5,169 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2024
    1. radical bromination
    2. benzylic C–H bond
    3. stereogenic center,
    4. methylene
    5. methine
    6. metallaphotoredox conditions
    7. amination
    8. halogenation
    9. oxidation
    10. axial C–H
    11. equatorial C–H bond
    12. furans
    13. halogenation
    14. arylation
    15. equatorial position
    16. homologation
    17. vinylation
    18. diastereoselective
    19. Suzuki coupling conditions
    20. aryl ring
    21. catalysts
    22. enzymes
    23. hydride
    24. secondary or tertiary C–H bonds
    25. alkyl radical
    26. alpha
    27. carbene
    28. carbocation intermediates.
    29. primary C–H bonds
    30. functional groups
    31. sterically hindered
    32. alkylboronates
    33. tertiary
    34. carbocycles
    35. ligand
    36. secondary,
    37. distal positions
    38. positioned beta to the heteroatom
    39. allylic
    40. cycloalkanes
    41. inert solvent
    42. limiting reagent
    43. benzylic
    44. heteroatom
    45. dodecane
    46. alkylboronate units
    47. cyclooctane
    48. cyclohexane
    49. first-order process
    50. carbamate
    51. linear alkane
    52. disproportionates
    53. imide
    54. steric hindrance
    55. ketal
    56. amine
    57. electron-withdrawing group
    58. meta C–H bond
    59. acetal
    60. ω-position
    61. ligated
    62. 1,4-Diisopropyl benzene
    63. N-Propyl and N-octyl aliphatic imides
    64. limiting reagent
    65. ketal
    66. solvent
    67. Alkylarenes
    68. substrate
    69. borylation
  2. May 2024
    1. for - Brehon Laws - of early Ireland - etymology - glossary - reading between the lines - adjacency - Brehon Laws - Indyweb - reading between the lines - glossary

      adjacency - between - Brehon Laws - Indyweb - reading between the lines - etymology - glossary - adjacency relationship - Brehon Laws of early Ireland emerged from the people themselves over many generations - and were not imposed by some authority - For a long time, these laws were orally transmitted and memorized - When writing emerged, the style of writing used by the early Irish was to write with many gaps in between written verses of text - for the purpose of readers to be able to be writers and contribute to the text with their own perspectives - In other words, they were early annotators! - The etymology of the world glossary comes from "gloss" from the practice of writing meaning between the lines - "Glosses were common in the Middle Ages, usually rendering Hebrew, Greek, or Latin words into vernacular Germanic, Celtic, or Romanic. Originally written between the lines, later in the margins." ( https://www.etymonline.com/word/glossary)

      source - Zoom meeting this evening with Paul and Trace, as Paul introduced from his understanding of his Irish roots

  3. Apr 2024
    1. spatiotemporally

      Referring to a targeted space over a period of time. In the context of the study, it emphasizes the importance of both the timing and location of nerve cooling for managing neuropathic pain.

    2. spared nerve injury (SNI)

      Spared nerve injury is a type of nerve injury model used in research to simulate neuropathic pain conditions. Two of the three sciatic nerves are specifically targeted and injured (peroneal and tibial nerves), while the third nerve, the sural nerve, remains intact. This allows researchers to study neuropathic pain mechanisms and test potential treatments in animals.

    3. compound nerve action potential (CNAP)

      Combined electrical activity generated by a group of nerve fibers when they are stimulated together.

    4. thermocline

      Describes the sharp temperature contrast between the actively cooled regions of the cuff, which directly contact the nerve tissue, and the passive regions that do not. This indicates effective localized cooling, with the actively cooled areas being significantly cooler than the passive ones.

    5. contralateral side

      Other or opposite side of the body.

    6. Mechanical nociceptive sensitivity tests

      Tests simulated to study the animal's mechanical responses of the nervous system from painful stimuli.

    7. homogeneous nucleation

      It refers to the uniform formation of vapor bubbles within the liquid form of PFP, leading to the phase transition from liquid to vapor.

    8. propellant in pressurized metered-dose inhalers

      PFP is used as the gas phase that helps to spray the medication out of the inhaler when it is pressed.

