4,597 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. geometric models

      Geometric modeling is a branch of applied mathematics and computational geometry that studies methods and algorithms for the mathematical description of shapes

    2. torque

      a twisting force that tends to cause rotation

    3. misfire

      fail to discharge medication appropriately

    4. Field’s metal

      Less toxic metal that does not contain lead or cadmium. Instead, Field's metal contains indium.

    5. 0.1- to 2-mm-thick intestinal walls
    6. stomach’s 4- to 6-mm-thick wall
    7. broader

      covering a large number and wide scope of subjects or areas

    8. efficacy

      the ability to produce a desired or intended result.

    9. approximating


    10. drug-loaded millipost

      a small needle that is filled with medication

    1. autonomous systems

      This is a set of things working together but existing and functioning independently.

    2. reagent

      This is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.

    3. thermal

      Something that relates to heat

    4. thermal conductivity

      This is the measurement of a material's ability to conduct heat.

    5. histograms

      This is an approximate representation of the distribution of numerical data

  2. Feb 2021
    1. chemiluminescence

      the emission of light during a chemical reaction which does not produce significant quantities of heat.

    2. Dynamic

      This is the characterization of something under constant change, activity, or progress.

    3. reflectance spectroscopy

      Investigation of the spectral make-up of surface-reflected radiation with respect to its angularly dependent intensity and the composition of the incident primary radiation.

    4. disjuncture

      This is a separation of disconnection between ideas, objects, etc.

    5. tether

      Tying with a rope or chain to restrict movement of that which is being connected to. This often refers to two things being connect to one another.

    6. locomotion

      An act or the power of moving from place to place.

    7. symmetrical

      made up of exactly similar parts facing each other or around an axis.

    8. robust

      This is something that carries characteristics of exhibiting vigorous strength and health.

    9. translucency

      Allowing light, but not detailed shapes, to pass through; semitransparent.

    10. Ecoflex

      This is a blend of recycled polymers and wood byproducts that exhibits the best characteristics of both the polymers and wood.

    11. Young’s modulus

      a measure of elasticity, equal to the ratio of the stress acting on a substance to the strain produced.

    12. spectral tailoring

      Essentially modifying and tweaking the colors and temperatures of the fluids based on the electromagnetic spectrum.

    13. Thermoelectrics

      This is a object that produces electricity by a difference of temperatures. This can also be described as an object that involves the relation between temperature and electrical condition

    14. aqueous

      This is something that is of or containing water, that is typically used as a solvent or medium. A substance could be dissolved in water, making it an aqueous solution.

    15. pigment

      is a colored material that is completely or nearly insoluble in water.

    16. syringe

      a tube with a nozzle and piston or bulb for sucking in and ejecting liquid in a thin stream, used for cleaning wounds or body cavities, or fitted with a hollow needle for injecting or withdrawing fluids.

    17. quadrupedal

      This refers to being four-footed, where all four feet are used for walking and running. This can be seen in animals such as a dog or cat.

    18. electrowetting

      This is the modification of the wetting properties of a surface, typically hydrophobic, with an applied electric field.

      Uses for electrowetting include applications on lenses, electronic displays, and separating oil-water mixtures.

    19. electrofluidics

      Is a versatile principle that can be used for high speed actuation of liquid interfaces.

    20. extensible

      This is the ability to be extended or stretched.

    21. microchannels

      Is a channel with a hydraulic (contains liquid) diameter below 1 mm.

    22. pneumatic

      This is something that is operated by or contains air or gas under pressure.

      An example of this would be container holding pressurized air or gas.

    23. actuation

      the action of causing a machine or device to operate.

    24. spectral

      This comes from the electromagnetic spectrum, the range of wavelengths or frequencies over which electromagnetic radiation extends, of visible light, which ranges from approximately 400nm to 700nm.

    25. Semiconductor

      A solid substance that has a conductivity between that of an insulator and that of most metals, either due to the addition of an impurity or because of temperature effects. One common semiconductor are silicon chips used in electronics.

    26. arthropods

      Organisms that have a segmented body and jointed appendages, a usually chitinous exoskeleton molted at intervals, and a brain connected to a spinal cord.

