4,834 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2022
    1. What is difference between mission and vision?The mission sets the direction for the company's goals and the vision should light a path for how the organization can get there. These statements establish part of the framework for expected behavior and give employees and volunteers a sense of cohesiveness.Jul 21, 2021
    1. convection

      The movement caused within a fluid by the forces acting on the fluid, primarily due to pressure.

    2. diffusive

      Relates to the intermingling of substances by the natural movements of their molecules or particles.

    1. elastic oscillations

      The regular changes in the prototype's structure, where the original size and shape is retained after contact forces have been removed.

  2. Apr 2022
    1. aqueous buffer

      Aqueous buffer is a solution of weak acid and its conjugate base which provides a degree of stability to prevent the rapid fluctuation in pH when a small amount of strong acid or base is added.

    2. uniaxial flows,

      Flows constrained along a single dimension such as those found in the microchannels of microfluidic devices.

    3. DOI 10.1126/science.1066238

      Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a standardized method for uniquely referencing digital documents with the aim of easily leading to the documents location. Almost all published academic journal articles as well as research reports and data sets have an assigned DOI.

    4. homogenize

      To make uniform or similar.

  3. Mar 2022
    1. a differing payment basically means an agreement between the lender and borrower where the borrower requests the lender to give them loan and that loan will be repaid at a later date when situation would be comparatively better

      What is deferring payment ?

    2. sri lankan government has approached the international monetary fund for a bailout bailout basically means asking 00:00:37 financial assistance in order to save any business or in this case you can say save the country's economy from collapsing and you also need to ponder upon the fact that the sri lankan government is asking this kind of financial assistance on deferring loan

      IMF bailout for SriLanka

    1. unimorph piezoelectric structure

      Piezoelectric materials undergo a shape change when voltage is applied across them. A piezoelectric unimorph is a thin and long microstructure that flexes when voltage is applied to it. In this paper, the properties of the piezoelectric material are used to create forward movement of the robot.

    2. duty cycles

      Fraction of time spent in each phase of one cycle of the motion.

    3. information reconnaissance

      Military term for gathering information about an enemy for combat intelligence.

    4. fault-tolerant behavior

      The ability to continue operating despite the failure of one or more components

    5. fail-safe

      Revert to a safe state in the event of failure

    6. Paratarsotomus macropalpis

      Mite species native to Southern California. Discovered to be worlds fastest terrestrial animal and passed the Australian Tiger Beetle as the previous record holder.

    7. gait

      A pattern of limb movement, where the gallop, commonly seen in horses, is the one of the fastest gait that can be performed.

    8. anisotropic lateral forces

      The force that acts in the direction parallel to ground, with varying magnitudes in different directions.

    9. first vibrational mode

      The lowest frequency at which a system oscillates (displays distinct periodic patterns of motion).

    10. oscillatory center of mass (COM) trajectory

      The point within an object at which the whole mass may be considered as concentrated. Here, the authors tracked the center of mass (COM) motion to represent the motion of the entire robot.

    1. transverse

      Perpendicular to the direction of the flow along the channel

    2. kinematic viscosity

      The measurement of a fluid's internal resistance to flow

    3. lithography

      The process of printing a design onto a flat surface using chemical reactions.

    4. Stokes flow

      A form of fluid motion dominated by viscous forces. This occurs at low fluid velocities, high fluid viscosities, or very small length-scales of flow.

    5. layer-by-layer geometries

      Lithography techniques rely on fabricating one layer at a time to construct device features at the microscale.

    6. Pe ́cletnumber

      A dimensionless number that represents the ratio of the rate of transport by bulk motion of a fluid to the rate of transport by diffusion.

    1. umbra

      Sunspots are darker, cooler areas of the sun's surface. The umbra is the darkest part of a sunspot, at its center. It is surrounded by the lighter penumbra.

