4,357 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. thermal regimes

      A pattern of temperatures

    2. diel cycle

      A 24-hour cycle, more commonly referred to as a "day".

    3. ectothermic

      Commonly called "cold-blooded", this term describes an animal that regulates its body temperature using external energy sources. For example, this is the reason why many reptiles sunbathe.

    4. foraging

      The search for food in the environment.

    5. gestation time

      The period of time that viviparous animals (those that give live birth and do not lay eggs) will carry a developing embryo. The length of this period will vary depending on species; for example humans have a gestation period of 40 weeks, whereas rabbits only take about a month.

    6. scaling coefficient

      Ecologists often use equations to try to describe animal behavior. A "scaling coefficient" is a number by which a variable is multiplied, which is used here to say that temperature (the variable in this case) will cause a larger change in the behavior of prey (large scaling coefficient) than predators (small scaling coefficient).

    7. trevally

      Caranx ignobilis, the "Giant trevally" is called out as an animal that has some key similarities and differences in behavior from the blacktip reef sharks at the center of this study.

      While both are apex predators from the Phylum Chordata, the trevally is a bony fish (Class Actinopterygii) while the shark is a cartilaginous fish (Class Chondrichthyes)

    8. sit and wait predators

      Ambush predators which hunt using stealth or strategy (ex: house cat) rather than speed or strength (ex: cheetah).

    9. covariate

      Another term for a "variable" that was considered as part of the study as a factor that could potentially explain the behavior in question.

    10. serial correlation

      Also known as autocorrelation, this is a phenomenon that occurs within datasets such as a time series in which the data points are not independent of each other. For example, the temperature recorded one minute is very likely to be similar to the temperature that was recorded for the previous time point because these time points have a relationship to each other, as the temperature will only change as quickly between them as the underlying physics allow. This phenomenon has consequences for some statistical analyses that researchers must correct for to avoid generating spurious results.

    11. Acanthurus lineatus

      Striped surgeonfish

    12. Ctenochaetus striatus

      Striated surgeonfish

    13. Acanthurus nigricans

      Whitecheek surgeonfish

    14. teleosts

      An infraclass of the class Actinopterygii, this classification includes most ray-finned fishes found in the world today, with only a few exceptions of ancient fish which branched off earlier in evolutionary history.

    15. hydrophone

      A device used to detect sounds underwater.

    16. gastric motility

      Describes the movements of smooth muscle in the stomach that contract as part of the digestion process.

    17. tonic immobility

      Many animals "play dead" in response to a stress or threat, but this trance-like state in sharks is thought to be connected to mating since they typically have few predators to feel threatened by. It typically takes 15 minutes for this effect to wear off and has little or no lasting health consequences for the shark.

    18. V16, V13 and V9 types

      The numbers refer to the diameter of the tag, with different sizes being better suited to a range of animal sizes and data types.

    19. temporal resolution

      How many measurements are made over a period of time. A measurement is said to be continuous if it is being constantly tracked, whereas discrete measurements are taken periodically at a time interval that the scientists have determined is frequent enough to answer their research question.

    20. backreefs (2–3 m depth, high vertical relief coral, good visibility) which transition to forereefs

      This illustration of the anatomy of a barrier reef shows the relative position and depth of the backreef and forereef to the lagoon found at the center of an atoll:

    21. Palmyra

      Located in the Pacific, south of Hawaii: With no permanent residents, this is a United States Minor Outlying Island that is part of the largest marine protected area in the world: the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument.

    22. behaviourally thermoregulate

      Behaviors performed to control the temperature of an organism such as basking in the sun or seeking shelter.

      An example of turtles basking in the sun to increase their body temperature:

    23. gastric evacuation

      The emptying of the stomach which occurs as food moves on to subsequent stages of digestion and the eventual excretion of wastes.

    24. thermal niche

      The temperature conditions within which an organism has the best chance of thriving. This is one of several factors that determine the ecological niche of an organism, which describes how its behavior and habitat choice play a specific role in the context of the larger ecosystem that it is a part of.

