4,088 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. downstream processing

      Refers to the process of separating desired products from biosynthetic pathways

    2. chiral reagents

      Any reagent that exhibits chirality (or asymmetry) in its molecular structure

    3. carbene insertion

      carbene is a neutral reactive intermediate; a carbene insertion reaction is the insertion of carbene in a carbon-hydrogen bond.

    4. directed evolution

      Is a method of engineering proteins towards a defined goal or purpose. Directed evolution mimics 'real' evolution and is accelerated in the laboratory by focusing on individual genes expressed in fast‐growing microorganisms such as E.Coli. Enzyme chosen (known as wild type) must show at least a minimal desired reactivity. Mutations are introduced at strategic locations in the wild type protein. Then, the library of mutant proteins is screened for the mutated enzymes with enhanced reactivity. The improved enzymes are used as parents for the next round of mutation and screening. Additional beneficial mutations are introduced if needed. This can continue for several cycles until a desired and beneficial evolution of the enzyme is attained.

    5. physiological

      conditions that occur in nature for an organism in contrast to laboratory conditions

  2. Jul 2019
    1. bioorthogonal chemistry

      A new approach of conducting chemical reactions where reactants must react rapidly and selectively with each other under physiological conditions. Two key and relevant features of bioorthogonal reactions is high selectivity and compatibility with naturally occurring functional groups.

    2. metabolic engineering

      Metabolic engineering is the production of specific target chemicals in high yield and stereoselectivity by altering the metabolic pathways. Metabolic pathway is changed via recombinant DNA technology.

    3. heteroarenes

      aromatic compounds where one or more ring carbon atoms are replaced by a heteroatom such as nitrogen, sulfur or oxygen.

    4. naphthalenes

      compounds that contain two fused benzene rings; also referred to as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

    5. amides

      organic compounds that contain -CONH2 structural feature

    6. esters

      organic compounds that contain -COOR functional group

    7. alkyl halides

      organic compounds that contain a halogen connected to an alkyl group such as methyl ethyl etc.

    8. aryl halides

      organic compounds that contain a halogen connected to a benzene ring

    9. ethers

      organic compounds that contains C-O-C structural feature

    10. anaerobic

      oxygen free conditions

    11. recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli.

      At the theoretical level, the steps needed for obtaining a recombinant protein are straightforward. Take your gene of interest, clone it, transform it into the host of choice (here it is E.Coli), induce and then, the protein is ready for purification and characterization.

    12. adventitious “active site”

      an active site created by chance rather than by design

    13. Met

      The amnio acid, methionine

    14. distal

      located at a further distance

    15. His

      The amino acid, histadine

    16. proximal

      located at a closer distance

    17. hydrophobic

      repels or has no affinity towards water

    18. eukaryotic

      cells with membrane bound organelles

    19. functionally conserved

      relatively unchanged when one goes back in genealogical time

    20. thermohalophilic

      An organism that thrives in extreme high temperature and high salt concentrations

    21. enantioinduction

      Enantioinduction is also popularly known as asymmetric induction. This process is the preferential formation of one enantiomer over the other as a result of the influence of a chiral feature present in reactants or the catalyst.

    22. molecular biology

      branch of biology that deals with structure and function of nucleic acids and proteins

    23. genetically encoded

      Is the order of nucleotides that make up the genetic codes that is translated into proteins

    24. isostere

      elements that have the same number of electrons in the outermost shell (also known as valence shell) and have similar electronic properties

    25. biocompatible

      not harmful to living cells

    26. organosilicon

      Compounds that contain carbon-silicon bonds

    27. enantiopure

      A compound available in one enantiomeric form

    28. turnover

      The number of moles of substrata that a catalyst can convert into the desired product before becoming inactive

    29. chemo- and enantioselectivity

      Chemoselectivity is the preferential reaction of a reagent with a specific functional group over others. Enantioselectivity is the extent to which one enantiomer is formed over the other in a chemical reaction.

