3,877 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2020
    1. early acts of literacy were closely tied to power and chiefly used for management practices, and probably less than 1% of the population was literate, as it was confined to a very small ruling elite.

      Literacy has always been used to separate the powerful from the powerless. This makes me think of "literacy tests" that were implemented from the late 1800s to the mid 1960s to prevent minorities, specifically Black Americans, from voting.

    2. Origins of the alphabet

      The idea that something we know so wel, and don't have to think about anymore has orgins amazes me. This sounds so silly but you forget how long people have been writing and talking.

    1. The boy's name is Rhys, 10 years old, outside of Austin, TX.

    2. *Game star mechanic

      • Creativity is expressed via making video games online
      • problem solving skills increase
      • comments-feedback
      • constructive criticism needed
      • teachers need to be constructive in terms of feedback How does this change as school has become more online?
    1. Student interests i.e HP Alliance, influence how to participate and change society.

      • students change moby dick
      • guess Sound of Thunder ending (9th grade)
    2. Peoples interactions and interests outside of school heavily influence their ideas

      • Founders took copyright inspiration from statute of Anne
      • Copyright laws have been extended
      • With this, how can new ideas and existing material be made
      • Does copyright stall creativity?
    1. Lessig (2005) claims that at a very general level all of culture can be understood in terms of remix, where someone creates a cultural product by mixing meaningful elements together (e.g., ideas from different people with ideas of one’s own), and then someone else comes along and remixes this cultural artefact with others to create yet another artefact

      Throughout history, ideas found within cultures were influenced from other cultures. eg. Greece-Rome, Tesla-Edison

    2. associated with activism contesting copyright and intellectual property legislation

      What does this say about copyright and patent laws?

    3. Digital Remix: The Art and Craft of Endless HybridizationColin Lankshear and Michele Knobel Keynote presented to the International Reading Association Pre-Conference Institute “Using Technology to Develop and Extend the Boundaries of Literacy”, Toronto, 13 May 2007 IntroductionBy “remix” we mean the practice of taking cultural artefacts and combining and manipulating them into a new kind of creative blend. Until recently this concept was associated almost entirely with recorded music. It referred to using audio editing techniques to produce “an alternative mix of a recorded song that differed from the original, and involved taking apart the various instruments and components that make up a recording and remixing them into something that sounds completely different” (ethnomus.ucr.edu/remix_culture/remix_history.ht

      Everything that is created is influenced by something else

    4. hotoshopping remixes (e.g., Lostfrog.org)•Music and music video remixes (e.g., Danger Mouse’s “Grey Album” and the Grey video)•Machinima remixes (e.g., Machinima.com)•Moving image remixes (e.g., Animemusicvideos.org)•Original manga and anime fan art (e.g., DeviantArt.com)•Television, movie, book remixes (e.g., Fanfiction.net)•Serviceware mashups (e.g., Twittervision.com)

      Memes could be included in this as well. TikTok, too.

    5. By “remix” we mean the practice of taking cultural artefacts and combining and manipulating them into a new kind of creative blend. Until recently this concept was associated almost entirely with recorded music.

      Great connection.

      • friendship driven participation-hanging with friends online
      • messing around-creative, geeky, interest driven, develop sophisticated forms of media literacy
      • think critically about privacy and identity
      • generational gap in online use and activities How will this be addressed in our technologically influenced world? How can teachers reach out to the friendship and messing around groups of students? What does it mean to participate in society?
    1. Cultural Anthropologist Mimi Ito on Connected Learning, Children, and Digital Media

      Generational gap needs to be minimized. The online community/activities offers so much opportunity for real, deep, personalized learning. Because the children are invested.

    1. In creating online content, creativity is often influenced from other sources. Then the question is not only what is creativity but also what is originality? What does this say about copyright infringement in terms of digital property? What does this say about patent law?

    2. Creativity is a remix | Kirby Ferguson

      This reminds me of a very recent I had with a friend about Beyonce.

    1. I like how the technology and collaborative aspects are being used to relate the issue of homelessness not only to the past events but also the issues facing their community on both a local and personal level.

    1. Learners are encouraged to be creative as they build and revise content. They should look to see if it meets their needs and how representative it is to other elements of online information. But, most importantly, they are to use the expertise of other students and the teacher in the classroom. I would also suggest including elements of abstracted replay, or viewing the work of experts as they revise and edit their own work process and produ

      Work collaboratively and smart not hard

    2. Construction is equal parts inspiration and perspiration. Construction calls on creativity as well as persistence, flexibility, and revision. Construction asks our students and teachers to focus on the power and patience employed during work process…and not just the final resultant work product

      Nothing is ever finished on the internet

    3. our understanding of construction and creation needs to be broad enough to allow for change in the future.

      the internet is constantly changing everyday as more information is uploaded daily. Nothing is ever finished being constructed

    4. The ideas and concepts in all of this work does overlap sometimes…and students and teachers should feel empowered to move in, out, and between all of the concepts. Working online is a fluid experience which calls for flexible learners.

      This is very true as flexibility is needed in the classroom.

    5. we’ve developed elements of online collaborative inquiry, and online content construction to help expand the work students are involved in as they use online information sources to research and develop media skills.

      a good way to show what the purpose is

    6. we’ve developed elements of online collaborative inquiry, and online content construction to help expand the work students are involved in as they use online information sources to research and develop media skills.

      This is a important part of this article because it states the results of previous work, and what it has led to.

    1. The world was changing, the communications environment was changing, and it seemed to us to follow that literacy teaching and learning would to have to change, as well.

      I feel as though changing with the world is very important

    2. The kind of person who can live well in this world is someone who has acquired the capacity to navigate from one domain of social activity to another, who is resilient in their capacity to articulate and enact their own identities and who can find ways of entering into dialogue with and learn new and unfamiliar social languages (Cope and Kalantzis, 1998).

      <3

    3. Meanwhile, school was a place which inculcated a rudimentary ‘basics’. Literacy, in fact, was two of the ‘three R’s’: reading, writing and arithmetic. Children memorised spelling lists, and learnt the parts of speech and correct grammar. School was a universe of straightforwardly right and wrong answers, of authoritative texts and authoritarian teachers. The underlying lesson of the basics was about the social order and its sources of authority,

      A "factory model."

    4. There is no dispute, however, that education provides access to material resources in the form of better paid employment; that it affords an enhanced capacity to participate in civic life; that it promises personal growth.

      This quote shows that it is important that despite these different ways of learning, it is always important to focus on your education to be able to attain a job that will be able to support.

    5. pplication of knowledge and understandings to the complex diversity of real world situations and testing their validity.

      applying appropriately lets learners put what they know into real world problems

    6. This is a process of making the world anew with fresh and creative forms of action and perception.

      Applying creatively

    7. ‘Analysing Functionally’ includes processes of reasoning, drawing inferential and deductive conclusions, establishing functional relations such as between cause and effect and analysing logical and textual connections. Learners explore causes and effects, develop chains of reasoning and explain patterns in text. And ‘Analysing Critically’ (that is, more critically than functionally) involves evaluation of your own and other people’s perspectives, interests and motives. In these knowledge processes, learners interrogate the interests behind a meaning or an action, and their own processes of thinking

      Two ways of analyzing: functionally and critically

    8. Conceptualising requires that learners be active concept and theory-makers. It also requires weaving between the experiential and the conceptual (Kalantzis and Cope, 2005). This kind of weaving is primarily cognitive, between Vygotsky’s world of everyday or spontaneous knowledge and the world of science or systematic concepts, or between the Piaget’s concrete and abstract thinking (Cazden, 2006a).