    25. Gaussian function

      The classic "bell curve" that is used to describe a normal distribution of values.

    26. enzyme kinematics

      Enzymes perform many important functions in our bodies (such as digestion) and have a temperature at which they can perform optimally. Temperatures that are higher or lower will require more energy to perform the same task. Keeping your body, and the enzymes that it contains, at an optimal temperatures is a way to maximize the efficient use of energy.

    27. crepuscular

      Refers to things that happen during the twilight hours (dawn and dusk). This is in contract to "nocturnal" things that happen at night or "diurnal" things that happen during the day. Crepuscular animals such as deer, bears, and housecats tend to be the most active during these time periods.

    28. body condition

      A measurement that can be used to infer the health status of an organism. This is typically calculated by comparing a measurement like length to another like weight, for which a healthy ratio is known.

      The human body-mass-index (BMI) can be considered a measurement of body condition, as this is derived from a person's height and the range of weights that are considered to be healthy for that height.

      A fish with a high body condition is likely to be on the plump side with excess energy stored as a buffer for times of low food intake or high energy use, while a fish with low body condition would be skinny for its length and have low energy reserves.

    29. metabolic cost

      The energy required for an organism to perform an action. This includes constant needs such as the maintenance of cells or voluntary actions like the use of muscles for swimming. Organisms must balance all of these metabolic costs with the intake of energy from food, or they will run an unsustainable deficit in their energy budget.

    30. thermal inertia

      Describes the resistance of an object (or, in this case, an animal) to changes in temperature, and the speed at which it approaches the temperature of its surroundings. A warm fish with high thermal inertia would maintain its heat relatively well in cold waters, whereas a fish with low thermal inertia would lose its heat quickly in cold water and is more likely to have a body temperature that is similar to its surroundings.

    31. ebbing high tides

      The period that follows the high point in the tidal cycle (high tide) as the ebb current pulls water back towards the ocean.

    32. diurnal prey

      "Diurnal" refers to things that happen during the daytime. This is the opposite of its antonym "nocturnal", which appears much more often in common speech to refer to animals that are active at night. In this case, "diurnal prey" is used to refer to the daytime activity of fish that the sharks may be feeding on.

    33. tropical atoll

      An island formed when an extinct mid-ocean volcano surrounded by coral reefs is eroded and subsided beneath sea level, leaving only a coral reef ring visible above the ocean surface. These are found only in tropical and subtropical regions where corals can thrive and continue to build up a reef at a rate that keeps pace with the erosion and subsidence of the underlying volcano.

    1. three-point bending test

      The three-point bend test provides values for the modulus of elasticity, and flexural stress and strain.

      Modulus of elasticity is the ratio of the stress in a body to the corresponding strain.

      Flexural stress is the maximum bending stress that can be applied to that material before it breaks.

      Flexural Strain is the ratio of stress to strain in flexural deformation, or the tendency for a material to resist bending.

    2. poly(anhydride)-based matrices

      A class of biodegradable polymers which are characterized by anhydride bonds. In vivo, they degrade into non- toxic monomers that are metabolized and eliminated from the body.

    3. injectables

      A once a month, or every three month shot that contains a series of hormones designed to stop the body from releasing eggs, and thicken the cervix mucus, thus preventing pregnancy.

    4. vaginal rings,

      A flexible transparent ring of plastic placed in the vagina and releases estrogen and progestogen. This needs to be replaced once a month.

    5. oral pills

      A daily pill that consists of progestin and estrogen to prevent pregnancy.

    6. human pylorus

      The opening from the stomach into the small intestine.

    7. transdermal patches

      A once-a-week patch that adheres to the skin and releases the necessary hormones to prevent pregnancy.

    8. intrauterine devices

      Also called an IUD, this device is planted within the uterus in a t- shaped form to prevent pregnancy.

    9. subcutaneous implants

      A small rod- like implant under the skin of the arm which releases the hormone progestin, to prevent pregnancy.

    10. contraceptives

      A drug or device used to prevent pregnancy.

    11. Poor patient adherence

      Women who use daily contraceptives have a lack of commitment to taking their prescribed pill at the same time everyday.

