4,625 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. r = 0.98

      r is the correlation coefficition for an association between two factors. It can take values between -1 and 1. An correlation coefficient equal to -1 indicates a perfectly inverse linear correlation, meaning that one variable decreases in it value in response to the increase of the other linearly. In contrast, an r equal to 1 indicates a perfect linear positive correlation. An r of zero signs the nonexistencephalitis of association.

    2. P < 0.01

      P is the probability that a null hypothesis is true. The null hypothesis in this case is that the total number of cases reported from each province shows no signification linear correlation with the total number of travellers from Wuhan.

  2. Jul 2021
    1. Montreal Protocol

      The Montreal Protocol is an international agreement to phase out the use and production of substances that deplete the ozone layer.

      Read more here: https://www.epa.gov/ozone-layer-protection/international-actions-montreal-protocol-substances-deplete-ozone-layer

    2. El Niño

      El Niño refers to a climate pattern that pushes warm water into the Pacific Ocean.

      This warming of the Pacific Ocean impacts global weather patterns.

      Read more here: https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/ninonina.html

    3. overturning circulation

      Overturning circulation refers to the ocean currents that carry heat and nutrients to different regions of the ocean.

      This system of currents also helps the ocean absorb carbon from the atmosphere.

      Read more here: https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/weather/learn-about/weather/oceans/amoc

    4. geophysical

      The prefix "geo" means Earth.

      Thus, geophysical refers to physics occurring on and near the Earth.

    5. troposphere

      The troposphere is one of the five major layers of the Earth's atmosphere.

      It is the layer closest to the surface of the Earth.

    6. ozonesonde

      A sonde is an instrument that measures and transmits information about a remote location.

      An ozonesonde is a device that is carried by a balloon into the atmosphere. As it travels, it transmits ozone concentration information back to a station on the ground.

    7. balloon ozone trends

      Balloon ozone data is measured by instruments carried into the atmosphere by balloons.

    8. greenhouse gases

      Greenhouse gases are gases which confine heat to the atmosphere.

    9. forcings

      Forcings refers to factors that drive changes in the climate.

    10. absorption of sunlight

      Light absorption occurs when light transfers energy to an object.

      Here, the sunlight's energy is transferred to ozone in the form of heat.

    11. radiatively

      Radiation refers to energy that travels at the speed of light.

      Here, it refers to a form of heat transfer that causes atmospheric temperature changes.

    12. polar cap

      The polar cap is the region of the poles that is covered in ice.

    13. anomalous

      Something that is anomalous differs from what is normal or typical.

    14. climatologies

      Climatology is the study of climate science.

    15. high-latitude

      High latitudes are approximately 60 degrees of the equator and higher. This includes the polar regions.

    16. OCS

      OCS is carbonyl sulfide with a molecular structure consisting of an oxygen (O), carbon (C), and sulfur (S) atom.

    17. modal

      Modal is related to the mode in statistics, which identifies the most frequently occurring values in a dataset.

      Here, it refers to models where the modes have a fixed width.

    18. inline

      The CCMI project develops models that describe how atmospheric chemistry and climate interact with each other.

      The primary focus of the project is understanding atmospheric ozone.

    19. Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison (CCMI)

      The CCMI project develops models that describe how atmospheric chemistry and climate interact with each other.

      The primary focus of the project is understanding atmospheric ozone.

    20. meteorological fields

      A field is a property of a physical system that can be measured.

      Here, it refers to properties of the atmosphere.

    21. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (TOMS/OMI)

      TOMS and OMI are instruments used to measure the total ozone in the atmosphere.

      The TOMS data set has provided a record of total atmospheric ozone since 1978. OMI was launched in 2004 to continue the collection of ozone data.

      Both data sets are merged to obtain a more complete record of the ozone layer over time.

    22. suborbital

      Suborbital refers to a path that is less than one full revolution around a body.