    1. cell morphologies

      Refers to the shape, structure, form and size of a bacterial cell. Here it is important for the function and behavior of a bacterial cell, as it affects how they grow, reproduce, obtain nutrients, and move.

    2. microchemostat

      A microchemostat is a type of bioreactor that maintains a continuous culture of microorganisms under controlled conditions. This was used throughout the experiment and allowed the authors to study the microbial populations and their dynamics in a controlled environment.

    3. sterile medium

      Sterile medium is a growth medium which is free of all life forms. This was used to measure cell growth from zero cell growth.

  4. Mar 2024
    1. biofilm formation

      Biofilm formation is the process by which microorganisms attach to a surface and create a community. Here, bacterial cell is transition from planktonic (free-swimming) to the biofilm mode of growth, using innovative microfluidic techniques.

    2. mutation rate

      Mutation rate is defined as the frequency of new mutations occurring in a single gene of bacteria over time. Here, mutation rates influence bacterial responses to challenges, including host immune defenses and antibiotic treatments.

    3. dilution rates

      The dilution rate represents the flow of medium per unit of time over the volume of culture in the bioreactor. Here, it is a key controlling factor that determines the concentration of nutrients in the culture medium.

    4. synthetic promoter

      Synthetic promoters act as genetic switches, allowing precise manipulation of bacterial behavior through of control gene expression. Here, the authors used synthetic promoters to build a population-control circuit in bacteria, enabling precise regulation of cell density through quorum sensing mechanisms.

    5. intercellular phenotypical variability

      The variability in observable characteristics among individual bacterial cells that contribute to the overall regulation and behavior of the bacterial population.

    6. lysis buffer

      A lysis buffer is a solution used to break open bacterial cells and release their contents, particularly for extracting genetic material for various laboratory analyses. Here, they use it to get rid of all cells within the segment.

    7. wash-out,

      In a chemostat, fresh medium periodically replaces a portion of the bacterial culture, removing some bacteria. However, if biofilms develop, they protect bacteria from washout, leading to domination of the culture by biofilm-derived bacteria over time.

    8. sustained oscillations

      Sustained oscillations is a phenomenon where bacterial populations exhibit repetitive fluctuations in their growth rate over time. Understanding sustained oscillations in bacterial populations helps authors/researchers to connect morphology of individual cells to population-level changes.

    9. Escherichia coli

      AKA E. Coli. A species of bacteria that is commonly used in research due to its well-studied genetics and ease of cultivation.

    10. synthetic circuit

      Synthetic circuit is engineered genetic circuits to manipulate bacterial populations. These circuits enable cells to perform specific functions, sense their environment, regulate gene expression, and coordinate with other cells.

    1. therapeutic hypothermia

      Medical treatment that cools the body temperature of a patient for a specific period of time. It is used in certain types of brain injury to help reduce the risk of brain damage.

    2. thermocouple

      A sensor for measuring temperature.

    3. sutures

      Surgical stitches that close and hold a wound together while it heals

    4. elastomeric

      Characteristic of a material that has elastic properties and can reform original shape after removing applied forces.

    5. nerve grafts

      Transplant of nerve tissue to help repair damaged nerves.

    6. temporal

      Referring to time or timing of events.

  5. Feb 2024
    1. macroscale experiments

      Refers to a large-scale or bulk experiment conducted to study the long-term dynamics of bacterial populations that are undergoing programmed population control in a microchemostat.

    2. peristaltic pump

      A peristaltic pump can be used to transfer liquids, such as nutrients, media, or other fluids into the bioreactor vessel without exposing the fluid to the pump components. This approach is essential for preserving a sterile and controlled environment, which is crucial for the biological processes taking place within the bioreactor.

    3. progeny

      The offspring or descendants produced by bacterial cells through the process of reproduction.

    4. Microbial biofilms

      A microbial biofilm is a complex and organized community of bacteria that adhere to a surface and are surrounded by a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances.

    5. quorum sensing

      A process of cell–cell communication that allows bacteria to share information about cell density and adjust gene expression accordingly.

    6. bacto-tryptone

      Bacterial growth medium which provides the necessary nutrients for the cultivation of bacteria in laboratory conditions, facilitating their growth and enabling researchers to conduct experiments.

