predicted in the Book of Revelation:

      Then the third angel sounded: And a great star fell from heaven, burning like a torch, and it fell on a third of the rivers and on the springs of water. The name of the star is Wormwood. A third of the waters became wormwood, and many men died from the water, because it was made bitter. [1]

      In Ukrainian, the world "Chernobyl" is derived from two separate roots that combine to mean "black plant." The word "Chernobyl" refers to a specific species of Artemisia, which is a type of weed. [2] In English, Artemisia is translated as "wormwood," which has led many people to link the Chernobyl catastrophe to the "wormwood" mentioned in the Book of Revelation. However, as Michael Palij and William Fletcher note, "The coincidence is not quite so striking in the Ukrainian translation of the Bible, for there the name of the star is Polyn, the genus wormwood, rather than chornobyl', a species of wormwood." [2] Although the etymological relationship between Chernobyl and the Bible does not align perfectly, the religious reading of Chernobyl continues to resonate.



      [1] The Bible. King James Version. Christian Art Publishers, 2012.

      [2] Palij, Michael & William C. Fletcher. "Chornobyl: An Etymology." Ukrainian Quarterly, vol. 42 Spring-Summer 1986, p. 22-24.

      Image Credit:

      "Redstem Wormwood" by Moxxie is licensed by CC BY-SA 3.0. The image has not been modified in any way and falls under fair use.

    2. the robot could not         shut down the troubles,

      After the explosion at Chernobyl, the Soviet government officials tried to use robots to assist with the most dangerous aspects of the radiation cleanup. [1] However, almost all of the robots could not withstand the high radiation levels on the roof of the reactor. [1] As such, thousands of conscripted soldiers and workers from all over the Soviet Union had to clear the radioactive material off of the roof of the reactor with little protective gear. [1] The image below features the Monument to Those Who Saved the World in Ukraine, which is dedicated to the firefighters and liquidators who responded to Chernobyl.


      [1] Anderson, Christopher. "Soviet Official Admits that Robots Couldn't Handle Chernobyl Cleanup." The Scientist, 19 January 1990, https://www.the-scientist.com/news/soviet-official-admits-that-robots-couldnt-handle-chernobyl-cleanup-61583.

      Image Credit:

      "Memorial to Those Who Saved the World" by Jorge Franganillo is licensed under CC BY-2.0. The image has not been modified in any way and falls under fair use.

    3. Doctor Gale

      Doctor Gale refers to the American doctor Robert Gale, who is well-known for his controversial bone marrow transplants that he performed on the most severely irradiated victims of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Doctor Gale flew to Moscow shortly after the reactor exploded. He was publicly recognized by Gorbachev for his efforts to help mitigate the health effects of the disaster. [1] That being said, Soviet doctors with extensive experience with treating radiation sickness, such as Dr. Angelina Guskova, criticized Gale for carrying out ineffective bone marrow transplants. [1]

      Prior to his involvement in Chernobyl, Gale was investigated by the government for bypassing standard protocols and treating patients with unapproved drugs without approval. [2] At Chernobyl, he used an experimental drug on his bone marrow transplant patients that was not approved for testing. He used this drug as well at a radiation accident in Brazil, where he practiced medicine on a tourist visa without having been invited by the Brazilian authorities. [2]

      As historian Serhii Plokhy writes in Chernobyl: The History of a Nuclear Catastrophe, "Gale was a messenger of hope in a world divided by Cold War rivalries, which meant that Soviet and American governments alike presented his actions as heroic. [1] Due to his political importance as a symbol of humanitarian goodwill, he was protected from serious repercussions for his alleged actions.


      [1] Plokhy, Serhii. Chernobyl: The History of a Nuclear Catastrophe. Basic Books, 2018.

      [2] Roark, Anne C. "Chernobyl 'Hero': Dr Gale – Medical Maverick." Los Angeles Times, 5 May 1988, https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1988-05-05-mn-3615-story.html.

    4. Von Mekk

      Countess Nadezhda von Mekk was one of the most important patrons of the famous composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. She was the widow of Karl von Mekk, who created over 14000 kilometers of railroads throughout the Russian Empire. [1]

      Nadezhda Von Mekk

      She fully funded Tchaikovsky's work for years, and they frequently exchanged deeply personal letters about art, music, and their personal lives. [1] Tchaikovsky dedicated his Fourth Symphony to her, among other works. [1] While they communicated extensively, they agreed to never meet in person. Their correspondence ended without explanation in 1890, at which point Nadezhda falsely told Tchaikovsky that she was bankrupt. There is no agreement among scholars regarding the circumstances surrounding the end of their relationship. [1]


      [1] Tommasini, Anthony. "Critic's Notebook: The Patroness Who Made Tchaikovsky Tchaikovsky." The New York Times, 2 September 1998, https://www.nytimes.com/1998/09/02/arts/critic-s-notebook-the-patroness-who-made-tchaikovsky-tchaikovsky.html.

      Image Credit:

      Music Division, The New York Public Library. "Nadezhda Filaretovna von Meck." The New York Public Library Digital Collections, http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47e0-beb5-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99.

      Image in the public domain.

  4. Apr 2020
    1. Theophanes the Greek.

      Theophanes the Greek is known for being one of the most influential and talented icon painters in Russia. In Russian Orthodox tradition, iconography is an art form that dates back to the year 988 AD, when Prince Vladimir introduced Christianity to Kiev and to the Rus' territory. [1] Theophanes the Greek came to Novgorod and Moscow from Constantinople in the 14th century, where he quickly began to excel as an icon painter and as an illuminator of manuscripts. [1] In Russia, he mentored the great icon painter Andrei Rublev and created some of Russia's most well-known icons, such as Our Lady of the Don, which is included below and is currently featured in the Tretyakov Gallery. [2]

      As art critic Simon Morley writes, "Nearly all icons are not only anonymously painted but also based on pre-existing prototypes, which in their turn are copies of the archetype – the subject itself." [3]That is to say, icon painters must follow a strict set of rules that guide both the design and painting process and the selection of scenes that will be depicted. The individual artist is expecte to learn from and emulate the work created by others.

