4,162 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Intraperitoneal CNO

      The CNO was injected into the peritoneum, the thin membrane that lines the walls of the abdominal cavity. It travels through the circulation system, crosses the blood-brain barrier, and affects its target cells.

    2. paraventricular thalamus (PVT)

      A subregion of a part of the brain called the thalamus.

      The PVT has been shown to have a broad range of function, including involvement in fear, learning, arousal, and feeding behaviors.

    3. axonal projections

      The axon is a long, thin part of the neuron that facilitates communication between neurons. Axons extend from the cell body of a neuron to other parts of the brain, allowing communication between different brain regions.

  2. Sep 2019
    1. polymer

      Materials made of long, repeating chains of molecules. The term polymer is often used to describe plastics, which are synthetically made, but natural polymers also exist.

    2. single-use plastic food packaging (polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyethylene terephthalate)

      As the most common plastic, polyethylene is used for everything from plastic bags to bulletproof vests. Polypropylene is commonly used in chip bags, microwave dishes, and bottle caps. Some fabric textiles and many water bottles are made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET).

      Plastics are notoriously persistent pollutants. It is estimated that a PET plastic water bottle will take anywhere from 100-500 years to degrade.

    3. circular economy

      An economic system where waste and pollution are designed out, keeping products and services in closed loops or cycles. The circular economy is an alternative to a traditional linear economy in which products and materials are made, used, and disposed of.

    1. disk Use disk only in the context of Azure cloud storage and virtual machines.Use hard drive, not disk, fixed disk, hard disk, or disk drive to refer to the drive on a PC where programs are typically stored.
    1. intranasal administration

      The process of inserting drug molecules through the nose.

    2. Brownian-like

      Following a path similar to the Brownian motion of small particles in fluid, which is random movement due to continuous collisions with the surrounding molecules in the fluid.

    3. expectorated

      Coughed out from the throat or lungs.

    4. encapsulation

      Trapping something inside another object, or a capsule.

      Here, encapsulation refers to trapping drug molecules inside the nanoparticle.

    5. complexation

      The process of combining different atoms, ions, or molecules to form one large molecule or ion due to electrostatic and/or hydrophobic interactions.

    6. corticosteroids

      Steroid hormones that are produced in the kidneys or synthetically in the laboratory and can be used to treat inflammations.

    7. colloidal stability

      Refers to the particles' ability to stay dispersed in a fluid without separating from the solution (precipitation) or forming big clusters (aggregation) within a period of time.

    8. Hydrodynamic diameter

      The diameter of a sphere that has the same hydrodynamic friction with that of the nanoparticle.

    9. noncovalent

      A form of bonding that does not involve the bonding between pairs of atoms.

    10. hydrophobic

      Repelled by water molecules.

    11. diblock copolymer

      A polymer of two different polymer chains chemically bonded together in a specific order. For example, a linear diblock copolymer of the type A-B with 5 A monomers connected to 4 B monomers is a single chain A-A-A-A-A-B-B-B-B.

    12. triblock

      A polymer of three different polymer chains, which are chemically bonded together in a specific order. For example, a linear triblock copolymer of the type A-B-C with 5 A monomers connected to 4 B monomers connected to 5 C monomers is a single chain A-A-A-A-A-B-B-B-B-C-C-C-C-C.

    13. well-PEGylated

      Coated or surrounded in great extend by polymeric chains of poly(ethylene glycol).

    14. CF sputum

      CF stands for cystic fibrosis, a disease in the lungs.

      Sputum is a mixture of saliva and mucus that is produced because of a disease, such as cystic fibrosis, and comes out of the the human body through the passage formed from the mouth, nose, throat, and lungs.

    15. conjugating

      The joining of two or more chemical compounds.

    16. in vitro

      Experiments taking place in test tubes, culture dishes, or other controlled environments outside of living organisms.

    17. ex vivo

      Experiments that take place in controlled external environments on tissues extracted from living organisms.

    18. in vivo

      Experiments taking place inside living organisms.

    19. retention

      To absorb and continue holding or keeping on a surface.

    20. Mucoadhesive

      Have the ability to stick to mucus.

