23 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2023
    1. The prefrontal leukotomy procedure developed by Moniz and Lima was modified in 1936 by American neurologists Walter J. Freeman II and James W. Watts. Freeman preferred the use of the term lobotomy and therefore renamed the procedure “prefrontal lobotomy.” The American team soon developed the Freeman-Watts standard lobotomy, which laid out an exact protocol for how a leukotome (in this case, a spatula) was to be inserted and manipulated during the surgery. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now lobotomyThe use of lobotomy in the United States was resisted and criticized heavily by American neurosurgeons. However, because Freeman managed to promote the success of the surgery through the media, lobotomy became touted as a miracle procedure, capturing the attention of the public and leading to an overwhelming demand for the operation. In 1945 Freeman streamlined the procedure, replacing it with transorbital lobotomy, in which a picklike instrument was forced through the back of the eye sockets to pierce the thin bone that separates the eye sockets from the frontal lobes. The pick’s point was then inserted into the frontal lobe and used to sever connections in the brain (presumably between the prefrontal cortex and thalamus). In 1946 Freeman performed this procedure for the first time on a patient, who was subdued prior to the operation with electroshock treatment.The transorbital lobotomy procedure, which Freeman performed very quickly, sometimes in less than 10 minutes, was used on many patients with relatively minor mental disorders that Freeman believed did not warrant traditional lobotomy surgery, in which the skull itself was opened. A large proportion of such lobotomized patients exhibited reduced tension or agitation, but many also showed other effects, such as apathy, passivity, lack of initiative, poor ability to concentrate, and a generally decreased depth and intensity of their emotional response to life. Some died as a result of the procedure. However, those effects were not widely reported in the 1940s, and at that time the long-term effects were largely unknown. Because the procedure met with seemingly widespread success, Moniz was awarded the 1949 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (along with Swiss physiologist Walter Rudolf Hess). Lobotomies were performed on a wide scale during the 1940s; Freeman himself performed or supervised more than 3,500 lobotomies by the late 1960s. The practice gradually fell out of favour beginning in the mid-1950s, when antipsychotics, antidepressants, and other medications that were much more effective in treating and alleviating the distress of mentally disturbed patients came into use. Today lobotomy is rarely performed; however, shock therapy and psychosurgery (the surgical removal of specific regions of the brain) occasionally are used to treat patients whose symptoms have resisted all other treatments.

      Walter Freeman's barbaric obsession and fervent practice of the miracle cure for mental illness that is the "transorbital lobotomy"

  2. Mar 2022
  3. Oct 2021
    1. Wenzel, J., Lampe, J., Müller-Fielitz, H., Schuster, R., Zille, M., Müller, K., Krohn, M., Körbelin, J., Zhang, L., Özorhan, Ü., Neve, V., Wagner, J. U. G., Bojkova, D., Shumliakivska, M., Jiang, Y., Fähnrich, A., Ott, F., Sencio, V., Robil, C., … Schwaninger, M. (2021). The SARS-CoV-2 main protease Mpro causes microvascular brain pathology by cleaving NEMO in brain endothelial cells. Nature Neuroscience, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-021-00926-1

  4. Aug 2021
    1. While it is clear that technologies of communication change societiesand permit different forms of human organization, it is not clear that theychange the basic human thought processes embedded in language. The humanbrain does adapt differently to different technologies (recall the differences inbrain wiring between readers of ideograms and of phonetic alphabets), butthe evidence to date indicates the human brain adapts in order to translateinformation into language, so as to exchange information and permit concertedaction with others with whom we communicate. This concerted action is nolonger, as at the dawn of language, action undertaken by people in close contactbut rather is activity undertaken because of reliance upon expectations storedin individual and social memory.
  5. Mar 2021
    1. When peeking at your brain may help with mental illness
      • Experimental treatments use fMRI brain imaging to teach mental illness patients how to optimize their brain activity.
      • Scientists analyzed 17 relevant studies with 410 total participants, and concluded that people can regulate their own brain activity when they see it in real time.
      • The method is called neurofeedback, and it shows promise as a way to treat mental illness patients.
      • However, the method has to be studied more in order to understand how it works, and how to unlock its potential as a treatment.
  6. Jan 2021
    1. “affect labelling,” the act of putting feelings into words, actually help decrease brain activity in the amygdala and therefore reduce stress

      Affect Labelling - Put thoughts into words. Decreases amygdala activity which decreases stress.

      Other studies have shown this has resulted in:

      • Healthier eating choices
      • Healthier sexual appetites

      Great practices are:

      • Reframing your language. Practise saying phrases like “I am feeling angry”, instead of “I am angry.”
      • Meditate often
      • Induce flow states through work you enjoy, or exercise
      • Psychedelic experiences
      • Being in nature (e.g long hikes)
      • Vipassana retreats
      • Long stretches of undisturbed time spent with yourself
  7. Aug 2020
  8. Jul 2020
    1. Varatharaj, A., Thomas, N., Ellul, M. A., Davies, N. W. S., Pollak, T. A., Tenorio, E. L., Sultan, M., Easton, A., Breen, G., Zandi, M., Coles, J. P., Manji, H., Al-Shahi Salman, R., Menon, D. K., Nicholson, T. R., Benjamin, L. A., Carson, A., Smith, C., Turner, M. R., … Plant, G. (2020). Neurological and neuropsychiatric complications of COVID-19 in 153 patients: A UK-wide surveillance study. The Lancet Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30287-X

  9. May 2020
    1. Holmes, E. A., O’Connor, R. C., Perry, V. H., Tracey, I., Wessely, S., Arseneault, L., Ballard, C., Christensen, H., Silver, R. C., Everall, I., Ford, T., John, A., Kabir, T., King, K., Madan, I., Michie, S., Przybylski, A. K., Shafran, R., Sweeney, A., … Bullmore, E. (2020). Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: A call for action for mental health science. The Lancet Psychiatry, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30168-1

  10. Apr 2020
  11. Jan 2020
    1. Look over your list. Do they contain words like published, awarded, graduated, built, founded or created? Or do they contain mostly adjectives like nice, caring, loving, honest and smart? If you’re in the first sentence it’s likely you’re an SC. If the majority of your responses are in the second sentence you are likely an RC.

      The difference is if listing egocentric stuff (I'm impressive and I feel better than others, I feel worthy for myself itself) or listing qualities that influence the surrounding world (I do social work to help refugees, I published a theory to improve the current state of philosophy, I completed a project or a school, I created something that now generates some kind of value).

      The Replication Creators are creative just for themselves, so they get just short-term rewards.

      The Skilled Creators are creative for the sharing with the others, so they get long-term rewards.

  12. Dec 2019
    1. we shield ourselves from existential threats, or consciously thinking about the idea that we are going to die, by shutting down predictions about the self,” researcher Avi Goldstein told The Guardian, “or categorizing the information as being about other people rather than ourselves.

      Magically, our brain doesn't easily accept the fact that we will die some day. It was proved by the short experiment:

      volunteers were watching images of faces with words like "funeral" or "burial", and whenever they've seen their own one, the brain didn't showcase any surprise signals

  13. Jul 2019
  14. Nov 2018
  15. Oct 2018
  16. Nov 2014
    1. a note by selecting some text and clicking the button that appears above the selection

      This is a note about pathology and neurology.