      To the faithful, icons are sacred because they represent a spiritual "window" to the divine. [4] Therefore, it is very important that icons highlight the eyes of the religious figures that they depict, in order to allow the worshippers to see through these portals and communicate their prayers. It is common practice to physically interact with the icons by kissing them, touching them, and lighting candles in front of them as a form of veneration. [5]

      Under Stalin, many icons were destroyed and icon-painting was outlawed as a profession to support the official policy of atheism. The Yaroslavl Restoration Committee endeavored to save as many of these icons as possible by taking them out of churches and storing them independently, many of which were returned to churches after the fall of the Soviet Union. [6]


      [1] Sevcenko, Ihor. "The Christianization of Kievan Rus'." The Polish Review, vol. 5, no. 4, 1960, pp. 29-35.

      [2] Gorbatova, Anastasia. "Theophanes the Greek, Russia's First Great Master of Religious Art," Russia Beyond, 7 January 2015, Link.

      [3] Morley, Simon. "So Real They Scratched Out Their Eyes," The Independent, 12 November 2000, https://www.independent.co.uk/incoming/so-real-they-scratched-out-their-eyes-625288.html.

      [4] "About Icons and Iconography." Museum of Russian Icons, https://www.museumofrussianicons.org/about-icons/.

      [5] Espinola, Vera Beaver-Bricken. “Russian Icons: Spiritual and Material Aspects.” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, vol. 31, no. 1, 1992, pp. 17–22.

      [6] "Destruction of Icons." The Museum of Russian Art, https://tmora.org/currentexhibitions/online-exhibitions/transcendent-art-icons-from-yaroslavl-russia/introduction-yaroslavl-city-of-the-bear/destruction-of-icons/.

      Image Credit:

      Theophanes the Greek. Our Lady of the Don. Image in the public domain in the United States. Wikimedia Commons, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Feofan_Donskaja.jpg.

    2. sarcophagus

      Immediately after Chernobyl, workers from across the Soviet Union subjected themselves to serious radiation risk to construct a concrete "sarcophagus" around the Chernobyl reactor #4. [1] However, due to the hastiness of the construction and the materials used, the containment structure started to leak. As a result, at the 1997 G-7 Summit, the European Commission and Ukraine created a plan for the New Safe Confinement structure. This structure covers the previously constructed sarcophagus and is expected to remain intact for up to 100 years. [2]

      New Safe Containment Structure


      [1] Petryna, Adriana. “Sarcophagus: Chernobyl in Historical Light.” Cultural Anthropology, vol. 10, no. 2, 1995, pp. 196–220.

      [2] "Background on Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident." NRC Library, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 15 August 2018, https://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/chernobyl-bg.html#sarco.

      Image Credit:

      "The New Sarcophagus" by kdanecki is licensed by CC BY 2.0. The image has not been modified in any way and falls under fair use.

    3. parsec

      The word parsec is composed of the words parallax and arcsecond. Parsec is a unit used in astronomy to measure extraordinarily large spaces between astronomical objects outside of our Solar System. While the full explanation of this mathematical concept is beyond the scope of this project, a detailed description can be found in the source below. [1]


      [1] Bender, Stephanie. "What is a Parsec?" Universe Today, 14 November 2013, https://www.universetoday.com/32872/parsec/.

    4. He who extinguished the reactor

      Firefighters received the highest doses of radiation from the Chernobyl accident. As Serhii Plokhy notes in Chernobyl: The History of a Nuclear Catastrophe, thirty of the sickest firefighters were evacuated from Pripyat and sent to Moscow Hospital No. 6, where they were treated by Dr. Angelina Guskova. [1] Dr. Guskova had extensive experience treating victims of previous radiation-related incidents. Despite the efforts of Guskova's team to assist these patients, 29 firefighters died of acute radiation exposure in the immediate aftermath of the disaster. [2] Additional firefighters and first responders died in the months and years following Chernobyl of radiation-related causes. [3] For more contextual information about the medical response to Chernobyl, click here.


      [1] Plokhy, Serhii. Chernobyl: The History of a Nuclear Catastrophe. Basic Books, 2018.

      [2] Ritchie, Hannah. "What was the Death Toll from Chernobyl and Fukushima?" Our World in Data, 24 July 2017, https://ourworldindata.org/what-was-the-death-toll-from-chernobyl-and-fukushima.

      [3] Lanese, Nicoletta. "The Real Chernobyl: A&A With a Radiation Exposure Expert." UCSF, 16 July 2019, https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2019/07/414976/real-chernobyl-qa-radiation-exposure-expert.

    5. thousands of dead

      The Chernobyl death toll has been and continues to be highly contested by scientists and politicians. As Kate Brown discusses in her book Manual for Survival, the United States and the Soviet Union alike were concerned that studying the long-term effects of continuous exposure to low-dose radiation would result in public scrutiny of nuclear weapons testing and development in general. [1] In 1990, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) sent scientists to Belarus to investigate a growing number of Chernobyl-related health claims, but the relevant records in the Institute of Radiation Medicine in Minsk were stolen, thereby interfering with this research. [1] The IAEA's studies of Chernobyl's effects depended on incomplete data and did not occur over the timespan necessary to generate a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between radiation, mortality rates, and other genetic effects. [1] For a more in-depth analysis of the history and politicization of scientific investigation of the Chernobyl catastrophe, see Manual for Survival.

      As the graphic below illustrates, estimates of Chernobyl-related deaths vary widely, due to the logistical and political barriers that have interfered with reliable scientific investigation of Chernobyl's health effects. Without studies focused on the impact of low-level radiation exposures, it is difficult to determine the degree to which radiation from Chernobyl can be held responsible for cancer rates, birth defects, and other epidemiological implications.

      Chernobyl Death Estimates


      [1] Brown, Kate. Manual for Survival: A Chernobyl Guide to the Future. W. W. Norton and Company, 2019.

      Image Credit:

      "Deaths from Chernobyl [Estimates]" by Our World in Data is licensed under CC BY 4.0. The image has not been modified in any way and falls under fair use.