    1. methacrylated hyaluronic acid

      Glossary: A polymer used for ultraviolet, cross linkable hydrogels

    2. CaCl2

      Calcium Chloride, is often used to recalcify (dding back calcium) blood to initiate blood clotting along with fibrinogen and thrombin.

    3. alginate

      A common hydrogel base material. Specifically, salt form of alginic acid, which is a substance that is commonly used to thicken solutions due to its ability to absorb water fast.

    4. morphology

      Form or structure of a thing.

    5. polydispersity

      A measure of size variation in colloids (liquid mixtures containing microscopically small, dispersed particles, e.g. milk, mayo)

    6. thermoreversible

      To destroy the properties of a protein or other biological molecule (e.g. by heat, acidity) to disrupt its function.

    7. biofabrication

      Production of complex living and non-living products from bio-compatible materials and cells to address medical challenges.

    8. extracellular matrix

      A network of biological materials surrounding cells throughout the body for protection and support.

    9. microphysiological devices

      Tiny devices that mimic the functions of human physiological systems such as organs and tissues.

    10. synchronous

      Occurring or existing at the same time.

  2. Feb 2020
    1. lithophile elements

      The term lithophile was coined by Goldschmidt to describe elements with affinity for silicates. The Greek word lithophile means rock-loving. These elements are primarily found in regions with higher concentrations of silicate, e.g., the mantle and crust. A few examples of lithophile elements are Li, Na, Mg, Al and Si.

    2. δ13C-δ18O

      The term ‘δ<sup>13</sup>C-δ<sup>18</sup>O’ denotes the isotopic signatures of carbon and oxygen elements. An isotopic signature is calculated from the ratio of stable isotopes (13-C/12-C or 18-O/16-O) and expressed in parts per thousand.

    3. kimberlite

      A kind of intrusive igneous rock that is formed deep inside the Earth’s interior. Kimberlite tends to move upwards via the upper mantle and lower and upper crusts, ultimately reaching the surface of the Earth. When the rocks move up, they carry diamonds inside them, thereby becoming an important source of diamonds.

    4. trace-element

      A chemical element which constitutes less than 0.1% of a rock's composition.There is unique geochemical information stored in the variation of concentration of each trace element. Zn, Cd and Sr are a few examples of trace-elements.

    5. sublithospheric diamonds

      Identified by mineral inclusions consistent with being exposed to high pressures found at depths of more than 400 kilometers.

    6. Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb

      Strontium-Neodymium-Hafnium-Lead

    7. transition zone

      The area that separates the Earth's upper mantle from its lower mantle. The depth of this zone is usually between 410 to 660 kilometers beneath the Earth's surface.

    8. fluid inclusions

      Small quantities of gases or liquids that remain trapped inside minerals. These inclusions provide critical insights on the geological processes in the Earth's interior.

    9. superdeep

      At depths of more than 410 kilometers underneath the Earth's surface.

    10. He-Sr-Pb

      Helium-Strontium-Lead

    11. mantle

      A part of the Earth’s interior that lies between the dense, extremely hot core and the thin outer layer, known as the crust. It is made up of a thick rocky shell that constitutes 84% of Earth’s volume.

    12. reservoirs

      Refers to a mass of material that experiences a common set of chemical interactions. Reservoirs, in most cases, have distinct boundaries (e.g., an ocean).

    13. Isotope

      Chemical elements that have the same number of electrons and protons but a different number of neutrons are called isotopes. For example, both carbon-12 and carbon-14 have six electrons and six protons, but they have 12 and 14 neutrons, respectively. These isotopic differences change the atom's atomic mass and other chemical properties.

    1. VEGF

      A potent angiogenic factor. Usually more regulated in tumors.

    2. recombinant

      A cell whose genetic complement resulted from the combination of two different DNA strands (recombination)

    3. proangiogenic

      Promotes the formation of blood vessels

    4. 3D Voronoi lattice

      A lattice structure is a structure made of crisscross patterns of stripping. A 3D Voronoi lattice is used to help make objects lighter, but stronger.

