4,434 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2020
  2. Sep 2020
  3. Jul 2020
    1. Introgressive hybridization

      Movement of genes from one species into the gene pool of another species by the repeated crossing of a hybrid with one of its parents.

    2. missense mutation

      Where a single nucleotide base is changed, which results in a different amino acid.

    1. Body copy, body text, or sometimes just plain body or text refers to themain block of text that you read, as opposed to headlines, subheads, titles,etc. Body text is usually set between 9- and 12-point type with 20 percentadded space between the lines.

      body copy, body text

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. mantle

      A part of Earth’s interior that lies between the dense, extremely hot core and the thin outer layer, known as the crust. It is made up of a thick, rocky shell that constitutes 84% of Earth’s volume. In geologic time, it behaves as a viscous fluid.

    2. continental plume–related basalts

      Both ocean island basalts and continental plume-related basalts come from deep within the mantle. OIBs intruded into oceanic (basaltic) crust, whereas continental plumes intrude into continental crust (for example, Deccan traps in India).

    3. coesite

      This is a high-pressure and high-temperature polymorph (version) of quartz.

    1. anterior

      This is an anatomical term which refers to the front of the body, or near the head.

      In the case of planaria, it refers to the head.

    2. posterior

      This is anatomical term which refers to the back of the body, or near the hind end of the body.

      In the case of planaria, it refers to the the hind end.

    3. “Janus heads”

      Janus was a Roman god and doorkeeper to the heavens. Relevant here, Janus was usually depicted with two heads, one facing the past and the other towards the future.

    4. protrusions

      Here, protrusions refer to bulges of cells.

    5. periphery

      Refers to the outer edge.

    6. signaling pathways

      A series of linked chemical pathways in which one chemical in the series activates another chemical in the pathway, which ultimately leads to a specific cell function.

    7. β-catenin antagonist adenomatous polyposis coli

      Adenomatous polyposis coli, or APC, is gene that plays many roles, including acting as a tumor suppressor. APC has also been found to play a role in cell division and directing cells where to go once division takes place. In order to do its job, APC directs β-catenin in the Wnt signaling pathway.

      Read more in the Journal of Cell Science. The PDF is also available in the "Related content" tab.

    8. RNA interference (RNAi)

      A mechanism used by both plant and animal cells to silence a gene using a double-stranded DNA molecule. DNA is converted into the smaller RNAi molecules used to turn genes off. Scientists are now able to use this natural process to turn off genes they are studying so they can learn more about their function.

    9. Schmidtea mediterranea

      This is an image depicting this common planarian.

    1. secondary challenge

      A second exposure to the same threat. The immune system is, under certain conditions, able to remember threats it has encountered before and react to them more quickly and effectively upon each subsequent exposure.

    2. Fab fragments

      The antigen-binding fragment of antibody, i.e. the domain which binds specifically to the target of the antibody.

    3. In vitro

      Latin for "in the glass." That is, experiments done in test tubes, not in organisms.

    4. T cells

      White blood cells central to adaptive immunity. T cells are able to recognize when cells are diseased and can kill them so they don't spread throughout the body.

    1. channelrhodopsins

      This family of proteins is employed to activate neurons by driving cations (including sodium, calcium, hydrogen, and potassium) into the cell and causing the membrane potential to become more positive, leading to depolarization.

    2. halorhodopsins

      Halorhodopsins and bacteriorhodopsins typically inactivate neurons by driving chloride ions into the cell or hydrogen ions out of the cell and causing the membrane potential to become more negative, leading to hyperpolarization.

    3. cation

      A positive ion like hydrogen (H+), sodium (Na+), or potassium (K+).

    4. Cannula

      A tube inserted into the body to facilitate the delivery of fluids or materials to a specific region.

    5. basal ganglia (BG)

      A group of nuclei located at the base of the forebrain that is responsible for motor control and cognition.

    6. globus pallidus pars interna (GPi)

      Major component of the basal ganglia that targets the substantia nigra.