    6. Gorbachev speaks:

      This verse references Gorbachev's significantly delayed speech on television about the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, which took place on May 15, 1986. In this speech, he specifically thanked Dr. Robert Gale for his willingness to treat the victims of Chernobyl. [1] At the same time, he also condemned the United States' instrumentalization of the Chernobyl catastrophe as part of an "anti-Soviet campaign." [1] In doing so, Gorbachev drew attention to the United States' legacy of mishandling nuclear incidents within their own territory, such as the partial meltdown at Three Mile Island. [1]


      [1] "Excerpts from Gorbachev's Speech on Chernobyl Accident." The New York Times, 15 May 1986, https://www.nytimes.com/1986/05/15/world/excerpts-from-gorbachev-s-speech-on-chernobyl-accident.html.

    7. Sweden

      This line references the early detection of the Chernobyl catastrophe in Sweden. A worker at Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant in Sweden recognized that his shoes were flagged for excessively high levels of radiation. [1] After analyzing the radioactive materials and wind patterns, the Forsmark plant employees determined that the radiation came from the Chernobyl region. [1] As Swedish nuclear scientists had previously detected radiation spread from the Soviet Union's nuclear tests in the Arctic, they were equipped to locate the source of the Chernobyl radiation and alert the global community. [2] When Swedish officials asked Soviet authorities whether an accident had happened, it was initially denied until the Swedish diplomats threatened to notify the International Atomic Energy Authority. [3] According to scientific research conducted in Sweden after the disaster, the country received about 5% of the fallout from Chernobyl, which has contributed to environmental contamination and increased medical risk within the country. [4]


      [1] "Forsmark: How Sweden Alerted the World About the Danger of the Chernobyl Disaster." News: European Parliament, 15 May 2014, https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/headlines/society/20140514STO47018/forsmark-how-sweden-alerted-the-world-about-the-danger-of-chernobyl-disaster.

      [2] Browne, Malcom W. "Swedes Solve a Radioactive Puzzle." The New York Times, 13 May 1986, https://www.nytimes.com/1986/05/13/science/swedes-solve-a-radioactive-puzzle.html.

      [3] "25 Years After Chernobyl, How Sweden Found Out." Radio Sweden, 31 May 2019, https://sverigesradio.se/sida/artikel.aspx?programid=2054&artikel=4468603.

      [4] Alinaghizadeh, Hassan et al. “Cancer Incidence in Northern Sweden Before and After the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident.” Radiation and Environmental Biophysics vol. 53, no. 3, 2014: pp. 495-504.

  5. Mar 2020
    1. Designers using these curves should be aware that for each public key, there are several publicly computable public keys that are equivalent to it, i.e., they produce the same shared secrets. Thus using a public key as an identifier and knowledge of a shared secret as proof of ownership (without including the public keys in the key derivation) might lead to subtle vulnerabilities.
    1. Asimilarstatementholdsforadditionallyhashingtheciphertextintothenalkey.Severalproto colsneedtoensurethatthekeydep endsonthecompleteviewofexchangedproto colmessages.Thisisthecase,forexample,fortheauthenticated-key-exchangeproto colsdescrib edintheKyberpap er[22,Sec.5].Hashingthefullproto colview(publickeyandciphertext)intothenalkeyalreadyaspartoftheKEMmakesitunnecessary(althoughofcoursestillsafe)totakecareofthesehashesonthehigherproto collayer

      Here is their reasoning about why the public key and the ciphertext are used in the “context” of the key derivation.

    1. Sometimes a single term is used in several contexts. Although it is one and the same word in English, it may need to be translated differently in some languages. For example, the word "Post" can be used both as a verb ("Click here to post your comment") and as a noun ("Edit this post"). In such cases, the _x() function should be used. It is similar to __(), but it has an additional second argument -- the context:
    1. Quite a few times, there will be collisions with similar translatable text found in more than two places, but with different translated context. By including the context in the pot file, translators can translate the two strings differently.
  6. Feb 2020
    1. The biggest drawback of algorithmic feeds is that you might be looking at irrelevant content. When you see something on your timeline and want to comment, you will have to check the timestamp to see if your comment is still relevant or not.
    1. Automation helps us keep these steps out of our way while maintaining control through fast feedback loops (context-switching is our enemy).
  7. Jan 2020
    1. If you have never seen an ice-hockey stick (or experienced ice hockey) this shape is why we call these figures ‘hockey-stick curves’.

      I'm glad they've included an image of a hockey stick to provide the context here, but I've always thought of it rotated so that the blade was on the ground and the sharp angle of the handle itself indicated the exponential growth curve!

    1. You do not process your projects through an Institutional Review Board, nor you are equipped to deal with persons who express trauma to you.

      This is a valid concern that needs to be addressed. While some engineers certainly do use IRB for their projects, it is not nearly as common as it should be.

  8. Dec 2019
    1. Most of the convo, if any, seems to happen on the socials vs comments left on the blog these days.

      The sad part of this is how painfully limiting the conversation can be on social with the character limitations and too many issues with branching conversations and following all the context.

      I find that using Webmentions on my site adds a lot of value because it brings all the conversation back to my site, where it really should be for more context.

    1. The people who I envisioned myself writing for—they got what I was saying and where I was focused.  The very early responses to the post were about what I expected.  But then it took off, and a lot of people came into it without the context I assumed the audience would have.
  9. Nov 2019
  10. Oct 2019
    1. the first female Wiggle, Emma Watkins

      Wow, that's a very big influential name in showbiz there. When others in Fairfax regurgitated this story, they regurgitated her quotes on the Queen Quest's value.

      You may have missed that, but here's what niche womens issue publication 'Womens Agenda' said in its article titled 'This councillor wanted to debate beauty pageants. They called him a wanker' - here's the relevant section:

      *But can these pageants actually be a positive platform to build a career?

      Emma Watkins, also known as the Yellow Wiggle, thinks so. Ryde City Council has run these pageants for 30 years and several famous names have emerged as prior festival queens, with Watkins being one who won not one but 2 pageants, in both 2005 and 2009.