      Mucus is a slimy substance that is produced in the human body (e.g. nose, throat, cervix) to protect and lubricate specific areas.

    21. pulmonary drug delivery

      A pulmonary process is related to lung tissue.

      Pulmonary drug delivery is the insertion of drug molecules to the human body through mouth to reach the lungs and treat lung-related diseases.

  3. Aug 2019
    1. product inhibition

      This is a mechanism to control production in biological settings. This means when something is being made (ex. protein) and reaches a certain concentration then the production is stopped. This can also be called a negative-feedback loop.

    2. passive transporter (GLUT5)

      Fructose is only absorbed through diffusion into a cell, this means it relies on there being a lower concentration of fructose in a cell compared to the intestine. Passive absorption often leads to a saturation of the channels and so not as much fructose can be absorbed.

    3. sodium-coupled glucose transporters (SGLTs)

      Sodium-coupled glucose transporters are found in the intestine. They use energy gathered from sodium ion transport into the bloodstream to generate energy to import glucose into a cell. Using energy to import a molecule up a concentration gradient (there is more glucose inside the cell than outside so it costs energy to import more) is termed active transport.

    4. Wnt signaling

      Wnt signaling is group of a pathways that regulate gene transcription and growth. Normally APC controls and limits growth that Wnt stimulates but when APC is deleted or mutated Wnt signaling is uncontrolled and leads to cancer formation.

    5. APC,

      Adenomatous Polyposis Coli is a tumor suppresor gene meaning that when it is functional, APC controls cell growth and prevents tumor formation. When it becomes mutated or deleted (as in the mouse models), uncontrolled cell growth leads to tumor formation.

    6. endocrine systems

      A system of glands in the body that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, mood, sleep, development etc.

    7. metabolic syndrome

      A cluster of factors such as high blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat and abnormal cholesterol which contribute to diseases such as diabetes, heart-disease and strokes.

    8. confounders

      Multiple factors at play which can affect an outcome or result. In this case it is impossible to separate the variables of obesity, which causes a host of complications such as high blood pressure, and abnormal cholesterol, from the direct effects of sugar-sweetened beverages.

    9. serum

      The fluid component of blood left after cells and clotting factors are removed.

    10. intestinal lumen

      Lumen; The inside space of a tubular structure. The intestine is a long digestive organ that contains a tube of cells which absorb nutrients of food that is passing through the inside of the tube, which is called the intestinal lumen.

    11. tumor grade i

      A scale on which tumors are judged by abnormality and the cells' likelihood to spread.

    12. high-fructose corn syrup

      A sweetener made from corn starch. It contains a mixture of glucose and fructose molecules which taste the same and have the same calories, though they are processed differently in the body.

    13. tumorigenesis

      formation of cancerous clusters of cells (tumors), where cell growth is uncontrolled

    14. AMP deaminase (AMPD2)

      define

    15. tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

      Tandem means having two in a row. and mass spectrometry is a method used to analyze samples to look at chemical makeup by looking at charge-to-mass signatures of individual atoms in a sample. Putting two mass spectrometers in a row increases the sensitivity of this method so that ions that are close in mass can be told apart. A great analogy and explanation can be found in this Youtube video.

    16. distal

      adjective; far from the center. The end-most part of the intestines.

    17. radiolabeled

      define

    18. ad libitum

      adverb; as much as desired. The authors put high-fructose corn syrup in water for the mice to drink as much as they wanted.

    19. myriad

      Noun; large and diverse amount of

    20. Define APC

    1. postmitotic neurons

      Mature cells that are not capable of cell division.

      Question that is being addressed here is: Compared to immature/developing neurons, does mature cells have a different machinery (or set of mechanisms) to synthesize RNA and different neurotransmittters?

    2. inhibitory

      A neurotransmitter that has reduced effects on the neurons.

    3. membrane depolarization

      Refers to a process during which a cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution. At rest, the membrane of a neuron has a potential of -60 to -70 millivolts (mV). This means the inside of the cell is negatively charged relative to the outside. Depolarization is when the potential becomes less negative than the resting potential.

