2,588 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2019
    1. “You look through the 3D glasses, and you can basically walk through the structure, peeling apart parts so you can look at exactly what you want to,” said Dr. Anthony Azakie, one of the surgeons who separated the twins. He said the high-resolution visualization “helped minimize the number of surprises that we were potentially dealing with.”

      How cool!

    2. X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans can now be turned into high-resolution 3D images in under a minute, said Sergio Agirre, chief technology officer of EchoPixel, a Mountain View, California firm whose visualization software is being used in hospitals across the U.S. “Twenty years ago, it would probably take them a week to be able to do that.”

      It is incredible how far it has come in such a short amount of time. Those of us entering the health profession must be prepared and motivated to keep up!

    3. psychologists have found VR to be good for treating post-traumatic stress disorder.

      This is awesome. Perhaps VR is good for exposure exercises and helps them recreate the traumatic experience but with a different end result? I'd be curious to learn more about how this works!

    1. Construction asks our students and teachers to focus on the power and patience employed during work process…and not just the final resultant work product.

      As a society that focuses on grades and evaluations as a measure of success, I think this is such a refreshing concept to emphasize.

    2. It may be a small designation to make, but I see a great deal of difference between the act of creation, and the sustained, informed, evaluative elements embedded in construction. Related posts:

      I love this. OCC involves digital craftsmanship, not just mindless creation.

    3. Creation can be viewed simply as the act of producing, or causing to exist.  Construction is the building or assembling of an infrastructure. Construction is equal parts inspiration and perspiration. Construction calls on creativity as well as persistence, flexibility, and revision. Construction asks our students and teachers to focus on the power and patience employed during work process…and not just the final resultant work product.

      Great way of describing difference b/n creation and construction online.

    4. During the ORC process students learn during an inquiry process and then send this message out to others using a text or tool of their choosing.

      Shows on-line reading comprehension skills while allowing student to choose how they relay he message to their peers.

    1. . Education has become more prominent topic in the public discourse of social promise. The expectations of education have been ratcheted up,

      it should be improving over the years, otherwise people arent doing their job right.

    2. We have created networks and affiliations and worked in joint projects

      its is good for students to work together.

    3. Meaning makers don’t simply use what they have been given; they are fully makers and remakers of signs and transformers of meaning.

      Remixing what they are given

    4. Three major innovations over that time have been: to focus less on the teachable specificities of meaning-system and more on the heuristics of learners’ discovering specificities amongst the enormously varied field of possibly-relevant

      Finding new ways of learning.

    5. a pedagogy of Multiliteracies may go one step further, to help create conditions of critical understanding of the discourses of work and power, a kind of knowing from which newer, more productive and genuinely more egalitarian working conditions might emerge

      Having access to learn about different types of jobs will help us to understand them better and appreciate them more.

    6. Literacy needs much more than the traditional basics of reading and writing the national language; in the new economy workplace it is a set of supple, variable, communication strategies, ever-diverging according the cultures and social languages of technologies, functional groups, types of organisation and niche clienteles.

      Students now have to know how to adapt their communication skills to people from all over the world.

    7. And these new literacies are embodied in new social practices—ways of working in new or transformed forms of employment, new ways of participating as a citizen in public spaces, and even perhaps, new forms of identity and personality

      Students are having to learn how to be different people in a technology world.

    8. the traditional emphasis on alphabetical literacy (letter sounds in words in sentences in texts in literatures) would need to be supplemented in a pedagogy of Multiliteracies by learning how to read and write multimodal texts which integrated the other modes with language.

      Students have to learn a new way of writing that is different than what they already know.

    9. 3literacy curriculum taught to a singular standard (grammar, the literary canon, standard national forms of the language), the everyday experience of meaning making was increasingly one of negotiating discourse differences. A pedagogy of Multiliteracies would need to address this as a fundamental aspect of contemporary teaching and learning.

      Learning what the grammar and language mean beyond how to read them.

    1. n the sense that each new mix becomes a meaning-making resource (affordance) for subsequent remixes, there is no “end” to remixing.

      A never ending loop

    2. These features can be applied analogously to cases of digital remix. If we claim in this case that “family” within the conventional biological taxonomy encompasses particular types of expressive media and services, then the concepts of “genus” and “species” help us to trace fertile interbreeding at both levels (see Table 1).
    3. Photoshopping remixes (e.g., Lostfrog.org)•Music and music video remixes (e.g., Danger Mouse’s “Grey Album” and the Grey video)•Machinima remixes (e.g., Machinima.com)•Moving image remixes (e.g., Animemusicvideos.org)•Original manga and anime fan art (e.g., DeviantArt.com)•Television, movie, book remixes (e.g., Fanfiction.net)•Serviceware mashups (e.g., Twittervision.com

      Good examples

    4. We remix language every time we draw on it, and we remix meanings every time we take an idea or an artefact or a word and integrate it into what we are saying and doing at the time.

      interesting to think about

    5. Lessig (2005) claims that at a very general level all of culture can be understood in terms of remix, where someone creates a cultural product by mixing meaningful elements together (e.g., ideas from different people with ideas of one’s own), and then someone else comes along and remixes this cultural artefact with others to create yet another artefact.

      Cultural remixing sometimes happens naturally

    6. By “remix” we mean the practice of taking cultural artefacts and combining and manipulating them into a new kind of creative blend.

      remix definition

    7. e remix meanings every time we take an idea or an artefact or a word and integrate it into what we are saying and doing at the time.

      An interesting way to look at it, but yes, this is definitely how we absorb information and then make our own of apply it to our own purposes.

    8. The evaluative dimension has to do with knowing how to enhance or improve the practice in order for it to better fulfill the interests of those who engage in it and who are impacted by it.

      How will your meaning make sense to others?

    9. The discourse dimension involves bringing cultural knowledge to bear on the tasks or purposes of the practice in which one is engaged; how to mobilize and co-ordinate the meaning elements.

      How are you going to bring the meaning together?

    10. The technical dimension involves knowing one’s way around the processes and tools for encoding the meaning one seeks to articulate.

      What are you going to use to make meaning?

    11. It reminds us that texts evoke interpretation on all kinds of levels that may only partially be “tappable” or “accessible” linguistically.