    7. contralateral

      Opposite the lesion.

    8. substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc)

      A subregion of the midbrain responsible for motor control.

    9. neurodegenerative

      Progressive loss of function of neurons, usually a result of neuron death.

    1. Error bars

      A graphical representation (usually lines through a point on the graph that run parallel to one of the axes) showing the amount of uncertainty there is in the location of that point. All scientific data collection includes uncertainty; error bars allow researchers to show how confident they are in their results. Large error bars mean there is a lot of uncertainty (lower confidence), whereas smaller error bars mean there is less uncertainty.

    2. β

      A statistical term, the Greek letter beta, refers to the probability that you can accept the null hypothesis (which states that values affirmation has no effect) when in fact the null hypothesis is wrong.

    3. racial achievement gap

      The difference in performance (for example, on standardized tests) between minority students and white students.

    4. standardized test

      Any form of an exam that requires all people taking the test to answer the same questions and is scored the same way in all cases, so that comparisons can be made between all people who take the test. These are typically multiple choice tests taken by large populations of students (for example: all 8th grade students in the United States).

    5. psychological threat

      Any outside force (real or perceived) that challenges a person's values, beliefs, or sense of self.

      Stereotype (or identity) threat is a subset of psychological threat in which a person feels they will be judged according to common prejudices about some aspect of their identity (for example: race, ethnicity, or gender).

    6. double-blind study

      An experiment in which neither the participants nor the experimenters know which group each participant is assigned to until after the data are analyzed.

    7. values affirmation

      An intervention in which people reflect on and write about the beliefs and values (e.g., family, integrity) that are important in their lives.

  4. Jun 2020
    1. silencing

      Turning a gene off so that it does not go through transcription and translation (gene expression) which prevents the production of its protein product (β-catenin) being made by the cell.

    2. constitutive degradation

      The regulated breakdown of a cell or cellular product, which is used to control gene expression and ultimately cellular function. In this case, the breakdown of APC leads to an increase in β-catenin.

    3. transcriptional output

      The copying of DNA into mRNA, which is the first step in the process known as gene expression.

      Watch this video to learn more about the role of transcription and transcription factors: https://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/signal-molecules-trigger-transcription-factors

    4. regenerate

      Regeneration in this case, refers to the replacement of lost or damaged tissue.

      This video will help you understand the process of tissue regeneration: https://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/tissue-regeneration-animals

    5. A/P misspecification

      The cells that were supposed to be in the posterior end migrated to the anterior end of the animal, or vice versa.

    6. upstream components

      The chemicals at the beginning of the signaling pathway.

    7. protein perdurance

      How long the protein lasts as part of the signaling pathway.

    8. penetrance

      The percentage or proportion of individuals with the genotype that present the phenotype. In other words, organisms may have the genes by may not show the trait. You can find more information about these terms in this article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22090/

    9. homeostasis

      The ability or tendency of an organism to maintain internal stability. This includes maintaining certain ranges of physiological processes such as temperature, pH, or ions such as calcium.

    10. anteroposterior

      Genes are used to create both a front and a back for an organism during early embryonic development.

    11. molecular switch

      A molecule, such as a protein, than controls gene expression by either turning it on or off.

    12. cell adhesion

      Specialized protein complexes that allow cells to stick to each other.

    13. freshwater planarians

      Freely swimming flatworms from the taxonomic class Turbellaria that inhabit freshwater.

    14. amputation

      For most organisms it involves removal of a limb. Planaria do not have limbs, so in this case refers to removing either the front or hind end of the body.

    1. concomitant

      Refers to events that occurred at the same time and are associated with each other.

    2. placental mammals

      Members of this group of mammals (which includes humans) carry the developing fetus in the uterus, where the placenta facilitates the exchange of nutrients and wastes between the mother and the fetus.

    3. chelydroid turtles

      These turtles are related to modern snapping turtles and have a similar morphology. They had large heads and long tails.