      Connection of transformative pedagogy to educational theorists Vygotsky and Piaget; Conceptualization weaves construct and abstract world, theory and practice

    9. Meanings are grounded in real world of patterns of experience, action and subjective interest

      Experience, action, and interest are the real tools of learning; connection to Dewey; its not just the experience, but the reflection on the experience

    10. Transformed Practice. In applying these ideas to curriculum realities over the past decade, we have reframed these ideas somewhat and translated them into the more immediately recognisable pedagogical acts or ‘knowledge processes’ of ‘Experiencing’, ‘Conceptualising’, ‘Analysing’ and ‘Applying’

      pedagogical acts/knowledge processes of transformative pedagogy/multiliteracy pedagogy are experiencing, conceptualizing, analyzing, and applying

    11. Didactic teaching promotes mimesis—the transmission and acquisition of the rules of literacy, for instance. Teaching is a process of transmission. Cultural stability and uniformity are the results. Building by contrast on its notions of design and meaning-as-transformation, a pedagogy of Multiliteracies is characteristically transformative. Transformative curriculum recognises that the process of designing redesigns the designer (Kalantzis, 2006a). Learning is a process of self-re-creation. Cultural dynamism and diversity are the results.

      Difference between a skill and drill pedagogy versus a multiliteracy/design pedagogy

    12. Web-pages today are full of written text, but the logic of their reading is more like the syntax of the visual than that of the written language. Reading the screen requires considerable navigational effort. Today’s screens are designed for many viewing paths, allowing for diverse interests and subjectivities amongst viewers, and the reading path they choose will reflect the considerable design effort viewer has put into their reading.

      Although they both use text, websites have different affordances than books do

    13. so a pedagogy which restricts learning to one artificially segregated mode will favour some types of learners over others

      This is why you should use multimodal content to communicate so that all can have access. But you have to know the inherent differences in meaning that come along with each mode you use

    14. Designs of MeaningAvailable Designs:Found and findable resources for meaning: culture, context and purpose-specific patterns and conventions of meaning making.Designing:The act of meaning: work performed on/with Available Designs in representing the world or other’s representations of it, to oneself or others.The Redesigned:The world transformed, in the form of new Available Designs, or the meaning designer who, through the very act of Designing, has transformed themselves(learning).

      Helpful chart on ideas about design according to multiliteracies

    15. In the life of the meaning-maker, this process of transformation is the essence of learning. The act of representing to oneself the world and others’ representations of it, transforms the learner themselves.

      Transforming the Available design through designing is where the learning occurs.

    16. •Representational: What do the meanings refer to?•Social: How do the meanings connect the persons they involve?•Structural: How are the meanings organised?•Intertextual: How do the meanings fit into the larger world of meaning?•Ideological: Whose interests are the meanings skewed to serve?

      think about how modes, media, genres, site displays, discourses, etc. create meaning through lens of representational, social, structural, intertextual, and ideological

    17. including mode (such as linguistic, visual, audio, gestural, tactile and spatial), genre (the shape a text has) and discourse (the shape meaning-making takes in a social institution)

      Interesting view of discourse here

    18. Available Designs (found representational forms); the Designing one does (the work you do when you make meaning, how you appropriate and revoice and transform Available Designs); and The Redesigned (how, through the act of Designing, the world and the person are transformed).

      Three aspects of design according to Multiliteracy: available, designing one does, and the redesigned; Similar to remix? find what is usable, figure out a way to use it in order to construct meaning, and how the new product from the construction transforms either society, the world, or the available design

    19. y. Literacy teaching is not about skills and competence; it is aimed a creating a kind of person, an active designer of meaning, with a sensibility open to differences, change and innovation. The logic of Multiliteracies is one which recognises that meaning making is an active, transformative process, and a pedagogy based on that recognition is more likely to open up viable lifecourses for a world of change and diversity.

      Goals of literacy and of multiliteracies

    20. 9interest, affiliation), their identities are multilayered.

      Act differently based on our surroundings; we have multiple identities: student, teacher, child, sibling, parents, etc.

    21. Old logics of literacy and teaching are profoundly challenged by this new media environment. There are bound to fall short, not only disappointing young people whose expectations of engagement are greater, but also for failing to direct their energies to the developing the kinds of persons required for the new domains of work, citizenship and personality

      This makes me think of Boal's theatre of the oppressed and the idea of the spect-actor

    22. We are in the midst of a profound shift in the balance of agency, in which as workers, citizens and persons, we are more and more required to be users, players, creators and discerning consumers rather than the spectators, delegates, audiences or quiescent consumers of an earlier modernity.

      Different roles in today's society

    23. The Multiliteracies approach suggests a pedagogy for active citizenship, centred on learners as agents in their own knowledge processes, capable of contributing their own as well as negotiating the differences between one community and the next.

      Getting back to goal of education as democratic equality; making good citizens

    24. We would argue today that new schooling needs to promote a very different kind of citizenship—an active, bottom-up citizenship in which people can take a self-governing role in the many divergent communities of their lives—the work teams, their professions, their neighbourhoods, their ethnic associations, their environments, their voluntary organisations, their affinity groups
    25. Education is conceived more as a market than a service provided to citizens by a welfare state. In the context of the shrinking the state, its role is being reduced to the most basic of basics—literacy as phonics and numeracy as algorithmic procedures—on the assumption that the market can do the rest for those who can afford the tuition fees and find value for their money.

      Education as a private good: social mobility; running schools like businesses

    26. And even in the heart of the new economy, those who don’t manage to clone to the corporate culture and buy into its feigned egalitarianism, people who find their difference makes them an outsider, however subtlety, find their aspirations to social mobility hitting ‘glass ceilings’. In this case, a pedagogy of Multiliteracies may go one step further, to help create conditions of critical understanding of the discourses of work and power, a kind of knowing from which newer, more productive and genuinely more egalitarian working conditions might emerge

      Acknowledging the endemic failures and inequities of the "new economy" and offering a theory of multiliteracies as a way to look into the discourse that surrounds those inequities

    27. Literacy needs much more than the traditional basics of reading and writing the national language; in the new economy workplace it is a set of supple, variable, communication strategies, ever-diverging according the cultures and social languages of technologies, functional groups, types of organisation and niche clienteles.
    28. Replacing the hierarchical command structures of the old workplace are the horizontal relations of teamwork. Replacing the logic of the division of labour and deskilling is the logic of ‘multiskilling’ or creating the rounded and flexible worker whose skills repertoire is ever-broadening. Replacing mass production of uniform products is customisation of products and services for niche markets, each representing a kind of identity in the commodity space of the new capitalism. Replacing the orders of the boss are ‘flattened hierarchy’ and the supposedly self-motivating dynamics of belonging to the corporate culture, enacting its vision and personifying its mission. Replacing the formalities of the old primary discourses of command are the informalities of an apparent egalitarianism—the conversational meetings and chatty emails instead of the stiff old memos, the chummy retreats that aim to build interpersonal relationships and the training sessions that build corporate culture instead of the deference one used to show to the boss. Replacing self-interest and competition are relationships of sharing and collaboration, exemplified in open source software which is socially constructed, freely available and extremely valuable. And replacing line management are relationships of pedagogy: mentoring, training, and managing corporate knowledge in the learning organisation.

