67 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2019

      Just in general, I didn't have a lot of annotations here because a lot of this is very simple, straightforward design advice. It is presented very well, in casual but informative language, but most of these ideas were not new to me as someone who's studied statistics and art.


      Nice! I love the double-purpose of the legend. It's very clever and space-conscious.


      Ironically, what is being praised here would have had me losing marks in my statistics class. I guess it really depends on the subject, as well as the difference in scale. Because while 1 to 100 is very doable here, if you have data that can range from 1 to 10,000.... things get harder. I do appreciate this though. It is easier to compare.


      This marriage of data and art - and by extension, STEM fields and arts/humanities fields - is everything I want to see in academia. How much more engaging, and therefore effective, would academia be if people really presented their work? Would chemistry still put me to sleep? I don't think so.


      I had NO IDEA this was a media of art that could be explored! I don't feel like I'm nearly creative enough to come up with an idea, but I would love to do a project like this in the future!


      The best part of this graphic is the emphasis on men and women - someone untrained in statistics or graphs may have trouble seeing how "women live longer" because the lines do eventually merge - the emphasis shows where in the graph they should be looking to fully understand it.


      This is so incredibly cool and is such a god study into the human experience of feeling like you're the only one experiencing something, while it is statistically likely that someone else is going through the exact same thing. Unrelated, the colours they chose are great too. Very 90s.


      This ties in with last weeks annotations, where I talked about the inherent political nature of data/algorithms. This is the same idea, except I believe the author is going to put a more positive spin on things.


      Figure 1-6 and 1-7 look very different, and it could be hard to see that they are documenting the same set of data. This manipulation of data and how it is viewd can be used for very specific intents. If I wanted a client to see that my business has a consistent viewer rate, I would show them them figure 1-7's monthly chart, because of how smooth it looks. To me at first glance, it seems much more "consistent" than figure 1-6, with all of its spikes.


      This is also an important part of marketing. While there is a specific "thing" or "data" that is being produced, the facts are not necessarily all that you're looking for. You want to look at how this connects to the readers or buyers, what it makes them feel and think. Ultimately, the goal is to make these people buy into the thing/idea etc. being sold, .


      I think the whole idea of visualizations and statistics is to create something relateable. Without providing context there would be no way for the general public to interact with the data without intense reading and critical analysis. And, let's be honest, who really wants to do that much thinking about every little thing? Creating visualizations help us all to understand complex ideas easier.

      It also helps us to visualize these complex data sets to see patterns and themes that could have otherwise been overlooked. Not only do these visualizations help the general public to understand, it also helps professionals in their field analyze data within different contexts to see all of the potential.


      Labelling axis works to contextualize the data being presented, but sometimes the axis is not clear. It makes it so difficult to read a graph when the axis is a long drawn out sentence or uses jargon to define. If it is made for the public to be reading it, it needs to be easily understandable. Just as the design needs clarity, so do the axis.


      This seems like one of the most important parts of data analysis. If people can not understand the way you have presented your data then all your hard work is worthless. This seems to especially ring true when it comes to more complex graphics. Even if it is pretty if it can not be read than it is not helpful or functional.


      Relationships in data also create a greater understanding of the data in general. By having the causation or the correlation element present with the rest of the data, it can help prove or explain why something has happened or what it effects. Without supporting data information, in some cases it can be very difficult to understand, Data sets with relationship provide a fuller understanding of the data being presented.


      It is so easy to forget that data statistics are all rooted in real life events. Whether its due to the separation in time from the event to us or a difference in a people group, it is often so difficult to grasp how real these stats are. However, this data represents human lives and experiences. For some people, certain data stats can have great meaning due to the direct impact on their lives, or the lives of those they love.


      I believe this is very important. I think a lot of people tend to forget who they are presenting to, and lots of the valuable information goes to waste. In m Health Care Systems class we were always presented with lots of statistical data but nothing was every explain nor was the source the data was collected from presented so it seemed very misleading. Lots of numbers were thrown around without a true explanation given. After reading through this article, it seems more information was needed for both the students and the professor to understand the information provided.