    4. crevasse splay

      These are floodplain deposits made when the river broke through its natural flood banks. Heavier sediments are deposited closer to the river channel, while lighter sediments, such as sand and silt, are deposited farther away from the channel.

    5. benthic foraminifera

      These are single-celled, bottom-dwelling organisms that live on or within the carbonate-rich sediment surface. https://www.biointeractive.org/classroom-resources/foraminiferaearths-microscopic-recordkeepers

      https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/fosrec/Wetmore.html

    6. dicotyledonous (dicot)

      This is one of the two groups angiosperms are traditionally divided into. A number of traits distinguish dicots from the other group, the monocotyledons (monocots). The seeds of dicots contain two embryonic seed leaves; monocot seeds contain one.

    7. Deccan Traps

      This is one of the largest volcanic areas on Earth. Its lava flows cover an area of about 500,000 square kilometers.

    8. Puercan (Pu3) index

      This stage of the geologic timescale refers to the North American faunal stage, spanning from 66,000,000 to 63,300,000 years BP (Before Present).

    9. Cretaceous–Paleogene mass extinction (KPgE)

      The extinction event that wiped out nearly three-quarters of all plant and animal species on Earth 66 million years ago.

    10. ka

      The abbreviation for "kilo annum." It signifies time in thousands of years.

    11. stratigraphic

      Refers to the study of rock layers that can be understood over a large area.

      Learn more about stratigraphic principles with HHMI BioInteractive: https://www.biointeractive.org/classroom-resources/stratigraphic-principles

  5. Apr 2020
    1. reproductive isolation

      Means that the species cannot breed to produce fertile offspring because of some barrier. That barrier could be geographic, behavioral, or some other type. A well-known animal that is reproductively isolated is the mule.

    2. allelic series

      The alleles for a certain locus listed according to their dominance, that is, their effect on the phenotype they affect.

    3. linkage disequilibrium

      This term means that the association of certain alleles at different loci is not random. Essentially, certain alleles of certain genes are often linked together and found in these combinations in the Big Birds.

    4. genetic drift

      Occurs when the frequency of alleles in an organism changes due to chance. Genetic drift (sometimes referred to as drift) is strongest in small populations such as the one studied here, because chance (random sampling) strongly affects the alleles present in the population.

    5. bill

      As in a bird's beak.

    6. transgressive segregation

      When hybrid offspring show traits that are more extreme than those of the parents. For example, when a hybrid plant offspring is much taller than, or much shorter than, either of the parent plants.

    7. lineage

      Here, a genetic group of individuals that are all descended from one initial ancestor.

    8. hybrid speciation

      Referring to the formation of a new species when two different species mate to produce a new species.

    1. dextran perfusion

      Definition: A polysaccharide glucan that is medically used to reduce blood viscosity.

      For the paper: Dextran perfusion is based on flowing a dextran solution through the tube/pipe to determine whether it is hollow (allows fluid flow), and transports fluids as expected.

    2. pulsatile perfusion

      A specific type of perfusion (previously defined) that moves through channels based on motion similar to that of heart pumping blood to the body.

    3. porcine

      Lab testing relating to pigs

    4. CD31-positive

      A protein that is involved in angiogenesis activation.

    5. cell-laden hydrogels

      Hydrogels loaded with live cells.

      For the paper, this is an appealing option that helps engineering potential tissue constructs with biomimetic structure and function. Cell-laden hydrogel is a promising scaffolding system for engineering artificial bone, cartilage, cardiac and neural tissues.

    6. LIVE/DEAD staining confirmed high viability

      Staining that is a fluorescence assay (as shown in image on Panel E) which shows cell viability, that is whether the cells are dead or live. The live cells emit green light where the dead cells emit red light.

    7. thermoreversible

      Whose properties can be changed back and forth by increasing or decreasing temperature.

      For the article, specific thermoreversible hydrogels form a gel when cooled and return to a viscous fluid state when exposed to heat.