      This is why the 21st Century skills are so important on the new economy; focus now is on collaboration and communication versus individuation

    29. Multiliteracies by learning how to read and write multimodal texts which integrated the other modes with language.
    30. teracy curriculum taught to a singular standard (grammar, the literary canon, standard national forms of the language), the everyday experience of meaning making was increasingly one of negotiating discourse differences. A pedagogy of Multiliteracies would need to address this as a fundamental aspect of contemporary teaching and learning.

      Learned English (educating in schools) vs. social English (how it is used in everyday contexts

    31. The world was changing, the communications environment was changing, and it seemed to us to follow that literacy teaching and learning would to have to change, as well.

      When forms of communications change, so too do literacies. Back when stories were told orally, literacy may just have been about listening and orating. When writing was invented, this changed to reading and writing.

  2. Jul 2020
    1. Discourses, then, is that it speaks to the meanings that insiders and outsiders to particular practices can and cannot make respectively. It reminds us that texts evoke interpretation on all kinds of levels that may only partially be “tappable” or “accessible” linguistically.

      Who gets in on the Discourse? Who has access to it? How do we give access to everyone so they can all be a part of the discourse?

    2. Encoding means rendering texts in forms that allow them to be retrieved, worked with, and made available independently of the physical presence of an enunciator.

      Placing meaning into something

    3. We define literacies as “socially recognized ways of generating, communicating and negotiating meaningful content through the medium of encoded texts within contexts of participation in Discourses or as members of Discourses”

      definition of literacies

    4. The “craft” of remix entails knowing the “technical stuff” of remixing.

      Have to have the skills in order to construct the product

    5. Aspects of the “art” of remix When we talk about the “art” of remix we have generally in mind the aesthetics, appreciation, form and composition dimensions of remix practices. These are centrally concerned with the questions of what makes a remix “good” or of “high quality” and of the kinds of elements or components (including their modes) that go into effective and fertile remixes.

      This line of questioning can be used for any art form. What makes good art or quality art?

    6. hey are not remixed, may not even be viewed, read or listened to more than a few times. This may be completely immaterial to the producers, for whom the full significance of the work might consist merely in bringing a creation to fruition, as an expression of fan appreciation, as self-expression, as another “self-identity constitutive move.”

      Made from the interest of the creator, not for viewership or profit, often

    7. If we claim in this case that “family” within the conventional biological taxonomy encompasses particular types of expressive media and services, then the concepts of “genus” and “species” help us to trace fertile interbreeding at both levels

      Remix as hybridization; analogy to biology

    8. Digital Remix: The Art and Craft of Endless HybridizationColin Lankshear and Michele Knobel Keynote presented to the International Reading Association Pre-Conference Institute “Using Technology to Develop and Extend the Boundaries of Literacy”, Toronto, 13 May 2007 IntroductionBy “remix” we mean the practice of taking cultural artefacts and combining and manipulating them into a new kind of creative blend. Until recently this concept was associated almost entirely with recorded music. It referred to using audio editing techniques to produce “an alternative mix of a recorded song that differed from the original, and involved taking apart the various instruments and components that make up a recording and remixing them into something that sounds completely different” (ethnomus.ucr.edu/remix_culture/remix_history.htm). This practice of remixing became very popular during the 1990s across a range of musical genres – notably, in hip hop, house and jungle music, but also in mainstream pop, and rhythm and blues, and even in heavy metal music (ibid.). Remixes sometimes simply provided a speedier version of a song, or a leaner, more stripped back sound, or an elongated song to keep people dancing longer. Once digital sound became the norm, however, all manner of mixing and “sampling” techniques were applied using different kinds of hardware devices or software on a computer (Hawkins 2004). This remains the dominant conception of remix. Recently, however, the concept has been expanded in important and interesting ways associated with activism contesting copyright and intellectual property legislation. Beginning with music remix, digital remixing has been the object of high profile and punitive legal action based on copyright law. The legal backlash against popular practices of remix has helped fuel an organized oppositional response to what is seen as unacceptable levels of constraint against the public use of cultural material – including a fascinating moment on 2 May, 2007, centering on the dissemination of code integral to overriding digital rights management restrictions on copying certain kinds of DVDs (see, for example, http://everydayliteracies.blogspot.com/2007/05/red-vs-blue-today-surely-goes-down-as.html). The concept of remix and remixing has become a rallying point for organized response to existing copyright arrangements: namely, within arguments developed by Lawrence Lessig (2004, 2005) for the need to establish a Creative Commons (http://creativecommons.org). Lessig argues that digital remix constitutes a contemporary form of writing that is reaching the stature of a mass everyday cultural practice. Lawrence Lessig on digital remix as writingLessig (2005) claims that at a very general level all of culture can be understood in terms of remix, where someone creates a cultural product by mixing meaningful elements together (e.g., ideas from different people with ideas of one’s own), and then someone else comes along and remixes this cultural artefact with others to create yet another artefact.

      In a way you can say the ancient Roman civilization was a remix of Greek civilization; took ideas and built upon them

    9. Deep learning requires the learner being willing and able to take on a new identity in the world, to see the world and act on it in new ways.

      Grit is a characteristic that cannot be taught. It is not enough to have motivation. When you are learning a new way of doing things, you must have determination to succeed.

    10. He further notes that many of the tools young people increasingly have access to today are “smart tools” that have knowledge built into them in ways that enable them to “collaborate” with the tool users to do complex things that the tool user either could not do alone or could not do as effectively.

      Smart tools, such as extension, are great ways to collaborate online. However, in my experience in school, many extensions are disabled by the district and it is a long process to make them allowable.

    11. Moreover, it would be odd to think of others teaching the practitioners to integrate the three dimensions into their work

      This in my opinion is a requirement when integrating technology. Making sure those that are teaching it know how to use it to its fullest.

    12. The technical dimension involves knowing one’s way around the processes and tools for encoding the meaning one seeks to articulate.

      Some of my students never touched a computer before receiving their chromebook from school. This poses problems when trying to integrate technology at the remix level.

    13. By “socially recognized ways” we mean something close to the concept of “practice” as it was developed by Scribner and Cole (1981) in relation to literacy. They defined practices as “socially developed and patterned ways of using technology and knowledge to accomplish tasks.” T

      Literacy is changing. I believe it means to read and understand the meaning of the text. This could be digital or traditional and in any language. Literacy is literacy.

    14. In the sense that each new mix becomes a meaning-making resource (affordance) for subsequent remixes, there is no “end” to remixing. Each remix in principle expands the possibilities for further remix.

      This is what learning is about. Borrowing and adding, creating and taking away. Being fluid and flexible.

    15. Fan art

      I have purchased fan art of TWD and follow multiple fan art sites on Instagram. I especially enjoy the Outlander fan art.