    27. ultraviolet (UV)

      Is a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelength from 10nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light, but longer than X-rays. UV radiation is present in sunlight, and constitutes about 10% of the total electromagnetic radiation output from the Sun.

    28. plumage

      This is the layers of feathers that cover a bird and the pattern, color, and arrangement of the feathers.

    29. iridophores

      These are iridescent chromatophores, and chromatophores are cells that produce color, of which many types are pigment-containing cells, or groups of cells, found in a wide range of animals including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans and cephalopods.

    30. elastomers

      This is a polymer, either natural or synthetic, that has elastic properties.

      An example of this would be rubbers.

    31. prosthetics

      This is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part. The reason for why this part my be missing may be a result of many different reasons, but these devices are utilized with the intention to restore the normal functions of the missing body part.

    32. silhouette

      Is the image of a person, animal, object or scene represented as a solid shape of a single colour, usually black, with its edges matching the outline of the subject.

    33. obliterative

      To render invisible or unreadable, as by erasing or marking over

    34. infrared

      A form of light that is slightly above our visible light spectrum. Since it is not within our visible light spectrum, it is invisible to the naked eye, but it still provides useful applications in nature and everyday life such as remote controls for your television.

    35. camouflage

      This is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see, or disguising them as something else.

    36. microfluidic networks

      A group or system that deals with the behavior, manipulation, and precise control of fluids that are constrained to a small scale. This often deals with objects that are measured to be in the tens to hundreds of micrometers.

    37. Synthetic systems

      A set of things working together that uses two or more steps to create a product. This is also chemically created to imitate an existing and natural set.

    38. soft polymers

      Materials belonging to this category include things made up by smaller units called monomers. However, this category contains many monomers arranged in a way that keeps the overall object flexible and non rigid.

    39. luminescence

      This is the emission of light from an object that is not a result of heat, but a form of cold-body radiation.

    40. bioluminescence

      This is the production and emission of light by a living organism.

    1. gastric mucosa

      Stomach tissue walls

    2. biologic dosage forms

      Denotes a drug's method of entry or delivery into a biological system (the body)

    3. in vitro

      in a test tube, culture dish, or elsewhere outside a living organism

    4. kinematic

      The features or properties of motion in an object without reference to the forces that cause the motion

    5. MATLAB

      MATLAB is a "matrix laboratory" software used for calculations and programming

    6. minimization

      To reduce something

    7. low curvature

      Gradual bend

    8. high-curvature

      Sharp bend

    9. weeble-wobble toy
    10. hydroxypropyl methylcellulose

      Non-fermentable semi-synthetic dietary fibre, based on cellulose.

    11. polymers

      Substance consisting of very large molecules composed of many repeating subunits.

    12. biodegradable

      Biodegradation is the breakdown of organic matter.

    13. conical structure

      Cone shaped structure.

    14. poly(ethylene) oxide

      Biomaterial with a high molecular weight.

    15. molecular weight

      The ratio of the average mass of one molecule of an element to one twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon.

    16. overtube

      A protective tube used during endoscopy.

    17. endoscopy

      A procedure used to look inside the body and examine the interior of a hollow organ or body cavity.

    18. in vivo

      Process performed within a living organism.

    19. ex vivo

      Experimentation done on tissue from an organism in an external environment with minimal alteration of natural conditions.

    20. mucosal

      The inner lining of organs and body cavities such as the stomach.

    21. gastric juice

      A thin, clear, acidic fluid secreted by the stomach glands.

    22. viscosities

      The state of being thick and semifluid in consistency.

    23. excursions

      A deviation from a regular pattern, path, or level of operation.

    24. torque

      A twisting force that causes rotation.

    25. ellipsoid

      A deformed sphere.

    26. subchronic

      Oral subchronic toxicity refers to adverse effects occurring after repeated administration of a test sample.

    27. peristaltic motion

      Involuntary movements of the longitudinal and circular muscles, primarily in the digestive tract but occasionally in other hollow tubes of the body, that occur in progressive wavelike contractions

    28. acute

      Acute oral toxicity refers to adverse effects following oral administration of a single dose of a substance.

    29. mono-monostatic body

      An object which has only one unstable point of balance.