    1. To get a sorted list of all glossary items you could use YAML in the front matter of each glossary term then use the dataview plugin and sort ascending.
      • idea for glossary
  4. Feb 2022
    1. vertical spring-damper

      a spring that absorbs up and down movement

    2. torsional spring-damper

      a spring that absorbs rotational movement

    3. resonant frequencies

      At resonant frequency, the circuit exhibits a maximum oscillatory, or regularly varying, response at a specific frequency (the number of times the AC switches between positive and negative in 1 second).

    4. two-segment mass-spring model

      This idealized model allows for the characterization of motion animals use, like bouncing. Specifically, it is assumed that the movement behaves like a mass bouncing on a spring.

    5. piezoelectric effect

      The ability of the PVDF to generate an electric charge in response to the applied voltage, resulting in expansion (or stretching) and contraction (or shrinking).

    6. pin joint

      A connection between two rigid bodies that allows only relative rotation about a single direction.

    7. cross-sectional view scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image

      SEM is an instrument that produces a largely magnified image by using electrons instead of light to form an image.

    8. MATLAB

      A programming language that is primarily used for numerical computation as well as computational modeling, simulation, and prototyping.

    9. ground reaction force

      The force that opposes gravity because it is exerted by the ground onto a body that is in contact with the ground.

    10. both-touching

      Both the front- and back-legs making contact with the ground

    11. polyethylene terephthalate (PET)

      A soft, highly stretchable plastic, which most plastic bottles are made of.

    12. adhesive silicone

      A pressure sensitive substance that can change shape in order to seal gaps in materials.

    13. PVDF

      A polymeric material that has high piezoelectric coefficient, good stability and flexibility. This material is commonly used in soft actuators.

    14. polymeric materials

      Polymers are materials made of long, repeating chains of subunits called monomers. Examples include plastics, proteins and DNA.

    15. robustness

      The ability to withstand rigorous testing and maintain its original condition.

    16. Soft robots

      A subset of the robotics field that primarily aims to mimic body motion of living organisms using soft materials.

    17. actuators

      A machine that causes motion or power (i.e. pushes, pulls, or rotates).

    18. arthropods

      A classification of the animal kingdom that encompasses organisms that have an exoskeleton, a segmented body, and jointed appendages (i.e. insects, crustaceans, arachnids, centipedes).

    19. Mobility

      The ability to move freely and easily

    20. animal locomotion

      A variety of methods that animals use to move from one place to another.

    1. microstructure

      Structures of an object, organism, or material with a typical feature length scale of 1-100 micrometers

    2. dermis

      Inner layer of the skin tissue containing blood capillaries, nerve endings, sweat glands, and hair follicles.

    3. mechanoreceptors

      Receptors typically located on cell membrane that relay external mechanical stimuli such as pressure, touch, or motion.

    4. biomimetic

      Synthetic materials/methods that mimic biological materials/mechanisms.

    5. magnetic flux

      the measurement of the total magnetic field which passes through a specified area

    6. transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

      A therapy that uses low-voltage electrical current for pain relief, also known as TENS.

    7. action potentials

      Nerve signals that occur when a neuron sends information away from the cell body. The action potential itself is a burst of electrical energy.

    8. inductance-capacitance (LC) oscillation circuit

      A circuit containing both an inductor (L) and capacitor (C) that oscillates by shifting the energy between the electric and magnetic fields.

    9. giant magneto-impedance

      An external magnetic field causing a large variation in the electrical impedance of the material.

    10. stimuli

      signal or input that evokes a specific functional reaction in an organ or tissue.

    11. neuromorphic

      Describes any large system of integrated circuits that mimic the nervous system.

    12. nociceptors

      A pain receptor that responds to damaging stimuli by sending the "threat" signals to the spinal cord and brain.

    13. nanomeshes

      Inorganic nano-structured two-dimensional material.

    14. organic field-effect transistors

      A three-terminal active organic semiconductor device where the output current is controlled by an electric field generated by the input voltage. These are compact and have lower power consumption.

    15. piezoresistors

      A device that exhibits a change in resistance when it is strained.