    5. microvascularization

      formation of small blood vessels

    6. porcine

      relating to pigs

    7. arrhythmogenic disease

      Muscle tissue in the heart dies and is replaced with scar tissue. Leads to weakened blood flow and irregular heartbeats.

    8. electrophysiologic

      Electrical activity of the heart

    9. anisotropic

      Having a physical property that has different values when measured in different directions.

    10. α-actinin

      Needed for attachment of actin to Z-lines in skeletal muscle cells.

    11. hESC-CMs

      Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    12. lectin

      Carbohydrate-binding proteins that can be used for blood typing and used for biological recognition in cells.

    13. CD31-positive

      CD-31 is a protein that is involved in angiogenesis activation.

    14. fibronectin

      A glycoprotein that can be a major protein component of blood plasma.

    15. in vivo murine subcutaneous vascularization

      In Vivo: Performed or taking place in a living organism. Murine: Tests performed on rodents or mice. Subcutaneous: applied under the skin. Vascularization: Formation of blood vessels or process of becoming vascular.

      In vivo murine subcutaneous vascularization: Means the printed disks were placed under the skin of living rodents into their blood vessels.

    16. cell infiltration

      Migration of cells from their origin.

    17. angiogenesis

      The development of new blood vessels.

    18. perivascular

      Around a blood vessel.

    19. vessel lumens

      The inside space of the blood vessel.

    20. vasculature

      The arrangement of blood vessels in an organ or tissue.

    21. dextran perfusion

      Dextran is a polysaccharide glucan that is medically used to reduce blood viscosity.

    22. pulsatile perfusion

      Perfusion that moves through channels based on pulse.

    23. perfusion

      The passage of blood or fluids through blood vessels or other channels in an organ or tissue.

    24. perfusion

      The passage of blood or fluids through blood vessels or other channels in an organ or tissue.

    1. overtube

      An endoscopic overtube is a sleeve-like device designed for both upper and lower endoscopic procedures. During upper endoscopy it is designed to protect the hypopharynx from the trauma of repeated intubations, the airway from aspiration, and the esophagus during extraction of sharp foreign bodies.

    2. hydrolysis

      The chemical breakdown of of a compound due to its reaction in the presence of water.

    3. pharmacokinetics

      A branch of pharmacology concerned with the movement of drugs throughout the body.

    4. Bonferroni

      A statistical analysis test used to counteract false positive results within multiple comparisons. It is used when several independent or dependent tests are being performed simultaneously.

    5. levonorgestrel

      A synthetic steroid hormone that has similar effects on the body to progesterone and is often used in contraceptive pills.

    6. elastomeric

      An elastic substance occurring naturally or synthetically.

    7. poly(dimethylsiloxane)

      A silicon based organic polymer.

    8. poly(caprolactone)

      A polymer often used to improve a products processing characteristics, and its compatibility with other materials. It can be used to increase biodegradability, or used with a polymeric to plasticize a product.

    9. poly(lactide-co-glycolide)

      A copolymer which is widely accepted for biomedical applications due to its biocompatibility, biodegradation rate, approval for clinical use, potential modification properties, and export opportunities to cultures with unpopular use of animal- derived products.

    10. vivo

      in live being

    1. Carsioptychus

      Image of Carsioptychus coarctatus provided by HHMI Tangled Bank Studios shows a rendering of this ancient herbivorous mammal. https://durangoherald.com/articles/300859

    2. Puercan (Pu3) index

      This stage of the geologic timescale refers to the North American faunal stage. spanning from 66,000,000 to 63,300,000 years BP (Before Present).

    3. periptychid mammals

      Known only to exist in North America, these placental mammals are readily identified by their unique teeth.

    4. baenid turtles

      This is an extinct clade of turtles that appeared during the Jurassic and disappeared in the Eocene.

    5. hydroxyapatite

      The calcium compound that is the main inorganic component of tooth enamel and bones. It gives bones and teeth rigidity.

    6. Deccan Traps

      This is one of the largest volcanic areas on Earth. Its lava flows cover an area of about 500,00 square kilometers.