    4. neosynaptogenesis

      "Neo" meaning new, "synaptogenesis" referring to the formation of connections between neurons.

    5. pontine

      Refers to the group of neurons present in the pons of the brain.

      The pons is a brain region that links the medulla and the mid-brain. It serves as a message station between several areas of the brain.

    6. Depolarizing concentrations of K+

      Learn more about action potentials and membrane depolarization with Khan Academy. See also their video here.

    7. S.E.

      Stands for standard error, a measure to test how far the mean of the sample is from the estimated mean of the population.

    8. neural crest

      A structure that gives rise to the peripheral nervous system and non-neuronal cells.

    9. carotid body

      These bodies, consisting of receptors and cells, are located near the carotid arteries. There are two carotid arteries that run on either side of the neck, carrying blood to the neck, face, and brain.

    10. epibranchial placode

      A structure that gives rise to neurons and other structures in the nervous system.

      Learn more about placodes with another annotated paper: https://www.scienceintheclassroom.org/research-papers/hair-feathers-and-scales-evolutionary-tale

    11. transcriptional level

      A regulation that controls the conversion of DNA to RNA in organisms. Learn more with this HHMI BioInteractive video.

    12. regulation

      A set of codes that helps the organism adapt and maintain life.

      In this instance, regulation occurs at the gene level to adapt to environmental conditions.

    13. adrenal

      A gland situated above the kidneys. Adrenal glands produce a variety of hormones.

    14. neurohumoral products

      Neuroendocrine cells are the cells that receive input from neurons and release a hormone into blood for output. Any hormone produced and released by neuroendocrine cells are referred to as neurohumoral products.

    15. autonomic-adrenal axis

      Connections between the sympathetic nervous system and adrenal system.

    16. VIP (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide)

      A neurotransmitter that can be released from exocrine glands; for instance, sweat glands.

      Functions include relaxation of smooth muscles in the stomach and gall bladder, and contraction of heart muscles.

      It has been shown that in sweat glands, both VIP and acetylcholine (or cholinergic) are released from the same population of neurons.

    17. dopamine-β-hydroxylase

      An enzyme that converts dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine.

    18. neurotransmitter plasticity.

      Plasticity can be defined as the ability of the brain to mold and shape in response to experience. The change can be due to change in the receptors present in the brain, the chemicals itself, or the mechanism by which receptors respond to chemicals. 

      Neurotransmitter plasticity refers to changes in neurotransmitters in response to plasticity.

    19. in vivo

      Experiments that are performed on animals or humans.

    20. vegetative functions

      Functions of the body that are essential for life; e.g., sleeping, eating, breathing, bladder activity.

    21. sympathetic neurons

      The sympathetic nervous system is a part of the nervous system that controls the essential functions of life; for example, blood pressure and heart rate. The neurons present in this system are called sympathetic neurons.

    22. nervous system

      You can think of the nervous system as electrical wiring, transmitting signals to and from different parts of the body. The system is made up of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Neurons are cells found in the brain.

    23. peripheral nervous system

      The human nervous system is made up of two components, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The PNS consists of nerves and fibers outside of the brain and spinal cord (which make up the CNS).

    24. peptide transmitters

      These are a class of neurotransmitters. Peptides are made of amino acids or a chain of amino acids.

      Read more about the different neurotransmitters here.

    25. cholinergic

      Refers to the cells that release neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

      Learn more in this video about neurotransmitter release: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/health-and-medicine/nervous-system-and-sensory-infor/neural-cells-and-neurotransmitters/v/neurotransmitter-release

    26. noradrenergic

      Refers to cells that release the neurotransmitter, norepinephrine. An alternative name for norepinephrine is noradrenalin.

    1. Langley

      Samuel Pierpont Langley (1834-1906) was an American astronomer, physicist and inventor. His research on solar and lunar radiation greatly influenced Arrhenius.

      Arrhenius used data from Langley's 1890 publication "The Temperature of the Moon" as the basis for his model.

    2. Fourier

      Joseph Fourier (1768-1830) was a French scientist and mathematician who studied heat transfer. He theorized that Earth's atmosphere could act as a thermal insulator by absorbing heat (radiation) emitted by Earth's surface.