    16. pascals

      the standard unit of pressure or stress in the International System of Units (SI), equal to one newton per square meter.

    17. tactile

      connected with the sense of touch

    18. bionic

      having artificial body parts, especially electromechanical ones.

    19. prosthetic

      an artificial body part

    1. confocal micrographs

      Images obtained by confocal microscopy, a fluorescence imaging technique that uses lasers to create a three-dimensional image of a sample

    2. herringbones

      An arrangement or design consisting of columns of short parallel lines, with all lines from one column slopping in an opposite direction from the next column.

    3. orthogonal

      At a right angle, perpendicular

    4. Re

      Re is an abbreviation for Reynolds number.

    5. bas-relief structures

      Ridge like structures used to disrupt laminar flow patterns

    6. turbulent

      Fluid flow that is subject to chaotic changes in velocity and pressure. The opposite of laminar flow.

    7. topography

      Natural and artificial arrangements of physical features of an area.

    8. hydrodynamic dispersion

      The spreading out of a solute in a stream of fluid.

    9. microfabrication

      The process of fabricating a structure on a micrometer or smaller scale.

    10. Microfluidic

      A device that uses small amounts of liquid on a microscopic scale

    11. Poiseuille flows

      Steady viscous (thick) fluid flow driven by an effective pressure gradient established between the two ends of a long straight pipe of uniform circular cross-section

    12. photolithography

      A microfabrication technique that uses photosensitive resin and ultraviolet light to create microscale features and devices.

    13. chromatography

      Chemical analysis technique involving the separation of components in a mixture by passing it through a material in which the components move at different rates.

      [Chromatography basics video] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XfSopnqrHOs)

    14. Electroosmotic

      Pertaining to the flow of fluid caused by an applied voltage across a membrane, microchannel, or porous material.

    15. anisotropic

      Possessing a different property depending on the direction of the material.

    16. uniaxial

      Pertaining to a single direction.

    17. laminar

      Characterized by flow in which fluid moves smoothly along a path.

    18. Reynolds number

      A ratio of the internal forces to the viscous forces in a fluid. A low Reynolds number indicates stronger viscous force and smoother (laminar) flow, whereas a high Reynolds number indicates greater internal forces and irregular (turbulent) flow.

  5. Jan 2022
    1. reverse transcription quantitative real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)

      Reverse transcription quantitative real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction, or qRT-PCR, is a widely used molecular technique to measure RNA levels.

      RNA is first reverse transcribed into complimentary DNA. This complimentary DNA is then used as a template for a fluorescence-tagged amplification reaction to calculate the relative amount of a specific starting transcript.

      The transcript levels are compared between genes of interest, which are all compared to a "housekeeping gene" or a transcript that has the same levels of expression across conditions. This comparison standardizes the levels of overall transcription across samples.

      Thermo Fisher provides an extensive introduction to gene expression measuring technologies here: https://www.thermofisher.com/us/en/home/life-science/pcr/real-time-pcr/real-time-pcr-learning-center/gene-expression-analysis-real-time-pcr-information/introduction-gene-expression.html

  6. Dec 2021
    1. PeVN

      The periventricular nucleus is a thin sheet of neurons located in the hypothalamus. For the purpose of this paper, PeVN can be defined as the part of the hypothalamus that is a major source of dopamine and somatostatin expression.

    2. PaVN

      The paraventricular nucleus is a region of the hypothalamus, considered to be the body's most important autonomic control center. The neurons of the PaVN are involved in controlling stress, metabolism, growth, reproduction, immune, gastrointestinal, renal, and cardiovascular functions. For the purpose of this paper, PaVN can be defined as the part of the hypothalamus that is a major source of dopamine and somatostatin expression.

    1. polar cap

      The polar cap is the region of each pole that is covered in ice.

    2. interannual variability

      Interannual events take place in different years.

      Here, it refers to variations that occur from year to year.

    3. forcings

      Forcings refer to factors that drive changes in the climate.

