4,051 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. niche broadening

      A niche is an organism's role in its ecosystem, describing how it utilizes the resources and interacts with living and nonliving factors of its environment.

      Niche broadening is when a species expands its roles in its habitat, as a tool for survival.

    2. interaction release

      In response to lack of food and increased populations, animals broaden the scope of species they interact with beyond their original interactions.

    3. frugivores

      An animal that eats primarily fruit

    4. interaction dissimilarity

      When the behavior between species in one area differs from the behaviors between species in another location.

    5. introduced species

      Plants or animals not originally from that area

    6. novel interactions

      A new relationship or pattern of behavior between plants and animals.

    7. seed dispersal

      The distribution or spreading of seeds throughout an area

    1. chlorisondamine

      A drug that blocks the binding of acetylcholine to its nicotinic receptors.

    2. neurogenesis

      Formation of new neurons.

    3. neosynaptogenesis

      Neo- meaning new, synaptogenesis referring to the formation of connections between neurons.

    4. autoreceptors

      Referring to a case where the neurotransmitter and the receptors are present on the same cell. The released neurotransmitter binds to the receptor on the same cell.

    5. morphometric analysis

      A quantitative measurement of a neuron size, shape, or density.

    6. pontine

      Refers to the group of neurons present in the pons of the brain.

      Pons is a brain region that links medulla and the mid-brain. It serves as a message station between several areas of the brain.

    7. S.E.

      Stands for standard error, a measure to test how far the mean of the sample is different from the estimated mean of the population.

    8. petrosal and nodose neurons

      Brain cells in a group of nerves found at the base of the skull. The nodose and petrosal neurons are part of the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves, respectively.

    9. unmanipulated

      No change; unaltered.

    10. nicotinic receptors

      These are receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine.

    11. methylates

      Introduces a methyl (CH<sub>3</sub>) group. Here, PNMT adds a CH<sub>3</sub> group onto norepinephrine creating epinephrine (also known as adrenaline).

    12. pituitary-adrenal axis

      Refers to the connections and interactions between the pituitary gland and adrenal glands. 

    13. caudal thoracic

      Situated in the tail part of the body.

    14. progenitors


    15. neurohumoral products

      Neuroendocrine cells are the cells that receive input from neurons and release a hormone into blood for output. Any hormone produced and released by neuroendocrine cells are referred as neurohumoral products.

    16. tetrodotoxin

      Sodium channel blocker. It blocks the influx of sodium into the cell.

    17. influx

      Act of flowing in.

      Example: An influx of tourists was observed over the holidays.

    18. VIP (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide)

      A neurotransmitter that can be released from exocrine glands; for instance, sweat glands.

      Functions include relaxation of smooth muscles in stomach, gall bladder, and contraction of heart muscles.

      It has been shown that in sweat glands, both VIP and acetylcholine (or cholingeric) are released from same population of neurons.

    19. catecholaminergic

      Refers to the cell group that releases one of the neurotransmitters, dopamine or norepinephrine.

    20. tyrosine hydroxylase

      An enzyme responsible for the conversion of tyrosine (an amino acid) to dopamine, a neurotransmitter.

    21. quantitative

      Refers to the measurement of quantities, a countable amount of something. For example: A baby weighs 7 pounds and 4 ounces.

    22. qualitative

      Refers to the measurement of qualities, a describable trait of something. For example: The girl has brown eyes.

    23. phenotype

      Here, referring to the physical characteristics of the neurons.

    24. peptide putative transmitters

      Widely accepted class of neurotransmitters.

      Read more about the different neurotransmitters here.

    25. Neurotransmitters

      A chemical that is released by brain cells called neurons. These chemicals aid in communication or passing messages between neurons.

    26. veratridine

      Drug that increases the influx of sodium into the cell.

    27. mutability

      The ability to change.

      For example, think of a caterpillar, which has the ability to change to butterfly.

    28. thermoregulation

      Maintaining the body’s temperature within the normal limits.

    29. vegetative functions

      Functions of the body that are essential for life–e.g. sleeping, eating, breathing, bladder activity.

    30. peptide transmitters

      These are a class of neurotransmitters. Peptides are made of amino acids or chain of amino acids.

      Read more about the different neurotransmitters here.

    31. regulation

      Set of codes that helps the organism to adapt and maintain life. 

      In this instance, regulation occurs at the gene level to adapt to environmental conditions.

    32. transcriptional level

      A regulation that controls the conversion of DNA to RNA in organisms. Learn more with this HHMI BioInteractive video.

    33. basal

      Normal or minimum level.

  2. Jun 2019
    1. subsequent


    2. cocaine-induced

      The response prompted by cocaine.

    3. nicotine-induced

      Response prompted by nicotine.

    4. risk

      Prone to; susceptible.