      This reminds me of Organic Chemistry labs. When data points don't make sense, something must have gone wrong in the experiment. It was vital to ensure that the source was found to determine if it would effect the results or if the experiment needed to be redone.


      I wonder why bubbles were used instead of a geographical map displaying the percent? I know it mentions how it puts people to sleep, but wouldn't this be more confusing?


      This seems extremely difficult to follow. I'm wondering how people who are colour blind might interpret this chart due to the similar colours used to display the stats.

    1. BlackFeminismasTheoreticalandMethodologicalApproach

      I didn't want to highlight this entire paragraph, but wow. This sort of academia is what I was hoping to find in Gender Studies at UNBC (which I attended 3-4 classes of before the Professor's internalized transphobia became a part of the curriculum and I dropped out, disappointed both in the course and the professor). I don't really have anything academic or at least intelligent to add here. I just love being able to see Black Feminist views represented in my own schooling. Diversity is so incredibly important.

    2. racializedcapitalism

      This is not a term I have seen in my own activism but it's one I want to start using. Capitalism does function to increase profits by any means necessary - and the oppression of people of colour - and particularly Black Americans - is very profitable. First slavery, of course - but now the porn industry as mentioned in this chapter, among other things.

    3. Ratherthanassertthatproblematicorracistresultsareimpossibletocorrect,inthewaysthattheGoogledisclaimersuggests,17Ibelieveafeministlens,coupledwithracialawarenessabouttheintersectionalaspectsofidentity,offersnewgroundandinterpretationsforunderstandingtheimplicationsofsuchproblematicpositionsaboutthebenigninstrumentalityoftechnologies.Blackfeministwaysofknowing,forexample,canlookatsearchesontermssuchas“blackgirls”andbringintotheforegroundevidenceaboutthehistoricaltendenciestomisrepresentBlackwomeninthemedia.Ofcourse,thesemisrepresentationsandtheuseofbigdatatomaintainandexacerbatesocialrelationshipsserveapowerfulroleinmaintainingracialandgendersubjugation.ItisthepersistentnormalizationofBlackpeopleasaberrantandundeservingofhumanrightsanddignityunderthebannersofpublicsafety,technologicalinnovation,andtheemergingcreativeeconomythatIamdirectlychallengingbyshowingtheegregiouswaysthatdehumanizationisrenderedalegitimatefree-markettechnologyproject

      It's incredible to see determination and activism included in this chapter. Even just reading it makes me feel a little hopeless; like activists are always fighting uphill - or up a cliff. I'm glad the author is so determined. It brings me hope for future activism, both in academia and out.

    4. Bydoingthis,Iampurposefullytheorizingfromafeministperspective,whileaddressingoften-overlookedaspectsofraceinfeministtheoriesoftechnology.

      And outside of technology! Feminism as a movement is notoriously white. We will always need Black women, and Hispanic women, and women of all races and/or ethnicities in feminism and academia as a whole. Feminism that excludes any woman is not feminism.

    5. SinceIbeganwritingthisbook,Google’sparentcompany,Alphabet,hasexpandeditspowerintodronetechnology,8military-graderobotics,fibernetworks,andbehavioralsurveillancetechnologiessuchasNestandGoogleGlass.9Thesearejustseveralofmanyentrypointstothinkingabouttheimplicationsofartificialintelligenceasahumanrightsissue.Weneedtobeconcernedaboutnotonlyhowideasandpeoplearerepresentedbutalsotheethicsofwhetherrobotsandotherformsofautomateddecisionmakingcanendalife,asinthecaseofdronesandautomatedweapons.Towhomdoweappeal?Whatbodiesgovernartificialintelligence,andwheredoesthepublicraiseissuesorlodgecomplaintswithnationalandinternationalcourts?Thesequestionshaveyettobefullyanswered.

      This is also why Amazon Alexa, Google Home, and other "smart homes" are absolutely terrifying. Technological dystopia hellscape! Technological dystopia hellscape!