    4. absorption of sunlight

      Light absorption occurs when light transfers energy to an object.

      Here, sunlight's energy is transferred to ozone in the form of heat.

    5. high-latitude

      High latitudes are approximately 60 degrees from the equator and higher. This includes the polar regions.

    6. dynamical variability

      Dynamical variability refers to naturally occurring changes in the climate from year to year.

      Halogen-induced changes become more apparent when naturally occurring changes are removed from the analysis.

    7. low latitudes

      The low latitudes are approximately between 0 degrees (equator) and 30 degrees.

    8. halocarbons

      Halocarbons are chemicals that contain bonds between carbon and halogen atoms.

      Halogens are a group of elements that includes fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine, and tennessine.

      Halocarbons are highly reactive in the Earth's atmosphere and lead to ozone depletion.

    9. anthropogenic

      Anthropogenic means caused by human activity.

      In this context, humans released chemicals into the atmosphere, and these chemicals produced the hole in the ozone layer.

    10. mid-latitudes

      Latitude is the coordinate that specifies the north-south location on the surface of the Earth and ranges from 0 degrees at the equator to 90 degrees at the North and South Poles.

      Mid(or middle)-latitudes are approximately between 30 degrees and 60 degrees.

    11. total integrated column amount

      The integrated column is a way to quantify how much of a particular gas is found in the Earth's atmosphere.

      For a vertical path, or column, that extends through the atmosphere, the number of gas molecules is measured at each point along the path. Then, the sum total is calculated for the entire path.

      In this case, it is used to measure the amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

    12. ozone

      Ozone is a gaseous molecule composed of 3 oxygen atoms with the chemical formula O\(_{3}\).

      Here, the authors are referring to the layer of ozone in the Earth's atmosphere that filters harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun.

    1. altithermal

      The altithermal, also known as the Holocene climatic optimum, was a warm period which occurred from around 9,000 to 5,000 years ago.

    2. mean radiating level

      The mean radiating level is the average altitude at which radiation is emitted from Earth out to space.

    3. hot, dry summer of 1980

      In 1980, the United States experienced an intense heat wave that remains among the most destructive natural disasters in American history.

    4. Paleoclimatic

      Paleoclimatology is the study of climate before direct measurements were taken. Analysis of samples from rock, ice, and trees can allow scientists to reconstruct climate patterns from hundreds to thousands of years ago.

    5. σ

      Here, σ refers to standard deviation, a measure of the amount of variation in a dataset.

    6. 5-year smoothed

      Smoothed datasets use approximations that combine points with their surrounding values in order to capture the largest patterns without small variations.

    7. a posteriori

      A posteriori means based on empirical evidence, rather than by theoretical deduction.

    8. correlation coefficient

      The correlation coefficient is a measure of how closely the variation in one quantity is related to the variation in another quantity. This value ranges from 0 to 1, with 0 indicating no correlation and 1 indicating perfect correlation.

    9. forcings

      A radiative forcing is a change in the energy flows in the atmosphere.

    10. solar insolation

      Solar insolation refers to the power per unit area received from the sun.

    11. Mount Agung

      Mount Agung is an active volcano in Bali, Indonesia. Its eruption in 1963 sent debris 10 km into the air and killed over 1,000 people. The volcano experienced several smaller eruptions between 2017 and 2019.

    12. heterogeneous

      Heterogeneous distributions are unevely spread out.

    13. stratospheric

      The stratosphere is the layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere. The stratosphere extends to around 50 km above sea level.

    14. optical thickness

      Optical thickness, or optical depth, is a measure of how much light can be transmitted through a material. The higher the optical thickness, the less light will make it through the substance.

    15. thermocline

      The thermocline is the horizontal layer in a body of water where the change in temperature with depth is greater than the layers above or below. Most sunlight is absorbed by the ocean above the thermocline, and this is also where most of the turbulent mixing by waves occurs.

    16. e-folding time

      e-Folding time is the time interval in which a quantity increases by a factor of e, or about 2.72.