    7. chemostat

      Chemostats are continuously operated bioreactors where growing cells reach a steady state condition at which specific growth rate, as well as biomass, substrate and the product concentrations remain constant.

    8. microfluidic bioreactor

      A microfluidic bioreactor is a device designed for the cultivation and study of bacteria cells in a controlled and tiny fluidic environment. It allows researchers to studying cellular behavior in conditions that closely mimic the natural environment.

    1. spinal decompression surgeries

      Surgery that is performed on the spine to relieve compressed nerves and reduce pressure on the spine and nerves. More space is created through this surgery to allow better movement of the nerves and help relieve pain.

    2. postoperative acute pain

      Pain that is experienced immediately after surgery and can last up to a week.

    3. local analgesia

      Loss of sensitivity to pain in a specified area.

    4. peripheral nerve

      This refers to any nerve in the peripheral nervous system, which is comprised of the nerves in the body that branch out from the brain and spinal cord.

    5. nonopioid

      Meaning the drug or substance is not an opioid and contains no opioids.

    6. opiate

      Type of opioid that contains natural substances extracted from poppy plants. They are referred to as the natural opioids.

    7. opioids

      These are a class of drugs prescribed to treat severe pain.

    8. invasive

      Relating to medical procedures that involve cutting into the body and doing procedures typically deeper than surface level.

    9. bioresorbable

      The capability of being absorbed or degraded into the body over time after it has been implanted.

    10. Implantable

      Referring to an item that can be surgically put into and function within the body.

    11. analgesics

      A term referring to drugs that are used to relieve pain.

  6. Dec 2023
    1. Glossary of some important musical terms
  7. Nov 2023
  8. May 2023
    1. ubiquitin-like protein Atg8

      Atg8 protein is a marker protein to observe autophagosome formation. When Atg8 protein engineered with the red florescence protein (RFP), RFP-Atg8, RFP-Atg8 protein will be conjugated to the lipids and enable the membrane fusion to localize on the autophagosome.

    2. vacuolar protease Pep4

      Pep4, a vacuolar protease required for function of multiple hydrolases, is required for autophagic cargo degradation

    3. There are two major types of autophagy pathways, bulk and selective

      Bulk autophagy also called non-selective macroautophagy. During bulk autophagy, autophagosomes fuse with lysosomes or vacuoles resulting in the degradation of the cargo.

      While during selective autophagy, the cargo is distinguished (mitochondria, ER, ribosomes, peroxisomes and etc.) and recognized by specific cargo receptors, or selective autophagy receptors, to connect with the autophagosome for degradation.

      Here are two videos for more an explanation: 1) The mechanism of autophagy: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gc9gx33GvF0&t=2s

      2) Self-Eating Cell Research Wins Nobel in Medicine: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ws0mOmfC9EU

    4. ER-associated degradation (ERAD)

      Misfolded protein are retained in the ER and subjected for proteosomal degradation which occurs in the cytosol.

      Learning from the youtube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fEEbyYjXNUU&t=1s

    5. unfolded protein response (UPR)

      When newly synthesized protein is not properly folded into their correct orientation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the ER now is under the stress to degrade the misfolded protein. To degrade the misfolded proteins and maintain the ER homeostasis, the cellular signaling will turn on the unfolded protein response to help the cell deals with problematic proteins for recycle and degradation.

      Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vy4m-fUOn9o

    6. isoforms

      Genes are commonly generate isoforms from the same locus to produce different mRNA and thus give rise to different length of amino acid with similar protein functions.

    7. mammalian homolog, SEC24C

      Lst1 and SEC24C, are homologous gene in yeast and mammalian respectively. The protein or DNA sequence of these genes, Lst1 and SEC24C, are highly similar and evolutionary share the common ancestor, termed as homolog.

    8. endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

      ER is a transportation system of the eukaryotic cell composed of network of tubules and sheet-like area adjacent with the nuclear envelope and stretches out to the cell periphery.