    30. heme proteins

      is a type of metalloprotein and contains a heme group which is required for the functionality of the protein

    31. catalyze

      speed up a reaction with the use of external agent, typically a chemical compound

  3. Jun 2019
    1. We decomposed this metric into two components: species turnover (βST—the proportion of interactions that are not shared owing to differences in species composition between two networks) and linkage turnover [βOS, also called rewiring—the proportion of interactions unique to a single network despite the occurrence of both partners in both networks (30)

      The authors measured the overall dissimilarity between different locations by two factors:

      species turnover- when two locations do not share similar networks because they are inhabited by different species,

      and linkage turnover- when species found in both locations develop different interactions specific to their site

    2. The wider variety of partners used at the larger scale (regional network) corresponds to the “fundamental niche,” whereas the subset of partners found at local scales indicates that local populations have much more restricted “realized niches” (27, 28).

      A species' fundamental niche encompasses all of the possible roles it has in its environment, whereas the realized niche are the actual roles that a species plays in its environment, taking into account competition, predation, and other interactions with neighboring species.

      The video below further explains this.

    3. niche broadening

      A niche is an organism's role in its ecosystem, describing how it utilizes the resources and interacts with living and nonliving factors of its environment.

      Niche broadening is when a species expands its roles in its habitat, as a tool for survival.

    4. interaction release

      In response to lack of food and increased populations, animals broaden the scope of species they interact with beyond their original interactions.

    5. frugivores

      An animal that eats primarily fruit

    6. interaction dissimilarity

      When the behavior between species in one area differs from the behaviors between species in another location.

    7. introduced species

      Plants or animals not originally from that area

    8. novel interactions

      A new relationship or pattern of behavior between plants and animals.

    9. seed dispersal

      The distribution or spreading of seeds throughout an area

    10. binary

      Binary calculations are a straightforward form of measurement that states the presence or absence of an interaction.

    11. weighted

      Weighted networks assign some form of quantitative value, in this case frequency, as a measure of the interaction in a network.

    12. biotic factors

      Living parts of an ecosystem, in this case, invasive species on the island

    13. Abiotic factors

      Non-living parts of an ecosystem, such as elevation of rainfall

    1. dimorphic

      Dimorphic indicates differences in characteristics between males and females of the same species other than the sex cells.

    2. gonad

      Gonad refers the organ that produces an organism's reproductive cells.

      For mammals, this is the testis in males and ovary in females.

    3. transcription

      The creation of an RNA transcript from DNA.

    4. aromatase

      An enzyme that produces estrogen, the main female sex hormone.

    5. intron retention

      A transcription event in which introns, which are frequently excluded from mRNA, are instead maintained in the mRNA transcript.

      Intron retention allows for more diversity of mRNA transcripts from the same DNA.

    1. recitation

      A meeting of a subset of students from a larger lecture course in which students can ask questions, get clarification on lecture topics, and may solve additional problems or take quizzes (typically required with very large college courses).

    2. β

      Beta. Beta refers to the probability that you can accept the null hypothesis (which states that values affirmation has no effect) when in fact the null hypothesis is wrong.

    3. effect size

      Statistical measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables.

    4. double-blind study

      An experiment in which neither the participants nor the experimenters know which group the each participant is assigned to until after the data is analyzed.

    5. gender gap

      Another term for the "gender achievement gap" in which men outperform women in the same field.

    6. lucrative

      High-paying.

    7. conceptual mastery

      Understanding the main ideas that make up the field.

    8. interactive techniques

      Activities in which the student participates (as opposed to passively listening to a lecture).

    9. curricular materials

      Educational resources that can be incorporated into a teacher's lessons.

    10. context-rich problems

      Short scenarios that give the student a real-world situation in which to apply their knowledge.

    11. fear of being devalued based on a group identity

      Stereotype threat or identity threat.

    12. evaluative stress

      Fear and anxiety caused by the thought of having to take an exam.

    13. pedagogical

      Related to teaching.

    14. control group

      The subjects that do not receive treatment.

    15. self-relevant

      Related to an individual's sense of identity.

    16. cumulative exam

      Test on all material covered during the course.

    17. distribution

      The frequency of occurrence of some measure (for example: how many students got As, Bs, Cs, Ds, and Fs).

