46 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. levonorgestrel-releasing gastric resident dosage form

      A smart pill that stays in the stomach during release of a drug (levonorgestrel) which prevents pregnancy.

    2. We detected drug in serum up to 29 days after administration of long-acting formulation–2, when the average serum concentration was 13 ± 2 pg/ml (n = 3).

      Annotate as Conclusions. Use similar language to explain the results in Fig. 2B. You should also compare the results with Fig. 2B. E.g. Formulation 1 resulted in drug concentrations which fluctuated over the 30-day period whereas Formulation 2 lead to steady decrease in drug concentration over the same period.

    3. To address the issue of gastric residence, we chose materials and geometries that were highly durable and evaluated their performance using a series of mechanical tests.

      Annotate as Conclusions. This explains how authors developed a solution for the first problem listed above.

    4. The dosage forms were retained in the stomach for the entirety of the experiment.

      Annotate as Conclusions

    5. A series of x-rays for the three animals treated with long-acting formulation–2 are shown in Fig. 2D.

      Annotate as AuthorsExperiments

    6. The serum concentration of levonorgestrel in pigs treated with Levora tablets is shown in Fig. 2A.

      Annotate as AuthorsExperiments, and briefly explain the work and results in Fig. 2A.

    7. Twenty-four hours after dosing, the average concentration fell to 16% of the maximum concentration (32 ± 6 pg/ml, n = 5), and by 48 hours, the average concentration was reduced to 5 ± 4 pg/ml (n = 5).

      Annotate as conclusions. Mention that the tablets provide protection for only a day or so.

    8. Hence, the rate of drug release could be modified by altering the drug loading and the type of polymer.

      Annotate under Learning Standards. "Inferring results from experiments"

    9. We then synthesized poly(sebacic anhydride) and PDMS matrices loaded with increasing amounts of levonorgestrel and analyzed drug release in vitro (Fig. 1, F and G). Drug release occurred at a near-constant rate from both matrices, and it was affected by the type of polymer matrix and amount of drug loaded.

      Annotate as Conclusions

    10. Poly(sebacic anhydride)

      Annotate as Glossary: A biodegradable polymer substance used in drug delivery applications

    11. We then tested the stability of the interface between the material used to make the central elastomer (Elastollan 1185A10) and the arms of the dosage form (Sorona 3015G NC010) using a cyclic cantilever test. Over a 3-week period, there was progressive weakening of the interface (Fig. 1D).

      Annotate as AuthorsExperiments

    12. We analyzed the stability of levonorgestrel in SGF for 24 hours and observed no significant degradation (96.3 ± 4.3 μg/ml, n = 5 versus 90.4 ± 9.6 μg/ml, n = 5; P = 0.122, Student’s t test) (Fig. 1E).

      Annotate as Conclusions

    13. patient adherence

      Annotate as glossary

    14. Daily oral pills are favored by a sizeable fraction of the population (16–19), possibly because of their ease of use, opportunity for self-administration, and rapid resumption of fertility upon discontinuation.

      Annotate as News and Policy. Find a news article about this.

    15. microneedles are also being developed as a pain-free means of administering long-term contraceptives

      Annotate as previous work.

    16. In situ–forming drug depots that are made by injecting drug, polymer, and a safe organic solvent have also been described

      Annotate as previous work.

    17. hormonal contraception

      methods of birth control which impacts hormones related to pregnancy

    1. The decrease in cross-sectional area of the interior chamber during peak systole showed a maximum of ~5% at 1-Hz pacing (N = 4) (Fig. 3M

      Annotate as Conclusions

    2. The ventricles had a baseline spontaneous beat rate of ~0.5 Hz and could be captured and paced at 1 and 2 Hz by means of field stimulation (Fig. 3J).

      Annotate as Conclusions

    3. ​​​​​​​Fig. 3

      Combine the tabs: A,B,C - one tab D,E,F,G - one tab H,I - one tab J- one tab K,L,M - one tab

    4. Calcium imaging revealed contracting hESC-CMs throughout the entire printed ventricles, with directional wave propagation in the direction of the printed hESC-CMs observed from the side (Fig. 3, D and E) and top (Fig. 3, F and G) during spontaneous contractions in multiple ventricles (N = 3) (movie S6).

      Annotate under Conclusions

    5. The solid-cast collagen showed minimal cell infiltration (Fig. 2J), whereas the printed collagen had exte

      Highlight starting from this sentence till the end of the paragraph, and annotate the entire section (Fig. 2J-L) under Authors' Experiments

    6. cell-laden hydrogels

      Annotate as Glossary

    7. Fig. 1

      Combine the figure tabs to obtain 4-5 final tabs: You can group as: A,B - One tab C, D, E, F - One tab G - One tab H,I,J - One tab

  2. Mar 2020
    1. FRESH works by extruding bio-inks within a thermoreversible support bath

      As stated previously, the FRESH method uses a supporting gel that contains tiny particles to support the bio-inks (such as collagen) as they are printed. The gel is thermoreversible which means its properties can be changed with heat.

    2. ​​​​​​​Fig. 2

      Create five tabs. You can combine the current ones.

      One for A through F (A-F), One for G, One for H through L, One for M through P, One for Q and R

    3. Collagen disks that were FRESH-printed with VEGF and extracted after 10 days in vivo showed enhanced vascularization relative to cast controls

      Annotate the sentence under Conclusions

    4. To promote vascularization

      Remove all other annotations in the sentence, and annotate entire sentence under PreviousWork. Fibronectin and VEGF helps formation of new blood vessels (vascularization).

    5. a challenge for extrusion-based 3D bioprinting

      Add an annotation under Connect to Learning Standards.

    6. patent and manifold

      unobstructed (open inside allowing for fluid flow) and has several outlets to be connected to other tubes/pipes.

    7. fidelity

      Reproducibility of features (size and shape) with 3-D printing

    8. Researchers have used approaches

      Remove all the tags in this sentence and enter annotation under the "PreviousWork". Briefly explain work listed in the references.

    9. extracellular matrix

      A network of biological materials surrounding cells throughout the body for protection and support.

    10. microvascularization

      formation of small blood vessels

    11. resolution

      Smallest feature that can be written by 3-D printers.

    12. decellularized

      cells removed

    13. Cardiac ventricles printed with human cardiomyocytes showed synchronized contractions, directional action potential propagation, and wall thickening up to 14% during peak systole.

      Explain as Results and Conclusion. Emphasize the significance of the results in terms of achieving biomimetic heart components using 3-D printing. Make sure to explain terms like cardiac ventricles cardiomyocytes and peak systole.

    14. micro–computed tomography

      Explain as a glossary item.

    15. cellular infiltration

      Explain as a glossary item. Cell infiltration is the ability of cells to occupy the porous structure in the hydrogel to create a tissue-like structure.

    16. pH-driven gelation

      Explain as a glossary item. Briefly explain hydrogels and how they resemble tissues in the body. Then, explain how you can create such as gel using a pH-driven process.

    17. tri-leaflet valves

      Explain as a glossary item. Heart valves have three leaflets. Mention this in the explanation.

    18. We present a method to 3D-bioprint collagen using freeform reversible embedding of suspended hydrogels (FRESH) to engineer components of the human heart at various scales, from capillaries to the full organ.

      Explain as Results and Conclusions. This is the key message of the paper. Explain the technology in laymen's terms.

    1. ANOVA

      Explain as you did for Bonferroni test

    2. Hence, the impact of female contraceptives on global good cannot be underestimated.

      Find news and policy link on this.

    3. oral contraceptives

      A drug or device used to prevent pregnancy taken as a pill by mouth.

    4. in vivo

      in live being