      Here, it refers to data obtained by instruments that travel less than a full revolution around the Earth.

    23. Solar Backscatter Ultra-Violet satellite

      The SBUV is an instrument that measures the amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

      The instrument, mounted on a weather satellite, measures the sunlight reflected back from the Earth.

      Since ozone is known to reflect light at a particular wavelength, the amount of light reflected at this wavelength indicates how much ozone is present in the atmosphere.

    24. aerosol particles

      Aerosols are solid particles or liquid droplets that are suspended in a gas.

      Here, the particles are suspended in air.

    25. meteorological variability

      Meteorological variability refers to changes in atmospheric weather conditions.

    26. heterogeneous chlorine and bromine chemistry

      Heterogeneous chemistry is a chemical process that involves different phases of matter.

      Here, it refers to gaseous chlorine and bromine reacting on the surface of condensed phase cloud particles.

    27. polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles

      Polar stratospheric clouds form under extremely cold winter conditions in the Arctic and Antarctic.

      They support the destructive halogen chemistry responsible for ozone depletion.

    28. confounding factors

      A confounding factor impacts both variables of interest and makes it more difficult to determine the cause and effect relationship between them.

    29. monotonic

      A monotonic quantity is either always increasing or always decreasing.

    30. Polar ozone

      Polar ozone refers to the ozone layer over the Arctic and Antarctic regions.

    31. lidar

      Lidar stands for "light detection and ranging" and is a technique for measuring the distance to an object. It involves shining a laser on the object and measuring the time it takes for the light to be reflected back.

    32. dynamical variability

      Dynamical variability refers to naturally occurring changes in the climate from year-to-year.

      Halogen-induced changes become more apparent when naturally occurring changes are removed from the analysis.

    33. anthropogenic

      Anthropogenic means it was caused by human activity.

      In this context, humans released chemicals into the atmosphere, and these chemicals produced the hole in the ozone layer.

    34. interannual variability

      Interannual events take place in different years.

      Here, it refers to variations that occur from year-to-year.

    35. low latitudes

      The low-latitudes are approximately between 0 degrees (equator) and 30 degrees.

    36. stratosphere

      The stratosphere is one of the five major layers of the Earth's atmosphere.

      It is the second closest to the surface of the Earth, and it contains the ozone layer.

    37. ozone

      Ozone is a gaseous molecule composed of 3 oxygen atoms with the chemical formula, O3.

      Here, the authors are referring to the layer of ozone in the Earth's atmosphere that filters harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun.

    38. halogens

      Halogens are a group of elements that includes fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine, and tennessine.

    39. halocarbons

      Halocarbons are chemicals that contain bonds between carbon and halogen atoms.

      Halogens are a group of elements that includes fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine, and tennessine.

      Halocarbons are highly reactive in the Earth's atmoshpere and lead to ozone depletion.

    40. mid-latitudes

      Latitude is the coordinate that specifies the north-south location on the surface of the Earth and ranges from 0 degrees at the equator to 90 degrees at the North and South Poles.

      Mid(or middle)-latitudes are approximately between 30 degrees to 60 degrees.

    41. total integrated column amount

      The integrated column is a way to quantify how much of a particular gas is found in the Earth's atmosphere.

      For a vertical path, or column, that extends through the atmoshpere, the number of gas molecules is measured at each point along the path. Then, the sum total is calculated for the entire path.

      In this case, it is used to measure the amount of ozone in the atmoshpere.

    42. depletion

      To deplete is to reduce the amount of something.

      Here, the amount of ozone in the Earth's atmosphere has been reduced.

    1. coronavirus

      Coronaviruses are a family of viruses. This name comes from the solar corona-like characterisitc appearance of these viruses under the electron microscope.

    2. agent

      Agents are the causes of diseases and injuries, but they are nor the sole deteminer for the occurance of a disease. The rest two factors are the host (the human who can get the disease) and the environment that brings the agents and the host together.