    7. Lancian mammal

      The Cretaceous land mammal stage dating from 70 Ma to 66 Ma.

    8. ecosystem equilibrium

      Population sizes are stable and remain within a sustainable range. They are in balance.

    9. lithostratigraphic log

      This is a graphic way to represent the succession of layers over time.

    10. dicotyledonous (dicot)

      This is one of the two groups angiosperms are traditionally divided into. A number of traits distinguish dicots from the other group, the monocotyledons (monocots). The seeds of dicots contain two embryonic seed leaves; monocots seeds contain one.

    11. biotic

      These are the living components of an ecosystem and includes the autotrophs, heterotrophs, and detritivores.

    12. “Earth system succession”

      This occurs when biotic and/or abiotic change results in the biosphere or geosphere becoming unbalanced. It provides a way to explain the ecological and evolutionary changes observed in the fossil record.

    13. co-evolution

      This occurs when two or more species affect the evolution of each other.

    14. ungulate Eoconodon coryphaeus

      This is an extinct species of hoofed, placental mammals. They are the largest known species of the genus.

    15. benthic foraminifera

      These are single-celled, bottom dwelling organisms that live on or within the carbonate-rich sediment surface. https://www.biointeractive.org/classroom-resources/foraminiferaearths-microscopic-recordkeepers

      https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/fosrec/Wetmore.html

    16. paleotemperature proxies

      Fossils/imprints from the past, referred to as proxies, can be used to determine what the paleoclimate was like. Examples of proxies are coral, pollen, and tree rings. These are analyzed and correlated with current climate conditions.

    17. Leaf mass per area (LMA)

      This is a morphological trait used as an indicator of the rates of photosynthesis and respiration. It is a way to link light capture to growth and carbon gain.

    18. speciose

      Many examples of members of the same genus are present. The area is species-rich.

    19. crevasse splay

      These are floodplain deposits made when the river broke through its natural flood banks. Heavier sediments are deposited closer to the river channel while lighter sediments, such as sand and silt, are deposited farther away from the channel.

    20. distal

      This is the outer regions of the floodplain.

    21. Ectoconus ditrigonus

      These were herbivorous mammals.

    22. chelydroid turtles

      These turtles are related to modern snapping turtles and have a similar morphology. They had large heads and a long tail.

    23. in situ

      The saplings are located in their original place.

    24. articulated

      A skeleton that is all in one piece with the bones arranged in the correct order.

    25. Leaf-estimated mean annual temperature

      The physical traits of leaves, their morphology, is used to estimate the temperature.

    26. morphospecies

      A taxonomic species based only on its physical (morphological) differences from related species.

    27. dicot

      Flowering plants that have two seed leaves, or cotyledons, in the seed embryo.

    28. juglandaceous

      Pollen produced by members of the walnut plant family.

    29. fluvial facies

      Units of sediments deposited by rivers that have similar characteristics based on bedding and texture.

    30. intercalated

      The interbedding of two distinctly different depositional environments.

    31. palynostratigraphic biozones

      The analysis of spores, pollen, and other particulate organic matter in sedimentary rock.

    32. Ma

      The Ma label is the abbreviation for mega annum and signifies time in millions of years.

    33. Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale

      Earth's north and south magnetic poles have reversed multiple times. Normal polarity occurs when the magnetic north points toward the geographic north pole. The reverse is the opposite. A record of the onset and duration of these reversals has been measured back to the Upper Jurassic.

    34. San Juan Basin
    35. outcrops

      This is an area where the underlying rocks are exposed.

    36. angiosperms

      These are plants that flower and fruit. They produce seeds enclosed within a female reproductive structure. It includes many non-woody plants, shrubs, and trees.

    37. crown birds

      This is a clade that includes all living bird species and their ancestors, back to the common ancestor and all of the ancestor's descendants that did not evolve to form modern species.

    38. placental mammals

      Members of this group of mammals carry the developing fetus in the uterus where the placenta facilitates the exchange of nutrients and wastes between the mother and the fetus.