    6. AtthecoreofmyargumentisthewayinwhichGooglebiasessearchtoitsowneconomicinterests—foritsprofitabilityandtobolsteritsmarketdominanceatanyexpense

      I have been trying to avoid the word "money" in my annotations to avoid coming off as anti-capitalist as I really am, but yes: Corporations do not give a care about individuals or marginalized groups outside of how they can profit off of their oppression. Remember this June; this Pride Month; that any company selling you rainbow merchandise is not doing it out of legitimate care about LGBTQ+ rights but because it's profitable! Yes, even if they're giving 20% of proceeds to charity - where do you think the other 80% goes?

    7. ledtotheoverincarcerationofBlackdefendants.

      Hypothes.is doesn't like to let me annotate over page breaks, but this annotation is for the whole sentence.

      This doesn't really surprise me, given the over-representation of Black Americans in prisons now (The Central Park 5 are just the tip of the iceberg of wrongfully convicted Black (and Hispanic) Americans, but they come to mind). Even an algorithm built on "apolitical" data would represent this racist trend.

    8. Thepoliticalnatureofsearchdemonstrateshowalgorithmsareafundamentalinventionofcomputerscientistswhoarehumanbeings—andcodeisalanguagefullofmeaningandappliedinvaryingwaystodifferenttypesofinformation

      This ties in really nicely and furthers my last annotation about newspapers: anything created by humans is likely political in some sense. The picture of apoliticalness (which is not a real word, but I can't find a better one) is perhaps a robot, but we have seen robots built to deter homeless people from setting up camp in certain areas, which is a very political move. It's important to be aware that behind anything - even the things you enjoy - is a person, and you may not even know their motivations for what they do.

    9. heavilyusedtechnologicalartifactssuchasthesearchenginehavebecomesuchanormativepartofourexperiencewithdigitaltechnologyandcomputersthattheysocializeusintobelievingthattheseartifactsmustthereforealsoprovideaccesstocredible,accurateinformationthatisdepoliticizedandneutral

      They mentioned above that "Problematic representations and biases in classifications are not new," and I find that works well in tandem with this segment as well, because this quote also applies to the news. People see news and newspapers as apolitical; simply reporting events. Reporting is inherently political, and news stations and newspapers are endorsed or sponsored by politicians/political parties. They can still be credible sources, but I am always keenly aware of the type of language used in their articles.

    10. Ofcourse,uponreflection,IrealizedthatIhadbeenusingthewebandsearchtoolslongbeforetheencountersIexperiencedjustoutofviewofmyyoungfamilymembers.ItwasjustastroublingtorealizethatIhadundoubtedlybeenconfrontedwiththesametypeofresultsbeforebuthadlearned,orbeentrained,tosomehowbecomeinuredtoit,totakeitasagiventhatanysearchImightperformusingkeywordsconnectedtomyphysicalselfandidentitycouldreturnpornographicandotherwisedisturbingresults.WhywasthisthebargainintowhichIhadtacitlyenteredwithdigitalinformationtools?Andwhoamongusdidnothavetobargaininthisway?

      After explaining the premise of this chapter, I read this line to my dad, saying I have experiences similar things (once again, with pornographic fandom content featuring children's cartoons or child characters), and he started talking about how "it depends on the search terms used." I'm a little shocked that he isn't bothered in the slightest that the search term "black girls" returns nothing but porn, but I guess that certainly tells you something about white men in our society.

    11. Forthesereasons,adeeperexplorationintothehistoricalandsocialconditionsthatgiverisetoproblematicsearchresultsisinorder

      That's a biiiiiig field of study. That's basically all of history; all of gender studies; all of queer studies.... etc etc. We should always be trying to further understand bigotry so that we can further combat it, but it feels like a never-ending task to me.

    12. “Theadsareshockingbecausetheyshowjusthowfarwestillhavetogotoachievegenderequality.Theyareawakeupcall,andwehopethatthemessagewilltravelfar.”

      In the words of Heather Heyer: "If you're not outraged, you're not paying attention." I find it hard to miss the sexism in our society, let alone others in the world. If all it takes is some search autofills to make you see that women's rights are still an issue, you weren't paying nearly enough attention already. I find it kind of sad that this project had such an easy time shocking people; and that it's such an easy project to do in the first place.

  2. May 2019

      This is an interesting fact, usually when I think of visualization and data I go to the classic default charts and data. I'll have to keep this iin mind.