    3. outbreak

      Outbreaks are the occurance of more-than-expected number of cases.

    4. (13.0; 7.1-18.8)

      The first number in the parentheses is the mean for the number of reported cases, and the range after the semicolon is the 95%CI.

    5. 95%CI

      The confidence interval is a range that is likely to contain the true population parameter with a confidence level specified by the percentage.

      In this case, there is 95% probability that the confidence interval of 2.54-3.29 contains the mean time of delayed arrival.

    6. cordon sanitaire

      A cordon sanitaire is a movement restriction of people into or out of a specific region. This measure is taken for stopping the rapid spreading of some infections disease.

    7. epidemic

      An epidemic is the appearance of a disease in a large number of people within a short period of time.

    8. public health (non-pharmaceutical) interventions

      Pubic intervenions are everyday actions that the public can take to stop the spreading of a infectious disease. An indicated by the name in the parentheses, taking medication of vaccination are not counted as public health interventions.

    9. etiological agent

      Etiology is the medical study on the cuases of a disease. An etiological agent refers to the origin identified.

    10. pathogen

      A pathogen is any samll organism that cause diseases.

    11. epidemiology

      [To be paraphrased] Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the control of health problems.

    12. geocoded repository

      Geocoding is a process to transform commonly text-based descriptions of locations (e.g., addresses) to coordinates on the Earth's surface. Geocoding allows further mapping and spatial analysis using various software. In a geocoded repository, all data are attributes to spatial coordinates.

    1. substitution rates

      The speed at which mutations occur to a genome.

    2. Bayesian

      Refers to a branch of statistics based on Bayes' theorem. This theorem is used to update the probability or likelihood of a hypothesis or proposed explanation as more information is available. This method allows for inference or the ability to draw conclusions about a larger group based on a smaller sample.

    3. endemic

      A disease is endemic when it is found regularly in a population.

    4. genomes

      The full set of genes or heritable genetic material like DNA or RNA present in an organism.

    5. spillover

      When a disease that is typically found in animals crosses over into a human population.

    6. live-attenuated vaccine

      A vaccine is a substance that causes the body to recognize and stop a disease-causing agent via a type of protein called antibodies. Antibodies combine with proteins on the surface of invading pathogens and alert the immune system. A live-attenuated vaccine uses a weakened for of a virus to cause this immune response.

    1. Components let you split the UI into independent, reusable pieces, and think about each piece in isolation.

      I like this definition of 'components'.

    1. viable

      Capable of growing into a plant

    2. The wider variety of partners used at the larger scale (regional network) corresponds to the “fundamental niche,” whereas the subset of partners found at local scales indicates that local populations have much more restricted “realized niches” (27, 28).

      A species' fundamental niche encompasses all of the possible roles it has in its environment, whereas the realized niche are the actual roles that a species plays in its environment, taking into account competition, predation, and other interactions with neighboring species.

      The video below further explains this.

    3. playback

      A recording of a bird's native calls are played to lure the species into an area.

    4. weighted

      A weighted network assigns some form of quantitative value to each connection between two partners (an example is shown below). In this case, the value assigned was the frequency of interaction.

  3. Jun 2021
    1. We decomposed this metric into two components: species turnover (βST—the proportion of interactions that are not shared owing to differences in species composition between two networks) and linkage turnover [βOS, also called rewiring—the proportion of interactions unique to a single network despite the occurrence of both partners in both networks (30)

      The authors measured the overall dissimilarity between different locations by two factors:

      species turnover- when two locations do not share similar interaction patterns because they are inhabited by different species,

      and linkage turnover- when species found in both locations develop different interactions specific to their site

    2. niche broadening

      A niche is an organism's role in its ecosystem, describing how it utilizes the resources and interacts with living and nonliving factors of its environment.

      Niche broadening is when a species expands its roles in its habitat to enhance its chances of survival.