      Learning corner with video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gc9gx33GvF0&t=2s glossary

  9. Apr 2023
    1. extracellular matrix (ECM)

      A series of interconnected protein and carbohydrate networks that surround and support cells in 3 dimensions. The ECM is also a highway of biological signals for cells, often carrying the information needed to begin cell differentiation

    2. inflammatory responses

      Immune response when tissues react to foreign materials (like silica) and become damaged and swollen

    3. (TNF-α),

      Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), is an inflammatory cytokine produced by macrophages/monocytes during acute inflammation and is responsible for a diverse range of signalling events within cells. When a person sustains an injury or experiences bacterial or viral infections, TNF-aplha creates inflammation to protect the area and allow it to heal. TNF alpha does this by triggering the production of several immune system molecules.

    4. ECM (fibronectin or collagen)

      ECM refers to Extracellular Matrix, connective tissues used for (but not limited to) anchoring cells. Here, the authors used Fibronectin ( that helps connect cells to the ECM) and Collagen (that is the main structural proteins in connective tissue) to help culture cells on both sides of the thin polymeric membrane.

    5. neutrophils

      The most common type of white blood cell in humans (40-70%), whose function varies between animal to animal. In humans they are the first responders to combat the intruder while signaling to other immune cells for more help.

    6. reactive oxygen species (ROS)

      An unstable molecule containing oxygen that easily reacts to other cell molecules and can be toxic.

    7. quantum dots

      Nanoscopic fluorescent particles used to track and quantify membrane stretching

    1. retrotranslocates

      To cause, or to undergo retrotranslocation.

      Retrotranslocation is the reverse process of translocation.

      Translocation is a transfer of a chromosomal segment to a new position, especially on a nonhomologous chromosome; the segment so transferred.

    2. vesicles

      Vesicles are compartments formed by a lipid bilayer separating its contents from the cytoplasm or a fluid-based extracellular environment. They can contain either liquids or gases and have a wide range of functions in cells across the living world from regulating buoyancy to secreting hormones.

      The word ‘vesicle’ derives from the Latin word vesicula meaning ‘small bladder’

    1. demure

      "Demure" means reserved, modest, and shy.

    2. ensnared

      "Ensnared" means trapped. Here, Prose writes that because the concept of "beauty" is so complex and difficult to define, many academics and artists agree not to use the word. I think one could also argue that the word's meaning is so vast and overarching that it has little to no communicative value. What is yall's opinion on the word "beauty"? Do you think it can be adequately defined? If so, how would you define it?

  10. Mar 2023
    1. ICAM-1)

      ICAM-1 is a special glycoprotein found on the surface of endothelial cells. ICAM-1 directly contributes to inflammatory responses within the blood vessel wall by increasing endothelial cell activation. ICAM-1 basically calls the immune cells to the rescue!

    2. inspiration

      drawing in breath/ breathing in

    3. blood-borne immune cells

      White blood cells that help you fight infections when exposed to a sickness. Helper T cells that recognize pathogens and help organize the immune response, neutrophils that chew up bacteria, and monocytes (macrophages) that recycle old cells and engulf pathogens are some examples

    4. barrier integrity

      Referring to the ability of the alveolar cell monolayers to selectively accept/retain nutrients and reject/eject wastes in the lungs

    5. cyclic stretching

      Referring to the mimicked inhaling and exhaling of the lungs over long periods of time. The human lungs experience 672,768,000+ breaths in a lifetime and can regenerate themselves as you age. The lung-on-a-chip must be able to handle the tissue stretching associated with normal breathing if it is to be considered a true "biomimicked lung device"

    6. silica nanoparticles

      Small particles of silicon dioxide, which when inhaled can cause pulmonary damage and even lung cancer

    7. unidirectional mechanical strain

      Deformation of a body caused by an outside force in one direction.

    1. ubiquitin-like protein Atg8

      Atg8 protein is a marker protein to observe autophagosome formation. When Atg8 protein engineered with the red florescence protein (RFP), RFP-Atg8, RFP-Atg8 protein will be conjugated to the lipids and enable the membrane fusion to localize on the autophagosome.

    2. green fluorescent protein (GFP)–autophagy-related protein 8 (Atg8)

      In short, GFP-ATG8. GFP is a protein in the jellyfish Aequorea Victori that exhibits bright green fluorescence when excited at a wavelength of 488nm and has an emission peak at about 507nm ( blue to ultraviolet range).

      GFP is served as biological marker for monitoring physiological processes, visualizing protein localization, and detecting transgenic expression.