    39. clades

      This is a grouping of organisms that includes a single common ancestor and all the species descending from that ancestor, both living and extinct.

    40. radiation

      The proliferation of species from a single ancestor and their diversification into ecologically different forms.

    41. terrestrial

      This refers to things related to the land as opposed to aquatic or marine.

    42. non-avian dinosaurs

      These are cold-blooded dinosaurs, not related to birds.

    43. Leguminosae

      This refers to a family of plants that have nodules on their roots that contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The bacteria transform atmospheric nitrogen gas into nitrogen compounds plants are able to use.

    44. megafloral

      This term refers to large plant species.

    45. concomitant

      The term means that the events occurred at the same time. The events are associated with each other.

    46. ka

      The ka label is the abbreviation for kilo annum and signifies time in thousands of years.

    47. niche

      This is how an organism fits into the ecosystem—the role it plays. It is how it interacts with other species in a biological community.

    48. taxonomic richness

      The number of different species represented in an ecological community. It is not a count of the number of members of each species, but of the diversity of species present.

    49. Cretaceous–Paleogene mass extinction (KPgE)

      The extinction of nearly three-quarters of all plant and animals species on Earth 66 million years ago.

    50. drivers

      Factors that cause an event or phenomenon to occur.

    51. elucidates

      A term used when something that was confusing is made clear.

    52. stratigraphic

      A sequence of beds of sedimentary rocks that can be followed over a large area.(https://www.biointeractive.org/classroom-resources/stratigraphic-principles)

    53. increased

      test

  3. Jan 2020
    1. nattention blindness or change blindness.

      people can often miss large changes in their visual fields if they are focused or distracted on something else.

    2. affordances.

      cues of what one should do with the objects.

    3. canonical perspective.

      a perspective slightly above looking down

    4. the fusiform face area (FFA) allows faces to bypass the brain’s usual interpretive channels and helps us identify them more quickly than objects. The FFA is also near the amygdala, the brain’s emotional center.

      i reaaalllly think i should be doing a glossary list.

  4. Nov 2019
    1. BALB/c

      A laboratory strain of mice useful for studying cancer and immunology.

    2. ibid.

      The latin word ibidem means in the same place. To save space, some authors use ibid. to refer to a reference from the same journal as the previous one.

    3. antigen transfer

      The process by which antigen-presenting cells uptake antigenic molecules from their surroundings, so that they may display them on their surface.

    4. antigen presentation

      The process of exposing T cells to molecular signatures of disease through displaying them on the surface of antigen-presenting cells.

    5. ex vivo

      Outside of the living organism. In ex vivo experiments, cells originate in an organism, are extracted and modified, and then can be reintroduced.

    6. APCs

      Antigen presenting cells. Specialized immune cells which allow T cells to be exposed to the antigens present in the body. This allows T cells to become activated so they can target those pathogens or diseased cells.

    7. in vivo

      Within a living organism (as opposed to in vitro, or in cells grown in the lab)

  5. Oct 2019
    1. Commingled and single-stream recycling

      Refers to the collection of recyclables including glass, paper, and plastic, all in the same recycling bin.

    2. solid waste management systems

      Refers to the range of garbage materials that are discarded as unwanted and useless. Landfills are often used as solid waste management systems.

    3. metric tons (MT)

      One metric ton is equal to 1,000 kilograms or 2,204.6 pounds. One black rhinoceros weights approximately one metric ton. Source: Wikimedia

    1. A/JCr mice

      Another laboratory strain of mice useful for studying cancer and immunology.

    2. wild-type

      Unmodified; that is, wild-type 51BLim10 cells do not have the extra genes which introduce B7 or the extra modifications which silence it.

    3. secondary challenge

      A second exposure to the same threat. The immune system is under certain conditions able to remember threats it has encountered before and react to them more quickly and effectively upon each subsequent exposure.

    4. murine

      Relating to or originating from mice.

    5. bivalent antibody

      An antibody able to bind two of its targets at once.

    6. Fab fragments

      The antigen-binding fragment of antibody, i.e the domain which binds specifically to the target of the antibody.