    18. standardized test

      Any form of an exam that requires all people taking the test to answer the same questions and is scored the same way in all cases, so that comparisons can be made between all people who take the test. These are typically multiple choice tests taken by large populations of students (for example: all 8th grade students in the US).

    19. psychological threat

      Any outside force (real or perceived) that challenges a person's values, beliefs or sense of self.

      Stereotype (or identity) threat is a subset of psychological threat in which a person feels they will be judged according to common prejudices about some aspect of their identity (for example: race, ethnicity or gender).

    20. SOM

      Supporting Online Materials (typically located at the end of the article).

    21. significant

      The result deviates from that expected to arise by chance (from random variation or errors in sampling).

    22. psychological intervention

      Any activity used to modify behavior, emotional state, or feelings.

    23. values affirmation

      An intervention in which people reflect on and write about the beliefs and values (e.g., family, integrity) that are important in their life.

    24. gender achievement gap

      The difference in test scores, course performance, and job prospects between people of different genders.

    25. instructional methods

      How course material is taught, such as through context-rich problems or curricular materials.

    26. cognitive

      Perception, attention, learning, memory, and problem solving.

    27. theoretically motivated

      Based on a hypothesis that may have been supported in laboratory experiments, but has not yet been shown to work in practice.

    28. replicated

      Repeating a scientific experiment and finding the same results.

    29. resulting in a significant gender × condition interaction

      Interaction effects occur when the effect of one variable depends on another variable.

      In this case, the effect of the intervention (values affirmation or control) depended on the student gender (male or female).

    30. discipline

      A specific branch of knowledge, such as physics or biology.

    31. Error bars

      A graphical representation (usually lines through a point on the graph that run parallel to one of the axes) showing the amount of uncertainty there is in the location of that point. All scientific data collection includes uncertainty--error bars allow researchers to show how confident they are in their results. Large error bars mean there is a lot of uncertainty (lower confidence), while smaller error bars mean there is less uncertainty.

    32. z scores

      A z-score is a measure of the number of standard deviations above or below the average score a raw, individual score is. The higher the z-score, the more different a data point is from the average.

    33. continuous

      Continuous variables have an infinite number of possible values. This is in contrast to categorical variables, which have a discrete number of defined values (for example, in this study "man" or "woman" for gender).

    34. SD

      Standard deviation, a measure of the amount of variation in data.

      It can be used to quantify how far an individual's data is from the average of a data set.

    35. negative relation

      A condition in which when the value of one variable goes up (endorsement of the gender stereotype), the value of the other variable goes down (exam scores).

    36. as a function of

      A function defines one variable in terms of another. Here, the more strongly a woman in the control group endorsed the gender stereotype, the lower her exam scores were.

      Defining y "as a function of" x means that y varies based on the level of x.

    37. χ2

      Chi-squared, a test which tells whether there is a statistically significant difference between the distribution of two categorical variables (for example, gender).

    38. SE

      Refers to standard error, which is a measure of how far away the mean of your data is likely to be from the true mean of the population.

    39. P

      The P value is a measure of how likely it is that your null hypothesis (that values affirmation has no effect) is true.

    40. outcome measure

      Tools used to assess a subject's performance.

    41. condition

      Assigned group, either the intervention group or the control group. In this case, the control group contained students who did not participate in the values affirmation intervention.

    42. social-psychological

      Effects that result from interactions within groups, and between both groups and individuals.

    43. randomized

      Participants are randomly assigned to different test conditions.

      In this case, participants are equally likely to end up in the control group and the values affirmation test group.

    1. chlorisondamine

      A drug that blocks the binding of acetylcholine to its nicotinic receptors.

    2. neurogenesis

      Formation of new neurons.

    3. neosynaptogenesis

      Neo- meaning new, synaptogenesis referring to the formation of connections between neurons.

    4. autoreceptors

      Referring to a case where the neurotransmitter and the receptors are present on the same cell. The released neurotransmitter binds to the receptor on the same cell.

