111 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2020
    1. James Bronterre O’Brien, told the people:‘Knaves will tell you that it is because you have no property, you are unrepresented. I tell you on the contrary, it is because you are unrepresented that you have no property …’16

      great quote

    2. A thousand years ago, the world was flat, economically speaking.

      I don't think we have to go back even this far. If I recall correctly, even 150 years ago the vast majority of the world's population were subsistence farmers. It's only been since the 20th century and the increasing spread of the industrial revolution that the situation has changed:

      Even England remained primarily an agrarian country like all tributary societies for the previous 4,000 years, with ca. 50 percent of its population employed in agriculture as late as 1759.

      --David Christian, Maps of Time (pp 401) quoting from Crafts, British Economic Growth, pp. 13–14. (See also Fig 13.1 Global Industrial Potential from the same, for a graphical indicator.

    1. Piketty, however, sees inequality as a social phenomenon, driven by human institutions. Institutional change, in turn, reflects the ideology that dominates society: “Inequality is neither economic nor technological; it is ideological and political.”
    2. For Piketty, rising inequality is at root a political phenomenon. The social-democratic framework that made Western societies relatively equal for a couple of generations after World War II, he argues, was dismantled, not out of necessity, but because of the rise of a “neo-proprietarian” ideology. Indeed, this is a view shared by many, though not all, economists. These days, attributing inequality mainly to the ineluctable forces of technology and globalization is out of fashion, and there is much more emphasis on factors like the decline of unions, which has a lot to do with political decisions.
  2. Sep 2020
  3. Aug 2020
    1. Hogan, A. B., Jewell, B. L., Sherrard-Smith, E., Vesga, J. F., Watson, O. J., Whittaker, C., Hamlet, A., Smith, J. A., Winskill, P., Verity, R., Baguelin, M., Lees, J. A., Whittles, L. K., Ainslie, K. E. C., Bhatt, S., Boonyasiri, A., Brazeau, N. F., Cattarino, L., Cooper, L. V., … Hallett, T. B. (2020). Potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria in low-income and middle-income countries: A modelling study. The Lancet Global Health, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30288-6

    1. Papageorge. N. W., Zahn. M. V. Belot. M., van den Broek-Altenburg. E., Choi. S., Jamison. J. C., (2020). Socio-​Demographic Factors Associated with Self-​Protecting Behavior during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Institute of Labor Economics. Retrieved from: https://covid-19.iza.org/publications/dp13333/

  4. Jul 2020
    1. Your deductible medical expenses include unreimbursed medical expenses that are deductible on Schedule A. You can include medical expenses and copayments for you, your spouse, and your dependents. You can only deduct the part of your expenses that exceed 7.5% of your adjusted gross income. Enter the full amount of your medical expenses, and we'll calculate if the medical expenses are more than 7.5% of your adjusted gross income. The definition of what constitutes a medical expense is very broad and includes expenses to diagnose, cure, mitigate, treat, or prevent disease. However, cosmetic surgery is not deductible unless it is related to disfigurement from a congenital abnormality, accidental injury, or a disfiguring disease. Other examples of nondeductible medical expenses are nonprescription drugs, doctor prescribed travel for "rest", and expenses for the improvement of your general health such as a weight-loss program or health club fees (the weight-loss program is deductible if it is to treat a specific disease). Examples of deductible medical expenses include: Abortions Acupuncture Alcoholism treatment Ambulance costs Birth control pills Child birth classes Chiropractors Contact lenses Crutches Dentist Dentures Doctor fees Drug addiction treatment Prescription drugs Dyslexia reading programs and tutors Eye examination and glasses Guide dogs Health insurance Hearing aids Hospital bills Insulin Laboratory fees Long-term care insurance Nursing home if for medical treatment Optometrist Osteopath Physical therapy Psychiatrist Psychologist Travel to medical clinics Vasectomy Wheelchair
    1. What types of income are NOT taxable? Don't overpay the IRS by including nontaxable income on your tax return. The following income is generally NOT taxable income. There are always exceptions. For example, inheritances are generally not taxable, but if you inherited an IRA account, you will be taxed when you receive IRA distributions. But for most people, these types of income are NOT taxable: Life insurance proceeds IRA and Pension rollovers Child support payments Inheritances Gifts Workers Compensation Disability payments if you paid the premiums on the policy. If your employer paid the policy, then the disability payments are taxable. If you paid part of the policy, then part of the disability payments you paid are nontaxable. Court damages or settlements for personal physical injuries or physical sickness. Punitive payments are taxable. Health and accident benefits Federal income tax refund State income tax refund (if you took the standard deduction last year) Most scholarships, fellowships, and Pell grants Foster care payments (certain restrictions for individuals over age 18 in foster care) Gain on the sale of your personal residence is usually nontaxable. The gain might be taxable if you lived in the residence less than two years or if the residence has ever been used as a rental property or home office Roth IRA qualified distributions Welfare payments Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Social security benefits (including SSDI) are either nontaxable or partially taxable. Enter your social security benefits on the Social Security Benefits screen and we'll calculate how much, if any, of your benefits are taxable Cancellation of debt because of bankruptcy or insolvency. Enter your 1099-C or 1099-A on the Canceled Debt (1099-C or 1099-A) Information screen and we'll calculate how much, if any, of the canceled debt is taxable Veterans Administration disability benefits Pay-for-Performance Success Payments that reduce the principal balance of your home mortgage under the Home Affordable Modification Program Black lung benefits Cash rebates. For example, if you receive a cash rebate of $100 after you purchase a new washing machine Insurance proceeds for theft or damage to your property Utility rebates Long-term care insurance benefits Military allowances Peace Corps living allowances Reimbursement for medical care Certain individual care provider income Disaster relief payments
  5. Jun 2020
  6. May 2020
  7. Apr 2020
  8. Dec 2019
    1. There are several itemizable tax deductions, but the bulk of most taxpayers' deductions come from the "big four": Mortgage interest on as much as $750,000 in principal. Medical expenses in excess of 10% of your AGI. State and local taxes (SALT), including property taxes and state income or sales taxes, up to a maximum of $10,000 per year. Charitable contributions. For most Americans, adding up these four deductions can be a good indicator of whether itemizing will be worthwhile
  9. Oct 2019
  10. Aug 2019
    1. The tax burden would be enormous, roughly doubling the current tax obligations for today’s taxpayers. One funding option Sanders proposes is a 7.5 percent payroll tax, plus a 4 percent income tax on all Americans, as well as a wide variety of specialized taxes on investments and taxes targeted to higher-income Americans.