      Watkins said that winning is more focused on community involvement than beauty.

      “As a little girl I just aspired to be a Granny Smith Festival Queen,” said Watkins, now age 25. “[Judging is] definitely all about contestants’ involvement in the community.

      Watkins says that the pageant improved her self-confidence, instead of the popular belief that it is harmful for young girls self esteem: “Winning improved my confidence and pubic speaking and self-esteem in the middle of those teenage years.”

      • That article even got the basic context right: * "Simon proposed the motion to debate the Council’s support for beauty pageants after reading – week after week – stories in the local paper about the competitions.........

      "It wasn’t the debate he got."*

    1. “He has suffered, but I make no apologies for him or for myself. If he had given his life for Japan, I could not be prouder.”

      older generation still holds praise for japan and wants to see japan win the war

  11. Sep 2019
    1. ne thousand li,

      One li is a unit of measurement that has had fluctuating values but is understood to be about one-third of one imperial mile, now formalized as one half-kilometer. One thousand li would equal 333 1/3 miles of land. For reference, the state of Colorado is about 380 miles on its longest side. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Li_(unit)#cite_note-Winborn1994-1)

  12. Aug 2019
    1. Context notes are used as a map to a series of notes. A context note that outlines a more complex concept or broader subject, using links to other notes in the process. For example, while I’m reading a book, I build an outline of the things I find relevant, based on my highlights and notes of the book. Each of the outline’s items links to a separate note explaining the idea in more detail, and usually contains the highlighted text of the book.
    1.  I can do all things through him who strengthens me.

      This verse is often taken out of context, often to imply that God will give you whatever you want if you just ask.

      If you look at the two verses that proceed it, Paul wrote that he had "learned in whatever situation I am to be content". The next verse talks about being "brought low" and facing "hunger". This verse offers no support for easy success or a "Prosperity Gospel".

    1. Social media has come to define an era in which we annotate texts every day, we easily share this commentary across contexts, and in doing so we iteratively define who we are.

      But are we also sometimes falsely defining ourselves because of context collapse within these structures?

      Isn't context collapse a root cause of a lot of the toxicity of our communications within platforms like Twitter and Facebook?

    2. The author and literary critic Sam Anderson has written: “Twitter is basically electronic marginalia on everything in the world: jokes, sports, revolutions.”

      I like their idea about Twitter being an annotation tool and to some extent it is, and a good one at that. However, we still need to address the distribution mechanism and the fact that Tweets like this are often bereft of context and cause context collapse.

      Quote tweets and dunking mechanisms would be interesting to study in this context, particularly in a world where people often delete tweets (dunked or not) which means the original context is gone or missing and we're only left with an orphaned annotation.

      Other cultural examples of missing context include commentary for live sporting or cultural events like the Super Bowl, World Series, World Cup Soccer, or the Academy Awards. Watchers will comment on something in real time (often even without an identifying or contextualizing hashtag, eg: #Oscars19), supposing an implied context from their audience, but later generations will be at odds to find or re-complete the original context.

  13. Jul 2019
    1. Further, Humphreys [23] observes that the stabilization that occursduring a technology’s maturation is temporary, and so possibilities for intepretive flexibility canresurface when the context surrounding a technology changes

      Thus the broader "context collapse" for users of Facebook as the platform matured and their surveillance capitalism came to the fore over their "connecting" priorities from earlier days.

    1. The architecture of the platform where I published allowed authorial control of content but could not control context collapse or social interactions.

      These are pieces which the IndieWeb should endeavor to experiment in and attempt to fix. Though I will admit that pieces of the IndieWeb layers on top of platforms like WordPress can help to mitigate some context collapse and aggregate social interactions better. (eg: reply context and POSSE)

  14. Apr 2019
    1. Incidentally, teens and twenty-somethings, more so than the middle-aged and elderly, tend to juggle more identities. In middle and high school, kids have to maintain an identity among classmates at school, then another identity at home with family. Twenty-somethings craft one identity among coworkers during the day, then another among their friends outside of work. Often those spheres have differing status games, and there is some penalty to merging those identities. Anyone who has ever sent a text meant for their schoolmates to their parents, or emailed a boss or coworker something meant for their happy hour crew knows the treacherous nature of context collapse.
    1. The Javits Center is often used by urbanists as an example of the perils of inhumane design. The unused and un-policed periphery attracts crime and vagrancy while its one entrance opens upon an eight lane street. This combination means that most conference attendees hire a taxi to ferry them to a more hospitable neighborhood.

      This is an excellent example of creation without context, particularly use by target populations. Walkability was so poor that it negatively affected the area.

    2. But over time, they become numb to the novelty of art, and other considerations exert a far greater influence on their experience of the building: things like who uses the space, when the space is used, how the space forms community and how it integrates the the community that surrounds it.

      His argument is user-orientated, criticizing experts in the field who work separately to build components of a shared urban ecosystem. Each architect was chosen for their fame, not their ability to work as part of a team, and spare little consideration about those who will live, work, and move through the space. Most importantly, the question of fostering community is addressed.

      Similar to scholars at the top of their field, these architects place little consideration towards the mass consumption of their work and its context.