    30. nondegradable

      Will not break down within the body

    31. osmotic

      The ability for a liquid to diffuse (pass through) a membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

    32. obstruction


    33. active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)

      Any substance or mixture of substances intended to be used in the manufacture of a drug product and that, when used in the production of a drug, becomes a functional ingredient in the drug product

    34. small form factor

      Intended to minimize the volume and footprint of a device while still maintaining all necessary components

    35. lumen

      The open space within a tube-shaped body part

    36. prototyping

      An early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process.

    37. actuation

      The action of causing a machine or device to operate.

    38. endoscopic

      Uses an endoscope to examine the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body. Unlike many other medical imaging techniques, endoscopes are inserted directly into the organ


    39. in vitro

      Process that is taking place in a test tube, culture dish, or elsewhere outside a living organism.

    40. hypothesized

      Put (something) forward as a proposed explanation for a phenomenon

    41. gastric emptying

      Food emptying from the stomach and entering the small intestine

    42. Carr-Locke needles
    43. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

      An cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes an important metabolic reaction.

    44. gastroenterologists

      A physician who studies the function of the GI tract

    45. lysozyme

      An enzyme that catalyzes the destruction of the cell walls of certain bacteria.

    46. Raman spectroscopy

      A technique used to determine vibrational modes of molecules, to provide information of the chemical structure

    47. 316L stainless steel

      Second most common marine grade stainless steel.

    48. fluidity

      The ability of a substance to flow easily

    49. regenerates


    50. nanoparticles

      A particle of matter that is between 1 and 100 nanometres in diameter

    51. permeation enhancers

      Substances which promote the absorption of drug through the skin temporarily by enhancing the skin permeability over time

    52. Preclinical

      A stage of research that begins before human trials can begin

    53. cellular tight junctions

      Connections between cells that prevent the passage of molecules and ions through the space between membranes of touching cells

    54. protease

      An enzyme (a biological catalyst) which breaks down proteins and peptides

    55. pH

      A value showing how acidic or how basic something is

    56. diabetes mellitus

      A disease often called sugar diabetes because the condition makes it difficult to convert food to energy. This leads to high sugar levels in the blood

    57. polycaprolactone

      Biodegradable polyester with a low melting point of around 60°C.

    58. purification

      the removal of contaminants from something

    59. variability


    60. bioavailability

      The ability of a drug or other substance to be absorbed and used by the body

    61. oral

      Through the mouth

    62. fasted state

      Empty stomach

    63. milliposts

      millimeter scale pillars

    64. subcutaneous

      Situated or applied under the skin

    65. plasma

      Plasma is a yellowish liquid component of blood that holds the blood cells of whole blood in suspension. It is the liquid part of the blood that carries cells and proteins throughout the body.

    66. insulin

      A hormone produced in the pancreas which regulates the amount of sugar in the blood. The lack of insulin causes a form of diabetes.

    67. COMSOL

      A simulation software to create accurate models

    68. in vivo

      In a living organism

    69. perforation

      A hole made by puncturing or piercing

    70. mucosa

      The moist, inner lining of some organs and body cavities

    71. gastric

      Relating to the stomach

    72. pharmaceutical

      Relating to medicinal drugs, or their preparation, use, or sale

    73. GI fluid

      Fluid that aids digestion

    74. sucrose

      A common sugar

    75. isomalt

      A sugar substitute

    76. pharmacokinetics

      The movement of drugs within the body

    77. gastrostomy

      A surgical operation for making an opening in the stomach

    78. laparotomy

      A surgical incision into the abdominal cavity, for diagnosis or in preparation for surgery

    79. Subcutaneously

      Under the skin

    80. pneumoperitoneum

      Pneumoperitoneum is the presence of air or a gas in the abdominal cavity. It is usually detected using an x-ray or a CT scan.