    3. supergeneralist

      A species that interacts with a wide number of species in ecological networks

    4. seed dispersal events

      The distribution of a seed by being eaten by an animal and later excreted in its feces.

    5. introduced species

      A group of living organisms that has recently moved into a new ecosystem

    1. order of magnitude

      An order of magnitude is a comparison of size used when the item being compared is 10 times larger or smaller than the item it is being compared to. The difference between 1 and 10 is an order of magnitude, as is the difference between 10 and 100. The difference between 1 and 100 is 2 orders of magnitude, and the difference between 1 and 1000 is 3 orders of magnitude.

    2. MT

      A MT (metric ton) is a unit of weight equal to 1000 kilograms (2205 pounds).

    3. population density

      Population density is a measurement of how many people live in a particular area. It is often expressed as people per square mile or kilometer. A city is a location with a high population density, while a desert is a location with a low population density.

    4. flux

      Flux is a measurement of the amount of an object that passes from one place to another. Here, flux is the total amount of litter that traveled from land to ocean in one year.

    1. racemic

      equal amounts of enantiomers (mirror images) of a chiral (asymmetric) compound

    2. cytochrome

      cytochrome are proteins that contain heme as the prosthetic group

    3. directed evolution

      Is a method of engineering proteins towards a defined goal or purpose. Process of directed evolution: Directed evolution mimics 'real' evolution and is accelerated in the laboratory by focusing on individual genes expressed in fast‐growing microorganisms such as E.Coli. Enzyme chosen (known as wild type) must show at least a minimal desired reactivity. Mutations are introduced at strategic locations in the wild type protein. Then, the library of mutant proteins is screened for the mutated enzymes with enhanced reactivity. The improved enzymes are used as parents for the next round of mutation and screening. Additional beneficial mutations are introduced if needed. This can continue for several cycles until a desired and beneficial evolution of the enzyme is attained.

    4. cytochrome P450 and myoglobin

      types of heme proteins

    5. enantiomeric excess (ee)

      excess of one enantiomer over the other in a mixture of enantiomers

    6. wild-type Rma cyt c

      dominant strain in a natural population in contrast to lab mutant forms

    7. turnover

      The number of moles of substrate that a catalyst can convert into the desired product before becoming inactive

    8. M9-N minimal medium

      a microbial growth medium

    9. heme proteins

      A very large class of proteins that contain heme as the prosthetic group. Examples of heme proteins are hemoglobin, myoglobin and cytochrome c.

    10. selectivity

      Is the preference shown by an enzyme when exposed to a competitive attack on two or more substrates or two or more positions in the same substrate.

    11. specificity

      Is the ability of a protein's binding site to bind to only specific ligands. The fewer ligands a protein can bind to, greater its specificity.

    12. halogenated solvents

      solvents that contain halogens such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine. For example, methylene chloride, CH2Cl2, is a halogenated solvent.

    13. isostere

      elements that have the same number of electrons in the outermost shell (also known as valence shell) and have similar electronic properties. For example, carbon and silicon have the four valence electrons.

    14. Rhodothermus marinus

      gram negative, rod shaped bacterium

  4. Apr 2021
    1. ibid.

      The Latin word ibidem means "in the same place". To save space, some authors use ibid. to refer to a reference from the same journal as the previous one.

    2. APCs

      Antigen-presenting cells. Specialized immune cells which allow T cells to be exposed to the antigens present in the body. This allows T cells to become activated so they can target those pathogens or diseased cells.

    3. in vivo

      Within a living organism (as opposed to in vitro, or in cells grown in the lab).

    4. wild-type

      Unmodified: that is, wild-type, 51BLim10 cells do not have the extra genes which introduce B7 or the extra modifications which silence it.

    5. Fab fragments

      The antigen-binding fragment of antibody, i.e., the domain which binds specifically to the target of the antibody.