    16. Lessig (2005) claims that at a very general level all of culture can be understood in terms of remix, where someone creates a cultural product by mixing meaningful elements together (e.g., ideas from different people with ideas of one’s own), and then someone else comes along and remixes this cultural artefact with others to create yet another artefact.

      This is interesting to think about. Many cultures come from borrowing from others. Many Latin American cultures mix Spanish cultures and food with their indigenous to create their culture today.

    17. Lessig (2005) claims that at a very general level all of culture can be understood in terms of remix, where someone creates a cultural product by mixing meaningful elements together (e.g., ideas from different people with ideas of one’s own), and then someone else comes along and remixes this cultural artefact with others to create yet another artefact.

      This makes me think of memes. You take an image and a new phrase made popular in some way and combine them into a new product. Brilliant!

    1. Expeditionary Project: Give Me Shelter

      Learning expedition; authentic learning, project based learning Policy issues Can lose how human lives are influenced by policies that were in place Really get to know about the issues Students feel connected to the project, to their product, and their learning

    1. Creativity is a remix | Kirby Ferguson

      Remix: new media from old media Remix: copy, transform, and combine--basic elements of creativity? Remix is creativity? Build on the work of others Property that we are all building; creation can only come from what has already been created Patents are in small detail Can people own ideas? Good artists copy. Great artists steal. Loss aversion; don't like it when people copy from us Creativity comes from without, not from within?

    1. Learning STEM Skills by Designing Video Games (Is School Enough? Series)

      Express creativity through making games online; stories of games Express themselves through creating games; but explain how mechanics can be used in other areas as well Problem solving--what can I do, and does that provide clues for the harder things that I don't know how to do yet Students like and want to be challenged, just challenges that are interesting to them Gamestar Mechanic Constructive criticism better than hurtful criticisms Teachers don't necessarily have the time to give every student the detailed feedback they want to, but opening it up to a broader community can help; need to teach others how to give constructive feedback though

    1. ultural Anthropologist Mimi Ito on Connected Learning, Children, and Digital Media

      Entertainment and play in schools REmixing videos, podcasts, fanfiction Diversity in what kids were doing and learning online Friendship driven participation--hanging out with friends online Learn social behavior and waht it means to grow up in digital world "messing around"/"geeking out" forms of participation; smaller cut of kids who do this Adults not welcome in friendship space Instead, help students recognize the privacy and security issues How do we support student engagement in messing around/geeking out space? Potential here for civic and political action Work against entertainment media as a hindrance or lessening of education and learning, use it as a tool to help with learning Give kids access to set of standards for what they need to participate in contemp. society

    1. Henry Jenkins on Participatory Culture (Big Thinkers Series)

      Things students care about happen after students live school Communities produce media to share amongst themselves Media is produced to share it with each other, not for money No expert, learn from each other Social modes of production Participating in culture to social/political/civics, what is that transition like? "messing around" technology; "geek out for democracy" Harry Potter Alliance (using participatory culture for civic/political justice/good) Can we tap into these fandoms and participatory culture? "Create feral children of the Internet" Use what they are interested in to help lend a supporting hand to them--connected learning Making changes in Wikipedia and showing evidence and making arguments against the review board of Wikipedia

    2. At 5:53, we need to be there to watch out for them, but not micro-manage them. But we have to embrace the new ideas and not discredit their worth.

    3. At 4:51: The students who take up arms in social justice are not the students who join student government, they are the ones playing D&D or creating Youtube channels. This is profound because as educators, it's hard to see our students with hobbies. We say all they do is play video games or stay on their phones, but in reality, they do so much more.

    4. At 2:35 He discusses remixing as a way to express yourself digitally. Taking your favorite TV and setting it to music.

    5. At 1:01: Jenkins discusses how the printing press movement was predominantly moved by teens. It's interesting to think about the ages of people 100, 200, and 300 years ago. Many of our founding fathers who signed the Declaration of Independence were only in their early to mid 30s.

    1. order of the image text is (relatively) open.

      The reader of the image does not necessarily have a particular order they have to read in unlike how our social semiotics (which are cultural by nature) of written text dictate what order we read in (left to right and up to down in an American culture)

    2. ll these are social meanings, specific to a particular culture. At the same time they are chosen, put together for their potential to mean, by the deliberate action of the designer. The sign – a complex message of words, of letters, of color and font-types with all their cultural resonances – reflects the interests of its designer as much as the designer’s imagined sense of those who will see and read the sign. The sign is based on a specific rhe-torical purpose, an intent to persuade with all means pos-sible those who pass by and notice it.

      Signs serve a rhetorical purpose: used to persuade its meaning to passersby; signs are by nature dependent on culture, and show as much the interest of the designer as the designer wishes others get meaning from their interest

    3. Each mode forces me into making certain kinds of commitments about meaning

      epistemological commitment comes with each mode

    4. he perspective of (Social) Semiotics, and more specifi-cally, from the perspective of multimodality, which deals with all the means we have for making meanings – the modes of representation – and considers their specific way of configuring the world.

      Modes and medium help to make meaning

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. Creation can be viewed simply as the act of producing, or causing to exist.  Construction is the building or assembling of an infrastructure.
    2. Working online is a fluid experience which calls for flexible learners

      and flexible teachers!

    3. In thinking about this question, I may be splitting hairs, but I believe that the word choice involved in identifying construction as opposed to creation is also of the utmost importance. Creation can be viewed simply as the act of producing, or causing to exist.  Construction is the building or assembling of an infrastructure. Construction is equal parts inspiration and perspiration. Construction calls on creativity as well as persistence, flexibility, and revision. Construction asks our students and teachers to focus on the power and patience employed during work process…and not just the final resultant work product.

      I like the point that is made here. Focusing on construction will lead to better product creation outcomes.

    1. “co - investigators”
    2. (a) modeling an expert’s  performance; (b) understanding of the internal/external processes; (c) encouraging students to think and work like experts; (d) application of knowledge in different contexts; and (e) demonstrating how to cope with difficulties

      Sub processes of the modeling/coaching/fading process of cognitive apprenticeship

    3. (a) modeling, (b) coaching, (c) scaffolding, and (d) empowering students to acquire a role as a self-motivated learner

      Creating a self-motivated learner; autonomous learning

    4. modeling, coaching and fading steps

      Steps of cognitive apprenticeship

    5. As a result, teaching and learning using elements of OCC affords opportunities for students to not only participate in global conversations, but also in some cases empower them for their future as literate individuals

      OCC as a tool for empowering students

    6. includes the enculturation of students into authentic practices through activity and social interaction in an online environment (Hennessey, 1993) in an attempt to embed learning in activity

      Project based learning and authentic learning and assessment

    7. There are usually four dimensions considered in cognitive apprenticeship (e.g., content, methods, sequence, sociology) when embedding learning in activity using a classroom’s social and physical contexts

      Four dimensions of cognitive apprenticeship: content, methods, sequence, sociology; cognitive apprenticeship also involves scaffolding learning

    8. By encouraging students to construct online content as opposed to the traditional writing  process, they are enabled to “communicate with one another using the codes and conventions of society”

      "reading the word and reading the world"

    9. The work involved in OCC includes expository, persuasive, or argumentative texts formed by students while they are engaged in the online inquiry process.