      People have different meanings of the same texts.

    12. Encoding means rendering texts in forms that allow them to be retrieved, worked with, and made available independently of the physical presence of an enunciator.

      Making individual meaning of something

    13. They defined practices as “socially developed and patterned ways of using technology and knowledge to accomplish tasks.” That is, when people participate in tasks that direct them “to socially recognized goals and make use of a shared technology and knowledge system, they are engaged in a social practice”

      Sharing ideas through technology

    14. In the sense that each new mix becomes a meaning-making resource (affordance) for subsequent remixes, there is no “end” to remixing. Each remix in principle expands the possibilities for further remix.

      People are always going to be remixing products as more new and exciting things are released.

    15. These include remixing clips from movies to create “faux” trailers for hypothetical movies; setting remixed movie trailers to remixed music of choice that is synchronized to the visual action; recording a series of anime cartoons and then video-editing them in synchrony with a popular music track; mixing “found” images with original images in order to express a theme or idea (with or without text added); and mixing images, animations and texts to create cartoons or satirical posters (including political cartoons and animations), to name just a few types.

      Examples of remixes

    16. We remix language every time we draw on it, and we remix meanings every time we take an idea or an artefact or a word and integrate it into what we are saying and doing at the time

      We remix things based on what inspires us.

    17. Lessig (2005) says that every single act of reading and choosing and criticizing and praising culture is in this sense remix, and it is through this general practice that cultures get made.

      We are constantly remixing products without realizing it.

    18. Lessig (2005) claims that at a very general level all of culture can be understood in terms of remix, where someone creates a cultural product by mixing meaningful elements together (e.g., ideas from different people with ideas of one’s own), and then someone else comes along and remixes this cultural artefact with others to create yet another artefact.

      New products draw inspiration from multiple existing products.

    1. it helps when their is text with the pictures for the students to be able grasp the topics.

    2. Great way of introducing how technology is taking over the way we tech literacy in classrooms.

    3. I think it's a valid concern that this will have adverse affects on literacy in future generations

    4. This is very true and something I have noticed. I think its also true that video is another way that written texts are being replaced

    5. Teachers use different modes of technology to teach students information in different ways. Each of these modes have specific semiotic meanings which can help students learn in many diverse ways.

    1. Creativity

      Notes from video

      • Copy, Transform, Combine (Remix)
      • Everything is a remix
      • Loss Aversion- strong feeling of protection of what we have or what we have made
      • we are dependent on one another- creativity comes from without not from within
    1. Learning STEM Skills by Designing

      Notes from Video

      • Making video games is like writing stories where the audience can pick their own stories
      • understand broader context of game-making skills in other areas (problem-solving skills- can relate to math, literacy, real-life situations, etc...)
      • How is my audience going to perceive my message?- being taught with online game-making but it is being missed in classrooms
      • negative comments- if feedback is more productive rather than demeaning then students can learn what they need to fix what they have done wrong rather than just quitting what they are doing
    1. Cultural Anthropologist Mimi Ito on Connected Learning, Children, and Digital Media

      Notes from the Video

      • Why do we assume kids socializing and play is not a site of learning?
      • why do we assume that schools cant have a spirit of entertainment and play as part of what they're doing?
      • Diversity in what kids were learning and doing online- friendship-driven participation (hanging out with their firends online)- site of learning social behaviors and what it means to grow up in a technological world
      • "Geeking out" participation- minority/ creative students/ interest-driven orientations- kids using the internet as environments to develop their interests and more specific forms of literacy
      • we should value all activities of online participation
      • adults have a complicated role in children's societal spaces
      • adults role in education of online safety is very important, however,
      • awareness of supporting of engagement for students to foster intelectual development using online resources- proactively engage kids in learning with online/ technological tools
      • more general perception that associates technology with the media and it is inherently a space that is hostile for learning- learning about the differences between online resources- recognizing the important actions performed when children go online (even the social area of online interactions)
      • classroom learning- giving kids access to a baseline set of standards of what they need to participate in contemporary society- reflecting on things that are going on in their lives- formal learning should work with technological learning to help students learn more
    1. Henry Jenkins on Participatory Culture

      Notes from Video-

      • Participatory Culture- a world where everyone participates in learning
      • Communities begin to produce media to share among themselves
      • Faux-cultures- share to share/ not to make money
      • media on the internet- do things because we like doing it- sharing videos and multimodal content because it is something that we like doing just wanting to share ideas
      • how do we go from participating in our cultures to participating in our political and civic structures?
      • Most people gain skill by practicing with technology **"Geek out for Democracy"- get as excited about hte future of our society as we get excited for things that we liek when using technology- making meaning for important ideas and problems in our society Interest-Driven networks- new types of citizens- directing them towards changing society and the world
      • Allowing children to do what they want on the internet is letting the children that need to be "guided" slip through the cracks
      • Instead of cutting off resources because they are considered "bad" (wikipedia) , we need to allow students to explore these types of resources so they can understand for themselves why they arent used or why they would not be considered important. They need to know "why"
    2. People are learning from each other. Media is used to share ideas more than to make money.

    3. Participatory Culture- everyone is contributing to media

    1. As we begin to integrate these online communication tools into our classrooms, we should not ignore concerns about child safety.

      It is important to educate students how to safely use the internet

    2. Someone reading this standard with a lens to the past would interpret it by teaching point of view within narratives, engaging students in discussions about the point of view held by different characters. Some-one reading this standard with a lens to the future would interpret it by teaching point of view in relation to the evaluation of a website’s reliabil-ity, where point of view is one of several important elements to consider when evaluating the reliability of information that is found online.

      i have never really thought about this but it makes sense. You never know which websites can be a reliable source.

    1. To make this approach work, teachers must be willing to “cede the floor” to the students.

      They have to let their students work through the problems together as a group and give them guidance if needed.

    1. Connected learning is realized when a young person is able to pursue a personal interest or passion with the support of friends and caring adults, and is in turn able to link this learning and interest to academic achievement, career success or civic engagement.

      A simple interest or hobby during youth can lead to greater connections later on.