    17. Wisconsin ice age

      The Wisconsin ice age, also known as the Wisconsin glaciation, was a period of colder temperatures and glacier advance in North America. This glaciation occurred between 75,000 and 11,000 years ago.

    18. moist adiabatic limiting lapse rate

      The moist adiabatic lapse rate is the rate at which the temperature of a moist air parcel changes as it rises adiabatically (zero heat transfer).

      Unlike the dry adiabatic lapse rate, the moist rate depends strongly on temperature. This is because cold air can hold less water than warm air, so as the parcel rises, water begins to condense and release heat to the air around it. This means that the moist rate is generally lower than the dry rate.

    19. absolute humidity

      Absolute humidity is the ratio of the mass of water in a parcel of air to the volume of that parcel.

    20. relative humidity

      Relative humidity is the ratio of how much water is in the air to how much water the air can hold at the temperature of measurement.

    21. model sensitivity

      The model sensitivity refers to how much the output changes for a given change in input. Here, we are interested in the amount of warming predicted for a doubling in carbon dioxide concentration.

    22. Mie scattering theory

      Mie scattering theory is a model of light scattering that assumes that the particles scattering the light are spherical. This theory applies best when the particles have similar diameter to the wavelength of the incident light. Scattering in the lower 4,500 m of the atmosphere is well described by these equations.

    23. absorption coefficients

      The absorption coefficient of a substance is how efficiently it absorbs radiation at a given frequency.

    24. radiative transfer equation

      The radiative transfer equation mathematically describes how a beam of radiation responds to absorption, emission, and scattering processes.

    25. flux divergences

      The divergence of a flux is a measure of how much some process flows in or out through a surface. If something is a source of the flow, its divergence will be positive, and if it is a sink, its divergence will be negative.

    26. heat capacity

      Heat capacity is the energy it takes to raise the temperature of a substance by a given amount (e.g., 1 degree). It usually has units of joules per mole per kelvin.

    27. convectively unstable

      Convective stability is the ability of a mass of air to resist vertical motion (convection). When an atmosphere is unstable, air masses have larger vertical movements. In the extreme, this can create turbulence and sometimes severe weather.

    28. latent heat

      Latent heat is heat transfer that is not accompanied by a change in temperature. This occurs when water condenses (releasing heat) or evaporates (absorbing heat).

      This is the mechanism by which sweat cools our bodies, even though the temperature of the water remains the same before and immediately after evaporation.

    29. dry adiabatic value

      An adiabatic process is one that occurs with no heat transfer between a system and its surroundings.

      As an air mass rises or falls adiabatically, its temperature changes with altitude due to the change in pressure. The rate of this change for a dry air mass is the dry adiabatic lapse rate.

    30. troposphere

      The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, extending from the surface to 13 km above ground on average. This layer contains most of the mass of the atmosphere and is where most weather phenomena take place.

    31. temperature gradient (lapse rate)

      The lapse rate is the rate at which temperature changes with altitude in the atmosphere.

    32. flux-weighted

      Radiant flux refers to light emitted through a surface and has units of watts per square meter. A spherical object emitting radiation will have a radiant flux that gets smaller as one gets further from the source's center.

    33. Stefan-Boltzmann constant

      The Stefan-Boltzmann constant is a number used in the Stefan-Boltzmann law. This equation relates an object's temperature to the wavelengths of light it emits.

      The constant's value is about 5.67 W / (m^2 K^4).

    34. albedo

      Albedo is the proportion of incoming light that is reflected back into space. This reflected light is in the visible and ultraviolet range, rather than the light emitted by Earth itself which is in the infrared.

      Clouds and snow are responsible for much of the planet's albedo.

    35. greenhouse effect

      The greenhouse effect is the warming of Earth's surface due to the behavior of certain atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases.

      Greenhouse gases absorb and emit the same wavelengths of light (infrared) that are emitted by the planet's surface. This slows down the loss of heat energy to space.