      Different types of writing

    10. In effect, work such as this helps build aspects of critical engagement between students and text to promote social  justice through process and product.

      Thinking critically about how students can learn to read the world in order to promote social justice

    11. d esign combines the “process and product”

      Idea of combining process and product

    12. Multimodal design identifies the interchange between linguistic, visual, audio, gestural, spatial, and multimodal elements (New London Group, 2000; Kress & van Leeuwen, 2001; Jewitt, 2008). Information created using elements of multimodal design must consider the mode and media chosen by the student as a crucial concept in constructing meaning (Doneman, 1997). Research has found that “the ways in which something is represented shape both what   is to be learned, that is, the curriculum content, and how  it is to be learned ”

      What is going to be learned and how it is going to be learned depend on modes and media

    13. task or purpose, and possibly share with others to obtain another perspective on their work.

      Not only thinking about what they want to say but thinking about and reviewing if how they've chosen to present it actually matches and infuses the meaning they are wanting to construct

    14. Online reading and writing has been described as a more social and interactive act than traditional communication because it focuses on both the process and the purpose of the participation of many, rather than the private act of an individual

      When you read and write online, you are becoming a part of an active and global community rather than just reading/writing your own material

    15. the key difference between the traditional writing process and OCC is that teachers and students need to consider other elements that are particular to working with online informational text (e.g., semiotics, visual literacy, multimodal design)

      It's not just about text anymore. The site of display and medium now have different affordances such as use of multiple modes (can be multimodal now)

    16. OCC is defined as the skills, strategies and dispositions necessary as students construct, redesign, or reinvent online texts by actively encoding and decoding meaning through the use of digital texts and tools.

      Tweetable summary that was used in the digging deeper lecture

    17. In computer science, read/write is defined as media that is capable of being displayed (read) and modified (write). In a literacy context, the reader/writer nature of online information could be viewed as a means to allow individuals to quickly and efficiently comprehend and construct online informatio

      Writing is the most difficult learning domain for ELs. Allowing students to use multimodal text may help increase writing proficiency sooner.

    1. 186Written Communicationnotion of social relations includes but is not limited to interactivity, whichusually refers to the learner’s engagement with and transformation ortransduction of the text. In recontextualization there is inevitably a socialrepositioning: A certain pedagogy emerges as the consequence of there-contextualization.

      The social relations, for instance of director and actor are changed when recontextualized from Broadway productions to classroom scenes. The mode and medium may be the same (action and speech/theatre) but the site of display has been changed

    2. Features of the social environment shape rhetorical/representational decisions. What may be most significant in the originatingenvironment may not be so in the environment of recontextualization.

      What needs to come to the front/move to the back may be different when recontextualized

    3. What epistemological frame isbest for this audience and this purpose, and in what order is it best to presentthe curricular entities to learners?
    4. We see four rhetorical/semiotic principles operating in the process ofrecontextualisation: selection, arrangement, foregrounding and socialrepositioning.

      Principles of recontextualization

    5. econtextualization is, literally, moving meaning materialfrom onecontext with its social organization of participants and its modal ensemblesto another, with its different social organization and modal ensembles.
    6. hatever the semiotic—modal and/or medial—change, it entails achange of social context. Of course changes in social context themselvesbring with them changes in the semiotic materialization of meaning.

      How is text perceived as a Tweet versus as a post on Facebook? How is moving image and speech perceived differently on YouTube versus Cable Network versus streaming sites?

    7. Every mode imposes/demandssuch commitments as a matter of course, though each such set of commit-ments is different. That has to be part of the designer’s consideration.

      Thinking of adaptations or transductions of text to moving pictures, not just do you have to think of how close Bill and Sam are to one another or on which side they are on, you now also have an epistemological commitment of their movement, how do these two characters interact in time and space? Are they cordial in their gestures? Are they fidgety? Are they still? Do they have different movement patterns?

    8. Modes have different materiality and it, shaped by the histories of culturalwork, has produced the specific affordances of a mode. Given that differencein material and cultural work, there can never be a perfect translation fromone mode to another: Image does not have “word,” just as writing does nothave “depiction”; forms of arrangement (i.e., syntax) differ in modes that aretemporally or spatially instantiated. Transduction inevitably brings profoundchanges in the move from one mode to the other. In such contexts we can askabout gains and losses in the process of modal change.

      Because of the different materialities of modes and the cultural, social, and historical nuances that come with modes, when switching between modes, we do not have a perfect translation, instead we have what the authors call a transduction. You do not get the same affordances when switching from text to image or from moving image to text.

    9. Design is the practice where modes, media, frames, and sites of display onthe one hand, and rhetorical purposes, the designer’s interests, and the char-acteristics of the audience on the other are brought into coherence with eachother. From the designer’s perspective, design is the (intermediary) processof giving shape to the interests, purposes, and intentions of the rhetor inrelation to the semiotic resources available for realizing/materializing thesepurposes as apt material, complex signs, texts for the assumed characteris-tics of a specific audience.

      Design combines all of the factors that go into the meaning that is wanting to be constructed

    10. Such changes in media are always subjectto social contestation. As one current example, walls and other surfaces(e.g., [underground] trains) are transformed into medium by graffiti artists.
    11. Mode and modal uses have to be considered together with the mediumof distribution involved in communication. Medium has a material and asocial aspect. Materially, medium is the substance in and through whichmeaning is instantiated/realized and through which meaning becomesavailable to others (cf. “oil on canvas”). From that perspective, print (aspaper-and-print) is medium; by extension, the book is medium, if differ-ently, the screen another; and the “speaker-as-body-and-voice” yet another.

      Mode is part of the sign (text, image, video, audio, etc.) medium is the way it is distributed (book, oil on canvas, Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, etc.)

    12. That is, modes have different affordances—potentials and constraints for making meaning.

      The choice of mode can open up new possibilities, but it can also limit what can be done.

    13. A modeis a socially and culturally shaped resource for making meaning.Image, writing, layout, speech,moving image are examples of modes, allused in learning resources.

      Modes of expression, or of meaning making.

    14. The producer’s aswell as the audience’s interests are shaped by the social, cultural, economic,political, and technological environments in which signs are made; the designis the result of the interaction between all of these. At the same time signmakers have to be aware of the media of distribution for their signs and thatawareness is factored into the making of the sign

      All of the impacts and factors of the creation of the sign

    15. Signs areelements in which meaning and form have been brought together in a rela-tion motivated by the interest of the sign maker.

      The content of what you want to get across (the message) and the medium that you use are combined in a way that is of interest to the meaning maker

    16. Media—the means for the distribution of mes-sages—also have affordances, so that changes in media have social and epis-temological effects. We include these in our discussion and in the theoreticalframework we develop here, even though they are outside our focus.

      The medium is the message

    17. If, going one step further, we comparea contemporary textbook with “pages” on the Web dealing with the “same”issues, we see that modes of representation other than image and writing—moving image and speech for instance—have found their way into learningresources, with significant effect.