    1. They do this by being sponsors of what youth are genuinely interested in — recognizing diverse interests and providing mentorship, space, and other resources.

      It is important for adults to want to and be able to connect with youth interest

  2. Mar 2019
    1. Construction calls on creativity as well as persistence, flexibility, and revision. Construction asks our students and teachers to focus on the power and patience employed during work process…and not just the final resultant work product.

      Construction is the hard work that goes into online content.

    1. Design in the sense of construction is something you do in the process of representing meanings, to oneself in sense-making processes such as reading, listening or viewing, or to the world in communicative processes such as writing, speaking or making pictures.

      How you are going to make meaning out of something.

    2. Literacy teaching is not about skills and competence; it is aimed a creating a kind of person, an active designer of meaning, with a sensibility open to differences, change and innovation

      Teaching the whole student and creating a new way of thinking.

    3. That is, meaning makers are not simply replicators of representational conventions. Their meaning-making resources may be found in representational objects, patterned in familiar and thus recognisable ways. However, they rework these objects. Meaning makers don’t simply use what they have been given; they are fully makers and remakers of signs and transformers of meaning.

      They are taking what they have been given and using it in a way that is relevant to their lives.

    4. Rather than address the specificities meaning-making systems (which we tended to do earlier), we propose that the conventions of any domain be addressed with open-ended questions about meaning, such as:•Representational: What do the meanings refer to?•Social: How do the meanings connect the persons they involve?•Structural: How are the meanings organised?•Intertextual: How do the meanings fit into the larger world of meaning?•Ideological: Whose interests are the meanings skewed to serve?
    5. The Multiliteracies view of design has three aspects: Available Designs (found representational forms); the Designing one does (the work you do when you make meaning, how you appropriate and revoice and transform Available Designs); and The Redesigned (how, through the act of Designing, the world and the person are transformed)
    6. pedagogy of Multiliteracies, in contrast, requires that the enormous role of agency in the meaning making process be recognised, and in that recognition, it seeks to create a more productive, relevant, innovative, creative and even perhaps emancipatory, pedagogy. Literacy teaching is not about skills and competence; it is aimed a creating a kind of person, an active designer of meaning, with a sensibility open to differences, change and innovation. The logic of Multiliteracies is one which recognises that meaning making is an active, transformative process, and a pedagogy based on that recognition is more likely to open up viable lifecourses for a world of change and diversity.
    7. n a pedagogy of Multiliteracies, all forms of representation, including language, should be regarded as dynamic processes of transformation rather than processes of reproduction.
    1. •Photoshopping remixes (e.g., Lostfrog.org)•Music and music video remixes (e.g., Danger Mouse’s “Grey Album” and the Grey video)•Machinima remixes (e.g., Machinima.com)•Moving image remixes (e.g., Animemusicvideos.org)•Original manga and anime fan art (e.g., DeviantArt.com)•Television, movie, book remixes (e.g., Fanfiction.net)•Serviceware mashups (e.g., Twittervision.com
    2. a very general level all of culture can be understood in terms of remix, where someone creates a cultural product by mixing meaningful elements together (e.g., ideas from different people with ideas of one’s own), and then someone else comes along and remixes this cultural artefact with others to create yet another artefact.
    3. By “remix” we mean the practice of taking cultural artefacts and combining and manipulating them into a new kind of creative blend.
    1.  Is the information easy to use? Limit the number of messages, use plain language, and focus on action.3, 4 Keep it simple. The number of messages will depend on the information needs of the intended users. As a general guideline, use no more than four main messages. Give the user specific actions and recommendations. Clearly state the actions you want the person to take. Focus on behavior rather than the underlying medical principles. Use familiar language and an active voice. Avoid long or run-on sentences. Organize similar information into several smaller groups. Many of the same plain language techniques that make the written word understandable also work with verbal messages, such as avoiding jargon and using everyday examples to explain technical or medical terms the first time they are used. For more information on plain language, visit www.plainlanguage.gov. Supplement instructions with pictures. Individual learning styles differ. For many people, visuals are a preferred style, especially for technical information.3 Simple line drawings can help users understand complicated or abstract medical concepts. Make sure to place images in context. When illustrating internal body parts, for example, include the outside of the body. For print communication, use captions or cues to point out key information.3 Show the main message on the front of the materials. Use visuals that help convey your message. (Don't just “decorate,” as this will distract users.) Make visuals culturally relevant and use images that are familiar to your audience. Back to Top Make written communication look easy to read.3-5 Use at least 12-point font. Avoid using all capital letters, italics, and fancy script. Keep line length between 40 and 50 characters. Use headings and bullets to break up text. Be sure to leave plenty of white space around the margins and between sections. Improve the usability of information on the Internet. Remember Refer to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Policies for Federal Public Websites for further guidance. Studies show that people cannot find the information they seek on Web sites about 60 percent of the time.6 This percentage may be significantly higher for persons with limited literacy skills. Many of the elements that improve written and oral communication can be applied to online information, including using plain language, large font, white space, and simple graphics.7 Other elements are specific to the Internet. These include: Enhancing text with video or audio files Including interactive features and personalized content Using uniform navigation Organizing information to minimize searching and scrolling6 Giving users the option to navigate from simple to complex information A critical way to make information on the Internet more accessible to persons with limited literacy and health literacy skills is to apply user-centered design principles and conduct usability testing. Usability is a measure of several factors that affect a user's experience interacting with a product, such as a Web page. These factors include: How fast can the user learn how to use the site? How fast can the user accomplish tasks? Can the user remember how to use the site the next time he or she visits? How often do users make mistakes? How much does the user like the site? To learn more about usability, visit www.usability.gov.

      All of these are questions doctors and nurses should be asking themselves when sharing information.

    1. Health information can overwhelm even persons with advanced literacy skills. Medical science progresses rapidly. What people may have learned about health or biology during their school years often becomes outdated or forgotten, or it is incomplete. Moreover, health information provided in a stressful or unfamiliar situation is unlikely to be retained.

      Exactly! Health information requires more specific knowledge.