    3. Professor Högbom

      Arvid Hogbom (1857-1940), a Swedish geologist, was a colleague of Arrhenius, a professor at Stockholm University and a member of the Physical Society.

    4. transparency of the atmosphere

      De Marchi seems to refer to the ability of the atmosphere to let through all wavelengths of radiation. He probably focused on the ability of water vapor in clouds to reflect incoming solar radiation, reducing how much solar energy reaches Earth's surface.

      When Arrhenius discusses transparency in relation to his model, he focuses on the ability of water vapor to absorb infrared radiation and re-emit it back toward Earth's surface.

    5. L. De Marchi

      Luigi De Marchi was an Italian meteorologist. The work quoted here is from his prize-winning essay for a competition on the causes of the Ice Age.

    6. eccentricity

      A measure of the shape of an ellipse, how far it is flattened from a circular shape. An orbit with low eccentricity is almost circular, whereas an orbit with high eccentricity is highly elliptical.

      Items 3, 5 and 9 in De Marchi's list make up the Milankovitch Cycles, which affect how much energy Earth receives from the Sun and how that energy is distributed over the globe.

      For more information, see this resource from Climatica: http://climatica.org.uk/climate-science-information/long-term-climate-change-milankovitch-cycles

    7. The position of the equinoxes.

      Also called "precession", this refers to the orientation of Earth's rotational axis relative to its position in its orbit around the Sun.

      Items 3, 5 and 9 in De Marchi's list make up the Milankovitch Cycles, which affect how much energy Earth receives from the Sun and how that energy is distributed over the globe.

      For more information, see this resource from Climatica: http://climatica.org.uk/climate-science-information/long-term-climate-change-milankovitch-cycles

    8. The obliquity of the earth's axis to the ecliptic.

      The tilt of Earth's rotational axis relative to the plane of its orbit around the Sun.

      Items 3, 5 and 9 in De Marchi's list make up the Milankovitch Cycles, which affect how much energy Earth receives from the Sun and how that energy is distributed over the globe.

      For more information, see this resource from Climatica: http://climatica.org.uk/climate-science-information/long-term-climate-change-milankovitch-cycles

    9. diminution

      lowering

    10. A fortiori

      even more

      This is a Latin phrase which translates as "from the stronger". Here, Arrhenius uses it to indicate that the remainder of the sentence presents an even stronger argument than the previous sentence.

    11. untenable

      unsupportable

    12. viz.

      namely; in other words

  4. Jul 2019
    1. differentially expressed genes (DEGs)

      Differentially expressed genes are ones that have higher expression in one condition versus another.

    2. bulk sequencing

      In this context, bulk sequencing refers to the analysis of whole tissue, as opposed to single cells or nuclei.

    3. protoplasmic astrocytes

      Protoplasmic astrocytes are a subset of astrocytes that are located in the gray matter (which consists mostly of cell bodies) in the brain. They have many complex processes that can contact blood vessels and neurons.

    4. unbiased clustering

      Unbiased clustering is a statistical approach to make sense of large sets of data. It allows scientists to group together ("cluster") genes that are similar to one another.

    5. astrocytes

      Astrocytes, like microglia, are cells that facilitate neuronal functions. They mediate neuronal signaling, support the blood brain barrier, and help respond to sites of trauma.

    6. interneurons

      Interneurons are neurons that act as an intermediate between two other neurons.

    7. upper-layer excitatory neurons

      Upper-layer refers to where in the cortex these neurons are located.

      Excitatory neurons are neurons which increases the activity of the cells it's connected to.

    8. RNA integrity number

      The RNA integrity number, or RIN, is an index of RNA quality. RNA can sometimes be degraded when it is isolated, so this is a useful way to see if the RNA is still reliable.

    9. postmortem interval

      The postmortem interval is the time between when an individual died and when the tissue was prepared.

    10. anterior cingulate cortex

      The anterior cingulate cortex is the part of the brain associated with higher level functions such as emotion, empathy, and decision making.

    11. prefrontal cortex

      The prefrontal cortex is an area at the front of the brain. It is associated with social behavior, decision making, and personality.