    36. order of magnitude

      An order of magnitude generally refers to a factor of ten. If two results disagree by an order magnitude or more, they are quite different from each other.

    37. radiative perturbations

      Radiative perturbations are changes to the balance of light energy exchanged between Earth and space.

    38. atmospheric "window"

      The atmospheric window refers to the range of wavelengths of light that are emitted from Earth to space with little absorption by atmospheric gases.

      Radiation in this range allows the Earth to get rid of excess heat energy from the Sun and maintain a constant temperature.

    39. anthropogenic carbon dioxide

      Anthropogenic pollutants are harmful substances released into the environment from human activities.

      Carbon dioxide is one such pollutant, and is released from the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal and gasoline.

    40. parts per million

      If a gas has a concentration in a mixture of one part per million (ppm), there is one particle of that gas for every million particles in the mixture.

    41. Northwest Passage

      The Northwest Passage is the sea route that connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans along the northern coast of North America.

      Early European explorers believed the Northwest Passage could allow easy access to Asia, but the waters were too shallow and icy to be navigable.

    42. noise level

      The noise level in a dataset refers to the amount of natural variation that is present.

    43. solar luminosity

      Solar luminosity is a measure of how much energy the Sun emits as light every second.

    44. volcanic aerosols

      Aerosols are small particles of solid and liquid that are suspended in air.

      When volcanoes erupt, they release a large quantity of aerosols. These aerosols can reflect sunlight back into space, cooling the ground below.

  7. Nov 2021
  8. Oct 2021
    1. intron retention

      RNA transcripts have two major components - exons and introns. Exons stay in the transcript that gets made into a protein, whereas introns are cut out, and this is known as splicing.

      Intron retention refers to a transcription event where an intron is kept in the RNA instead of being removed. This process can allow for more diversity of transcripts from the same gene.

      You can visualize the splicing process here: https://www.biointeractive.org/classroom-resources/rna-splicing

    2. lentivirus

      Lentivirus is a type of virus that contains reverse transcriptase - a molecule that transcribes RNA into DNA to integrate into the genome and infect host cells.

      Lentivirus can be used to deliver desired DNA into cells. This lentiviral transduction allows for gene expression of desired sequences in organisms of interest.

      You can watch more about cloning to make the DNA for transduction here: https://www.biointeractive.org/classroom-resources/dna-cloning-plasmids, and you visualize the workflow of lentiviral transduction here: https://www.mirusbio.com/applications/high-titer-virus-production/lentivirus-production#figure1303

    3. RNA interference (RNAi)

      RNAi describes the process in which small RNA molecules target and degrade RNA molecules to block protein expression.

      shRNAs are one type of RNA that is used for RNAi.

      This tutorial provides further exploration of RNAi: https://www.biointeractive.org/classroom-resources/rna-interference

    4. transcription

      The creation of an RNA molecule from DNA.

      The RNA that is transcribed from DNA is commonly referred to as a "transcript".

      Canonically, this RNA is later translated to make protein, as described by gene "expression".

      You can visualize and learn more about transcription here: https://www.biointeractive.org/classroom-resources/dna-transcription-advanced-detail

    5. histone

      Histones are a family of proteins that help organize and compact DNA in the eukaryotic genome. DNA wraps around histones to fit inside the nucleus, like yarn around a spool.

      Here is an illustration of this organization: https://www.genome.gov/sites/default/files/tg/en/illustration/histones.jpg and a video that walks through DNA compaction: https://www.biointeractive.org/classroom-resources/how-dna-packaged

    6. H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) demethylase KDM6B

      The histone proteins have exposed "tails" of peptides that can be modified with additional chemical groups, such as methyl or acetyl molecules. These molecules can alter how the histone interacts with its associated DNA.

      These chemical modifications can be added or removed by specific proteins, such as KDM6B, which removes histone subunit 3 lysine residue 27 methylations.