    8. perfusion

      The passage of blood or fluids through blood vessels or other channels in an organ or tissue.

      In this paper, perfusion is needed to sustain healthy tissues and organs.

    9. micro–computed tomography (μCT)

      Micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) is a 3D imaging technique utilizing X-rays to see inside an object, slice by slice. It is similar to a CT scan, but on a micro-scale. Micro-CT provides high resolution 3D imaging of the interior structure of materials and biological samples without having to cut the samples.

    10. endothelial

      cells that are on the inner surface of blood vessels

    11. regurgitation

      Leaky heart valves. A condition in which the heart valve doesn't close tightly, which allows blood to flow backward in the heart.

    12. perfusable vascular-like networks

      Artificial blood vessel structures through which one can flow fluids which nurture cell growth.

    13. patent and manifold

      Unobstructed (open inside allowing for fluid flow) and has several outlets to be connected to other tubes/pipes, similar to the arteries and veins in our body.

    14. G-code

      G-code is a language that humans use to tell a machine how to do something. With 3D printing, g-code contains commands to move parts within the printer.

    15. micro–computed tomography

      Micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) is a 3D imaging technique utilizing X-rays to see inside an object, slice by slice. It is similar to a CT scan, but on a micro-scale. Micro-CT provides high resolution 3D imaging of the interior structure of materials and biological samples without having to cut the samples.

    16. tri-leaflet valves

      The aortic valve of the human heart typically contains three leaflets or cusps, hence called the tri-leaflet valve. When the valve opens it allows blood to exit the left ventricle into the aorta. Once closed, blood movement stops. In the case of a dysfunction, the tri-leaflet valve is repaired or replaced by a surgery. The technology described in this article provides a promising approach to create artificial implants for these surgeries.

    17. pH-driven gelation

      Hydrogels are 3D networks of hydrophilic polymers that can hold a lot of water while still maintaining structure. They resemble tissue structure when scaffolded and can nurture cell growth and vessel formation. Hydrogels can be assembled by chemical processes. In this study, authors used pH-driven assembly (gelation).

    18. micro–computed tomography (μCT)

      Micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) is a 3D imaging technique utilizing X-rays to see inside an object, slice by slice. It is similar to a CT scan, but on a micro-scale. Micro-CT provides high resolution 3D imaging of the interior structure of materials and biological samples without having to cut the samples.

    1. A negative Nb anomaly characterizing the involvement of subducted material is present in all the trace-element patterns of our studied samples. This anomaly implies that a recycled crustal component, and not the ambient mantle, dominates the trace-element budget in the fluid inclusions.

      Negative Nb anomalies are characteristic of subducted material. Subducted material includes continental-sources sediments from the ocean floor that gets subducted into the mantle. The trace element patterns look more like the crust than the mantle, which means that the fluid inclusions' trace element record is not recording any mantle processes.

    2. kimberlite

      A kind of intrusive, igneous rock that is formed deep inside the Earth’s interior. Kimberlite tends to move upwards via the upper mantle and lower and upper crusts, ultimately reaching the surface of the Earth. When the rocks move up, they carry diamonds inside them, thereby becoming an important source of diamonds.

    3. slab subduction

      A slab is a part of the tectonic plate which undergoes subduction. Subduction is a geological phenomenon occurring at the junction between two tectonic plates. This involves pushing one plate below the other, so much so that the sinking plate (usually the denser one) protrudes into the Earth’s mantle.

    4. mid–ocean ridge basalts

      The mid-ocean ridge is one of the largest chain of volcanic mountains on Earth, with 90% of the mountains submerged underneath the ocean. A type of basaltic rock originating from volcanic eruptions in this region is known as mid-ocean ridge basalt.

      Mid-ocean ridges occur where two tectonic plates pull apart and the mantle below wells up and then rapidly cools due to the interaction with the ocean's cold water. This is what makes up oceanic crust.