    1. Teacher modeling in the beginning of the phase gives way to student modeling in the latter half. Students take responsibility for teaching their peers a variety of online reading comprehension strategies. Instruction also begins to move from search skills to critical evaluation and synthesis skills. (

      Students taking responsibility in there education by collaboration and teaching themselves and others the material

    2. Reciprocal teaching revolves around four global comprehension strategies: predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing. The teacher explains these strategies to small groups using a shared text, first modeling their use, and then asking students to lead the groups. Internet reciprocal teaching builds on the same principles; however, the teacher first instructs students in a whole-class setting with each person constructing his or her own text while building the online reading comprehension strategies of questioning, locating, evaluating, synthesizing, and communicating.

      It is import for teachers to explain to student how to use something but it also important for students to play and figure out something with their peers in a group or on there own

    3. During Phase 3, students work both individually and in small groups at using strategies and skills from the previous phases to develop lines of inquiry around curricular topics.

      In the last phase, students work in small groups to develop their inquiry

    4. Phase 2 is a collaborative phase during which both teachers and students conduct think-aloud demonstrations and minilessons

      In the second phase of internet inquires, students and teachers come together to evaluate the information that students have found online.

    5. questioning, locating, evaluating, synthesizing, and communicating.

      the online reading comprehension strategies include questioning, evaluating, syntehsizing, and communicating

    6. The teacher explains these strategies to small groups using a shared text, first modeling their use, and then asking students to lead the groups.

      in order for teachers to use the global comprehension stragies, they must introduce them to students and let students branch out into small groups

    7. Reciprocal teaching revolves around four global comprehension strategies: predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing.

      the four global comprehension strategies are predicitng, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing

    8. In addition, the rise of the Internet means that teachers must shift how they teach reading and writing (

      In order for teachers to adapt to the forever changing digital age, they must change how they teach their subjects to better incorporate technology and internet inquiries

    9. These Cs include such skills as creativity, communication, collaboration, critical thinking, and comprehension.

      The 5 "C's of change" for the 21st century

    10. Students needed a sextant, a tool for navigation, to guide them.

      students need a tool for navigation to help guide their inquiry online and promote deeper thinking

    11. Creativity: Students use divergent-thinking skills to generate their own questions and keywords for online searches. Their final projects require them to creatively express their own point of view. Communication: Students share what they learn as they work in small groups and with the whole class. They communicate with a wider audience by posting on a class blog. Collaboration: Students create collaborative knowledge through Internet inquiry and social interactions. They comment on one another's work using technologies such as VoiceThread and support one another through instant messaging. Critical Thinking: When using the Internet, students build the text they read, choosing which links to follow and which to ignore. The nonlinear nature of online reading helps support critical thinking. Students also learn to question the perspective and bias of online sources. Comprehension: Students learn important online reading skills, such as how to distinguish news articles from blog posts and editorials. They carefully read texts they encounter online to understand and evaluate different perspectives.

      5 C's overview

    12. Students take responsibility for teaching their peers a variety of online reading comprehension strategies.

      Helps build confidence in their own web literacy skills when they have to share it with others .

    13. Patricia Reilly Giff's Pictures of Hollis Woods

      I love this book so much

    14. Boolean search terms.

      AND, OR and NOT can refine your search by combining or limiting terms. Boolean logic is a system of showing relationships between sets by using the words AND, OR, and NOT. (The term Boolean comes from the name of the man who invented this system, George Boole. https://library.uaf.edu/ls101-boolean

    15. the teacher first instructs students in a whole-class setting with each person constructing his or her own text while building the online reading comprehension strategies of questioning, locating, evaluating, synthesizing, and communicating.

      Helps them become both web consumers and web creators.

    16. By creating a curriculum that allows for problem-based inquiry learning, high-level discussion, and collaboration. One approach, Internet reciprocal teaching, involves problem-based tasks in which readers create their own text. This provides students a path for navigating the Cs of change. (See "Internet Reciprocal Teaching Promotes the Five Cs.")

      Allows them to develop these skills through hands on experience.

    17. These Cs include such skills as creativity, communication, collaboration, critical thinking, and comprehension.

      The 5 C's

    18. No one gave students a map for Internet inquiry. Students needed a sextant, a tool for navigation, to guide them.

      this would be helpful but sadly it doesn't exist .

    19. Deliberately teaching online reading and research skills is one way to keep students from foundering on their way to the future.

      If they don't learn these skills, they may nt being using the internet to it's full potential or may be misusing it

    20. We then demonstrated how to use basic Boolean search terms.

      one method of web searching with a purpose

    21. Cs of change" that the 21st century has brought us. These Cs include such skills as creativity, communication, collaboration, critical thinking, and comprehension.

      c's of change; skills needed to navigate the internet

    22. We discussed the differences among news articles, blogs, and editorials. Then the students had to post comments on the classroom blog about whether they thought the zoo or the patron was at fault for the attack

      Is there any bias in the articles? This could sway the way that the articles portray the information.

    23. Another technique is to create Internet scavenger hunts connected to the curriculum. On completing the challenge, students share their searching strategies with the class

      Great way to incorporate search engine skills! This helps to keep students engaged and interested in learning about how to navigate the internet properly.

    24. They chose real-life issues that they face every day as at-risk youth. Sure, the school dress code and the school lunch were favorites, but many students chose such crucial issues as how to stop bullying, reducing drug use in school, stopping domestic and relationship violence, and keeping students in school

      By allowing student to choose their own topics, they will delve into the issues revolving their lives. It is important to get them to ask these questions and focus on resolving these issues because it shows them that just because a problem persists, it does not mean that there is no solution.

    25. During Phase 3, students work both individually and in small groups at using strategies and skills from the previous phases to develop lines of inquiry around curricular topics. This type of project requires clear questions, multiple reliable sources, citations, and a final product that communicates that information to others.

      Student-centered learning aids in the student taking the responsibility of the own learning. By allowing students to question on their own about a topic, they are producing their own thought process on how to acquire knowledge.

    26. Making meaning during online reading requires students to combine multiple streams of information from text, video, and audio sources.

      Multimodal learning to help students understand the content and how to relay the information that they learned. With many different facets of information retrieval, students can help to reinforce the information that they are learning.