    5. morphometric analysis

      A quantitative measurement of a neuron size, shape, or density.

    6. pontine

      Refers to the group of neurons present in the pons of the brain.

      Pons is a brain region that links medulla and the mid-brain. It serves as a message station between several areas of the brain.

    7. S.E.

      Stands for standard error, a measure to test how far the mean of the sample is different from the estimated mean of the population.

    8. petrosal and nodose neurons

      Brain cells in a group of nerves found at the base of the skull. The nodose and petrosal neurons are part of the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves, respectively.

    9. unmanipulated

      No change; unaltered.

    10. nicotinic receptors

      These are receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine.

    11. methylates

      Introduces a methyl (CH<sub>3</sub>) group. Here, PNMT adds a CH<sub>3</sub> group onto norepinephrine creating epinephrine (also known as adrenaline).

    12. pituitary-adrenal axis

      Refers to the connections and interactions between the pituitary gland and adrenal glands. 

    13. caudal thoracic

      Situated in the tail part of the body.

    14. progenitors

      Precursors.

    15. neurohumoral products

      Neuroendocrine cells are the cells that receive input from neurons and release a hormone into blood for output. Any hormone produced and released by neuroendocrine cells are referred as neurohumoral products.

    16. tetrodotoxin

      Sodium channel blocker. It blocks the influx of sodium into the cell.

    17. influx

      Act of flowing in.

      Example: An influx of tourists was observed over the holidays.

    18. VIP (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide)

      A neurotransmitter that can be released from exocrine glands; for instance, sweat glands.

      Functions include relaxation of smooth muscles in stomach, gall bladder, and contraction of heart muscles.

      It has been shown that in sweat glands, both VIP and acetylcholine (or cholingeric) are released from same population of neurons.

    19. catecholaminergic

      Refers to the cell group that releases one of the neurotransmitters, dopamine or norepinephrine.

    20. tyrosine hydroxylase

      An enzyme responsible for the conversion of tyrosine (an amino acid) to dopamine, a neurotransmitter.

    21. quantitative

      Refers to the measurement of quantities, a countable amount of something. For example: A baby weighs 7 pounds and 4 ounces.

    22. qualitative

      Refers to the measurement of qualities, a describable trait of something. For example: The girl has brown eyes.

    23. phenotype

      Here, referring to the physical characteristics of the neurons.

    24. peptide putative transmitters

      Widely accepted class of neurotransmitters.

      Read more about the different neurotransmitters here.

    25. Neurotransmitters

      A chemical that is released by brain cells called neurons. These chemicals aid in communication or passing messages between neurons.

    26. veratridine

      Drug that increases the influx of sodium into the cell.

    27. mutability

      The ability to change.

      For example, think of a caterpillar, which has the ability to change to butterfly.

    28. thermoregulation

      Maintaining the body’s temperature within the normal limits.

    29. vegetative functions

      Functions of the body that are essential for life–e.g. sleeping, eating, breathing, bladder activity.

    30. peptide transmitters

      These are a class of neurotransmitters. Peptides are made of amino acids or chain of amino acids.

      Read more about the different neurotransmitters here.

    31. regulation

      Set of codes that helps the organism to adapt and maintain life. 

      In this instance, regulation occurs at the gene level to adapt to environmental conditions.

    32. transcriptional level

      A regulation that controls the conversion of DNA to RNA in organisms. Learn more with this HHMI BioInteractive video.

    33. basal

      Normal or minimum level.

    1. translational

      Research that can be useful to prevent or treat disease

    2. developmental

      Relating to the growth of the individual.

    3. subsequent

      Following.

    4. cocaine-induced

      The response prompted by cocaine.

    5. nicotine-induced

      Response prompted by nicotine.

    6. risk

      Prone to; susceptible.

    7. pretreatment

      Treatment received prior to something in advance

    8. assessed

      Evaluate; measure.

    9. administered

      Given.

    10. prompted

      Pushed; urged; required.

    11. diminished

      Reduced.