    6. In vitro

      Latin for "in the glass." That is, experiments done in test tubes, petri dishes, flasks, or beakers, not in organisms.

  5. Mar 2021
    1. triaxial accelerometer

      A sensor that provides simultaneous measurements in three (x, y, and z) orthogonal directions. It analyzes vibrations caused by movement to infer orientation and acceleration of the device.

    2. quasi-static tension

      Quasi-static indicates that the acceleration effect on load measuring devices is insignificant, because it is moving extremely slowly.

    3. elastomeric

      A term describing the viscoelastic quality of a polymer. Materials that are elastomeric have weak intermolecular forces, low Young's modulus, and high failure strain.

    4. self-healability

      Chemically engineered materials have been integrated into the electronics that allow the device to self-repair even after multiple breaks.

      This device utilizes a material called polyimine that repairs itself through bond exchange reactions.

    5. reconfigurability

      The ability to rearrange it's elements.

      In this case, the device can be reconfigured to serve different purposes.

    6. dynamic mechanical analyzer

      A device used to study and characterize materials. A sinusoidal stress is applied to the material and the strain is measured. It is most effectively used to measure the viscoelastic behavior of polymers.

    7. hyperelastic

      Describes an ideally elastic material which the stress-strain relationship is derived from a strain energy density function. The stress does not vary linearly with strain, so it's flexibility is very high.

    8. Poisson’s ratio

      A measurement of the deformation in a material in a perpendicular direction to the applied force.

    9. depolymerization

      The process of converting a polymer into a monomer or monomers.

      This process is triggered by an increase in thermal energy in the system that cannot be used (entropy).

    10. Young’s modulus

      In essence, this is a measurement of how stiff a material is.

      It can be equated as E = stress / strain.

    11. failure strain

      A measure of how much a material can be elongated (strained) before it fails (breaks).

      A measure of ~4% means it can be stretched to be about 4% longer before it breaks.

    12. FEA

      A method of numerically solving differential equations for mathematical modeling.

      The problem is broken into smaller, finite elements that can be expressed as algebraic equations. These equations can then be assembled into a larger system of equations that models the entire problem.

    1. autonomous systems

      This is a set of things working together but existing and functioning independently.

    2. reagent

      This is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.

    3. thermal

      Something that relates to heat

    4. thermal conductivity

      This is the measurement of a material's ability to conduct heat.

    5. histograms

      This is an approximate representation of the distribution of numerical data

  6. Feb 2021
    1. chemiluminescence

      the emission of light during a chemical reaction which does not produce significant quantities of heat.

    2. Dynamic

      This is the characterization of something under constant change, activity, or progress.

    3. reflectance spectroscopy

      Investigation of the spectral make-up of surface-reflected radiation with respect to its angularly dependent intensity and the composition of the incident primary radiation.

    4. disjuncture

      This is a separation of disconnection between ideas, objects, etc.

    5. tether

      Tying with a rope or chain to restrict movement of that which is being connected to. This often refers to two things being connect to one another.

    6. locomotion

      An act or the power of moving from place to place.

    7. symmetrical

      made up of exactly similar parts facing each other or around an axis.

    8. robust

      This is something that carries characteristics of exhibiting vigorous strength and health.

    9. translucency

      Allowing light, but not detailed shapes, to pass through; semitransparent.

    10. Ecoflex

      This is a blend of recycled polymers and wood byproducts that exhibits the best characteristics of both the polymers and wood.

    11. Young’s modulus

      a measure of elasticity, equal to the ratio of the stress acting on a substance to the strain produced.

    12. spectral tailoring

      Essentially modifying and tweaking the colors and temperatures of the fluids based on the electromagnetic spectrum.

    13. Thermoelectrics

      This is a object that produces electricity by a difference of temperatures. This can also be described as an object that involves the relation between temperature and electrical condition

    14. aqueous

      This is something that is of or containing water, that is typically used as a solvent or medium. A substance could be dissolved in water, making it an aqueous solution.