      I really like this because I don't see it often and it actually does draw my eye to the data and capture my interest.

    1. Deepmachinelearning,whichisusingalgorithmstoreplicatehumanthinking,ispredicatedonspecificvaluesfromspecifickindsofpeople—namely,themostpowerfulinstitutionsinsocietyandthosewhocontrolthem.

      This reminds me of this Reddit page

      The page takes pictures and texts from other Reddit pages and uses it to create computer generated posts and comments. It is interesting to see the intelligence and quality of understanding grow as it gathers more and more information.

    2. mightthosewhoareintheminorityeverbeabletoinfluenceorcontrolthewaytheyarerepresentedinasearchengine?

      If the majority rules search engine results, the majority could also rule over the content. if the majority of the online population are sexist, then the majority of the results when searching even a simple/general term such as "cars" could be more searched by men, but also have more content created by men, especially men who are "middle class" or higher who could afford to purchase a car and own a technology capable of using a search engine.

      It makes me think... What searches would come from people who were struggling financially and did not usually have access to a computer? What would they search first? And how would that impact the popular searches and content?

      The majority of Canada's populace are not low income, but what would happen to results in other countries (or even ours)where low income is the majority, and they were all given access to search technologies?

    3. enginethatistheproblembut,rather,theusersofsearchengineswhoare.Itsuggeststhatwhatismostpopularissimplywhatrisestothetopofthesearchpile
      • I wanted to highlight the previous sentence as well, but for some reason it wouldn't let me*

      I understand why the author is troubled by the campaign's opinion of "It's not the search engines fault". It makes it seem as if there was nothing that could be done to stop promoting those ideas, and that if something is popular it will just have to be the result at the top.

      This can be problematic, as people who were not initially searching that specific phrase may click through to read racist, sexist, homophobic, or biased information (to just name a few) that perpetuates inaccuracies and negative stereotypes. It provides easier access into dangerous thinking built on the foundations of racism, sexism, etc.

      If the algorithms are changed or monitored to remove those negative searches, the people exposed to those ideas would decrease, which could help tear down the extreme communities that can build up from them.

      While I do understand this view, I also think that system can be helpful too. All the search engine does is reflect the most popular searches, and if negative ideals are what people are searching, then we can become aware and direct their paths to more educational and unbiased sources. It could be interesting to see what would happen if someone clicked on a link that said "Women belong in the kitchen", that led them to results that spoke about equality and feminism.

    4. Problematicrepresentationsandbiasesinclassificationsarenotnew

      Not only are these representations nothing new to our society but they probably never will be old. Opinions and representation are not only situational, those with voices and power will use that to their advantage, whether or not it will land us with other algorithms and stereotypes.

    5. nreality,informationmonopoliessuchasGooglehavetheabilitytoprioritizewebsearchresultsonthebasisofavarietyoftopics,suchaspromotingtheirownbusinessinterestsoverthoseofcompetitorsorsmallercompaniesthatarelessprofitableadvertisingclientsthanlargermultinationalcorporationsare.

      It's a good thing google was exposed to the issues at hand and took action. As several other people have already mentioned in their annotations google has seen and responded to the racist algorithms and improved the search results drastically. This will teach youth much better examples of equality and power.

    6. Figure1.7.GoogleImagesresultswhensearchingtheconcept“beautiful”(didnotincludetheword“women”),December4,2014

      You can even see that the pictures for "beautiful men" were images of young, Caucasian males with chiseled, "imperfect" bodies. When did people decide that other cultures, shapes, and ethnicities weren't beautiful? It's a tragedy that we're recovering from globally and that will have tainted the visions of beauty for many people.

    7. Whileservingasanimportantanddisturbingcritiqueofsexistattitudes,thecampaignfailstoimplicatethealgorithmsorsearchenginesthatdrivecertainresultstothetop.Thischaptermovesthelensontothesearcharchitectureitselfinordertoshedlightonthemanyfactorsthatkeepsexistandracistideasonthefirstpage.

      I think that this is incredibly important because while in the past years these campaigns and societal viewpoints have changed and come so far, for the better, there is still the ugly truth that there are and have been these algorithms and thoughts in the past that people were so unaware of. Many people, even people who may be very aware of what's happening in the world, need to be reminded and educated on these issues. Myself included, of course.