    27. Students take responsibility for teaching their peers a variety of online reading comprehension strategies. Instruction also begins to move from search skills to critical evaluation and synthesis skills

      In this model, students will help to teach their classmates so that all students can know and better understand the content. When students teach their peers, they are reinforcing the information they already know and they are helping their classmates to better understand the information that they may not fully comprehend yet.

    28. Phase 1 centers on computer basics, word processing skills, Web searching, navigation basics, and e-mail

      Basic skills that students should first know when navigating the internet. Some may already have these skills but it is important to still teach them so that they can have a full understanding of the information they are trying to find.

    29. Reciprocal teaching revolves around four global comprehension strategies: predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing. The teacher explains these strategies to small groups using a shared text, first modeling their use, and then asking students to lead the groups

      Using reciprocal teaching to explain to students about internet use and information finding. These types of teaching methods refer to understanding a text of information, which helps when searching for information. Internet reciprocal teaching takes this pedagogy to the next step by including internet literacy and student-based learning techniques.

    30. These Cs include such skills as creativity, communication, collaboration, critical thinking, and comprehension

      The C's of Change

    31. "You do not simply answer these questions. It is not answer number one; then answer number two. These are questions you keep in the back of your mind as you work."

      Internet inquiry is not based on a simple "question and answer" framework, to use the internet to research students have to keep in mind the questions and build up information that they find from credible sources to explain the topic that they are researching.

    1. To improve quality of care and reduce disparities, patients’ literacy skills must be acknowledged and addressed within the health care setting. The National Call to Action to Promote Health Literacy, released by the CDC in May, 2010, views limited health literacy as a public health problem (section1) and has articulated 7 goals to deliver person-centered health information and services.

      Good argument.

    1. Open learning, also known as open education, can be defined as a set of practices, resources, and scholarship that are openly accessible, free to use and access, and to re-purpose.

      open learning defined

    2. Open learning, also known as open education, can be defined as a set of practices, resources, and scholarship that are openly accessible, free to use and access, and to re-purpose.

      good definition of open learning

    3. Open learning, also known as open education, can be defined as a set of practices, resources, and scholarship that are openly accessible, free to use and access, and to re-purpose.

      This is essential to expanding education and getting the whole picture.

    4. Open learning, also known as open education, can be defined as a set of practices, resources, and scholarship that are openly accessible, free to use and access, and to re-purpose.

      Having access to resources that are able to be re-purposed offer educators and students to use the SAMR model and modify or redefine whatever the learning material is.

    5. Two heads are always better than one, and it is a good idea to share, compare and contrast ideas with other teachers who may be in other districts, towns, states, and even countries from you.

    6. this is a reoccurring worry we have we using technology in the classroom

    7. Making sure reposted media on your website fits legal licensing standards is important to remember.

    8. Open learning, also known as open education, can be defined as a set of practices, resources, and scholarship that are openly accessible, free to use and access, and to re-purpose.

      I can see how this concept is growing with the increased use of technology and the accessibility provided by the internet.

    9. pre-publication draft
      • "OER are teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license permitting their free use or re-purposing by others"- finding free tools to use is a good way to keep the cost down while integrating technology in our classrooms
      • "The Internet can be an empowering tool that allows individuals to create, share, connect, and learn with other like-minded individuals around the globe"- connecting to people around the world can help us to get our students engaged and interested in the topics we are discussing. it can also help them to learn more information.
      • "Central to the challenges associated with the use of OER in the classroom are questions about the credibility, value, reliability, and permanence of access of these online materials"- we have to make sure that we are teaching our students to use their critical thinking skills to investigate sources.
      • "Many school policies are vague, unclear, or generally do not permit students to construct and share digital content openly online"- it can be difficult in some cases to integrate the internet in our classrooms. If this happens, then we have to be careful about what we introduce to our students
      • "The use of OERs has the potential to help teachers find quality resources while encouraging them to share resources. This curation and sharing promotes dialogue about thoughtful teaching and learning within an educator’s PLN"- creating and sharing Open Education Resources can be beneficial to how we set up our classroom learning environment. It can also promote the sharing pedagogical ideas and theories. Teachers helping teachers gain perspective of different teaching and learning ideas.
      • "As open learning practices and development of OERs continue to expand and impact practice in K-12 classrooms, issues of ownership, quality, and relevancy must be addressed by education leaders"- we must teach our students about the proper ways to share and search for information online so that they don't have to worry about infringing on copyright or obtaining false information.
    1. “credibility” and “relevance”…but they do understand words like “truthful” and “useful.”

      very important statement for student understanding

    2. Students collaboratively (with the instructor) identify an area of interest and co-construct a driving question to guide inquiry

      teachers step in to help students come up with a subject that interests them and create a driving question to help guide their research

    3. student interest driven

      This is a very important statement because every project that students do will be easier for them to complete if it geniuenly interests them

    4. As students expand beyond the WebQuest, the next step is to engage in an Internet Inquiry Project.

      After students develop WebQuests, they should engage in an Internet Inquiry Project

    5. Student engage in online content construction by synthesizing what they have learned and selecting the best digital text or tool before sharing this answer.

      I think it's important to help students interpret what they read and to guide them in becoming web content creators themselves.

    6. he Internet Inquiry Project is an online research project that helps students develop the important digital knowledge and skills needed as they build their web literacies.

      It's important that students are well versed in how to explore the web and do research in order to obtain accurate knowledge.

    7. The design, focus, and length of the Internet Inquiry Project should be determined by your student learning objectives, as well as your own technological, pedagogical, and content area knowledge (TPACK) and objectives

      To develop lesson plans that use the internet as a learning tool, we must tailor it to our students needs. We have to find out what our students already know and use that as a base to start our lesson plans. If things do not end up working out in a lesson, then we have to fix it so that all of our students can understand the information we are teaching them.

    8. Another takeaway was that K-12 students don’t understand “credibility” and “relevance”…but they do understand words like “truthful” and “useful.”

      Providing simpler language to our students can help them to gain a better understanding of the correct ways of using technology. Making the information less complicated will help them to grasp the concept easier. We can also use our students' lack of knowledge about the internet lingo to teach them how to understand words like "credibility" and "relevance".