    12. cortico-cortical projection neurons

      Cortico-cortical projection neurons are cortical neurons which project (or connect to) other cortical neurons.

    13. microglia

      Microglia are "helper cells" in the brain. They help mediate neuron responses, clear out dead cells, and control immune responses.

    14. synaptic signaling

      Synaptic signaling refers to how neurons communicate with one another.

      A projection called an axon from the pre-synaptic neuron touches or "synapses on" the dendritic projections of the post-synaptic neuron. Chemicals called neurotransmitters are released from the pre-synaptic neuron and mediate responses in the post-synaptic neuron.

    15. transcriptomic

      The transcriptome refers to the total set of RNA transcribed from DNA.

    16. single-nucleus RNA sequencing

      In single-nucleus RNA sequencing, the nucleus (which contains DNA and nascently transcribed RNA) is isolated from a single cell. The isolated RNA undergoes RNA-sequencing, in which the RNA is broken up into fragments. Using a database, these fragments are then aligned to specific transcripts.

    17. neocortex

      The neocortex is the part of the brain that in humans is associated with higher level functions such as cognition and language.

    18. genetic heterogeneity of autism

      Genetic heterogeneity refers to the ability of a phenotype (in this case, autism) to manifest via genetic mutations in multiple different loci. This means that there isn't one single genetic mutation that's associated with autism.

    1. downstream processing

      Refers to the process of separating desired products from biosynthetic pathways

    2. chiral reagents

      Any reagent that exhibits chirality (or asymmetry) in its molecular structure

    3. carbene insertion

      carbene is a neutral reactive intermediate; a carbene insertion reaction is the insertion of carbene in a carbon-hydrogen bond.

    4. directed evolution

      Is a method of engineering proteins towards a defined goal or purpose. Directed evolution mimics 'real' evolution and is accelerated in the laboratory by focusing on individual genes expressed in fast‐growing microorganisms such as E.Coli. Enzyme chosen (known as wild type) must show at least a minimal desired reactivity. Mutations are introduced at strategic locations in the wild type protein. Then, the library of mutant proteins is screened for the mutated enzymes with enhanced reactivity. The improved enzymes are used as parents for the next round of mutation and screening. Additional beneficial mutations are introduced if needed. This can continue for several cycles until a desired and beneficial evolution of the enzyme is attained.

    5. physiological

      conditions that occur in nature for an organism in contrast to laboratory conditions

    6. bioorthogonal chemistry

      A new approach of conducting chemical reactions where reactants must react rapidly and selectively with each other under physiological conditions. Two key and relevant features of bioorthogonal reactions is high selectivity and compatibility with naturally occurring functional groups.

    7. metabolic engineering

      Metabolic engineering is the production of specific target chemicals in high yield and stereoselectivity by altering the metabolic pathways. Metabolic pathway is changed via recombinant DNA technology.

    8. heteroarenes

      aromatic compounds where one or more ring carbon atoms are replaced by a heteroatom such as nitrogen, sulfur or oxygen.

    9. naphthalenes

      compounds that contain two fused benzene rings; also referred to as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

    10. amides

      organic compounds that contain -CONH2 structural feature

    11. esters

      organic compounds that contain -COOR functional group

    12. alkyl halides

      organic compounds that contain a halogen connected to an alkyl group such as methyl ethyl etc.

    13. aryl halides

      organic compounds that contain a halogen connected to a benzene ring

    14. ethers

      organic compounds that contains C-O-C structural feature

    15. anaerobic

      oxygen free conditions

    16. recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli.

      At the theoretical level, the steps needed for obtaining a recombinant protein are straightforward. Take your gene of interest, clone it, transform it into the host of choice (here it is E.Coli), induce and then, the protein is ready for purification and characterization.