    12. endpoints

      Outcome

    13. long-term synaptic potentiation

      Strengthening of synapses between neurons

    14. prenatal

      before birth; during pregnancy

    15. phenocopied

      mimicked; acted similarly

    16. transient

      only for a short time

    17. baseline

      normal

    18. facilitation

      help; make the process easy

    19. variant

      modified

    20. ERK/MAPK

      signaling pathways that help in gene regulation

    21. phosphorylates

      adding phosphate residues

    22. concurrent

      happening at the same time

    23. Hypoacetylated

      not enough acetylation

    24. deacetylase

      removal of acetyl groups

    25. hyperacetylation

      increase or excessive acetylation

    26. promoter

      DNA sequences that define where the transcription should start in a gene

    27. disinhibits

      restrain

    28. simulate

      prompt or trigger

    29. psychostimulants

      drugs that cause an increased behavioral or motor response

    30. robust

      widely used

    31. behavioral paradigm

      a model designed to perform behavioral experiments

    32. acetylation

      Process by which acetyl groups are added to preferred residues in a protein.

      For instance, acetyl groups are added to lysine residues in a protein structure

    33. histone

      components of chromatin that helps in gene regulation

    34. chromatin

      DNA + histone

    35. FosB

      it is one of the transcription factors that help in gene expression

    36. transcription

      the process by which a copy of genetic information is made from DNA to RNA

    37. synaptic

      A synapse is a space between the neurons that allows passage of electric or chemical signals between the neurons.

      Anything that occurs between synapses is referred to as synaptic

    38. plasticity

      the ability of the neurons (brain cells) to change and learn new things by changing their synaptic strength

    39. spiny neurons

      Medium sized neurons that have dendritic branches

    40. inhibitory

      slowing down, hold back, restrain, negatively affecting a response

    41. GABAergic

      neurons that contain inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA

    42. prefrontal cortex

      Part of the frontal cortex in the brain. Its function includes planning, organization, and decision making

    43. amygdala

      A brain region present in the temporal lobe. It is almond In shape. It plays an important role in emotions.

      Eg. When we see a lion, we immediately run due to fear. The fear response is due to the amygdala.

    44. ventral tegmental area

      A brain region in the midbrain. Serves as a center for the origin of dopaminergic neurons

    45. glutamatergic

      neurons that can modulate (or alter or modify) the neurotransmitter, glutamate. Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter

    46. dopaminergic

      neurons that contain neurotransmitter, dopamine. Dopamine plays a vital role in the reward pathway

    47. integration

      to combine the similarities together

    48. convergence

      bringing together two different concepts that share similarities

    49. reward

      recognition of one’s work or effort

    50. ventral striatum

      contains the brain region, nucleus accumbens

    51. nucleus accumbens

      A brain region in the forebrain. It has two parts: core and shell

    52. addictive

      causing someone to become dependent

    53. cocaine

      Recreational drug. Referred as coke.

    54. nicotine

      primary chemical present in tobacco

    55. addiction

      dependency, craving

    56. modulated

      modify

    57. enhanced

      increased

    58. place preference

      preferred choice of one place over another

    59. conditioned

      trained or habituated

    60. sensitization

      Repeated administration of a stimulus can cause a response to the stimulus.

      Eg. If you give your cat piping hot milk the first day, the cat may not drink it as it will burn its mouth. However, if you continue to give your cat hot milk for several days in a row, the cat will eventually start drinking the milk as it is habituated to the new stimulus (hot milk) and will not complain

    61. Locomotor

      the movement of a living being from one place to another

    62. sequential

      one by one; logical order

    63. determinant

      a key factor

    64. irrelevant

      not important

    65. molecular genetic

      study of the structure and function of genes involved in the behavior

    66. electrophysiological

      observing the electrical properties of neurons in the mouse brain

    67. behavioral

      observing the behavior of the mouse

    68. exert

      influence

    69. gateway drugs

      the substances are mild and not addictive on consumption. However, the continuous consumption of these mild substances can lead to the use of other addictive drugs. They are also known as ‘habit-forming drug.’

      Eg. Alcohol, Cigarettes.

    70. epidemiological

      Deals with incidence and distribution of diseases and societal issues