      You can learn more about histone modifications here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OqRt723t33o

    7. meiotic

      Meiotic is the adjective for meiosis, which is the cell division that gives rise to sex cells.

      You can learn more about meiosis here: https://www.biointeractive.org/classroom-resources/meiosis

    8. RNA sequencing analysis

      RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is a high performance technique that measures which and how many transcript sequences are present in a given biological sample.

      You can learn more about the technique and its analysis here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tlf6wYJrwKY

    9. chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)

      Chromatin immunoprecipitation, or ChIP, identifies the DNA regions were a protein binds across the genome.

      First, an antibody recognizes and binds a protein of interest in the nucleus. Then the antibody holding onto the protein is isolated and any DNA bound the protein is captured for analyses.

      This article describes ChIP and it's application, with some example data analysis, here: https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/US/en/technical-documents/technical-article/genomics/gene-expression-and-silencing/chromatin-immunoprecipitation-chip

    10. in situ hybridization

      A common technique to visualize nucleotide (DNA or RNA) in cells.

      A chemical or radioactive label is added to a nucleotide sequence that is complimentary to the sequence of interest. When added to the cells, this complimentary nucleotide sequence will bind to and tag the sequence of interest, allowing scientists to visualize the DNA or RNA of interest within the cell.

      You can read more about in situ hybridization methods here: https://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-fish-327/

    11. quantitative PCR (qPCR)

      Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) measures RNA or DNA levels for comparison among samples.

      This technique is very similar to qRT-PCR (described in above annotations), but does not always require reverse transcription.

    12. molecular basis

      The authors are hoping to reveal the molecular biology underlying Kdm6b-depletion sex reversal. They will test for the genes that KDM6B can directly bind and activate expression for in developing T.scripta gonads.

    13. ectopic

      Ectopic describes events occurring in locations that do not naturally have such events.

      For example, expression of a brain-specific gene in a toenail would be considered ectopic gene expression.

      Here ectopic describes the presence of aromatase in Kdm6b-depleted gonads at MPT, which produces female sex hormones.

    14. loss-of-function mutants

      A mutation is a change to the structure or sequence of a gene compared to a reference.

      Loss of function mutations cause a gene not to make functional amounts or forms of its protein.

      Here, the shRNA is blocking Kdm6b expression, meaning that there is not enough KDM6B to function normally in the Kdm6b-RNAi embryos.

    15. master regulator

      A master regulator often refers to a protein that initiates the cascade of expression for all genes involved in a specific pathway, such as cell fate and development pathways.

    16. germ cells

      Germ cells are an organism's reproductive cells, or the cells that go on to make gametes, like sperm and eggs.

      Every organism is comprised of somatic cells and germ cells.

    17. seminiferous cords

      Seminiferous cords are one of the earliest male-specific tissues formed as the gonad develops. These cords ultimately develop into tubules which hold sperm.

    18. expression

      Expression refers to the active process of making a protein from a gene.

    19. epigenetic

      Epigenetic describes heritable changes in gene expression, or transcription, that do not alter an organism's DNA sequence.

    20. promoter

      The region of DNA that is required for transcription initiation.

    21. gonad

      Gonad refers the organ that produces an organism's reproductive cells.

      The gonad is the testis in males and is the ovary in females.

    22. phenotypic plasticity

      A phenotype describes the physical properties of an organism that can be observed.

      A genotype defines the genetic composition of an organism, including chromosomes and DNA sequences.

      Together, phenotypic plasticity is the ability of one genotype to produce multiple different phenotypes in an organism.

    23. molecular mechanism

      Now that authors have seen that Kdm6b regulates Dmrt1 activation, they are interested in how the molecules interact in the male sex development pathway.

    24. overexpress

      The opposite of knock-down or RNAi, overexpression describes a technique were an RNA transcript for a particular gene is increased above it's normal biological level.

    1. public health (non-pharmaceutical) interventions

      Public health interventions are everyday actions that the public can take to stop the spread of an infectious disease. As indicated by the word in the parentheses, taking medication or vaccination is not considered a public health intervention.