    9. Please note that each of these phases offers its own challenges and may provide opportunities to slow down and focus, or revisit some of these phases over the school year.

      We can teach this throughout the school year and with different topics and subjects. Integrating technology across curiculum can help students to better understand how to use their technology resources

    10. Students critically evaluate online information by considering the credibility (truthfulness) and validity (usefulness) of the information obtained

      We teach them how to evaluate their sources so when they get to this point they will know what to look for. (Talk about this with other article- "Prior knowledge we bring to a text profoundly shapes our interpretation"- New Literacies)

    11. Students collaboratively (with the instructor) identify an area of interest and co-construct a driving question to guide inquiry.

      Driving questions help to solidify what kinds of information that we are trying to acquire. It is important to establish these driving questions before conducting research so that students can understand what information they need to be looking for.

    12. WebQuests typically contain an introduction, task, process, evaluation, and conclusion

      The process of obtaining information from the web which can help students to understand the type of information they are recieving and deciding if it is relevant and accurate

    13. Students collaboratively (with the instructor) identify an area of interest and co-construct a driving question to guide inquiry. Students engage in online collaborative inquiry as they search and sift through online texts using digital tools to address their focus of inquiry. Students critically evaluate online information by considering the credibility (truthfulness) and validity (usefulness) of the information obtained. Students synthesize what they have learned during their online inquiry by actively curating and synthesizing information across multiple, multimodal sources. Student engage in online content construction by synthesizing what they have learned and selecting the best digital text or tool before sharing this answer.

      Phases of IIP

    14. Internet Inquiry Projects are student interest driven, and are more authentic as a learning activity than traditional WebQuests.
    1. Finally, each online tool regularly is updated; each time this happens new affordances appear, requiring addi-tional skills and strategies. It is clear that the nature of literacy regularly and continuously changes in online spaces.

      When a website is updated, it comes along with having to learn the new updates.

    2. To be ready for college, workforce training, and life in a technologi-cal society, students need the ability to gather, comprehend, evaluate, synthesize, and report on information and ideas, to conduct original research in order to answer questions or solve problems, and to analyze and create a high volume and extensive range of print and nonprint texts in media forms old and new. The need to conduct research and to produce and consume media is embedded into every aspect of today’s curriculum.

      This is why we have required computer classes

    3. First, they focus directly on information use and learning, so these skills are central to education at all levels. Second, the ability to read and use online information effectively to solve problems defines success in both life and work

      super essential both in and out of the classroom

    4. In a context in which anyone may publish anything, higher-level thinking skills such as critical evaluation of source material become especially important online

      you never know how accurate the things we consume online actually are. There's too much fake news

    5. 1) reading to identify important questions, (2) reading to locate information, (3) reading to evaluate information criti-cally, (4) reading to synthesize information, and (5) reading and writing to communicate information.

      important skill set

    6. How can we develop adequate understanding when the very object that we seek to study continuously changes?

      this could open doors to new subject matter that may not have been taught before.

    7. our students are already “digital natives,” skilled in online literacies (Prensky, 2001)

      This is true, but they aren't proficient in the academic side of online literacy, more so just they social media aspect.

    8. Finally, each online tool regularly is updated; each time this happens new affordances appear, requiring addi-tional skills and strategies. It is clear that the nature of literacy regularly and continuously changes in online spaces.

      Once you think you have an understanding of something, it completely changes

    9. Most importantly, it is reshap-ing the nature of literacy education, providing us with many new and exciting opportunities for our classrooms

      I agree. There are now so many new resources to teach with, even just compared to when I was in high school 3 years ago.

    10. The Internet is a very disruptive technology (Christensen, 1997), alter-ing traditional elements of our society from newspapers to music

      never really thought about it this way, but it makes sense

    11. Studies show that stu-dents lack critical evaluation skills when reading online (Bennet, Maton, & Kervin, 2008; Forzani & Maykel, 2013; Graham & Metaxas, 2003) and that they are not especially skilled with reading to locate information online (Kuiper & Volman, 2008).

      Some areas of improvement with literacy.

    12. Each requires additional reading and/or writing skills to take full advantage of its affordances. In addition, new tools for lit-eracy will appear on the Internet tomorrow with additional, New Litera-cies required to use them effectively.

      The definition of literacy changes as new advancements come along.

    13. requiring additional skills to effectively read, write, and learn, sometimes on a daily basis

      yes, with the abundance of media in the form of text comes yet another reason for literacy

    14. Critically evaluating online information includes the ability to read and evaluate the level of accuracy, reliability, and bias of information

      Students need to be able to recognize quality content.

    15. These sites teach early offline reading skills while they also provide important early experiences with navigating an online interface.

      Today's students need to begin using online content from the start of their educational careers.

    16. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, online reading may require even greater amounts of higher-level thinking than offline reading. In a context in which anyone may publish anything, higher-level thinking skills such as critical evaluation of source material become especially important online.

      Students have to know what is quality information.

    17. (1) reading to identify important questions, (2) reading to locate information, (3) reading to evaluate information criti-cally, (4) reading to synthesize information, and (5) reading and writing to communicate information.

      Steps to ensure that we are getting the most out of the content we read online.

    18. The new literacies of online research and comprehension frames online reading comprehension as a process of problem-based inquiry involving the skills, strategies, dispositions, and social practices that take place as we use the Internet to conduct research, solve problems, and answer ques-tions.

      What can we learn from the online readings and research

    19. Lowercase theories of new literacies explore several types of elements: (1) a set of new literacies required by a specific technology and its social practices such as text messaging (Lewis & Fabos, 2005); (2) a disciplinary base, such as the semiotics of multimodality in online media (Kress, 2003); or (3) a distinctive, conceptual approach such as new literacy studies (Street, 2003). Lowercase theories of new literacy are better able to keep up with the rapidly changing nature of literacy since they are closer to the specific types of changes that rapidly take place.

      Lowercase literacies are easier to learn and are continual.

    20. However, this does not nec-essarily mean they are skilled in the effective use of online information, perhaps the most important aspect of the Internet. Studies show that stu-dents lack critical evaluation skills when reading online (Bennet, Maton, & Kervin, 2008; Forzani & Maykel, 2013; Graham & Metaxas, 2003) and that they are not especially skilled with reading to locate information

      Students may know how to use the technology but they may not understand the material they are using.