    5. shallow crustal contamination

      This occurs when magma inside the Earth's mantle gets polluted by small amounts of crustal rocks—that is, rocks from Earth's crust. Shallower crustal rocks are more felsic, which means they contain more feldspar and quartz.

    1. gastric resident dosage form

      A pill that stays in the stomach during drug release.

    2. ANOVA

      Analysis of Variance - statistical test used to determine whether there are any statistically significant differences between the means of three or more independent observables.

    3. extracellular fluid

      Any body fluid outside of the cells in any multicellular organism. This includes interstitial fluid and plasma.

    4. levonorgestrel-releasing gastric resident dosage form

      A smart pill that stays in the stomach during release of a drug (levonorgestrel) which prevents pregnancy.

    1. electrostatic

      an electric field/charge that is stationary

    2. capacitor

      a device that stores electrical energy between two conducting electrodes separated by a dielectric (nonconducting) material

    3. Maxwell pressure

      when a voltage is applied between electrodes pressure arises, the elastomer contracts in thickness and expands in area.

    4. dielectric breakdown

      occurs when current flows through a material whose electric charges do not flow freely

    5. hydraulically amplified self-healing electrostatic (HASEL) actuators

      A device which generates movement from electrical energy. The device consists of liquid segments which helps amplifying force generation and heals itself in case of an electrical breakdown.

    6. Peak specific power

      The peak specific power is the maximum power that the power supply can sustain for a short time.

  6. Mar 2020
    1. endoscopic overtube

      An endoscopic overtube is a sleeve-like device designed for both upper and lower endoscopic procedures. During upper endoscopy it is designed to protect the hypopharynx from the trauma of repeated intubations, the airway from aspiration, and the esophagus during extraction of sharp foreign bodies.

    2. pharmacokinetics

      A branch of pharmacology which studies how drugs are taken up, distributed, metabolized, and cleared from the body.

    3. Poly(sebacic anhydride)

      A biodegradable polymer substance used in drug delivery applications

    4. patient adherence.

      A patients commitment (how well a patient follows prescribed directions) to taking said medication at the correct time each day.

    5. poly(dimethylsiloxane)

      A silicon based elastomeric polymer used in biomedical applications.

    6. hormonal contraception

      methods of birth control which impacts hormones related to pregnancy

    7. in vivo

      in live being

    8. oral contraceptives

      A drug or device used to prevent pregnancy taken as a pill by mouth.

    1. actuation

      the action of causing a machine to operate

    2. hydraulic

      denoting, relating to, or operated by a liquid moving in a confined space under pressure.

    3. soft robotics

      a subcategory of robotics that deals with the construction of flexible robots to mimic living organisms

    4. soft actuators

      a lightweight, affordable, and easily customizable device component consisting of flexible material that converts energy into mechanical movement in order to move/control a part of the device

    5. actuation strain

      deformation produced by a non-mechanical stimulus

    6. elastomer

      a material that produces a large deformation when a voltage is applied

    7. polymer fibers

      man-made fibers consisting of synthetic chemicals

    8. transducers

      a device that converts an energy signal in to another form of energy signal

      an example of this is mechanical energy being converted to electrical energy

    9. ionically conductive polyacrylamide (PAM) hydrogels

      a gel which contains significant amount of water and can conduct electricity

    10. electrodes

      an electrical conductor that makes contact with nonmetallic parts of a circuit

    11. polydimethylsiloxane

      the most widely used silicone based organic polymer

    12. resonant frequency

      Simply put, resonant frequency is the natural frequency at which it is easiest to get an object to vibrate. Most objects have several resonance frequencies, such as stringed musical instruments that vibrate at their resonance frequencies when plucked or struck, and their vibrations against the surrounding air produce sound. This type of resonance is found when an object is in equilibrium with acting forces and could keep vibrating for a long time under perfect conditions.

    13. linear actuation

      An actuator creating movement in a straight line, rather than a circular motion.<br> In this study, a fixed pre-stretch is applied in one direction (downward pull).