    8. AtthecoreofmyargumentisthewayinwhichGooglebiasessearchtoitsowneconomicinterests—foritsprofitabilityandtobolsteritsmarketdominanceatanyexpense.Manyscholarsareworkingtoilluminatethewaysinwhichuserstradetheirprivacy,personalinformation,andimmateriallaborfor“free”toolsandservicesofferedbyGoogle

      This can be seen by the ads used on different news forums or even on youtube. Sometimes the ads reflect what I have been searching up, but more often than not, I find them unrelated to anything I search. After searching some of the names from the ads, it is clear to see their affiliation with google as it is plastered on their websites homepage, including some information about their deal. With more catered ads, it might actually draw more people in and help both businesses..

    9. Certainly,womenandpeopleofcolorcouldbenefittremendouslyfrombecomingprogrammersandbuildingalternativesearchenginesthatarelessdisturbingandthatreflectandprioritizeawiderrangeofinformationalneedsandperspectives

      This would definitely help with what is showing up on the first page of search results, but this should be a group effort. Fighting for different algorithms to be used or created to show less disturbing results will be extremely difficult if people don't work together. By working together with all types of people to create a less disturbing search engine might be the best way to ensure a safe result page.

    10. Searchengineshavecometoplayacentralroleincorrallingandcontrollingtheever-growingseaofinformationthatisavailabletous,andyettheyaretrustedmorereadilythantheyoughttobe

      This is so true. I never stopped to think about how reliable the first page of google really is. As Ktmorgan pointed out, whenever we have a question, we just google it. Whatever pops up first we take as a fact for the most part and continue on without stopping to examine if what we just read was fact, or if any bias might have been used in the placement of the search result and the answer that we found.

    11. societystillholdsavarietyofsexistideasaboutwomen.

      Even with Googles campaign to remove sexist search results, these are still being searched. Although, when things such as 'Women cannot drive' are searched the top results are focusing on current issues throughout the world and attempting to empower women while making global issues known. I think this is a great algorithm to be using.

    12. hasalsoforewarnedoftheincreasinglevelsofcontrolthatalgorithmshaveoverthemanydecisionsmadeaboutus,fromcredittodatingoptions,andhowdifficultitistointerveneintheirdiscriminatoryeffects

      Algorithms seem to be the newest version of racial profiling and judging a book based on its cover.

    13. Simultaneously,itisimportantforthepublic,particularlypeoplewhoaremarginalized—suchaswomenandgirlsandpeopleofcolor—tobecriticaloftheresultsthatpurporttorepresenttheminthefirsttentotwentyresultsinacommercialsearchengine

      While it is important for minorities to speak up and show that these misrepresentations are not true, this sentence seems to be implying that it is only minorities that need to stand up and be critical of the results. While I am sure that this is not the intention of the author, all people should stand up for what is true, right, and just, not just the minorities that are directly affected. Standing up and being critical of things that are not right should be done by all in the interest of mutual respect among human beings.

    14. ourexperiencewithdigitaltechnologyandcomputersthattheysocializeusintobelievingthattheseartifactsmustthereforealsoprovideaccesstocredible,accurateinformationthatisdepoliticizedandneutral

      Whenever we have a question, we just google it. However the issue is that sometimes we read facts, sometimes we do not. At this point, it is so embedded in our culture to trust what we read on the internet. More and more Google is treated as a completely reliable source when it should still be questioned for its truth and reliability.

    15. WhilethecampaignemployedGoogleSearchresultstomakealargerpointaboutthestatusofpublicopiniontowardwomen,italsoserved,perhapsunwittingly,tounderscoretheincrediblypowerfulnatureofsearchengineresults

      When you put these phrases into google in 2019, you now do not get any google search suggestions. This is also the case when you type in the same phrases (i.e. should, should not) in association with men, nationalities and religions. Google has removed the racist, sexist ideas that were occurring by with these search suggestions. With this campaign occurring 5-10 years ago, I wonder if this campaign had an impact on googles decision to remove the search suggestions on these types of phrases?