      Even digital textbooks have interactive abilities. You can click on links, watch videos, etc. all from the "page"

    1. The digital media, rather than the (text) book, aremore and more the site of appearance and distribution of learning resources,and writing is being displaced by image as the central mode for representa-tion.

      Textbook companies are slowly realizing this shift and are creating digital textbooks that are interactive and full of pictures and videos to support multimodal learning.

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. What classifies something as being a creation?  When are we allowed to take ownership of something we make?  Are true "creations" only composed from raw materials?  Or is it the idea and design decisions regardless of the source of materials which makes something a "new" creation? These are the thoughts which ran through my head after watching Kirby Ferguson's TED talk on "remixing." 

      I had the same thoughts as I watched the Kirby Ferguson video as well.

    1. Typical forms of content creation include maintaining and updating web sites, blogging, article writing, photography, videography, online commentary, the maintenance of social media accounts, and editing and distribution of digital media. A Pew survey described content creation as the creation of "the material people contribute to the online world."[3]

      I love the examples provided that show what OCC can look like.

    1. Meanwhile, school was a place which inculcated a rudimentary ‘basics’. Literacy, in fact, was two of the ‘three R’s’: reading, writing and arithmetic. Children memorised spelling lists, and learnt the parts of speech and correct grammar. School was a universe of straightforwardly right and wrong answers, of authoritative texts and authoritarian teachers. The underlying lesson of the basics was about the social order and its sources of authority, a lesson which was appropriate for a society which expected its workers to be passively disciplined.

      The old way of doing things just isn't going to cut it in the modern age. Workers can look up factual information, so teaching them soft skills is more important in current education.

    2. Finally, Martin Nakata’s research on indigenous literacy has used the Multiliteracies concept to discuss literacy in ‘interface’ identities, or learners living between the ‘mainstream’ and the ‘margins’

      Now, indigenous literacy, is a must because for so long our education has been white washed.

    3. A pedagogy of Multiliteracies also opens access to powerful learning to a broader spread of learners in a world where diversity is becoming all the more critical

      There is enough piece of the pie for everyone and now the people who have been oppressed for centuries are taking a stand and demanding a better world. It is a beautiful thing.

    4. Or, insofar as these two goals might at times be at odds, a transformative pedagogy could be used to support either view

      There is huge disparity in education which leads the inequity in the criminal justice system which leads to disparities in income and its a cycle that never stops.

    5. standardised testing

      I believe we are all happy that states have thrown out testing since the pandemic. This will hopefully give teachers the breathing room to be creative and teach more of what they feel the students need versus teaching to a test.

    6. 13skin sensations (heat/cold, texture, pressure), grasp, manipulable objects, artefacts, cooking and eating, aromas.•Gestural Representation: movements of the hands and arms, expressions of the face, eye movements and gaze, demeanours of the body, gait, clothing and fashion, hair style, dance, action sequences (Scollon, 2001), timing, frequency, ceremony and ritual. Here gesture is understood broadly and metaphorically as a physical act of signing (as in ‘a gesture to ...’), rather than the narrower literal meaning of hand and arm movement. Representation to oneself may take the form of feelings and emotions or rehearsing action sequences in one’s mind’s eye.•Spatial Representation: proximity, spacing, layout, interpersonal distance, territoriality, architecture/building, streetscape, cityscape, landscape

      These are similar to the learner styles I've read about throughout my studies.

    7. all forms of representation, including language, should be regarded as dynamic processes of transformation rather than processes of reproduction.

      Language is also a fluid system that changes as people adapt and evolve to their environment.

    8. Diversity is pivotal in today’s lifeworlds, and much more profoundly and pervasively so than the straightforward demographic groupings which underwrote an earlier identity politics of gender, ethnicity, race and disability—forms of politics which first unsettled the hoped-for homogeneity of mass society and the nation-state

      This statement is even more true today. Our schools in many of our states are no longer white the majority, with black and brown a minority. Schools should not even be funded or ask about race, but about poverty level when it comes to receiving grants and funding.

    9. an active, bottom-up citizenship in which people can take a self-governing role in the many divergent communities of their lives

      This is a very difficult concept for corporations who have ceos who make millions off minimum wage workers producing a product.

    10. selling them to corporations.

      Corporations are running the government and killing America.

    11. lass ceilings’.

      These individuals who hit this "glass ceiling" make up the majority of the population in our classrooms. These are the children who's schools are underfunded and teachers are exhausted and burn out or who are fresh out of school with no experience, but a lot of motivation.

    12. he chummy retreats that aim to build interpersonal relationships and the training sessions that build corporate culture instead of the deference one used to show to the boss

      As bad as I hate to say it, this "good ol' boy" way of doing business is still strong in Southern communities.

    13. As befits the public rhetoric about the ‘knowledge economy’, ‘human capital’ is now presented as the key to having a ‘competitive edge’, whether that be the skills and knowledge of an individual seeking employment, or the aggregate of human capital in an enterprise, or the international competitiveness of a regional or national workforce in the world economy.

      Neegan said it best. "Humans are your best resource."

    14. The underlying lesson of the basics was about the social order and its sources of authority, a lesson which was appropriate for a society which expected its workers to be passively disciplined

      This type of learning was designed for the white student to learn where it fell on the social ladder. Were they heirs to the manufacturing empire, if so they would continue learning underneath their millionaire dad or granddad? Or would they go to work in the factory just a soon as they hit working age?

    15. The gap between the rich and the poor is growing, and even when the poor sometimes become slightly less poor, it is rarely because education has improved.

      This has been shown ten fold with the recent pandemic.

    16. There is no dispute, however, that education provides access to material resources in the form of better paid employment; that it affords an enhanced capacity to participate in civic life; that it promises personal growth.

      For me and my world view, education is power. It is something no one can take away from you. If you can read and more importantly read and comprehend, then no one should be able to take advantage of you.

    1. n this phase,the teacher provides students with real examples of online information that students can use to compare their work product to. Students are encouraged to review this exemplar material and review the work in relation to their own process and product completed to this point.

      Providing an exemplar is essential. I myself need an exemplar to understand what is required of me.

    2. the classroom teacher is to work as a facilitator in the classroom and allow students to work the majority of the time on the construction of online content. Teachers may start a classroom period with a “mini-lesson

      It is difficult for teachers to remove themselves from the learning process, but ultimately it is best to be a facilitator and not a dictator of learning.

    3. he OCC model provides guidance on elements of cognitive apprenticeship, writing research and the use of ICTs as a tool to allow students to express learning and experience to themselves and others

      This is a meaningful and authentic way of learning and creating.

    4. his process of modeling, coaching, and then fading of instruction involvesfive important processes: (a) modeling an expert’s performance; (b) understanding of the internal/external processes; (c) encouraging students to think and work like experts; (d) application of knowledge in different contexts; and (e) demonstrating how to cope with difficulties

      Modeling your thinking and steps is the best way to prevent confusion and to avoid the repeating of directions.

    5. There are usually four dimensions considered in cognitive apprenticeship (e.g., content, methods, sequence, sociology) when embedding learning in activity using a classroom’s social and physical contexts

      Scaffolding is an important part of English language acquisition.

    6. multimodal design refers to the use of different “modes”to recontextualize a body of knowledge for a specific audience

      This type of design is effective because it allows students to use different learning styles to complete a task.