    14. strain

      the ratio of total deformation to the initial dimension of the material body upon application of external forces.

    15. dielectric permittivity

      this ability of a material to hold an electrical charge

    16. fluidic actuators

      a device component which uses hydraulic fluid pressure to convert energy into mechanical movement in order to move/control a part of the device.

    1. neonatal

      Newborn child

    2. cell infiltration

      Migration of cells into microporous structures.

    3. slurry

      A semiliquid mixture, typically of fine particles of manure, cement, or coal suspended in water. E,g, cake batter

    4. cardiomyocytes

      Heart muscle cells responsible for contracting of the heart.

    5. collagen scaffolds

      Scaffolds provide support for tissues and organs in the human body. In this article, the scaffolds are made from collagen, a structural protein used in connective tissues

    6. extracellular matrix

      A network of biological materials surrounding cells throughout the body for protection and support.

    7. cellular infiltration

      The ability of cells to occupy the porous structure in the hydrogel to create a tissue-like structure

    8. yield stress

      Highest amount of force an object can take before deforming.

    9. pH

      A scale from 1 to 14 determining how acidic or basic a solution is. 1 is most acidic, 14 is most basic, and 7 is neutral.

    10. fidelity

      Reproducibility of features (size and shape) with 3-D printing

    11. decellularized

      cells removed

    12. fidelity

      Reproducibility of features (size and shape) with 3-D printing

    13. resolution

      Smallest feature that can be written by 3-D printers.

    1. graminoid

      Grasslike plants.

    2. physicochemical

      Interactions of physics and chemistry.

    3. hysteresis

      When the direction of an ecosystem change cannot be reversed, i.e., an ecosystem cannot be returned to its previous state once it has gone through a phase shift.

    4. predation

      Killing other organisms for food.

    5. interdisciplinary

      Research involving more than one field of science, e.g., biology and chemistry.

    6. biogeochemical cycles

      Complex cycles of nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, carbon, and water involving the atmosphere, land, water, and organisms.

    7. ecosystems

      The interactions between organisms and the nonliving environment (i.e., rocks, water) within an area.

    8. top-down forcing

      The impacts that top-level predators have on the food web levels below them.

    9. carbon sequestration

      The storage of carbon atoms in organisms, soil, and water from the atmosphere

    1. continental plume–related basalts

      When large stretches of land are covered by lava generated from a massive volcanic eruption, a type of basaltic lava is created. Sometimes, these eruptions are also caused by movement of tectonic plates in the lithosphere. Such events when combined with abnormally hot rock in the Earth's mantle (mantle plume), give rise to continental plume-related basalts.

    2. degassing

      It is the process of removal of dissolved gases from liquids, especially aqueous solutions.

  7. Feb 2020
    1. ACTIVITY 3: SYNCRHONOUS COMMUNICATION TOOLS

      syn·chro·nous /ˈsiNGkrənəs/ Learn to pronounce adjective 1.existing or occurring at the same time.

    2. ACTIVITY 2: ASYNCHRONOUS COMMUNICATION TOOLS

      a·syn·chro·nous /āˈsiNGkrənəs/ Learn to pronounce adjective 1.(of two or more objects or events) not existing or happening at the same time. 2.COMPUTING•TELECOMMUNICATIONS of or requiring a form of computer control timing protocol in which a specific operation begins upon receipt of an indication (signal) that the preceding operation has been completed.

      In telecommunications, asynchronous communication is transmission of data, generally without the use of an external clock signal, where data can be transmitted intermittently rather than in a steady stream. Any timing required to recover data from the communication symbols is encoded within the symbols.

      wikipedia

    1. thermal regimes

      A pattern of temperatures

    2. diel cycle

      A 24-hour cycle, more commonly referred to as a "day".

    3. ectothermic

      Commonly called "cold-blooded", this term describes an animal that regulates its body temperature using external energy sources. For example, this is the reason why many reptiles sunbathe.

    4. foraging

      The search for food in the environment.