    1. Humanities faculty, unlike their STEM counterparts, do not have labs. We do not have a place for our work and no one sees our process.

      Is this implying that people do see progress in labs? Or that somehow labs are in a way accessible for people to come in and view academic research in progress? If that's a thing that happens, I'd love to check in on the labs of more advanced students, but I have a strong feeling that simply asking to be in a lab and watch people work will be met with quite a bit of resistance.

    2. However, that work (and it is intellectual labor) is invisible and largely undervalued.

      In my microbiology lab in the January semester I realized for the first time exactly how much work goes into a paper. It gave me a healthy respect for published academics, as well as made me realize, immediately, I do not want to stay in academia my whole life. Some people are incredible with the amount of effort they put into their research.

    3. Academics are constantly being told that they need to make their work more relevant and accessible to the public. Blogging about your work hits both of those marks. It also means that you have to translate your work from academese to language that non-academics will understand (i.e. jargon) and also foreground the relevance of your work. You have to tell people why your work is important and what it adds to the world.

      Do you ever wish you read the whole article before annotating because you read one paragraph down and find out the article says the exact thing you said in your annotation? Yeah. Well, at least I feel validated in my constant search for accessible academic content.

    4. As a result, I suggest that one thing that all humanities scholars can do to take a baby step in the direction of digital humanities is to maintain a blog about their research.

      Oh, what a coincidence that our major project in this class is to maintain a blog about our findings! Joking aside, I wish articles came with a link to a blog about the research involved in them. No matter how many times I read and re-read the methods section I never can seem to fully understand what the researchers were doing, because I'm an undergraduate just scratching the surface of topics. A blog would have more casual details and wouldn't assume the audience knows a lot already and would allow me to learn without having to delve for 80 hours down a rabbit hole about a specific enzyme in one microbe to figure out why it was even mentioned. Or maybe I'm just not a natural born student!

    1. “People will use this data in ways we can’t even imagine yet,” Mr. Stowell said, “and I think that is one of the most exciting developments in the humanities.”

      I keep coming back to history in my annotations, and honestly the article could work as a reading in a history class too. This kind of collection of data; of sources for the future could do wonders for future historians. Digital records, especially those online, don't burn or get water damaged or get eaten by moths. I think it's very important that we consider our digital footprints in a historical sense, from our own personal data (which I can see functioning much the same way as diaries do for historians now) to larger projects such as the tapestry mentioned above.

    2. Mr. Edelstein said that many of his senior colleagues view his work as whimsical, the result of playing with technological toys. But he argues such play can lead to discoveries.

      As he should; he's correct. Technological advances come from "playing with technological toys" all the time, it's no stretch of the imagination to assume academic advances would as well. Of course people are always resistant to change; it's in our nature, but using the tools at our disposal to improve our work is a part of academia.

    3. “You would think if England was this fountainhead of freedom and religious tolerance,” he said, “there would have been greater continuing interest there than what our correspondence map shows us.”

      While I am not surprised that the extent of England's greatness was greatly exaggerated (given our colonial, euro, and white -centric views of history) it's very important to have the data and evidence to back it up.

    4. Even historians, who have used databases before, have been slow to embrace the trend. Just one of the nearly 300 main panels scheduled for next year’s annual meeting of the American Historical Association covers digital matters.

      We explored the expansion of digital records briefly in HIST211 in the January semester. One of the issues with history is having very few (if any) primary sources, but a bigger issue is that they often contradict each other. Digital databanks and scans of old documents and even sites like ancestry.ca have broadened sources available to historians but they also cause more contradictions to be found, making the reconstruction of any historical event/period potentially more difficult.

    5. Mr. Bobley said the emerging field of digital humanities is probably best understood as an umbrella term covering a wide range of activities, from online preservation and digital mapping to data mining and the use of geographic information systems.

      Honestly the category of digital humanities seems like it could do with being split into two (or several) smaller fields of study. I'm sure it already is, the same way ecology and ornithology are both biology, but at least with biology it can be summarized as "the study of life" - with digital humanities I still struggle to come up with something like that - "the study of anything that could possibly be explored further/easier with anything similar to a computer?"