      According to the analysis above, it can be said that the "Single-payer" system aims to reduce costs for users but ultimately has a higher tax rate than the conventional healthcare system.

    2. His planwould finance the national insurance program through a combination of payroll and income taxes, and it would replace private and employer-sponsored health insurance and existing government health programs—including Medicare itself.

      Is that means banning the activities of private insurance companies, and using only a single-payer health care system while everyone is robbed of jobs and becoming poor?

  11. Jun 2019
    1. Income share agreements could lower costs and improve outcomes by tying loan amounts to objective judgments of how much the student is likely to earn from her degree. Educational quality could also benefit: Investors would presumably advance students money only for schools that were doing a decent job of teaching them. The risks are that some borrowers could end up paying far more under such a scheme than the current plan and that investors might not lend to students they consider too risky.

      The author's counter arguments to Income Share Agreements are not convincing enough for me. They seem abstract and vague.

  12. May 2019
    1. mightthosewhoareintheminorityeverbeabletoinfluenceorcontrolthewaytheyarerepresentedinasearchengine?

      If the majority rules search engine results, the majority could also rule over the content. if the majority of the online population are sexist, then the majority of the results when searching even a simple/general term such as "cars" could be more searched by men, but also have more content created by men, especially men who are "middle class" or higher who could afford to purchase a car and own a technology capable of using a search engine.

      It makes me think... What searches would come from people who were struggling financially and did not usually have access to a computer? What would they search first? And how would that impact the popular searches and content?

      The majority of Canada's populace are not low income, but what would happen to results in other countries (or even ours)where low income is the majority, and they were all given access to search technologies?

  13. Apr 2019
    1. He is a bit disturbed by this notion that salaries have to be at the high levels expected by US developers, which seems to permeate the FOSS sustainability effort. He said that he is often accused of wanting developers to starve, but that is not true at all: he wants people to get reasonable pay for reasonable work, to have health care, be able to live a comfortable middle-class life, and so on. But if being sustainable as a project means paying salaries at Silicon Valley levels, it simply will not work—it is not something we should bring back to FOSS, he said. We should look at what people need to live comfortably, while working on something they enjoy.

      Bradley Kuhn è d'accordo con me sulla necessità di retribuzioni confortevoli ma non da ricconi quando si tratta di progetti comunitari.

    1. Mahatma Gandhi, the father of our nation was a very benevolent and expert political master and observer that he had a great vision for the country. He was a man who fought for the upliftment of the poorer classes of society and thought of reforms in their favour.

      True, but still we are not in right track since 1947 !

  14. Aug 2018
    1. Provide equal opportunity and access for all students to use ICTs that foster and improve learning

      Crucial- responsibility of teacher to make sure stude