  15. Mar 2019
    1. “Ancient temples were somewhat seen as quarries,” Bleiberg said, noting that “when you walk around medieval Cairo, you can see a much more ancient Egyptian object built into a wall.” Such a practice seems especially outrageous to modern viewers, considering our appreciation of Egyptian artifacts as masterful works of fine art, but Bleiberg is quick to point out that “ancient Egyptians didn’t have a word for ‘art.’ They would have referred to these objects as ‘equipment.’” When we talk about these artifacts as works of art, he said, we de-contextualize them.
    1. Given that engagement and integration(i.e., involvement in the various social and academic ac-tivities of university/college life) are considered key tosuccessful academic achievement (see Tinto2006), theidentifying features of social anxiety, including fear ofnegative evaluation and distress and avoidance of new orall social situations (Ginsburg et al.1998), may be espe-cially disadvantageous in the social and evaluative contexts

      The author provides context for the problem to be clearly understood by the readers and those who do not have any sort of background information concerning the topic

    1. A context aware personalize M-learning application based on m-learning preferences This is a scholarly paper presented in the context of engineering and is not readily accessible by the layperson; it is also dated. Nonetheless it includes some scenarios and recommendations for consideration of learner preferences. It is included in this list solely because it introduces the concept of context aware personalized mobile learning. rating 1/5

    1. On my blog it has context. You can see all the other eat/drink posts on thier own or mixed in with everything else. I can include links to the place where I bought it, who makes it, or related posts.Instagram's context is its a photo with an optional description. It doesn't matter what it's of. It won't contain links to anything.
  16. Feb 2019
  17. Jan 2019
  18. Dec 2018
    1. one family of children who came from London for sea air after the whooping cough

      In the 18th century English physicians would prescribe cold sea water and sea air to cure a variety of sicknesses. It was common for ailing people to be dunked in the freezing sea, as "the adrenaline from the shock of cold was thought to have soothing effects on the body, calming anxiety and restoring the body-soul balance".


      This historical question has been debated up to the twenty-first century:

      Does the Sea Air Have Curative Powers? - WSJ https://www.wsj.com/articles/does-the-sea-air-have-curative-powers-1407797285

      Does the sea air have healing powers? | Fox News https://www.foxnews.com/health/does-the-sea-air-have-healing-powers

      Out of the blue: The healing power of the sea - ABC News www.abc.net.au/news/2017-03-26/could-sea-help-manage-mental-illness/8343932

    2. physic

      (old-fashioned term) a medicine that purges; cathartic; laxative.


    3. chamber-horse

      An eighteenth-century exercise machine.

      "…A special type of chair, commonly called a 'Chamber Horse', because the motion made as you sat on it was similar to that of a trotting horse."


    4. liberal

      what are the connotations of this in this historical context? I'm not sure how to look this up but I'd like to know.

  19. Nov 2018
    1. Holographic computing made possible

      Microsoft hololens is designed to enable a new dimension of future productivity with the introduction of this self-contained holographic tools. The tool allows for engagement in holograms in the world around you.

      Learning environments will gain ground with the implementation of this future tool in the learning program and models.

      RATING: 5/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

  20. Oct 2018
    1. cross-functional

      A cross functional team is one which comprises members with skill sets in different areas.

    2. allied healthcare professionals

      Allied healthcare professionals include physical therapists, scientists, technologists, administrators, managers, and assistants

    3. world’s first robot lawyer

      In 2015, 19-year-old student Joshua Browder launched DoNotPay, a website which generates appeals against park tickets. This was widely reported as "the world's first robot lawyer." For more information, see https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p031rmqv

    1. United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women

      The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), adopted in 1979 by the UN General Assembly, is often described as an international bill of rights for women. Consisting of a preamble and 30 articles, it defines what constitutes discrimination against women and sets up an agenda for national action to end such discrimination.

    2. set forth to build an independent country

      Advancing the welfare of women was an important part of the PAP's platform when it was elected in 1959. Among other things, the PAP banned polygamy—one husband marrying multiple wives—and introduced the Women's Charter, a document which protects the rights of women, children, and families.

    3. Uppsala University in Sweden

      Mr. Lee was speaking at the Socialist International Congress. In his speech, he called for "the realisation of a satisfying life for all," and discussed the challenges facing developing countries which had just achieved their independence.

    4. democratic socialist ideals

      Democratic socialism refers to an ideology in which the goals of socialism—such as equality and justice—are achieved within a democratic rather than authoritarian system. Since its founding the PAP has described itself as democratic socialist.

  21. Sep 2018
    1. e Diversity Action Committ

      The Diversity Action Committee is a nonprofit which advocates for the inclusion of women on corporate boards, which are responsible for governing big companies.

    2. Give equal opportunities to all regardless of rank, race, religion, sex in a given nation and you are likely to draw from each of your nationals, the best in him. Gi

      Advancing the welfare of women was an important part of the PAP's platform when it was elected in 1959. Among other things, the PAP banned polygamy—one husband marrying multiple wives—and introduced the Women's Charter, a document which protects the rights of women, children, and families.



    1. Theories of situated activity, co-construction of knowledge, and distributed intelligence helped connect learning to its contexts.

      This is a nice (very brief) summary with links to more information.

    2. On the other hand, you had the situated view, which helped establish a contextu-alized science for learning, in which learning at the minimum required investigating the social and cultural contexts of learning, and at the maximum treated learning as inherently a phenomenon not in the head but in the relationships between person and their context.
    3. contextualizatio

      What is this referring to?

    1. In many ways the Stream is best seen through the lens of Bakhtin’s idea of the utterance. Bakhtin saw the utterance, the conversational turn of speech, as inextricably tied to context. To understand a statement you must go back to things before, you must find out what it was replying to, you must know the person who wrote it and their speech context. To understand your statement I must reconstruct your entire stream.

      If the semantics are correct here, then Bakhtin may be the originator of the idea of context collapse.

  22. Aug 2018
    1. But honestly, this is mostly just a post giving myself permission not to own my replies.

      I love this! Great rimshot at the end. Sometimes giving yourself the permission is important.

      I know there are others who don't own every reply they make because they also feel like replies are more contingent on context which primarily lives in the other place. It's fine for some of those conversations to be ephemeral and not "owned". In other case, if it's a reply to something you really care about and want to own, then by all means, own that one thing, but leave all the others out.

    1. “the dynamic weaving of events, interactions, situations, and phases that comprise those relationships” (2000, p. 27), the dynamic weaving of events, interactions, and situations being very similar to narrative.

      Temporal context definition.

      Furthers the notion of narrative and how relationships between events/things is transformed into a cohesive whole which is necessary for sensemaking.

