22 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2022
    1. Mycorrhizal fungi map the relationships in a forest just as myths map the specific relationships of a community rooted in place. SOPHIE STRAND
  2. Jul 2022
    1. Yet there were still many traps along the way. In what is now Iraq, the Sumerian civilization (one of the world’s first) withered and died as the irrigation systems it invented turned the fields into salty desert. Some two thousand years later, in the Mediterranean basin, chronic soil erosion steadily undermined the Classical World: first the Greeks, then the Romans at the height of their power. And a few centuries after Rome’s fall, the Classic Maya, one of only two high civilizations to thrive in tropical rainforest (the other being the Khmer), eventually wore out nature’s welcome at the heart of Central America.

      Progress traps through history: * 1. Sumerian civilization (Iraq) irrigation system turned fields into salty desert * Greek and Roman empire - chronic soil erosion also eroded these empires * Classic Mayan empire may have collapsed due to the last 2 of 7 megadroughts because it was over-urbanized and used up all water sources, leaving no buffer in case of drought: https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2020/02/new-clues-about-how-and-why-the-maya-culture-collapsed/

  3. Jun 2022
    1. European farmland could be biggest global reservoir of microplastics, study suggests

      Example of a progress trap Planetary Boundary / Doughnut Economic Category: Biophysical: Chemicals, Water Socio-Economic: Food, Health

    2. Sewage sludge is commonly used on agricultural land as a sustainable and renewable source of fertiliser throughout European countries, in part due to EU directives that promote the diverting of sewage sludge away from landfill and incineration and towards energy production and agriculture.

      This EU directive led to the spread of the unintended consequence.

    3. “Our results highlight the magnitude of the problem across European soils and suggest that the practice of spreading sludge on agricultural land could potentially make them one of the largest global reservoirs of microplastic pollution,”

      Classic progress trap.

  4. May 2022
  5. Jun 2021
    1. This a great review on soil aggregate stability based on different input additions, mainly performed in agricultural fields. This paper review the mechanisms of soill aggregation and stability that is related to the types and components of binding agents.

      Overall, this review can be used for citing arguments related to the increased input of organic matter and positive relationships with the formation of soil aggregates and soil aggregate stability.

  6. Apr 2021
    1. The changes inflicted on soils by human-induced erosion over many years are sig-nificant and have resulted in valuable land becoming unproductive and often eventuallyabandoned (

      Example of annotating a pdf

    1. Sweetshrub grows best in average to rich, well-drained soil in anywhere from full sun to deep shade. It prefers some shade in hot summer afternoons and it will grow lankier and less dense in shade than in sun. It is tolerant of a wide range of soil textures and pH but prefers rich loams.  Plant it 3 to 5 feet from other shrubs to give it adequate room to grow.  It blooms in early spring before leaves emerge, with the leaves, and sporadically thereafter.  

      Very tolerant of shade or sun and most soils.

    1. "" A lot of people think they need to have 4" of black dirt.

      Nothing could be further from the truth. Ideally should be:

      • 1/3 black dirt
      • 1/3 sand
      • 1/3 compost
    1. In short, here’s why a lawn roller may not be necessary for your lawn: Using heavy rollers on the ground leads to soil compaction.Compacted soil causes slow root development and slower turfgrass growth.
  7. Mar 2021
    1. Whether a soil above the 250 isoline is prone to frostheave depends on its soil moisture regime and tex-ture class. Family texture classes are assigned bysoil moisture regime to the three frost action classesin exhibit 618–5 in the National Soil Survey Hand-book. Climates that have little snow cover overwinter, ample fall and winter precipitation, andseveral freeze and thaw cycles increase the inci-dence of frost heave damage
  8. Dec 2020
    1. Application of irrigation water to cropland can result in the return flow having poorer quality because evapotranspiration by plants removes some water but not the dissolved salts.

      kandungan garam dalam tanah mungkin bukan masalah utama kita, tapi itu masalah utama di kawasan kering, misal australia, karena sangat mengganggu pertanian.

  9. May 2020
  10. Oct 2019
    1. improvement of soil health should be a priority agenda in India’s agricultural policy. We need steps to check wind and water erosion of soils. We need innovative technologies to minimise physical degradation of soils due to waterlogging, flooding and crusting. We need to improve the fertility of saline, acidic, alkaline and toxic soils by reclaiming them
    2. Indian soils are poor in organic matter content. About 59% of soils are low in available nitrogen; about 49% are low in available phosphorus; and about 48% are low or medium in available potassium. Indian soils are also varyingly deficient in micronutrients, such as zinc, iron, manganese, copper, molybdenum and boron