      GFP consists of 238 amino acid with 27 kilo Dalton of the protein size. When ATG8 fused to GFP (GFP-ATG8), the ATG8 here as a protein of interest (ATG8 is a ubiquitin-like protein required for the formation of autophagosomal membranes) to carry the GFP which used as a reporter and exhibit green signal.

      GFP-ATG8 will serve as a protein visualized marker gene which localized on the double membrane vesicle, the autophosome.

    3. vesicles

      Bubble-shape like membrane bound transport vesicles that are made from the reticulum endoplasmic (ER) membrane, functions to carry the proteins (wanted or unwanted) and move from ER to Golgi apparatus before going to their destination, which is lysosome, peroxisomes or vacuole for degradation or recycle.

    4. Here, refer to bubble-shaped membrane-bound transport vesicle that buddling from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, functions to transport proteins from ER and fuse to golgi apparatus.

  11. Feb 2023
    1. hormone

      A hormone is a chemical produced by organisms to regulate activities such as growth, development and resposes to the environment.

    2. computed tomography

      Computed tomography is a technique that uses X-ray and computational tools to generate images.

    3. transcription factor

      A transcription factor is a protein that facilitates transcription, a process that makes RNA from DNA.

    4. oseil1

      This is a type of rice plant in which EIL1 (EIN3-like 1) gene is not functional.

    5. osein2

      "Os" represents Oryza sativa, which is the name for rice in a scientific naming system.

      This is a type of rice plant in which EIN2 (ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2) gene is not functional.

    6. cortical cell

      Cortical cell is a layer of cells lying underneath the epidermal cells.

    7. epidermal cell

      Epidermal cells are the cells on the surface of plants.

    8. anatomical analysis

      Anatomy is a branch of biology focusing on the structure of organisms or a certain part of organisms.

      Anatomical analysis is the analysis in such field. Here, the authors focus on the stucture of root cells.

    9. phenocopied

      Phenocopy means the plants grown under a certain condition have similar characteristics to the plants grown under a different condition.

    10. RAP2.12-GFP

      RAP2.12 (RELATED TO AP2 12) is a protein, of which the level increases when plants are under hypoxia condition. RAP2.12-GFP is a protein made by fusing RAP2.12 protein with GFP and is used to indicate whether hypoxia response is triggered in plants.

    11. pPCO2:GFP-GUS

      This is a GFP-based reporter indicating whether hypoxia response is activated in plants. The presence of green signals in roots means hypoxia response is activated.

    12. pPCO1:GFP-GUS

      pPCO1 means the promoter region of the gene PCO1 (PLANT CYSTEINE OXIDASE 1), which is required to turn PCO1 on. PCO1 gene is turned on under hypoxia condition, which is a indicator of hypoxia response in plants.

      Here, pPCO1 is fused with DNA sequences encodes GFP and GUS. Under hypoxia condition, pPCO1 turns on the production of GFP so scientists can determine if hypoxia response is activated in plants by visualizing GFP.

    13. hypoxia

      Hypoxia means a condition with not enough oxygen.

    14. root elongation zone

      Root elongation zone is a zone of roots where root cells are expanding.

    15. EIN3-GFP (green fluorescent protein)

      Green fluorescent protein is a protein that emits green light after absorbing light at a different wavelength. EIN3 (Ethylene-insensitive 3) is a protein, of which the level increases when plants' response to ethylene is triggered. EIN3-GFP is a protein made by fusing EIN3 protein with GFP and is used to indicate whether ethylene response is triggered in plants.

    16. bulk density (BD)

      Bulk density indicates the degree of soil compaction. it is calculated as the dry weight of soil per unit soil volume. The soil volume includes the volume of soil particles and the volume of soil pore space among particles.

    17. rhizosphere

      Rhizosphere is defined as the section of of soil surrounding plant roots, which contains chemicals released from plant roots and a population of microorganisms.

    18. wild-type

      Wild-type refers to individuals of a species that are in the typical form of that species and occur in nature.

    19. Arabidopsis

      Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is a plant species that is widely used as a model organism in plant research.