    7. proliferation and interleukin-2 production

      Two indicators of T cell activation. Once activated, T cells divide rapidly and produce a molecule called interleukin-2.

    8. In vitro

      "In the glass," that is, experiments done in test tubes, not in organisms.

    9. homolog

      A related protein, usually with very similar sequence and structure.

    10. transfected

      A technique by which the genes in a cell are modified.

    11. B7 family of costimulatory molecules

      A family of binders to CD28. The two most important members are B7-1 and B7-2, mentioned below.

    12. antigenic peptide bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC)

      The target for T cell receptors is always a short peptide displayed on the surface of the cells. The protein responsible for displaying the peptides is called the major histocompatibility complex.

    13. T cell receptor

      The receptor used by T cells to recognize specific antigens.

    14. antigens

      Molecules recognized by the immune system; signatures of disease.

    15. CTLA-4

      Another receptor on the surface of T cells, with an opposite effect compared to CD28. Binding to CTLA-4 causes damping of T cell activation.

    16. T cells

      White blood cells central to adaptive immunity. T cells are able to recognize if cells are diseased and can kill them so they don't spread throughout the body.

    17. CD28-mediated costimulation

      To become fully activated, T cells need to receive a signal through the CD28 receptor on their surface.

    18. immunogenicity

      The ability of the immune system to recognize diseased or foreign cells.

    1. seismic tomography

      This is an imaging technique that uses seismic waves generated by earthquakes and explosions to create computer-generated, three-dimensional images of Earth's interior. More information on how this technique works can be found here : https://www.iris.edu/hq/inclass/downloads/optional/269

    2. pelagic sediments

      These are very fine-grained particles which gradually accumulate on the ocean floor over time. These deposits comprise of both inorganic (by products of volcanic activities) and organic (marine plants and animals) matters.

    3. mid–ocean ridge basalts

      The mid-ocean ridge is one of the largest chain of volcanic mountains on Earth, with 90% of the mountains submerged underneath the ocean. A type of basaltic rock originating from volcanic eruptions in this region is known as mid-ocean ridge basalt.

    4. ocean island basalts

      Basalt is a type of igneous rocks which comprises 90% of all volcanic rocks. When these basalts are formed as a result of volcanic activities inside the ocean and away from the tectonic plate junctions, they are known as ocean island basalts.

    5. radiogenic 4He

      A radiogenic isotope is formed by the process of radioactive decay. For instance, in this case, the stable isotope helium-4 is generated from the decay of a radioactive helium-4 nucleus.

    6. slab subduction

      A slab is a part of the tectonic plate which undergoes subduction. Subduction is a geological phenomenon occurring at the junction between two tectonic plates. This involves pushing one plate below the other, so much so that the sinking plate protrudes into the Earth’s mantle.

    7. primordial undegassed reservoir

      Ancient reservoir in Earth's interior, composed of trapped gases that have not been removed.

  6. Sep 2019
    1. Electron energy-loss spectra (EELS)

      A characterization technique used to study the structural and chemical properties of a material.

    2. sp3/sp2 bonded carbon

      Hybridization is the combining or mixing up of atomic orbitals (an expected region of electron density around an atom) to form new hybrid orbitals that have geometries suitable to form bonds. Electrons can be found in s, p, d, and f orbitals. When an s orbital combines with three p orbitals, it results in four sp<sup>3</sup> hybridized orbitals. Similarly, the combination of an s orbital with two p orbitals gives rise to three sp<sup>2</sup> hybrid orbitals.

      Learn more about hybrid orbitals with these videos from Khan Academy.

    3. graphene

      The building block of graphite, which is used in pencil tips. Graphene is a one-atom-thick layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice (with atoms arranged at the corners of a hexagon). The thickness of graphene is a million times less than that of a single human hair. Graphene is the world's first 2D material and the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded for its discovery.

       Source: Wikimedia

    4. crystalline materials

      A crystal is a 3D periodic array of atoms. Materials with regularly ordered arrays of components are termed crystalline materials.