    81. gastric cavity

      Cavity that houses the stomach and gut

    82. submucosa

      The layer of connective tissue that lays under the mucous membrane

    83. micro–computed tomography (micro-CT)

      3D imaging technique using x-rays to see the inside of an object by viewing it slice by slice

    84. ultimate strength

      Maximum stress a material can withstand while being stretched before it breaks

    85. Young’s modulus

      Measure of the ability of a material to withstand changes in length when under tension; how easily the material is bent or stretched

    86. Dissolution

      The process of a solute dissolving in a solvent to form a solution

    87. Histology

      The study of the microscopic structures of tissues

    88. desiccated

      Having all the moisture removed; dried out

    89. autonomously

      Acting independently; the ability to act without instruction

    90. reorient

      To find the correct position in reference to the surroundings

    91. systemic


    92. permeation

      becoming widely spread

    93. parenteral

      Occuring or administered elsewhere in the body other than the mouth

    94. gastrointestinal (GI) tract

      The GI tract is a series of hollow organs that form a long tube from the mouth to the anus. The organs within the tract include the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus.

    95. Biomacromolecules

      Biomacromolecules are the building blocks of life. The different macromolecules are: Proteins, Lipids, Carbohydrates, and Nucleic Acids. Each of these macromolecules are responsible for different biological functions within the body and the cells

    1. FEA

      A method of numerically solving differential equations for mathematical modeling.

      The problem is broken into smaller, finite elements that can be expressed as algebraic equations. These equations can can then be assembled into a larger system of equations that models the entire problem.

    2. Young’s modulus

      In essence, this is a measurement of how stiff a material is.

      It can be equated as E = stress / strain.

    3. biocompatibility

      The property of a material to be compatible with living tissue. Materials that trigger a toxic or immune response when exposed to the body are NOT biocompatible.

    4. FTIR

      One of the most common methods of spectroscopy. The sample is exposed to infrared light and data is collected to determine how much light is absorbed or released by the sample.

      To convert the raw data into an actual spectrum, a Fourier transform must be performed.

    5. thermoset polyimine matrix

      Thermoset: applying heat to harden or cure the material. This creates the matrix encapsulating the device.

      Thanks to the healing ability of the polyimine and the liquid nature of the eutectic LM circuitry, bonds can be reformed and reshaped throughout the device.

    6. dynamic covalent

      Upon thermosetting, dynamic covalent bonds are formed between the atoms that can readily assemble and disassemble. This gives the polyimines their unique healing ability.

    7. ECG sensor

      An electrocardiogram sensor records the pathway of electrical impulses throughout the heart. This data can be used to monitor the heart's condition and response to physical exertion.

    8. transimination

      A reaction that converts an -imine compound into smaller monomers/oligomers. The researchers discovered this reaction to be useful for separating the chip components and LM from the matrix by solubilizing the these monomers/oligomers in methanol.

    9. self-healability

      Chemically engineered materials have been integrated into the electronics that allow the device to self-repair even after multiple breaks.

      This device utilizes a material called polyimine that repairs itself through bond exchange reactions.

    10. eutectic LM

      Eutectic: a mixture of substances that melts and solidifies totally at the same temperature, which is lower than the melting points of the individual constituents.

      Eutectic LM: A mixture of liquid metals.

    1. Cross-contamination

      the process by which bacteria or other microorganisms are unintentionally transferred from one substance or object to another, with harmful effect.

  3. Dec 2020
  4. Oct 2020
  5. Sep 2020
  6. Jul 2020
    1. Introgressive hybridization

      Movement of genes from one species into the gene pool of another species by the repeated crossing of a hybrid with one of its parents.

    2. missense mutation

      Where a single nucleotide base is changed, which results in a different amino acid.

    1. Body copy, body text, or sometimes just plain body or text refers to themain block of text that you read, as opposed to headlines, subheads, titles,etc. Body text is usually set between 9- and 12-point type with 20 percentadded space between the lines.

      body copy, body text



    1. mantle

      A part of Earth’s interior that lies between the dense, extremely hot core and the thin outer layer, known as the crust. It is made up of a thick, rocky shell that constitutes 84% of Earth’s volume. In geologic time, it behaves as a viscous fluid.

    2. continental plume–related basalts

      Both ocean island basalts and continental plume-related basalts come from deep within the mantle. OIBs intruded into oceanic (basaltic) crust, whereas continental plumes intrude into continental crust (for example, Deccan traps in India).

    3. coesite

      This is a high-pressure and high-temperature polymorph (version) of quartz.