    6. This alliance of geeks and poets has generated exhilaration and also anxiety. The humanities, after all, deal with elusive questions of aesthetics, existence and meaning, the words that bring tears or the melody that raises goose bumps. Are these elements that can be measured? Advertisement Continue reading the main story “The digital humanities do fantastic things,” said the eminent Princeton historian Anthony Grafton. “I’m a believer in quantification. But I don’t believe quantification can do everything. So much of humanistic scholarship is about interpretation.”

      Not to argue with the New York Times and a Princeton Historian, but are the digital humanities really limited to quantification? I think that's perhaps a bit of a narrow minded opinion, or that I'm misinterpreting. For example, digital art or the study of digital artwork could be considered digital humanities, and I don't think that digital art has anything to do with quantification.

      I do understand the idea that quantification and data can't "deal with elusive questions of aesthetics, existence and meaning, the words that bring tears or the melody that raises goose bumps" (frankly an awful sentence, but that's besides the point) without human interpretation. I've seen some truly horrifying or very encouraging statistics before that can evoke these responses like a piece of literature, but the statistics alone do not embody those reactions.

    1. humanities scholars have collaborated with computer scientists to build tools to facilitate these essential functions of the humanities in new ways.

      I believe that the collaboration between subjects is necessary to understand ideas and theories in a more holistic way. To successfully write a scientific journal on a new medical accomplishment one must understand how to use language, grammar, and vocabulary. To paint a world renowned artwork masterpiece, one must understand the mathematics of symmetry, spacing, and measurements. It seems only natural to me that the humanities partner with all disciplines to convey its topics and research, and computer science is one such discipline that makes the humanities more applicable and accessible by researchers and public alike.

    2. Image processing involves taking a two-dimensional image that has been con-verted into digital format, making enhancements such as sharpening, changing color balances, saturation and exposure, cropping or straight-ening; annotating by adding metadata for location, date, content and so forth; and setting parameters such as color mode, compression format and size.

      This has recovered so many almost unrecognizable images from the past it's amazing. All these old, damaged documents that have been digitally revitalized is so wonderful, considering all the information we have obtained from said articles and photos.

    3. To be useful, once data is gathered, it must be inspected, cleaned, transformed and modeled to discover useful information, arrive at conclusions and support decision making.

      and presented in an organized manner so we can actually follow it!

    4. More sophisticated tools can per-form high-end linguistic 'analysis, such as tagging parts of speech (POS), creating concordances, collating versions, analyzing sentiments and keyword density/prominence, visualizing patterns, exploring intertex-tual parallels and modeling topics

      I like how this method is relatable because the analysis is what we've been familiar with through high school and university. For example in Literary Studies we learnt how to dissect poetry and pieces of literature. With the text analysis we can use the tactics we're already familiar with.

    1. A Historical 3D Model: Digital Magnesia

      Does it count as an annotation if I just think something is REALLY COOL? No, probably not, but WOW.

    2. Omeka.org (which forms the basis of the site), or you could use Omeka.net if you aren’t so picky about the way the site looks and acts

      Presumably you don't need this website to make a gallery of primary sources? I could make a page with images, links/citation information, and the summaries of the sources with any website and basic html. I assume this specific gallery is made using omeka?

    3. Many  students tell me that in order to get started with digital humanities, they’d like to have some idea of what they might do and what technical skills they might need in order to do it.

      Applies to myself as well. I still feel that I don't have a grasp on what "digital humanities" are, even after week one. "Humanities" is such a broad scope of subjects - are digital humanities primarily about text analysis, data collection, software/programming, languages, human communication, or something else? Knowing what sort of skills are involved in the field could help me understand better.

    4. Many  students tell me that in order to get started with digital humanities, they’d like to have some idea of what they might do and what technical skills they might need in order to do it.

      This is definitely me. I had no idea what to expect from digital humanities and still don't. I'm enjoying learning as we go and these articles definitely help.

    5. An essay, accompanied by photographs, video, and sound, that can be reconfigured by the viewer to be read in multiple ways.

      I really enjoy this layout for a project because not only is it easy to understand and navigate but it incorporates all of this generation's favourite medias; photo, video, sound, and text.