    5. pretreatment

      Treatment received prior to something in advance

    6. assessed

      Evaluate; measure.

    7. administered


    8. prompted

      Pushed; urged; required.

    9. diminished


    10. endpoints


    11. long-term synaptic potentiation

      Strengthening of synapses between neurons

    12. prenatal

      before birth; during pregnancy

    13. phenocopied

      mimicked; acted similarly

    14. transient

      only for a short time

    15. baseline


    16. facilitation

      help; make the process easy

    17. variant


    18. ERK/MAPK

      signaling pathways that help in gene regulation

    19. phosphorylates

      adding phosphate residues

    20. concurrent

      happening at the same time

    21. Hypoacetylated

      not enough acetylation

    22. deacetylase

      removal of acetyl groups

    23. hyperacetylation

      increase or excessive acetylation

    24. promoter

      DNA sequences that define where the transcription should start in a gene

    25. disinhibits


    26. simulate

      prompt or trigger

    27. psychostimulants

      drugs that cause an increased behavioral or motor response

    28. robust

      widely used

    29. behavioral paradigm

      a model designed to perform behavioral experiments

    30. acetylation

      Process by which acetyl groups are added to preferred residues in a protein.

      For instance, acetyl groups are added to lysine residues in a protein structure

    31. histone

      components of chromatin that helps in gene regulation

    32. chromatin

      DNA + histone

    33. FosB

      it is one of the transcription factors that help in gene expression

    34. transcription

      the process by which a copy of genetic information is made from DNA to RNA

    35. synaptic

      A synapse is a space between the neurons that allows passage of electric or chemical signals between the neurons.

      Anything that occurs between synapses is referred to as synaptic

    36. plasticity

      the ability of the neurons (brain cells) to change and learn new things by changing their synaptic strength

    37. spiny neurons

      Medium sized neurons that have dendritic branches

    38. inhibitory

      slowing down, hold back, restrain, negatively affecting a response

    39. GABAergic

      neurons that contain inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA

    40. prefrontal cortex

      Part of the frontal cortex in the brain. Its function includes planning, organization, and decision making

    41. amygdala

      A brain region present in the temporal lobe. It is almond In shape. It plays an important role in emotions.

      Eg. When we see a lion, we immediately run due to fear. The fear response is due to the amygdala.

    42. ventral tegmental area

      A brain region in the midbrain. Serves as a center for the origin of dopaminergic neurons

    43. glutamatergic

      neurons that can modulate (or alter or modify) the neurotransmitter, glutamate. Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter

    44. dopaminergic

      neurons that contain neurotransmitter, dopamine. Dopamine plays a vital role in the reward pathway

    45. integration

      to combine the similarities together

    46. convergence

      bringing together two different concepts that share similarities

    47. reward

      recognition of one’s work or effort

    48. ventral striatum

      contains the brain region, nucleus accumbens

    49. nucleus accumbens

      A brain region in the forebrain. It has two parts: core and shell

    50. addictive

      causing someone to become dependent

    51. cocaine

      Recreational drug. Referred as coke.

    52. nicotine

      primary chemical present in tobacco

    53. addiction

      dependency, craving

    54. modulated


    55. enhanced


    56. place preference

      preferred choice of one place over another

    57. conditioned

      trained or habituated

    58. sensitization

      Repeated administration of a stimulus can cause a response to the stimulus.

      Eg. If you give your cat piping hot milk the first day, the cat may not drink it as it will burn its mouth. However, if you continue to give your cat hot milk for several days in a row, the cat will eventually start drinking the milk as it is habituated to the new stimulus (hot milk) and will not complain

    59. Locomotor

      the movement of a living being from one place to another

    60. sequential

      one by one; logical order

    61. determinant

      a key factor

    62. irrelevant

      not important

    63. molecular genetic

      study of the structure and function of genes involved in the behavior

    64. electrophysiological

      observing the electrical properties of neurons in the mouse brain

    65. behavioral

      observing the behavior of the mouse

    66. exert


    67. gateway drugs

      the substances are mild and not addictive on consumption. However, the continuous consumption of these mild substances can lead to the use of other addictive drugs. They are also known as ‘habit-forming drug.’

      Eg. Alcohol, Cigarettes.

    68. epidemiological

      Deals with incidence and distribution of diseases and societal issues

    69. illicit drug

      Substances that are addictive to the central nervous system.

      These substances are illegal to be possessed, have no documented therapeutic effect, and are referred to as drugs of abuse.

      Eg. Cocaine, Heroin

    70. marijuana

      ‘weed’ or ‘pot.’

      Read more about marijuana here: https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/marijuana/what-marijuana

    1. discipline

      A specific branch of knowledge, such as physics or biology.