    15. pigment

      is a colored material that is completely or nearly insoluble in water.

    16. syringe

      a tube with a nozzle and piston or bulb for sucking in and ejecting liquid in a thin stream, used for cleaning wounds or body cavities, or fitted with a hollow needle for injecting or withdrawing fluids.

    17. quadrupedal

      This refers to being four-footed, where all four feet are used for walking and running. This can be seen in animals such as a dog or cat.

    18. electrowetting

      This is the modification of the wetting properties of a surface, typically hydrophobic, with an applied electric field.

      Uses for electrowetting include applications on lenses, electronic displays, and separating oil-water mixtures.

    19. electrofluidics

      Is a versatile principle that can be used for high speed actuation of liquid interfaces.

    20. extensible

      This is the ability to be extended or stretched.

    21. microchannels

      Is a channel with a hydraulic (contains liquid) diameter below 1 mm.

    22. pneumatic

      This is something that is operated by or contains air or gas under pressure.

      An example of this would be container holding pressurized air or gas.

    23. actuation

      the action of causing a machine or device to operate.

    24. spectral

      This comes from the electromagnetic spectrum, the range of wavelengths or frequencies over which electromagnetic radiation extends, of visible light, which ranges from approximately 400nm to 700nm.

    25. Semiconductor

      A solid substance that has a conductivity between that of an insulator and that of most metals, either due to the addition of an impurity or because of temperature effects. One common semiconductor are silicon chips used in electronics.

    26. arthropods

      Organisms that have a segmented body and jointed appendages, a usually chitinous exoskeleton molted at intervals, and a brain connected to a spinal cord.

    27. ultraviolet (UV)

      Is a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelength from 10nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light, but longer than X-rays. UV radiation is present in sunlight, and constitutes about 10% of the total electromagnetic radiation output from the Sun.

    28. plumage

      This is the layers of feathers that cover a bird and the pattern, color, and arrangement of the feathers.

    29. iridophores

      These are iridescent chromatophores, and chromatophores are cells that produce color, of which many types are pigment-containing cells, or groups of cells, found in a wide range of animals including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans and cephalopods.

    30. elastomers

      This is a polymer, either natural or synthetic, that has elastic properties.

      An example of this would be rubbers.

    31. prosthetics

      This is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part. The reason for why this part my be missing may be a result of many different reasons, but these devices are utilized with the intention to restore the normal functions of the missing body part.

    32. silhouette

      Is the image of a person, animal, object or scene represented as a solid shape of a single colour, usually black, with its edges matching the outline of the subject.

    33. obliterative

      To render invisible or unreadable, as by erasing or marking over

    34. infrared

      A form of light that is slightly above our visible light spectrum. Since it is not within our visible light spectrum, it is invisible to the naked eye, but it still provides useful applications in nature and everyday life such as remote controls for your television.

    35. camouflage

      This is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see, or disguising them as something else.

    36. microfluidic networks

      A group or system that deals with the behavior, manipulation, and precise control of fluids that are constrained to a small scale. This often deals with objects that are measured to be in the tens to hundreds of micrometers.

    37. Synthetic systems

      A set of things working together that uses two or more steps to create a product. This is also chemically created to imitate an existing and natural set.

    38. soft polymers

      Materials belonging to this category include things made up by smaller units called monomers. However, this category contains many monomers arranged in a way that keeps the overall object flexible and non rigid.

    39. luminescence

      This is the emission of light from an object that is not a result of heat, but a form of cold-body radiation.

    1. biocompatibility

      The property of a material to be compatible with living tissue. Materials that trigger a toxic or immune response when exposed to the body are NOT biocompatible.

    2. FTIR

      One of the most common methods of spectroscopy. The sample is exposed to infrared light and data is collected to determine how much light is absorbed or released by the sample.

      To convert the raw data into an actual spectrum, a Fourier transform must be performed.