    5. gestation time

      The period of time that viviparous animals (those that give live birth and do not lay eggs) will carry a developing embryo. The length of this period will vary depending on species; for example humans have a gestation period of 40 weeks, whereas rabbits only take about a month.

    6. scaling coefficient

      Ecologists often use equations to try to describe animal behavior. A "scaling coefficient" is a number by which a variable is multiplied, which is used here to say that temperature (the variable in this case) will cause a larger change in the behavior of prey (large scaling coefficient) than predators (small scaling coefficient).

    7. trevally

      Caranx ignobilis, the "Giant trevally" is called out as an animal that has some key similarities and differences in behavior from the blacktip reef sharks at the center of this study.

      While both are apex predators from the Phylum Chordata, the trevally is a bony fish (Class Actinopterygii) while the shark is a cartilaginous fish (Class Chondrichthyes)

    8. sit and wait predators

      Ambush predators which hunt using stealth or strategy (ex: house cat) rather than speed or strength (ex: cheetah).

    9. covariate

      Another term for a "variable" that was considered as part of the study as a factor that could potentially explain the behavior in question.

    10. serial correlation

      Also known as autocorrelation, this is a phenomenon that occurs within datasets such as a time series in which the data points are not independent of each other. For example, the temperature recorded one minute is very likely to be similar to the temperature that was recorded for the previous time point because these time points have a relationship to each other, as the temperature will only change as quickly between them as the underlying physics allow. This phenomenon has consequences for some statistical analyses that researchers must correct for to avoid generating spurious results.

    11. Acanthurus lineatus

      Striped surgeonfish

    12. Ctenochaetus striatus

      Striated surgeonfish

    13. Acanthurus nigricans

      Whitecheek surgeonfish

    14. teleosts

      An infraclass of the class Actinopterygii, this classification includes most ray-finned fishes found in the world today, with only a few exceptions of ancient fish which branched off earlier in evolutionary history.

    15. hydrophone

      A device used to detect sounds underwater.

    16. gastric motility

      Describes the movements of smooth muscle in the stomach that contract as part of the digestion process.

    17. tonic immobility

      Many animals "play dead" in response to a stress or threat, but this trance-like state in sharks is thought to be connected to mating since they typically have few predators to feel threatened by. It typically takes 15 minutes for this effect to wear off and has little or no lasting health consequences for the shark.

    18. V16, V13 and V9 types

      The numbers refer to the diameter of the tag, with different sizes being better suited to a range of animal sizes and data types.

    19. temporal resolution

      How many measurements are made over a period of time. A measurement is said to be continuous if it is being constantly tracked, whereas discrete measurements are taken periodically at a time interval that the scientists have determined is frequent enough to answer their research question.

    20. backreefs (2–3 m depth, high vertical relief coral, good visibility) which transition to forereefs

      This illustration of the anatomy of a barrier reef shows the relative position and depth of the backreef and forereef to the lagoon found at the center of an atoll:

    21. Palmyra

      Located in the Pacific, south of Hawaii: With no permanent residents, this is a United States Minor Outlying Island that is part of the largest marine protected area in the world: the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument.

    22. behaviourally thermoregulate

      Behaviors performed to control the temperature of an organism such as basking in the sun or seeking shelter.

      An example of turtles basking in the sun to increase their body temperature:

    23. gastric evacuation

      The emptying of the stomach which occurs as food moves on to subsequent stages of digestion and the eventual excretion of wastes.

    24. thermal niche

      The temperature conditions within which an organism has the best chance of thriving. This is one of several factors that determine the ecological niche of an organism, which describes how its behavior and habitat choice play a specific role in the context of the larger ecosystem that it is a part of.

    25. Gaussian function

      The classic "bell curve" that is used to describe a normal distribution of values.

    26. enzyme kinematics

      Enzymes perform many important functions in our bodies (such as digestion) and have a temperature at which they can perform optimally. Temperatures that are higher or lower will require more energy to perform the same task. Keeping your body, and the enzymes that it contains, at an optimal temperatures is a way to maximize the efficient use of energy.