    17. adventitious “active site”

      an active site created by chance rather than by design

    18. Met

      The amnio acid, methionine

    19. distal

      located at a further distance

    20. His

      The amino acid, histadine

    21. proximal

      located at a closer distance

    22. hydrophobic

      repels or has no affinity towards water

    23. eukaryotic

      cells with membrane bound organelles

    24. functionally conserved

      relatively unchanged when one goes back in genealogical time

    25. thermohalophilic

      An organism that thrives in extreme high temperature and high salt concentrations

    26. enantioinduction

      Enantioinduction is also popularly known as asymmetric induction. This process is the preferential formation of one enantiomer over the other as a result of the influence of a chiral feature present in reactants or the catalyst.

    27. molecular biology

      branch of biology that deals with structure and function of nucleic acids and proteins

    28. genetically encoded

      Is the order of nucleotides that make up the genetic codes that is translated into proteins

    29. isostere

      elements that have the same number of electrons in the outermost shell (also known as valence shell) and have similar electronic properties

    30. biocompatible

      not harmful to living cells

    31. organosilicon

      Compounds that contain carbon-silicon bonds

    32. enantiopure

      A compound available in one enantiomeric form

    33. turnover

      The number of moles of substrata that a catalyst can convert into the desired product before becoming inactive

    34. chemo- and enantioselectivity

      Chemoselectivity is the preferential reaction of a reagent with a specific functional group over others. Enantioselectivity is the extent to which one enantiomer is formed over the other in a chemical reaction.

    35. heme proteins

      is a type of metalloprotein and contains a heme group which is required for the functionality of the protein

    36. catalyze

      speed up a reaction with the use of external agent, typically a chemical compound

  5. Jun 2019
    1. We decomposed this metric into two components: species turnover (βST—the proportion of interactions that are not shared owing to differences in species composition between two networks) and linkage turnover [βOS, also called rewiring—the proportion of interactions unique to a single network despite the occurrence of both partners in both networks (30)

      The authors measured the overall dissimilarity between different locations by two factors:

      species turnover- when two locations do not share similar networks because they are inhabited by different species,

      and linkage turnover- when species found in both locations develop different interactions specific to their site

    2. The wider variety of partners used at the larger scale (regional network) corresponds to the “fundamental niche,” whereas the subset of partners found at local scales indicates that local populations have much more restricted “realized niches” (27, 28).

      A species' fundamental niche encompasses all of the possible roles it has in its environment, whereas the realized niche are the actual roles that a species plays in its environment, taking into account competition, predation, and other interactions with neighboring species.

      The video below further explains this.

    3. niche broadening

      A niche is an organism's role in its ecosystem, describing how it utilizes the resources and interacts with living and nonliving factors of its environment.

      Niche broadening is when a species expands its roles in its habitat, as a tool for survival.

    4. interaction release

      In response to lack of food and increased populations, animals broaden the scope of species they interact with beyond their original interactions.

    5. frugivores

      An animal that eats primarily fruit

    6. interaction dissimilarity

      When the behavior between species in one area differs from the behaviors between species in another location.

    7. introduced species

      Plants or animals not originally from that area

    8. novel interactions

      A new relationship or pattern of behavior between plants and animals.

    9. seed dispersal

      The distribution or spreading of seeds throughout an area

    1. dimorphic

      Dimorphic indicates differences in characteristics between males and females of the same species other than the sex cells.

    2. gonad

      Gonad refers the organ that produces an organism's reproductive cells.

      For mammals, this is the testis in males and ovary in females.

    3. transcription

      The creation of an RNA transcript from DNA.

    4. aromatase

      An enzyme that produces estrogen, the main female sex hormone.

    5. intron retention

      A transcription event in which introns, which are frequently excluded from mRNA, are instead maintained in the mRNA transcript.

      Intron retention allows for more diversity of mRNA transcripts from the same DNA.

    1. recitation

      A meeting of a subset of students from a larger lecture course in which students can ask questions, get clarification on lecture topics, and may solve additional problems or take quizzes (typically required with very large college courses).

    2. β

      Beta. Beta refers to the probability that you can accept the null hypothesis (which states that values affirmation has no effect) when in fact the null hypothesis is wrong.

    3. effect size

      Statistical measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables.

    4. double-blind study

      An experiment in which neither the participants nor the experimenters know which group the each participant is assigned to until after the data is analyzed.

    5. gender gap

      Another term for the "gender achievement gap" in which men outperform women in the same field.