    1. If you look long enough you can find my early terrible writing. You can find blog posts in which I am an idiot. I’ve had a lot of uninformed and passionate opinions on geopolitical issues from Ireland to Israel. You can find tweets I thought were witty, but think are stupid now. You can find opinions I still hold that you disagree with. I’m going to leave most of that stuff up. In doing so, I’m telling you that you have to look for context if you are seeking to understand me. You don’t have to try, I’m not particularly important, but I am complicated. When I die, I’m going to instruct my executors to burn nothing. Leave the crap there, because it’s part of my journey, and that journey has a value. People who came from where I did, and who were given the thoughts I was given, should know that the future can be different from the past.
    2. I had been a victim of something the sociologists Alice Marwick and danah boyd call context collapse, where people create online culture meant for one in-group, but exposed to any number of out-groups without its original context by social-media platforms, where it can be recontextualized easily and accidentally.
    3. Context collapse is our constant companion online.
    4. It helped me learn a lesson: Be damn sure when you make angry statements.
    5. I had even written about context collapse myself, but that hadn’t saved me from falling into it, and then hurting other people I didn’t mean to hurt.
    6. I am not immune from these mistakes, for mistaking a limited snapshot of something for what it is in its entirety. I have been on the other side.
  23. May 2018
    1. Irish dance halls were very popular during the 1950's amongst Irish-Americans. They allowed people to have fun, dance, and also meet possible romantic partners. The image above parallels this moment in the text because it showcases how women tended to stay together in groups (like Patty, Diana, and Eilis) and wait for men to ask them to dance.

    1. Bartocci’s, the department store Eilis works at was likely inspired by Abraham and Strauss. Abraham and Strauss, also known as A&S, was a famous department store located at the corners of Hoyt and Fulton in Brooklyn. Abraham and Strauss was unlike the small and specialized shops (like Miss Kelly’s general store) that an Irish immigrant would have been used to at this time. A&S sold many different kinds of products, including clothing for all ages, furniture, and sporting goods. This was done in order to compete with other Brooklyn retailers and offer customers one-stop shopping.

    1. The information contained in the information system is notsufficient in itself; the temporal context within which it can be placed,organized according to the trajectory, helps makes sense of it.

      Likewise, in SBTF data collection. Temporal contexts are crucial but often not captured consistently or at all.

      What are the temporal contexts in crisis situations that could/should be collected so that it doesn't lack meaning or is misinterpreted later?

    2. Sonnenwald, D.H. and L.G. Pierce (2000): Information Behavior in Dynamic Group WorkContexts: Interwoven Situational Awareness, Dense Social Networks and ContestedCollaboration in Command and Control.Information Processing and Management, vol. 36,pp. 461–479.

      Get this paper on context and situational awareness.

  24. Mar 2018
  25. Feb 2018
    1. Máire Ní Mhongáin

      As Ciarán Ó Con Cheanainn writes in Leabhar Mór na nAmhrán, the oldest written version of this song dates to 1814, and is found in MS Egerton 117 in the British Library. Oral lore in Conneamara has it that Máire Ní Mhongáin’s three sons joined the British Army, and that Peadar deserted soon after joining, and emigrated to America. It seems probable that their involvement was in the French Revolutionary Wars or the Napoleonic Wars, the major conflicts fought by the British Army in the final decade of the eighteenth century and the first decade of the nineteenth respectively.

      Máire Ní Mhongáin seems to have resonated among Irish emigrant communities in the United States. My evidence for this is that Micheál Ó Gallchobhair of Erris, County Mayo, collected songs from Erris emigrants living in Chicago in the 1930s, over a century after the occasion of ‘Amhrán Mháire Ní Mhongáin’s’ composition. It features in his collection, which you access via the following link: http://www.jstor.org.ucc.idm.oclc.org/stable/20642542?seq=2#page_scan_tab_contents

      The virulent cursing of departed sons by the mother, named Máre, produces the effect of striking g contrasts with John Millington Synge’s bereaves mother, Old Maurya, in Riders to the Sea.

      My Irish Studies blog features an in-depth account of typical features of the caoineadh genre to which Amhrán Mháire Ní Mhongáin belongs. You can access it via the following link: johnwoodssirishstudies.wordpress.com/2018/01/03/carraig-aonair-an-eighteenth-century-west-cork-poem/

    1. Bean an tSeanduine - Sean Nós 2

      ‘Bean an tSeanduine’ features all of the conventions of the malmariée genre we have previously encountered in ‘An Seanduine Cam’. Also, it is a good example of the speaker blaming her parents for her plight, which is another regular feature of this song type.

      As well as being one of the finest examples of the genre, it is perhaps the most well-known and commonly sung, owing in large part to the simplicity and catchiness of its monosyllable end-rhymes.

      As well as Ó Tuama, Meidhbhín Ní Úrdail has written about the common features of the chanson de la malmariée. Her article ‘The Representation of the Feminine: Some evidence from Irish language sources’ in Eighteenth-Century Ireland/Iris an Dá Chultúr is a rich source of information on the topic. In ‘Bean an tSeanduine’, we have a fine example of what Ní Úrdail calls the description of ‘the plight of a beautiful young woman, trapped in an unhappy marriage to an impotent elderly spouse who is ignorant of her mental and physical frustration’. However, when we consider the particular humour of this song, we can identify how it serves to empower the female speaker.

      ‘Bean an tSeanduine’ differs from ‘An Seanduine Cam’ in that there is no third-person narrator. Like ‘An Seanduine Cam’, the humour of the song relies on a ridiculing of the old man, although here the young woman herself is his detractor. Each of his brags meet a witty riposte. When he claims wealth, she calls him a miser, and when he wonders what would become of his if he died during the night, she jokes that death is an immanent danger. When mockery of this kind is voiced by the female speaker, it serves to empower her, and inspire in the listener a sense of sympathy and respect.

    1. An Seanduine Cam - Corn Uí Riada 2016

      The song’s first two verses are spoken by a third-person narrator. In its humorous exaggeration, the first verse caricatures recognized conventions of arranged marriage. This narrative consciously situates itself in a genre whose familiarity to the listener is a necessary part of the humour. It addresses the economic incentives which were the major precipitating factors of marriage arrangements in rural Ireland during the eighteenth century. It also invokes the misery which such marriages often visited upon young women.