    3. thermoset polyimine matrix

      Thermoset: applying heat to harden or cure the material. This creates the matrix encapsulating the device.

      Thanks to the healing ability of the polyimine and the liquid nature of the eutectic LM circuitry, bonds can be reformed and reshaped throughout the device.

    4. dynamic covalent

      Upon thermosetting, dynamic covalent bonds are formed between the atoms that can readily assemble and disassemble. This gives the polyimines their unique healing ability.

    5. ECG sensor

      An electrocardiogram sensor records the pathway of electrical impulses throughout the heart. This data can be used to monitor the heart's condition and response to physical exertion.

    6. transimination

      A reaction that converts an -imine compound into smaller monomers/oligomers. The researchers discovered this reaction to be useful for separating the chip components and LM from the matrix by solubilizing the these monomers/oligomers in methanol.

    7. eutectic LM

      Eutectic: a mixture of substances that melts and solidifies totally at the same temperature, which is lower than the melting points of the individual constituents.

      Eutectic LM: A mixture of liquid metals.

    1. in vitro

      in a test tube, culture dish, or elsewhere outside a living organism

    2. weeble-wobble toy
    3. hydroxypropyl methylcellulose

      Non-fermentable semi-synthetic dietary fibre, based on cellulose.

    4. conical structure

      Cone shaped structure.

    5. poly(ethylene) oxide

      Biomaterial with a high molecular weight.

    6. molecular weight

      The ratio of the average mass of one molecule of an element to one twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon.

    7. overtube

      A protective tube used during endoscopy.

    8. endoscopy

      A procedure used to look inside the body and examine the interior of a hollow organ or body cavity.

    9. ex vivo

      Experimentation done on tissue from an organism in an external environment with minimal alteration of natural conditions.

    10. mucosal

      The inner lining of organs and body cavities such as the stomach.

    11. gastric juice

      A thin, clear, acidic fluid secreted by the stomach glands.

    12. viscosities

      The state of being thick and semifluid in consistency.

    13. excursions

      A deviation from a regular pattern, path, or level of operation.

    14. torque

      A twisting force that causes rotation.

    15. subchronic

      Oral subchronic toxicity refers to adverse effects occurring after repeated administration of a test sample.

    16. peristaltic motion

      Involuntary movements of the longitudinal and circular muscles, primarily in the digestive tract but occasionally in other hollow tubes of the body, that occur in progressive wavelike contractions

    17. acute

      Acute oral toxicity refers to adverse effects following oral administration of a single dose of a substance.

    18. mono-monostatic body

      An object which has only one unstable point of balance.

    19. active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)

      Any substance or mixture of substances intended to be used in the manufacture of a drug product and that, when used in the production of a drug, becomes a functional ingredient in the drug product

    20. lumen

      The open space within a tube-shaped body part

    21. prototyping

      An early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process.

    22. actuation

      The action of causing a machine or device to operate.

    23. 316L stainless steel

      Second most common marine grade stainless steel.

    24. cellular tight junctions

      Connections between cells that prevent the passage of molecules and ions through the space between membranes of touching cells

    25. protease

      An enzyme (a biological catalyst) which breaks down proteins and peptides

    26. polycaprolactone

      Biodegradable polyester with a low melting point of around 60°C.

    27. bioavailability

      The ability of a drug or other substance to be absorbed and used by the body

    28. milliposts

      millimeter scale pillars

    29. subcutaneous

      Situated or applied under the skin

    30. plasma

      Plasma is a yellowish liquid component of blood that holds the blood cells of whole blood in suspension. It is the liquid part of the blood that carries cells and proteins throughout the body.

    31. insulin

      A hormone produced in the pancreas which regulates the amount of sugar in the blood. The lack of insulin causes a form of diabetes.

    32. COMSOL

      A simulation software to create accurate models

    33. in vivo

      In a living organism