    1. Hydrometallurgy, a process that uses chemicals such as acids or cyanide to leach metals, generates toxic effluent.
    2. Pyrometallurgy involves heating e-waste to more than 1,000 °C, requiring a lot of energy and releasing toxic gases.
    3. bioleaching

      Using bacteria to leach metals from electronics.

    4. e-waste

      Electronic waste: discarded or no longer used electronic devices.

    1. congenital

      Present from birth

    2. etiology

      Cause of a disease

    3. cortical progenitor cells

      Specialized cells in the outermost regions of the brain that give rise to most of the cells in the central nervous system

    4. proliferative defects

      Limited cell growth and division

  9. Sep 2021
    1. Sham

      placebo

    2. sulpiride

      The dopamine receptor antagonist sulpiride functions by binding to the D2 dopamine receptor to block dopamine from binding.

    3. dopamine receptor antagonists SCH23390

      SCH23390 functions by binding to the D1 dopamine receptor to block dopamine from binding.

    4. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)

      a neurotoxic synthetic organic compound used by researchers to selectively destroy the brain's dopaminergic as well as noradrenergic neurons. In this paper, it was used to ablate dopaminergic neurons, so as to stop dopamine synthesis.

    5. sham control

      a control treatment that is similar to the experimental treatment, but omits the key therapeutic element being tested.

    1. nested topology—specialist species tend to interact with subsets of partners of the most generalist species

      Metaphorically, nestedness can be compared to a Russian doll, where the diet of specialist species (smaller dolls) fits within the diet of the more generalist species (larger dolls).

    2. playback

      A recording of a bird's native calls is played to lure the species into an area.

    3. weighted

      A weighted network assigns some form of quantitative value to each connection between two partners (an example is shown below in figure 4). In this case, the value assigned was the frequency of interaction.

    4. Abiotic factors

      Non-living parts of an ecosystem, such as elevation or rainfall

    5. We decomposed this metric into two components: species turnover (βST—the proportion of interactions that are not shared owing to differences in species composition between two networks) and linkage turnover [βOS, also called rewiring—the proportion of interactions unique to a single network despite the occurrence of both partners in both networks (30)

      The authors measured the overall dissimilarity between different locations by two factors:

      species turnover when — two  locations do not share similar interaction patterns because they are inhabited by different species,

      and linkage turnover — when species found in both locations develop different interactions specific to their site

    6. The wider variety of partners used at the larger scale (regional network) corresponds to the “fundamental niche,” whereas the subset of partners found at local scales indicates that local populations have much more restricted “realized niches” (27, 28).

      A species' fundamental niche encompasses all of the possible roles it has in its environment, whereas the realized niches are the actual roles that a species plays in its environment, taking into account competition, predation, and other interactions with neighboring species.

      The video below further explains this: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6COob_bymw

    7. supergeneralist

      A species that interacts with a wide number of species in ecological network. 

    1. replacement rate

      The replacement rate of 1 means that one case in a completely susceptible population can lead to one secondary case. Assuming that the initial case can be cured and reach full recovery — which is what all of us hope — a rate equal to 1 means that one is infected when another gets well, leading to an unchanged number of cases.

    2. U = 8197, z = –3.4, P < 0.01

      The Mann-Whitney U statistic can be seen as the cumulative result of comparing the randomly drawn values from two populations. z is the standardized value and is dependent on the sizes of the two populations. P is the probability for a null hypothesis to be true.

    3. Mann-Whitney

      The Mann-Whitney U test is a test for a null hypothesis that it is equally possible for a value drawn from a population to be greater or smaller than another from a different population. This test is useful when the distributions of values are unspecified. In this study, one population comprises cities that took action earlier, and the other is for cities that responded later.

    4. P < 0.01

      P is the probability that the null hypothesis is true. The null hypothesis, in this case, is that the total number of cases reported from each province shows no significant linear correlation with the total number of travelers from Wuhan.