      In his essay ‘Love in Irish Folksong’, Seán Ó Tuama identifies among typical features of the malmariée genre that ‘a young woman speaks (in the first person) of her anguish,’ that ‘the description of the husband can be unbelievably grotesque and ribald: he is humped, crippled; he coughs, grunts, whines at night; most of all, he is cold as lead, important, and completely fails to satisfy her desires’, and that ‘she discloses that she is going to leave him for a young man’ (149). ‘An Seanduine Cam’ provides clear examples of all of these traits.

      Moreover, because these tendencies find expression in a debate form, and are redoubled in response to the unfeeling man, the resistant character of the put-upon young woman is strongly emphasized.

    1. of

      ‘as I got it twelve years ago from an old man, named Walter Sherlock, in the County Roscommon, a man who is since dead’ (31)

      It is worth noting that recordings of native Irish speakers from nineteen counties, made in 1930 and 1931, can be accessed at https://www.doegen.ie/counties Roscommon Irish, which Hyde had heard spoken by some final remaining speakers, can be heard here.

    2. chúige

      ‘what you yourself and the late John O’Daly, following in the footsteps of Edward Walsh, to some extent accomplished for Munster, more than thirty years ago’ (iv)

      John O’Daly (1800-1878) was an editor and publisher. He published Edward Walsh’s Reliques of Irish Jacobite Poetry (1844), as well as two series of Poets and Poetry of Munster, the first by James Clarence Mangan (1849), and the second by George Sigerson (1860). In another of his works, Mise agus an Conradh (1937), Hyde wrote ‘Ní raibh éinne, lena linn, a rinne níos mó ar a shlí féin chun Gaeilge a leathnú agus a shaothrú’ (There was noone, during O’Daly’s time, who did as much as he did to popularize Gaelic’, my trans.) The most comprehensive biography of John O’Daly is that in Beathaninéis, vol. 2, by Diarmuid Breathnach and Mairéad Ní Mhurchú. It is available online at https://www.ainm.ie/Bio.aspx?ID=1193

      The most comprehensive biography I have found in English is the entry in The Oxford Companion to Irish Literature, edited by Robert Welch.

    3. grádh

      ‘My Dear Dr. Sigerson’ (iv)

      The Dr. Sigerson in question is George Sigerson (1836-1925), a physician and an eminent translator of Gaelic poetry. When the Gaelic League was founded in 1893, Hyde was elected as its present, and so absented his role as president of the National Literary Society. Sigerson succeeded him, and was the society’s incumbent present when Love Songs of Connacht was published.

      A direct address to the National Literary Society was famously performed by Hyde in 1892. The central idea of his speech titled ‘The Necessity for De-Anglicising Ireland’ was that there was an indissoluble link between a nation’s language and its culture, and that it was a sign of cultural weakness to mimic English ways and habits of thought.

      The beginning of Love Songs of Connacht reminds us of the ideological backdrop from which the book emerges. For in-depth accounts of the development of the idea that language and nationhood are inextricably linked, see Diarmuid Ó Giolláin’s Locating Irish Folklore: Tradition, Modernity, Identity (2000), and Joep Leerssen’s National Thought in Europe: A Cultural History (2006). You can read the text of Hyde’s 1892 speech to the National Literary Society at http://historymuse.net/readings/HYDENecessityforDeAnglicizingIreland1892.html

  26. Jan 2018
    1. “The Green Revolution.”

      Remember to explain what was this.

      And probably how researching on this affects your interpretative lenses and agreement with the author

    2. Mark Zuckerberg and his wife, Priscilla Chan, announced that they were giving 99 percent of their wealth to charity.

      Context and facts are given.

    3. Today's billionaires

      Contexts and facts are given.

  27. Dec 2017
    1. How does an insubstantial word like “apple” lead you to think of a real thing—an object of a certain size that is red, round, sweet, and has a shiny, thin-peeled skin? How could a plain acoustic sound produce such complex states of mind, involving all those qualities of color, substance, taste, and shape? Presumably, each different quality involves a different agency. But then—in view of all we’ve said about why different agents can’t communicate—how could such varying recipients all “understand” the selfsame messages? Do language-agents have unusual abilities to communicate with different kinds of agencies?

      What article doesn't bring up is the context of the environment that the person grew up in. If we were to describe the word apple to someone who has never seen or tasted it, they would not be able to visualize what it is with just the word. The mind would try to relate it to an object that you have already experience to fill in what an "apple" may be.

  28. Oct 2017
    1. As information literacy instruction is also a form of storytelling, animated GIFs might be a good format for library tutorials. Suhr’s reasons included: A group of pictures gives immediate feedback as to how much information is being conveyed. A screencast, on the other hand, doesn’t give much of a clue as to what the user is committing to. Pictures have natural break points between steps. A series of images enhances closure, which is the phenomenon of observing the parts but perceiving the whole. Comics artists employ closure by carefully sequencing panels and knowing what to keep “off-screen.” A series of animated GIFs combines closure with the dynamic element of video.

      GIFs (and their resurgence) are an interesting hybrid approach falling somewhere between videos and images. One can see how modelling videos after animated GIFs could be a good way to provide quick, just-in-time information.

    1. panes

      During WWI "panes" were visors of the gas mask that were used during war. Recall that this war was the introduction of chemical warfare; there was a lack of preparation in terms of understanding what exactly the gas was capable of doing to a human. Captain A.J. Waugh (as cited in Jones, 2014) expressed, “uncontrolled anxiety during a gas attack could cause men to tear off their protective masks” which would result in agonizing pain or death; however, the goal of chemical warfare was to instill fear and destroy the enemy.

    2. As under a green sea, I saw him drowning.

      Here we have a picture from WWI capturing a terrifying wave of gas being released. You can see how the fumes look as though they resemble waves of the ocean about to swallow up the soldiers; the words of the speaker coming alive when he states "I saw him drowning."