    20. mutant

      Mutants refer to individual organisms of a certain species that are considered "abnormal" when compared to normal individuals of the same species that occur in nature. Usually, in a mutant, at least one gene is artificially disrupted and does not function normally. Mutants are powerful tools to study the function of a gene.

    21. ethylene

      Ethylene is a gaseous plant hormone that regulates many plant activities such as fruit ripening, leaf development, responses to environmental stresses etc.

    1. phagocytosis

      The process where a cell engulfs a smaller particle (bacteria, smaller cells, etc) where it is trapped and subsequently defused.

    2. intrapleural pressure

      Pressure associated within the pleural cavity, the space enclosed by the pleura, which is a thin layer of tissue that covers the lungs and lines the interior wall of the chest cavity.

    3. nanotoxicology

      the study of adverse health effects of nanoscale (with sizes on the order of 10^-9 meters) particles.

    4. alveolar-capillary interface

      where exchange of gasses such as oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs between the tiny air sacs in lung (alveolus) and capillaries.

    5. microdevice

      A very small device, whose dimensions are on the micro scale (under 1mm). Often referenced in the context of biomechanical-electric system (bioMEM)

    6. cyclic mechanical strain

      The human body has lots of moving internal parts. Repeated and regular contractions caused by the movement of food through the intestines puts pressure on surrounding tissues. Another example is the human lungs expanding and contracting during breathing.

    7. translocation

      The movement of something (nanoparticles) from one place (alveolar) to another (capillary).

    8. pathogens

      A "germ", bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease.

    9. soft lithography

      A molding technique that involves casting materials like PDMS into channels or chambers. This technique is used in microdevice fabrication because it is cost-effective and relatively simple to perform.

    10. endothelium

      Your endothelium consists of a single layer of cells, called endothelial cells, which line all your blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. These include your: Arteries, Veins, Capillaries, and Lymph capillaries. Your endothelium provides a space for your blood and tissues to interact.

    11. physiological

      Refers to the physical actions of normal bodily processes.

    12. epithelium

      The epithelium is a type of body tissue that forms the covering on all internal and external surfaces of your body, lines body cavities and hollow organs and is the major tissue in glands. Epithelial tissue has a variety of functions depending on where it's located in your body, including protection, secretion and absorption.

    13. alveoli

      Tiny sacs where the lungs and the blood exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide during the process of breathing in and out. Each sac is lined with cells that allow gases to diffuse in and out of the lung.

    14. vascular conduits

      Blood vessels like veins and arteries

    15. confluence

      Having enough cells grown on a surface to cover the entire area. Here, air is introduced to the lung microchip once there is enough cells to cover the entire membrane surface area.

    16. poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)

      Polydimethylsiloxane, called PDMS or dimethicone, is a polymer widely used for the fabrication and prototyping of microfluidic chips. PDMS is the most widely used silicon-based organic polymer, as its versatility and properties lead to many applications.

  12. Jan 2023
    1. microvascular endothelium

      The sheet of cells covering the inner lining of the smallest vessels in the vascular system.

    2. peristalsis

      Involuntary contraction or relaxation in a muscular canal (such as intestines) causing wave-like movements.

    3. parenchymal

      Tissue that conducts the function of the organ

    4. spatiotemporal

      Having qualities in both space and time

    5. cytokines

      small molecules secreted by cells in the immune system that also have an effect on other cells

    6. organ-on-a-chip

      Microdevices that mimics a specific organ or tissue

  13. Dec 2022
    1. There are two major types of autophagy pathways, bulk and selective

      Bulk autophagy also called non-selective macroautophagy. During bulk autophagy, autophagosomes fuse with lysosomes or vacuoles resulting in the degradation of the cargo.

      While during selective autophagy, the cargo is distinguished (mitochondria, ER, ribosomes, peroxisomes and etc.) and recognized by specific cargo receptors, or selective autophagy receptors, to connect with the autophagosome for degradation.

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gc9gx33GvF0&t=2s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ws0mOmfC9EU

    2. vacuolar protease Pep4

      Pep4, a vacuolar protease required for function of multiple hydrolases, is required for autophagic cargo degradation

    1. reconstituted nuclei

      Used here to refer to the sperm chromatin added to the extract

    2. amplitude

      The maximum amount of distance a wave can travel from its rest position