    6. lucrative

      High-paying.

    7. conceptual mastery

      Understanding the main ideas that make up the field.

    8. interactive techniques

      Activities in which the student participates (as opposed to passively listening to a lecture).

    9. curricular materials

      Educational resources that can be incorporated into a teacher's lessons.

    10. context-rich problems

      Short scenarios that give the student a real-world situation in which to apply their knowledge.

    11. fear of being devalued based on a group identity

      Stereotype threat or identity threat.

    12. evaluative stress

      Fear and anxiety caused by the thought of having to take an exam.

    13. pedagogical

      Related to teaching.

    14. control group

      The subjects that do not receive treatment.

    15. self-relevant

      Related to an individual's sense of identity.

    16. cumulative exam

      Test on all material covered during the course.

    17. distribution

      The frequency of occurrence of some measure (for example: how many students got As, Bs, Cs, Ds, and Fs).

    18. standardized test

      Any form of an exam that requires all people taking the test to answer the same questions and is scored the same way in all cases, so that comparisons can be made between all people who take the test. These are typically multiple choice tests taken by large populations of students (for example: all 8th grade students in the US).

    19. psychological threat

      Any outside force (real or perceived) that challenges a person's values, beliefs or sense of self.

      Stereotype (or identity) threat is a subset of psychological threat in which a person feels they will be judged according to common prejudices about some aspect of their identity (for example: race, ethnicity or gender).

    20. SOM

      Supporting Online Materials (typically located at the end of the article).

    21. significant

      The result deviates from that expected to arise by chance (from random variation or errors in sampling).

    22. psychological intervention

      Any activity used to modify behavior, emotional state, or feelings.

    23. values affirmation

      An intervention in which people reflect on and write about the beliefs and values (e.g., family, integrity) that are important in their life.

    24. gender achievement gap

      The difference in test scores, course performance, and job prospects between people of different genders.

    25. instructional methods

      How course material is taught, such as through context-rich problems or curricular materials.

    26. cognitive

      Perception, attention, learning, memory, and problem solving.

    27. theoretically motivated

      Based on a hypothesis that may have been supported in laboratory experiments, but has not yet been shown to work in practice.

    28. replicated

      Repeating a scientific experiment and finding the same results.

    29. resulting in a significant gender × condition interaction

      Interaction effects occur when the effect of one variable depends on another variable.

      In this case, the effect of the intervention (values affirmation or control) depended on the student gender (male or female).

    1. chlorisondamine

      A drug that blocks the binding of acetylcholine to its nicotinic receptors.

    2. neurogenesis

      Formation of new neurons.

    3. autoreceptors

      Referring to a case where the neurotransmitter and the receptors are present on the same cell. The released neurotransmitter binds to the receptor on the same cell.

    4. morphometric analysis

      A quantitative measurement of a neuron size, shape, or density.

    5. petrosal and nodose neurons

      Brain cells in a group of nerves found at the base of the skull. The nodose and petrosal neurons are part of the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves, respectively.

    6. unmanipulated

      No change; unaltered.

    7. nicotinic receptors

      These are receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine.

    8. methylates

      Introduces a methyl (CH<sub>3</sub>) group. Here, PNMT adds a CH<sub>3</sub> group onto norepinephrine creating epinephrine (also known as adrenaline).

    9. pituitary-adrenal axis

      Refers to the connections and interactions between the pituitary gland and adrenal glands. 

    10. caudal thoracic

      Situated in the tail part of the body.

    11. progenitors

      Precursors.

    12. tetrodotoxin

      Sodium channel blocker. It blocks the influx of sodium into the cell.

    13. influx

      Act of flowing in.

      Example: An influx of tourists was observed over the holidays.

    14. catecholaminergic

      Refers to the cell group that releases one of the neurotransmitters, dopamine or norepinephrine.

    15. tyrosine hydroxylase

      An enzyme responsible for the conversion of tyrosine (an amino acid) to dopamine, a neurotransmitter.

    16. quantitative

      Refers to the measurement of quantities, a countable amount of something. For example: A baby weighs 7 pounds and 4 ounces.