      For example, a person who is visual, answers a question with a video or picture. For someone who is auditory, an audio recording of the answer is the solution.

    7. Student review of work process embeddedin the instructional model

      Peer feedback is also a proven way to improve speaking in the classroom by ELs.

    8. OCC was developed to define the abilities necessary to communicate the information assembled while searching, sifting, and synthesizing knowledge gained during the online inquiry process

      This is the most important part of research. No one does research in actual books anymore. All sources a from the internet or from a digital library. Being able to effectively sift and synthesize information aids in the understanding of sources.

    9. Authentically and effectively integrating the Internet and other communication technologies (ICTs) into the classroom is a social imperative given theability to empower students in the reader/writer nature inherent in the online informational space

      Technology is now unavoidable. It must be used to effectively reach our students. Embrace it or be miserable.

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. Multimodality can be used to build inventories of the semiotic resources, organizing principles, and cultural references that modes make available to people in particular places and times: the actions, materials and artifacts people communicate with.

      Multimodalities drive a meaning home. It is the icing on the cake for ORC.

    2. multimodality assumes that representation and communication always draw on a multiplicity of modes, all of which contribute to meaning. It focuses on analyzing and describing the full repertoire of meaning-making resources that people use (visual, spoken, gestural, written, three-dimensional, and others, depending on the domain of representation) in different contexts, and on developing means that show how these are organized to make meaning.

      Meaning comes from any picture, video clip, or text. Visual representations of text can drive meaning home, especially for visual learners.

    1. Internet reciprocal teaching builds on the same principles; however, the teacher first instructs students in a whole-class setting with each person constructing his or her own text while building the online reading comprehension strategies of questioning, locating, evaluating, synthesizing, and communicating.

      Good explanation on the details on internet reciprocal teaching

    2. Internet Reciprocal Teaching Promotes the Five CsCreativity: Students use divergent-thinking skills to generate their own questions and keywords for online searches. Their final projects require them to creatively express their own point of view. Communication: Students share what they learn as they work in small groups and with the whole class. They communicate with a wider audience by posting on a class blog. Collaboration: Students create collaborative knowledge through Internet inquiry and social interactions. They comment on one another's work using technologies such as VoiceThread and support one another through instant messaging. Critical Thinking: When using the Internet, students build the text they read, choosing which links to follow and which to ignore. The nonlinear nature of online reading helps support critical thinking. Students also learn to question the perspective and bias of online sources. Comprehension: Students learn important online reading skills, such as how to distinguish news articles from blog posts and editorials. They carefully read texts they encounter online to understand and evaluate different perspectives.

      The 5 C's.

    3. By creating a curriculum that allows for problem-based inquiry learning, high-level discussion, and collaboration. One approach, Internet reciprocal teaching, involves problem-based tasks in which readers create their own text. This provides students a path for navigating the Cs of change

      Internet reciprocal teaching can help with literacy on the web

    4. Students today must be prepared to navigate the new "Cs of change" that the 21st century has brought us. These Cs include such skills as creativity, communication, collaboration, critical thinking, and comprehension. In addition, the rise of the Internet means that teachers must shift how they teach reading and writing

      the Cs of change are essential when comprehending skills. teachers today need to recognize that

    5. Deliberately teaching online reading and research skills is one way to keep students from foundering on their way to the future.

      Students need these skills to be successful in their life

    6. Making meaning during online reading requires students to combine multiple streams of information from text, video, and audio sources.

      this gives students different ways of taking in and ultimately retaining information.

    7. Making meaning during online reading requires students to combine multiple streams of information from text, video, and audio sources.

      This is something I have attempted to do in my lessons. I incorporate text, visuals, and quick video clips to keep students' attention.

    8. Internet scavenger hunts

      You could make this into a competition where students group up and race to see who can find the information the fastest.

    9. however, the teacher first instructs students in a whole-class setting with each person constructing his or her own text while building the online reading comprehension strategies of questioning, locating, evaluating, synthesizing, and communicating.

      This idea of reciprocal teaching is the same when you digital text. Except there are more distractions and chances of unreliability, so It is important that students first understand the importance of monitoring and fact checking.

    10. To teach students basic Web browsing techniques, we asked them to find out whether any famous people were foster children.

      This is a great way to use content to teach skills. It is a performance based formative assessment.

    11. The gradual release of responsibility to students is central to both approaches. In Internet reciprocal teaching, there are three specific phases, discussed below. When the majority of students demonstrate proficiency with the skills

      Internet reciprocal teaching is valuable, but students must understand the importance of fact checking and making sure their sites and text are reliable.

    12. By creating a curriculum that allows for problem-based inquiry learning, high-level discussion, and collaboration. One approach, Internet reciprocal teaching, involves problem-based tasks in which readers create their own text. This provides students a path for navigating the Cs of change.

      Planning to this level is not something that is done easily. Collaboration amongst team members early on is vital in implementing this new type of teaching/learning.

    13. These Cs include such skills as creativity, communication, collaboration, critical thinking, and comprehension.

      The C's are skills needed on and off line. It's not just needed for internet reading.

    14. Internet Reciprocal Teaching Promotes the Five CsCreativity: Students use divergent-thinking skills to generate their own questions and keywords for online searches. Their final projects require them to creatively express their own point of view. Communication: Students share what they learn as they work in small groups and with the whole class. They communicate with a wider audience by posting on a class blog. Collaboration: Students create collaborative knowledge through Internet inquiry and social interactions. They comment on one another's work using technologies such as VoiceThread and support one another through instant messaging. Critical Thinking: When using the Internet, students build the text they read, choosing which links to follow and which to ignore. The nonlinear nature of online reading helps support critical thinking. Students also learn to question the perspective and bias of online sources. Comprehension: Students learn important online reading skills, such as how to distinguish news articles from blog posts and editorials. They carefully read texts they encounter online to understand and evaluate different perspectives.

      These 5 C's are common in an in-person classroom, but are also important to an online learning environment as well

    15. Reciprocal teaching revolves around four global comprehension strategies: predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing. The teacher explains these strategies to small groups using a shared text, first modeling their use, and then asking students to lead the groups.

      This method of teaching would be very helpful for transitioning to online learning.

    16. he most rewarding aspect of Phase 3 was the sense of agency that students expressed.

      Students should be agents of their own learning! They should feel like they are in control and that it is theirs

    17. One of the most successful methods involved taking aside students considered to be "struggling" and teaching them a strategy for evaluating a Web site or a new tool. These students could then go back to their group and teach the other members what they knew.

      Teaching "struggling" students first so that they can then go and teach the others in their group

    1. In short, online reading compre-hension is online research. Second, online reading also becomes tightly integrated with writing as we communicate with others to learn more about the questions we explore and as we communicate our own inter-pretations. A third difference is that new technologies such as browsers, search engines, wikis, blogs, e-mail, and many others are required. Addi-tional skills and strategies are needed to use each of these technologies effectively.

      Important in understanding basics of online reading comprehension

    2. Child‑Safe E‑Mail at ePals and GaggleBoth ePals (www.epals.com) and Gaggle (www.gaggle.net) provide child-safe e-mail.