    3. Gas! GAS! Quick, boys!—An ecstasy of fumbling

      WWI marked the introduction of chemical warfare which in return created complete terror and pandemonium; soldiers were not prepared for the effects of chemical warfare. As Jones indicates, the use of chemical warfare was to “terrorize the enemy and make their troops temporarily lose their minds.” Alexander Watson also claimed in his study (as cited in Jones, 2014) “gas created uncertainty: unlike shrapnel, it killed from the inside, eroding a soldier’s sense of control, while raising the terrifying fear of being suffocated." Going off the “created uncertainty” we have the use of "ecstasy" which encompasses a trance-like state; coinciding with the idea of being "drunk with fatigue" (see above annotation) from the effects of the gas. The delayed reactions of the soldiers against the gas would result in a behavior of "fumbling." The gas was designed to attack the nervous system; accelerating the deterioration of the body and mind.

    4. Dulce et Decorum Est

      This title was written in Latin and originally comes from the Roman poet Horace ode (III.2.13) which translates to “sweet and fitting it is to die for one’s country.” Horace’s ode paints patriotism and nationalism in a positive light as opposed to Owen’s bitter and stark realization of the cost of patriotism; paid for at the expense of the physical and mental deterioration of the soldier’s body during the First World War. As Harold Bloom suggest, Owen’s aim was “to attack the concept that sacrifice is sacred; he hoped to destroy the glamorized decency of war.” It is important to keep the title in mind in regards to what it means in the connotation of sweet verses sickly.

    1. O’Donovan Rossa

      Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa was a famous Irish Leader who fought for Ireland's independence.


    2. Araby

      "Araby" is from a collection of fifteen short stories, published in 1914, titled Dubliners. Joyce was born in Dublin, Ireland, and Dubliners shows his intimate knowledge of the city. He uses real locations, even street names, throughout the collection of stories. The "Mapping Dubliners Project" uses Google Maps to trace the specific paths taken in Joyce's stories.


    3. Freemason

      Freemasonry is a secretive organization that the Catholic church has opposed since the 1700's. Roman Catholicism was, and still is, the principal religion in Ireland. The boy's aunt seems to be weary of non-Irish ideas and ideals.

    4. The Abbot, by Walter Scott, The Devout Communicant and The Memoirs of Vidocq.

      Nearly every detail Joyce includes is intentional. It's safe to say that he did not randomly choose these three texts.

      The Abbot, by Walter Scott, is a romance novel about Mary queen of Scots being imprisoned.

      The Devout Communicant could refer to a few religious texts with the same name.

      The Memoirs of Vidocq is a ghost-written autobiography about a French criminal who becomes a cop.

      Why did the priest happen to have these specific books?

    5. North Richmond Street

      A link, from the "Mapping Dubliners Project", about North Richmond Street: http://mappingdubliners.org/north-richmond-street/

  29. blog.ashleyalexandraa.com blog.ashleyalexandraa.com
    1. Primitive and modern, simple and complicated, with a bit of Washington and a bit of Nimrod. You are the United States, You are the future invader the naive America who has Indian blood, that still prays to Jesus Christ and still speaks Spanish.

      These lines begin to highlight the dualities for the American people. From "Washington" being the first president of the United States an important American figure, to the biblical allusion to Nimrod who was "the first on earth to be a mighty man". The contrasts continue with asserting that America still has "Indian Blood" and still speaks Spanish lending to their past conquest of Mexican/Indigenous land.

    2. Netzahualcoyotl

      Netzahualcoyotl was a King, philosopher, and poet from the Aztec Empire.

      Another key part to Dario's poem is his constant allusions to powerful people of Latin American's pre-columbian past. Here he alludes to Montezuma, but he also alludes to Cuahtemoc in the following lines. These allusions can allow the reader to see an alternate history where Latin America is powerful before Western influence. Montezuma was another Aztec leader famous for his dramatic confrontation with the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés.

  30. Jun 2017
    1. December 29, 1931.

      Consider this date. What of importance was going on around the time that Carl Becker gave this speech before the American Historical Association?

  31. May 2017
    1. Let the full-blown garden flowers of the ancients in their own morning glory stand; to breathe life into late blossoms that have yet to bud will be his sole endeavor.

      Lu Chi’s use of metaphors of a garden to illustrate his point of how writers are the gardeners of future writers comes from his own personal life and experience. Lu Chi came from a long line of military leaders, but he also followed in his grandfather Lu Sun’s foot steps whose first passion was to be a servant to the earth. As such Lu Chi had a deep respect for his culture, the land and knew the seasons, its soil and the people from his state well. Lu Chi grew up in the Lu family estate which was a large and prosperous property with rolling hills and had rice fields, mulberry and bamboo groves and they also grew other produce and animals. However, Lu Chi also carried on the martial tradition of the family and joined the army. But, he achieved greater fame as a man of writing then a general on the battlefield. During this era armies and farming were very important for the survival of the people, they depended on the military for protection and farming for food and sustenance. Also literacy was high and most people couldn’t read nor write, for Lu Chi to use metaphor is to make the text easy to read and relatable to the people of his time.

    2. Now one feels blithe as a swimmer calmly borne by celestial waters, and then, as a diver into a secret world, lost in subterranean currents. Arduously sought expressions, hitherto evasive, hidden, will be like stray fishes out of the ocean bottom to emerge on the angler’s hook;

      Historically Medieval China had its own dark age marked with many invasions and wars, it was a time when people struggled and searched for light in their dark world. For the Chinese people during this time, their search took various forms from religion, the arts, music and literature. Lu Chi wrote his Wen Fu as a direct expression of this search through literature. We can see that he infused religious teachings as a way to explain this text of how one can reach a state of conscious to unconscious by putting in the hard work of making the mind tranquil like water so that inspiration and creativity can finally surface (anglers hook).

    1. Responses to Ed Folsom's "Database as Genre: The Epic Transformation of Archives

      So an interesting thing about this article is that i's part of a set of articles, all responding to the same essay by Ed Folsom about the Whitman Archive. Jerome McGann (big name in digital humanities) slammed it, saying he didn't understand what a database was. Meredith McGill criticizes a number of things he claims his archive can do. Hayles is actually pretty friendly to Folsom, and in his response, he mentions he wants to make use of her "natural symbionts" phrasing.