    1. anterior

      This is an anatomical term which refers to the front of the body, or near the head.

      In the case of planaria, it refers to the head.

    2. posterior

      This is anatomical term which refers to the back of the body, or near the hind end of the body.

      In the case of planaria, it refers to the the hind end.

    3. “Janus heads”

      Janus was a Roman god and doorkeeper to the heavens. Relevant here, Janus was usually depicted with two heads, one facing the past and the other towards the future.

    4. protrusions

      Here, protrusions refer to bulges of cells.

    5. periphery

      Refers to the outer edge.

    6. signaling pathways

      A series of linked chemical pathways in which one chemical in the series activates another chemical in the pathway, which ultimately leads to a specific cell function.

    7. β-catenin antagonist adenomatous polyposis coli

      Adenomatous polyposis coli, or APC, is gene that plays many roles, including acting as a tumor suppressor. APC has also been found to play a role in cell division and directing cells where to go once division takes place. In order to do its job, APC directs β-catenin in the Wnt signaling pathway.

      Read more in the Journal of Cell Science. The PDF is also available in the "Related content" tab.

    8. RNA interference (RNAi)

      A mechanism used by both plant and animal cells to silence a gene using a double-stranded DNA molecule. DNA is converted into the smaller RNAi molecules used to turn genes off. Scientists are now able to use this natural process to turn off genes they are studying so they can learn more about their function.

    9. Schmidtea mediterranea

      This is an image depicting this common planarian.

    1. secondary challenge

      A second exposure to the same threat. The immune system is, under certain conditions, able to remember threats it has encountered before and react to them more quickly and effectively upon each subsequent exposure.

    2. Fab fragments

      The antigen-binding fragment of antibody, i.e. the domain which binds specifically to the target of the antibody.

    3. In vitro

      Latin for "in the glass." That is, experiments done in test tubes, not in organisms.

    4. T cells

      White blood cells central to adaptive immunity. T cells are able to recognize when cells are diseased and can kill them so they don't spread throughout the body.

    1. channelrhodopsins

      This family of proteins is employed to activate neurons by driving cations (including sodium, calcium, hydrogen, and potassium) into the cell and causing the membrane potential to become more positive, leading to depolarization.

    2. halorhodopsins

      Halorhodopsins and bacteriorhodopsins typically inactivate neurons by driving chloride ions into the cell or hydrogen ions out of the cell and causing the membrane potential to become more negative, leading to hyperpolarization.

    3. cation

      A positive ion like hydrogen (H+), sodium (Na+), or potassium (K+).

    4. Cannula

      A tube inserted into the body to facilitate the delivery of fluids or materials to a specific region.

    5. basal ganglia (BG)

      A group of nuclei located at the base of the forebrain that is responsible for motor control and cognition.

    6. globus pallidus pars interna (GPi)

      Major component of the basal ganglia that targets the substantia nigra.

    7. contralateral

      Opposite the lesion.

    8. substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc)

      A subregion of the midbrain responsible for motor control.

    9. neurodegenerative

      Progressive loss of function of neurons, usually a result of neuron death.

    1. Error bars

      A graphical representation (usually lines through a point on the graph that run parallel to one of the axes) showing the amount of uncertainty there is in the location of that point. All scientific data collection includes uncertainty; error bars allow researchers to show how confident they are in their results. Large error bars mean there is a lot of uncertainty (lower confidence), whereas smaller error bars mean there is less uncertainty.

    2. β

      A statistical term, the Greek letter beta, refers to the probability that you can accept the null hypothesis (which states that values affirmation has no effect) when in fact the null hypothesis is wrong.

    3. racial achievement gap

      The difference in performance (for example, on standardized tests) between minority students and white students.

    4. standardized test

      Any form of an exam that requires all people taking the test to answer the same questions and is scored the same way in all cases, so that comparisons can be made between all people who take the test. These are typically multiple choice tests taken by large populations of students (for example: all 8th grade students in the United States).

    5. psychological threat

      Any outside force (real or perceived) that challenges a person's values, beliefs, or sense of self.

      Stereotype (or identity) threat is a subset of psychological threat in which a person feels they will be judged according to common prejudices about some aspect of their identity (for example: race, ethnicity, or gender).