    21. Finally, each online tool regularly is updated; each time this happens new affordances appear, requiring addi-tional skills and strategies.

      New skills have to constantly be learned.

    22. Internet is also altering the nature of literacy, generating New Literacies that require additional skills and strategies. Most importantly, it is reshap-ing the nature of literacy education, providing us with many new and exciting opportunities for our classrooms.

      With technology comes new abilities.

    23. Recognize That aNew Literacies Journey Is One ofContinuousLearning
    24. Use Performance‑Based Assessments forEvaluating Students’ Ability withNewLiteracies
    25. Integrate Online Communication intoLessons
    26. Use Online Reading Experiences toDevelop Critical Thinking Skills andaGeneration of“HealthySkeptics
    27. Teach Online Search Skills Since These Are Important toSuccess intheNew Literacies ofOnline Research andComprehension
    28. Begin Teaching andLearning New Literacies as Early asPossible
    29. 348PERSPECTIVES ON SPECIAL ISSUESThe UnitedStatesIn the United States, the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Initia-tive (2012) establishes more uniform standards across states to prepare students for college and careers in the 21st century. One of the key design principles in the CCSS, research and media skills, focuses on the integra-tion of online research and comprehension skills within the classroom such as locating, evaluating, synthesizing, and communicating:To be ready for college, workforce training, and life in a technologi-cal society, students need the ability to gather, comprehend, evaluate, synthesize, and report on information and ideas, to conduct original research in order to answer questions or solve problems, and to analyze and create a high volume and extensive range of print and nonprint texts in media forms old and new. The need to conduct research and to produce and consume media is embedded into every aspect of today’s curriculum. (

      United States Standards

    30. The Internet is this generation’s defining technology for literacy and learning within our global community.2.The Internet and related technologies require new literacies to fully access their potential.3.New literacies are deictic; they rapidly change.4.New literacies are multiple, multimodal, and multifaceted, and, as a result, our understanding of them benefits from multiple points of view.5.Critical literacies are central to new literacies.6.New forms of strategic knowledge are required with new litera-cies.7.New social practices are a central element of new literacies.8.Teachers become more important, though their role changes, within new literacy classrooms. (p.11

      New Literacy

    1. The Wayback Machine records snapshots of a website's pages throughout its history. Those snapshots gather some or all of the pages on the website.

      overview of what it does

    2. The page will appear as it was at the time the snapshot was recorded. The links on the page may or may not work depending on whether or not those URLs were also recorded by the Wayback Machine. If you find that an internal page link does not work, try entering that URL into the Wayback Machine search bar at the top of the page.The search bar within the LEARN page will not work. If this is a page that you intend to access in the future, you may want to bookmark the Wayback Machine URL so you can easily return to it later.

      Steps 4 and 5

    3. The calendar will automatically update to the most recent snapshot of that page.Scroll down to where you see a colored circle around the a date and click on that date for a link to the recorded snapshot from that date.You will be taken to the archive of that webpage.

      Step 3

    4. Point your browser to the LEARN NC archive on the Wayback Machine: http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.learnnc.org/ Copy and paste the URL into the search bar on the top of the page.

      Steps 1 & 2

    1. potential to fuel collaboration, encourage the improvement of available materials, and aid in the dissemination of best practices.

      could be a really cool way teachers from all over can collaborate. Also, could potentially help streamline what students are being taught in schools and make curriculums more universal

    1. video
      • Read- questioning, locating, synthesizing, and communicating information duing online problem based reading tasks
      • Changing nature of literacy- new literacies are central to civic, economic and personal participation in a globalized community and, as a result, the education of all students-constantly thinking about and problematizing information we are teaching our students
      • the internet as a text- the use of internet in schools extends the boundaries of literature/ transforms instructional practices
      • Questioning- can students restate questions in their own words? can they form keywords from this question? can they understand when they have gotten all the information they need?
      • Locating- using different search engines, using internal search engines (search engine within a website), how to find infrmation on a webpage, hot to ignore information they don't need to think about
      • Evaluate- know when information meets their needs, know how to identify an author or publisher of online information, judge an author's authority on a subject, can see how an author supports ther argument
      • Synthesize- know how to select and construct the information they need, know which information to ignore while reading, know how images and numbers help contruct meaning, know when they have the answer
      • Communicate- know how to select the most appropriate communication tool for their purpose, know what information to submit, and what to leave out, share all information needed to completely answer the question
      • Scaffolding online readers- Google Forms, Blogger or EDUblogs, Diigo, Google Custom Search Engine
      • Why is this important? Students that need it the most may be receiving it the least, little known about differences between online and offline reading, authentic, web-based learning assessments
    1. Five Keys to Comprehensive Assessment
      • Assessments need to evolve to reflect the skills and knowledge that we actually value
      • Meaningful Goals and Measures- clear goals help to get students to understand the information
      • Formative Feedback- checking for understanding throughout the lessons- steering students to gaining understanding-keep working with them to make sure that they are staying on track, reflecting, and gaining a full understanding of the information that they are learning
      • Summative Assessments- summative assessments don't have to be a unit test at the end of a lesson. Having them do a project, write an essay, explain what they have learned so that we can understand how to assess their knowledge of the curriculum
      • Performance assessment- collaborting with other effectively, communicate in multiple forms, be critical and creative problem solvers- blend of cognitive and non-cognitive skills and abilities- teaching them to use these skills and abilities so that they can use them in life outside of the classroom- model assessments after real life experience
      • Student ownership- When a student takes ownership of their own learning then we can ensure that every student is learning the information- continually engaged in self-assessment and peer assessment- when students have the ability to take ownership of their learning then they begin to value assessment
      • Produce a learner that is self-initiating, self-motivated, understands the standards internally, continually driving towards excellence, continually developing their own learning skills, and is able to learn on their own and collaborately with others
      • Comprehensive Assessment- improve writing and critical-thinking skills, support engagement and academic performance in a range of subjects, be the most ccost-effective educational intervention
    1. Middle School Project: Public Art

      Kinetic Sculptures

      • Using different classes to teach about curriculum- shop class, english, math, and computer
      • Engaging and taking ownership of the information that the students are learning
    1. Keeping Assessment Relevant and "Authentic"

      authenntic assessment- hit the skills and the needs of the student population identify common mistakes using mistakes to assess connecting math to real life- instead of "here's the formula" use "this is how the ormula works" make tasks authentic anticipate problems emphasis on the "how" of learning assessment as teaching tool

    1. Eli Pariser

      Every person gets different news and search results that are tailored to them. Filter bubble- whats in it is based on who you are and what you do and we don't have control over what is in our filter bubbles.