    2. Error bars

      A graphical representation (usually lines through a point on the graph that run parallel to one of the axes) showing the amount of uncertainty there is in the location of that point. All scientific data collection includes uncertainty--error bars allow researchers to show how confident they are in their results. Large error bars mean there is a lot of uncertainty (lower confidence), while smaller error bars mean there is less uncertainty.

    3. z scores

      A z-score is a measure of the number of standard deviations above or below the average score a raw, individual score is. The higher the z-score, the more different a data point is from the average.

    4. continuous

      Continuous variables have an infinite number of possible values. This is in contrast to categorical variables, which have a discrete number of defined values (for example, in this study "man" or "woman" for gender).

    5. SD

      Standard deviation, a measure of the amount of variation in data.

      It can be used to quantify how far an individual's data is from the average of a data set.

    6. negative relation

      A condition in which when the value of one variable goes up (endorsement of the gender stereotype), the value of the other variable goes down (exam scores).

    7. as a function of

      A function defines one variable in terms of another. Here, the more strongly a woman in the control group endorsed the gender stereotype, the lower her exam scores were.

      Defining y "as a function of" x means that y varies based on the level of x.

    8. replicated

      Repeating a scientific experiment and finding the same results

    9. χ2

      Chi-squared, a test which tells whether there is a statistically significant difference between the distribution of two categorical variables (for example, gender).

    10. SE

      Refers to standard error, which is a measure of how far away the mean of your data is likely to be from the true mean of the population.

    11. P

      The P value is a measure of how likely it is that your null hypothesis (that values affirmation has no effect) is true.

    12. β

      Beta. Beta refers to the probability that you can accept the null hypothesis (which states that values affirmation has no effect) when in fact the null hypothes.is is wrong.

    13. outcome measure

      Tools used to assess a subject's performance.

    14. condition

      Assigned group, either the intervention group or the control group. In this case, the control group contained students who did not participate in the values affirmation intervention.

    15. theoretically motivated

      Based on a hypothesis that may have been supported in laboratory experiments, but has not yet been shown to work in practice

    16. cognitive

      Perception, attention, learning, memory, and problem solving

    17. social-psychological

      Effects that result from interactions within groups, and between both groups and individuals.

    18. instructional methods

      How course material is taught, such as through context-rich problems or curricular materials

    19. randomized

      Participants are randomly assigned to different test conditions.

      In this case, participants are equally likely to end up in the control group and the values affirmation test group.

    20. gender achievement gap

      The difference in test scores, course performance, and job prospects between people of different genders

    21. values affirmation

      An intervention in which people reflect on and write about the beliefs and values (e.g., family, integrity) that are important in their life

    22. psychological intervention

      Any activity used to modify behavior, emotional state, or feelings

    1. binary

      Binary calculations are a straightforward form of measurement that states the presence or absence of an interaction.

    2. weighted

      Weighted networks assign some form of quantitative value, in this case frequency, as a measure of the interaction in a network.

    3. biotic factors

      Living parts of an ecosystem, in this case, invasive species on the island

    4. Abiotic factors

      Non-living parts of an ecosystem, such as elevation of rainfall

    5. We decomposed this metric into two components: species turnover (βST—the proportion of interactions that are not shared owing to differences in species composition between two networks) and linkage turnover [βOS, also called rewiring—the proportion of interactions unique to a single network despite the occurrence of both partners in both networks (30)

      The authors measured the overall dissimilarity between different locations by two factors: species turnover- when two locations do not share similar networks because they are inhabited by different species, and linkage turnover- when species found in both locations develop different interactions specific to their site

    1. trophic downgrading

      Impacts from the loss of the top-level consumers.

    2. pervasive

      Widely felt.

    3. top-down forcing

      Impacts that top-level predators have on the levels of the food web below them.

    4. trophic

      Feeding relationships.

    5. biogeochemical cycles

      Complex cycles of nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous, carbon, and water involving the atmosphere, land, water, and organisms.

    6. interdisciplinary

      Research involving more than one field of science, e.g. biology and chemistry.

    7. function

      How a system works.

    8. resilience

      How quickly a community is able to recover from a change in the environment.

    9. empirical

      Based on data.

    10. mass extinction events

      Periods of Earth's history when vast numbers of species went extinct in a short period of time.

    11. predation

      Killing another organisms for food.

    12. herbivory

      Eating only vegetation for food.

    13. abundance


    14. distribution


    15. ecosystems

      The interactions between organisms and the non-living environment (i.e. rocks, water) within an area.

    16. topology


    17. basins of attraction

      Conditions that allow for stability in an ecosystem.

    18. hysteresis

      When the direction of a ecosystem change cannot be reversed, i.e. an ecosystem cannot be returned to its previous state once it has gone through a phase shift.

    19. physicochemical

      Interactions of physiology and chemistry.