      Good to know for future reference

    3. helping your weakest students become literate in a new technology first

      This is genius

    4. learning how to learn

      "Learning how to learn" reminds me of metacognition "thinking about thinking"

    5. each online tool regularly is updated; each time this happens new affordances appear, requiring addi-tional skills and strategies.

      Highlighting the importance of an adaptable curriculum and adaptable students and teachers. And resilience.

    6. Each requires additional reading and/or writing skills to take full advantage of its affordances. In addition, new tools for lit-eracy will appear on the Internet tomorrow with additional, New Litera-cies required to use them effectively.

      Things are constantly changing.

    7. Thus, when we speak of New Literacies in an online age we mean that literacy is not just “new” today; it becomes “new” every day of our lives

      The things that make up new literacies are constantly changing, just like the speed of technology

    8. Each requires additional reading and/or writing skills to take full advantage of its affordances. In addition, new tools for lit-eracy will appear on the Internet tomorrow with additional, New Litera-cies required to use them effectively.

      Each online database requires you to have separate, certain skills and they are changing rapidly

    9. Internet is also altering the nature of literacy, generating New Literacies that require additional skills and strategies. Most importantly, it is reshap-ing the nature of literacy education, providing us with many new and exciting opportunities for our classrooms.

      the internet is changing the way we learn about literacy and how we receive certain skills

    1. I did not know there could be such massive discrepancies in Google results based on what they "know" about you. It instantly makes me think about how divided our nation is right now, and this is a large reason why. Echo chambers.

    2. It is important when reading online not tp pn;y read sources that conform to your point of view.

    3. This is true. My mom spent about a month with me and she loves Historical dramas. Now, all I can find on Netflix and my Amazon Prime is historical drama recommendations.

    4. Oh I'm aware of this, but it is still very scary. It makes you want to go off the grid.

    5. Beware online "filter bubbles"

      Relevance of right in front of you Internet means different things to different people Algorithms edit the web based on what you have looked at in the past "There is no standard Google anymore" Personalizing news and search results to each user "The Internet is showing us what it thinks we need to see, not necessarily what we need to see" "Filter Bubble"--information you live in online, you don't decide what gets in, but you definitely don't see what gets left out Mainly looking at what you click on first Information junk food instead of information balanced diet Gatekeepers found a new way to gate keep through algorithms What does this do to democracy? What sort of internet/web ethics need to be developed to get us through to the next thing? Algorithms need to be transparent and to give us some control; need a sort of civic responsibility Internet needs to be a tool of democracy and access for ALL

    1. Students collaboratively (with the instructor) identify an area of interest and co-construct a driving question to guide inquiry. Students engage in online collaborative inquiry as they search and sift through online texts using digital tools to address their focus of inquiry. Students critically evaluate online information by considering the credibility (truthfulness) and validity (usefulness) of the information obtained. Students synthesize what they have learned during their online inquiry by actively curating and synthesizing information across multiple, multimodal sources. Student engage in online content construction by synthesizing what they have learned and selecting the best digital text or tool before sharing this answe

      This class follows this exact format. I get it now.

    1. They suggest this approach is likely to lead to greater equity, understanding, and acceptance of continuously new technologies within educational systems.

      Continuous change and the dual-level theory of New Literacies show that the success rate is higher

    1. Improved comprehension, oral language, writing, and reader self-perception. Dr. Virginia Russell (2011) of Hunter College designed a study in an urban school with ELLs who spoke 14 different languages. After just 20 days of reciprocal teaching instruction, the experimental group dramatically improved their oral language proficiency with an effect size of +1.09 and their general reading progress with an effect size of .66. Reciprocal teaching also showed statistically significant improvement in the writing proficiency of the students (Russell & McCormack, 2014).

      ELLs need to improve speaking writing, reading, and listening. Speaking and listening being super difficult because they require all brain power with no reference but sound.

    2. researchers have credited ELLs' success to reciprocal teaching instruction that utilizes students' native languages in tandem with collaborative learning opportunities with peers and cross-age tutors

      When ELs are able to use their native languages in tandem, they are able to comprehend better because the language barrier is lifted.

    3. eciprocal teaching, found that when the strategies were used with a group of students for just 15–20 days, assessments of students' reading comprehension increased from 30 percent to 70–80 percent. According to a study by Palincsar and Klenk (1991), students not only improved their comprehension skills almost immediately but also maintained their improved comprehension skills when tested a year later.

      To see that growth would make any teacher want to implement this technique in the entire school across all content levels.

    4. Reciprocal teaching fits with any grade-level lesson using fiction or informational text.

      I like this because it seems easy enough to incorporate into a curriculum and it can be tailored to any grade.

    5. Be the Teacher

      Students love acting like they run the show. It empowers them.

    6. Reciprocal teaching is a scaffolded, or supported, discussion technique that incorporates four main strategies—predicting, questioning, clarifying, summarizing—that good readers use together to comprehend text.

      This is a great way to teach ELs how to read a text and attempt to understand something higher than their proficiency level.

    1. Relevant and Authentic is a must when teaching ELs. In the ESOL world, we've named these Performance Based Assessments.

    2. Keeping Assessment Relevant and "Authentic"

      Never answer questions, why are we learning this?

      Real world applications built into learning targets

      Grades based on performance versus memorization of formulas and facts

      Authentic Assessment: measures student learning according to the application of skills during the performance of a real-world task

      Reenacting historical acts

      Let students demonstrate knowledge by doing

      1. Challenging
      2. Results in a performance or product
      3. Encourages real-world applications
      4. Self-evaluation
      5. Collaborate, discuss, and receive feedback on work

      Rubric

      I hear and I forget, I see and I remember, I do and I understand

    3. Keeping Assessment Relevant and "Authentic"

      Authentic Assessment: designed to hit skills and needs of population Why did we get to the right answer; what was the process? What were the steps? What are common mistakes? Take mistake and throw it back into class a few days later Give incorrect answers and have them break down the thought process Connect to real life; hands-on, experiential learning Side coaching as assessment Anticipate problems Make tasks authentic to real world tasks Process v. product Use assessment as a teaching tool!

    1. Middle School Project: Public Art

      STEAM!!!! Google Maps walking tour, kinetic sculpture to install Teacher Planning Session, connecting learning

      Existing art that students are studying in history Click on art and information they have found about it comes up Applies to real-world--their community Writing proposals for installation of their works of public art

      No "paint by numbers"

      Let students explore the process! The products will be so creative--things you have not even thought about

      "Science fair" or "expo" of ideas

      Students taking ownership of ideas

    1. Online Reading Comprehension

      Sharing what they've found with one another Students getting really excited when they've found something, want to show teacher Once students get one part, challenge them to find something new Evaluate the information; what features make it good? What is definition of best? Synthesize what you are finding; bring in all the information from different sources Multimodal ways of reading

    2. Online Reading Comprehension

      "I found it!" excitement

      Cup System--different colors mean different kinds of help are needed

    3. Online Reading Comprehension

      Put focus on learning coming from partners

    1. Open learning is becoming a critical focus for K-12 technology-supported programs, both those strictly online as well as blended classroom practices extending into online environments.

      This quote is very important as with the increase of transition to online, teachers and students should be more accustomed to online learning