16 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2024
    1. This state is characterized by a monoculture or a mixture of forage species that have been planted or allowed to establish from naturalized species.Pasture and Hayland Group 2C -Deep bottomland soils with loamy surface layers and loamy subsoils. Somewhat poorly drained to well drained alkaline bottomlandsoilsof high natural fertility.0–8% slopes. Most slopes are0–3%. Only a few soilsoccur on 3–5% slopes.This site is suited for forage production; however, there are some natural wetness limitations. When site hydrology has been altered with drainagesystems,foragespeciesmaybeestablished. Drainage system controlmustbe implemented and maintained as wet conditions will reduce forage growth production and limit the ability of livestock tograze. When the site is utilized for forage production, wetness conditions and/or flooding must be monitored to prevent loss of livestock or forage crop.Additionally, adjacent higher elevation areas or protected areas may be needed for the storage of harvested forage or holding of livestockwhen wet or flooded conditions occur. Some forage
    2. Title 190 –National Range and Pasture Handbook(190-645-H, June2022)645-B-C.2State 4Converted State -Pasture or GrasslandFigureB-C-2. Photo of converted state, pasture or grassland (see Fig. B-C-1 state-and-transition model)


  2. Apr 2024
    1. Naturalized pasture is different from rangeland in that rangeland includes the following
    2. Cultural hayland: A land use subcategory of cropland managed for the production of forage crops that are culturally established and typicallymachine-harvested. These crops may be grasses, legumes, or a mixture of both. Croplands seeded to annual forage species that are harvested by grazing, are hayed, or are ensiled are not classified as hayland. Some uncultivated native stands of grasses and forbs are hayed and are classified as rangeland
    3. Naturalized pastureis cleared,converted, past cultivation, and “old-field”or “go-back land.
    4. Mostgrazing lands are considered either range or pasture, but grazing lands also include grazed forest lands, grazed croplands, and haylands. These other land use types make up an additional 106 million acres of privately-owned grazing lands, or about 17percentof the total U.S. grazing lands
    5. Pasturelands can provide benefits other than foragefor livestock such as wildlife habitat and use, watershed sources, zones for reducing runoff and erosion control, recreational, and aesthetic purposes.
    1. Pastureland, often called improved pasture or tame pasture,is a land use where introduced or domesticated (tame) and/or native forage species mixtures are established through seeding, sprigging,etc. that can be grazed and/or intermittently hayed or deferred for environmental purposes.
    1. and are aprimary source of forage for livestock and for wildlife. Rangelands may be harvested by haying equipment and for seed production
    2. Rangelands are also importantpools of soil organic carbon stored in soil and vegetation(figure A-4). On a global basis, 9.1 billion ac (3.7 billion ha)of rangeland stores about 20–25percentof the total global terrestrial carbon (306–330 Petagramsof organic carbon and 470–550 Petagramsof inorganic carbon) (A petagram (Pg) is a unit of mass equal to 1015grams) (Batjes 1996; Kimble et al. 2001). On rangelands, carbon sequestration dynamics are quite complex, and estimation of rates and amounts are systematically more difficult than cultivated croplands (Schuman et al. 2002). This is because rangelands havemore heterogeneous soilcharacteristics, wide daily temperature fluctuations, intermittent precipitation, and diverse vegetation life and growth forms(productivity,root-shoot ratios, herbivore use, and imposed disturbance and management practices).(ii) Globally, forests (1.2–1.4 Pg Carbonyr-1) and cropland (0.4–1.2 Pg Carbonyr-1) have the largest potentials for sequestering carbon,although grazinglands (range and pasturelands) can contribute up to 10percentof the overall terrestrial sink capacity. On a global perspective, rangelands occupy about half of the world’s land area, 10percentof the terrestrial biomass, and 10–30percentof the soil organic carbon (Schlesinger 1997). An average estimate of globallysequestered soil carbon on rangelands is 0.5 Pg Carbonyr-1(Schlesinger 1997; Scurlock and Hall 1998). Table A-3shows global and U.S. potential carbon storage for varied terrestrial biomes.
    3. Rangeland comprises over two-thirds of the Nation’s watershed area (FAO 1990) andprovides a significant part of its watersupply. The increasing importance of water has added a new dimension in range management strategies. In the Southwestern and Western United States, rangeland watersheds are the source of most surface water flow andaquifer recharge. Management on these lands can have a positive or negative effect onplant cover and compositional change, which ultimately influences water quality and quantity.
    1. Rangelands provide numerous products andservices (see above)
    2. Converted rangelands can include lands seeded to native species, and/or introduced hardy and persistent plant species (grasses, grass-like plants, forbs, shrubs, and trees). However, previously cultivated rangelands that have been reseeded to native or introduced adapted species do not truly represent both soil and plant dynamics of the historic native plant community.Theecological state may beclassified as “converted”in ecological site state-and-transition models.
    3. Rangeland can includethe following:(i)natural lands that have not been cultivatedand consist of a historic complement of adapted plant species; and(ii) natural (go-back lands, old-field) or converted revegetated lands that are managed like native vegetation. Note: The USDA-NRCS rangeland Natural Resources Inventory (NRI) includes this designation in their definition of rangeland. In assessing rangeland conditions and health, keeping these designations separate would provide for more detailed information about rangeland trends and health
    4. A.Rangeland
    5. In summary, public and private rangeland resources provide a wide variety of EGS. Additionally,spiritual values are vital to the well-being of ranching operations, surrounding communities, and the nation as a whole. Society is placing multiple demands on the nation’s natural resources,and it is extremely important that NRCS be able to provide resource data and technical assistance at local and national levels. (4) Rangelands are in constant jeopardy, either from misuse or conversion to other uses. Holechek et al. (2004) andHolechek (2013) states that in the next 100 years, up to 40percentof U.S. rangelands could be converted and lost to other uses. Land-use shifts from grazing use to urbanization will be much greater in areas of more rapid population increases and associated appreciating land values. Projections supporting forage demand suggestthat changes in land use will decrease the amount of land available for grazing to a greater extent in the Pacific Coast and Rocky Mountains,compared to the North or South Assessment Regions (Mitchell 2000).(5) As society attempts to satisfy multiple demands with limited resources, many ranching and farming operations seek to expand operations for multiple goods and services beyond traditional cattle production. Some diversifiedenterprises may include the following: (i) Management to enhance wildlife abundance and diversityfor fishing, hunting and non-hunting activities(ii) Maintaining habitat for rare plants(iii) Accommodatingnature enthusiasts, bird watchers, and amateur botanists. (6) Planning, evaluation, and communication are necessary steps (consult conservation planning steps) prior to initiating any new rangeland EGS-based enterprises.