    20. flux


    21. perturbed


    22. extirpated


    23. weakly motile

      Not able to move far.

    24. autotrophs

      Self-feeding organisms such as plants, algae, many protists, and some bacteria.

    25. regime shifts

      Changes in abundance or dominance of species within an ecosystem.

    26. “natural experiments”

      Data collected from unintended consequences seen in nature.

    27. mesopredators

      Predators found in the middle of the food web—that is, they both eat prey and are eaten as prey.

    28. megaherbivores

      Large, plant-eating organisms.

    29. aggregate


    30. alternative stable states

      A different persistent community structure from the original in an ecosystem, typically resulting from a disturbance.

    31. recruitment failure

      Inability of seeds to germinate.

    32. graminoid

      Grass-like plants.

    33. trophic cascades

      Also known as top-down controls, these refer to the effects of predators that propagate downward through food webs across multiple trophic levels—where trophic level refers to an organism's position in the food chain.

    1. zona incerta (ZI)

      A part of the brain.

      The function of this area is poorly understood but is thought to regulate behavior of an animal in response to internal (such as hunger) and external (such as pain) sensory cues.

    2. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

      An inhibitory neurotransmitter. Neurons communicate with each other by releasing neurotransmitters. Neurons respond to inhibitory neurotransmitters by reducing their activity.

    3. Intraperitoneal CNO

      The CNO was injected into the peritoneum, the thin membrane that lines the walls of the abdominal cavity. It travels through the circulation and crosses the blood brain barrier and affects its target cells.

    4. type A GABA (GABAA) receptor antagonist bicuculline (Bic)

      A light-sensitive competitive agonist of GABA<sub>A</sub> receptors. It was originally isolated and identified over 40 years ago in the Dicentra cucullaria plant.

    1. Parkinson's disease

      A progressive degenerative disorder primarily impacting motor control that can lead to tremors or stiffness. Pathologically characterized by the loss of dopamine-secreting neurons in two parts of the brain (the substantia nigra pars compacta and basal ganglia), as well as the presence of Lewy bodies—aggregates of a protein called alpha synuclein contained within the neuron.

  3. May 2019
    1. motivational valence

      The degree to which something is perceived as pleasurable (positive valence) or unpleasant (negative valence).

    2. excited by

      Activated by.

    3. Anterograde

      Occurring along the nerve processes away from the neuron body, as opposed to retrograde.

    4. lateral hypothalamic neurons

      A region of the brain in close proximity to ZI known to promote food intake.

    5. glutamate

      An excitatory neurotransmitter, which causes neurons to become activated.

    6. parasubthalamic nucleus

      A part of the brain located below the thalamus, which functions in motor control.

    7. ghrelin

      A hormone produced in the gut in response to food deprivation.

      Also known as the "hunger hormone," ghrelin increases appetite and food intake and energy storage.

    8. excitatory

      Neurons that express excitatory neurotransmitters cause downstream neurons to become activated.

    1. germinal center

      Germinal centers are areas in the lymph nodes and spleen where B cells reside. Within these centers B cells replicate, mature and prepare to create antibodies.

    2. epitopes

      An antigen on the surface of the virus that antibodies can attach to.

    3. effector phenotypes

      The characteristics that are representative of activated T cells.

    4. T follicular helper (TFH

      This subset of T cells that aid in the production of antibodies by activating B cells.

    5. antigen

      An antigen is a part of a pathogen that stimulates an immune response. This may be a protein, lipid, or a carbohydrate.

    1. intron retention

      A transcription event in which introns, which are frequently spliced out of mRNA, are instead added to the mRNA transcript.

      Intron retention allows for more diversity of mRNA transcripts from the same DNA.

    2. catalysis

      Catalysis is the initiation and acceleration of a chemical reaction.

      In this case, the authors point to KDM6B as the catalyst for Dmrt1 expression and thus male sex development.

    3. morphology

      Morphology describes biological structures.

    4. meiotic

      Relating to cell division that gives rise to sex cells.

    5. aromatase

      An enzyme that produces estrogen.

    6. dimorphic

      Dimorphic indicates differences in characteristics between males and females of the same species other than the sex cells.

    7. histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) demethylase KDM6B

      DNA is wrapped around proteins called histones for the organization and compaction of eukaryotic genomes.

      The proteins that make up histones have multi-peptide "tails" that can be modified by small chemical groups like methyl or acetyl additions. These groups are added or removed by specific proteins, such as KDM6B.

    8. ectopic

      Ectopic describes events occurring in locations that do not naturally have such events.

      For example, expression of a brain-specific gene in a toenail would be considered ectopic gene expression.

    9. testicular Sertoli cell

      Male sex cells that are required to form testes and sperm.

    10. primordial germ cells

      Progenitor sex cells that go on to make all the reproductive cells in an organism.