    27. crepuscular

      Refers to things that happen during the twilight hours (dawn and dusk). This is in contract to "nocturnal" things that happen at night or "diurnal" things that happen during the day. Crepuscular animals such as deer, bears, and housecats tend to be the most active during these time periods.

    28. body condition

      A measurement that can be used to infer the health status of an organism. This is typically calculated by comparing a measurement like length to another like weight, for which a healthy ratio is known.

      The human body-mass-index (BMI) can be considered a measurement of body condition, as this is derived from a person's height and the range of weights that are considered to be healthy for that height.

      A fish with a high body condition is likely to be on the plump side with excess energy stored as a buffer for times of low food intake or high energy use, while a fish with low body condition would be skinny for its length and have low energy reserves.

    29. metabolic cost

      The energy required for an organism to perform an action. This includes constant needs such as the maintenance of cells or voluntary actions like the use of muscles for swimming. Organisms must balance all of these metabolic costs with the intake of energy from food, or they will run an unsustainable deficit in their energy budget.

    30. thermal inertia

      Describes the resistance of an object (or, in this case, an animal) to changes in temperature, and the speed at which it approaches the temperature of its surroundings. A warm fish with high thermal inertia would maintain its heat relatively well in cold waters, whereas a fish with low thermal inertia would lose its heat quickly in cold water and is more likely to have a body temperature that is similar to its surroundings.

    31. ebbing high tides

      The period that follows the high point in the tidal cycle (high tide) as the ebb current pulls water back towards the ocean.

    32. diurnal prey

      "Diurnal" refers to things that happen during the daytime. This is the opposite of its antonym "nocturnal", which appears much more often in common speech to refer to animals that are active at night. In this case, "diurnal prey" is used to refer to the daytime activity of fish that the sharks may be feeding on.

    33. tropical atoll

      An island formed when an extinct mid-ocean volcano surrounded by coral reefs is eroded and subsided beneath sea level, leaving only a coral reef ring visible above the ocean surface. These are found only in tropical and subtropical regions where corals can thrive and continue to build up a reef at a rate that keeps pace with the erosion and subsidence of the underlying volcano.

    1. three-point bending test

      The three-point bend test provides values for the modulus of elasticity, and flexural stress and strain.

      Modulus of elasticity is the ratio of the stress in a body to the corresponding strain.

      Flexural stress is the maximum bending stress that can be applied to that material before it breaks.

      Flexural Strain is the ratio of stress to strain in flexural deformation, or the tendency for a material to resist bending.

    2. poly(anhydride)-based matrices

      A class of biodegradable polymers which are characterized by anhydride bonds. In vivo, they degrade into non- toxic monomers that are metabolized and eliminated from the body.

    3. injectables

      A once a month, or every three month shot that contains a series of hormones designed to stop the body from releasing eggs, and thicken the cervix mucus, thus preventing pregnancy.

    4. vaginal rings,

      A flexible transparent ring of plastic placed in the vagina and releases estrogen and progestogen. This needs to be replaced once a month.

    5. oral pills

      A daily pill that consists of progestin and estrogen to prevent pregnancy.

    6. human pylorus

      The opening from the stomach into the small intestine.

    7. transdermal patches

      A once-a-week patch that adheres to the skin and releases the necessary hormones to prevent pregnancy.

    8. intrauterine devices

      Also called an IUD, this device is planted within the uterus in a t- shaped form to prevent pregnancy.

    9. subcutaneous implants

      A small rod- like implant under the skin of the arm which releases the hormone progestin, to prevent pregnancy.

    10. contraceptives

      A drug or device used to prevent pregnancy.

    11. Poor patient adherence

      Women who use daily contraceptives have a lack of commitment to taking their prescribed pill at the same time everyday.

    1. biofabrication

      Production of complex living and non-living products from bio-compatible materials and cells to address medical challenges.