    1. “Search is not used to set a political agenda and we don’t bias our results toward any political ideology,”

      This is very interesting and seems like the opposite of what is really happening.

    1. Strategy Exchange

      When students share what they found with each other, they are helping each other to find more information.

      By figuring out what is the best out of all the MP3 players, they are comprehending the information that is being presented on each website.

      Collaborating with each other to boost their comprehending skills.

    1. That kind of blind trust may be dangerous for content creators and consumers alike, both in terms of what we see and what we get.

      I have been a little naive when it comes to this. I feel like others would be very surprised as well to find that their search results were being thrown off by an algorithm.

  3. Feb 2019
    1. Connected learning is realized when a young person is able to pursue a personal interest or passion with the support of friends and caring adults, and is in turn able to link this learning and interest to academic achievement, career success or civic engagement.

      their are so many opportunities and all can be learned by the click of a button about a personal interest

    2. This model is based on evidence that the most resilient, adaptive, and effective learning involves individual interest as well as social support to overcome adversity and provide recognition.

      I thoroughly believe that students need a strong support system in order to really excel in school

    3. Connected learning is realized when a young person is able to pursue a personal interest or passion with the support of friends and caring adults, and is in turn able to link this learning and interest to academic achievement, career success or civic engagement.

      great definition of what connected learning is, helps broaden understanding on how a student can develop connected learning skills

    1. Learning is irresistible and life-changing when it connects personal interests to meaningful relationships and real-world opportunity.

      shows how education can make a difference when one makes a personal connection

    2. Learning is irresistible and life-changing when it connects personal interests to meaningful relationships and real-world opportunity.

      how learning can make an impact

    3. Groups that foster connected learning have shared culture and values, are welcoming to newcomers, and encourage sharing, feedback and learning among all participants.

      This statement implies that students who are introduced to connected learning are more welcoming and more open to sharing and communicating with peers

    4. Feeling emotionally and physically safe and a sense of belonging

      This is a HUGE statement. I believe that good mental health is a key aspect to having the best education possible so this statement really shows that YOUmedia students are really getting the best results.

    5. A survey of 30,000 college graduates found that a strong connection to a faculty member doubled the positive life outcomes of graduates.

      This is such an important concept because college is incredibly stressful when going through it by yourself. But when you have a good support system encouraging you to get through the tough classes, it is easier to get through them

    6. Learning is irresistible and life-changing when it connects personal interests to meaningful relationships and real-world opportunity.

      the diagram below this comment demonstrated how aspects of life are connected through connected learning

    7. Based on her experiences writing online, Abigail decides she wants to become a professional writer.

      It is a good example that because she was exposed to fan finction, she develops a want to become a professional writer

    8. Connected learning combines personal interests, supportive relationships, and opportunities. It is learning in an age of abundant access to information and social connection that embraces the diverse backgrounds and interests of all young people.

      This is a good definition of what connected learning is

    9. In order to support diverse learner pathways, organizations and caring adults can form partnerships, broker connections across settings, and share on openly networked platforms and portfolios.

      connections made across different settings

    10. Learners need to feel a sense of belonging and be able to make meaningful contributions to a community in order to experience connected learning

      learners need a shared purpose

    11. They do this by being sponsors of what youth are genuinely interested in — recognizing diverse interests and providing mentorship, space, and other resources.

      adults connecting to youth's interests

    12. Ongoing shared activities are the backbone of connected learning.

      shared practices

    13. Connected learning does not rely on a single technology or technique. Rather, it is fostered over time through a combination of supports for developing interests, relationships, skills, and a sense of purpose.

      elements of connected learning

    1. SAMR 

      (S)ubstitution, (A)ugmentation, (M)odification, (R)edefinition.

    2. Substitution  The SAMR Ladder: Questions and Transitions What will I gain by replacing the older technology with the new technology? Augmentation The SAMR Ladder: Questions and Transitions Substitution to Augmentation Have I added an improvement to the task process that could not be accomplished with the older technology at a fundamental level? How does this feature contribute to my design? Modification The SAMR Ladder: Questions and Transitions Augmentation to Modification How is the original task being modified? Does this modification fundamentally depend upon the new technology? How does this modification contribute to my design? Redefinition The SAMR Ladder: Questions and Transitions Modification to Redefinition What is the new task? Will any portion of the original task be retained? How is the new task uniquely made possible by the new technology? How does it contribute to my design?

      It is important for teachers to ask themselves these questions when thinking about integrating technology into there lesson

    1. Thus, teachers need to develop fluency and cognitive flexibility not just in each of the key domains (T, P, and C), but also in the manner in which these domains and contextual parameters interrelate, so that they can construct effective solutions.

      emphasis on fluency and cognitive flexibility

    2. . Teachers need to reject functional fixedness

      It's possible to incorporate sources that aren't typically viewed as "educational" and make the use of those resources beneficial to the classroom.

    3. Content knowledge (CK) is teachers’ knowledge about the subject matter to be learned or taught.

      Aspect 1: Content knowledge

    4. produces the types of flexible knowledge needed to successfully integrate technology use into teaching.

      purpose of tpack

    5. technological pedagogical content knowledge (originally TPCK, now known as TPACK, or technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge)

      definition of tpack

    6. Pedagogical knowledge (PK) is teachers’ deep knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning.

      not only should teachers have knowledge on the subject, they should also have knowledge about the process and methods of teaching the content.

    7. t the heart of good teaching with technology are three core components: content, pedagogy, and technology, plus the relationships among and between them.

      the three components of teaching with technology are content, pedagogy, and technology

    8. There is no “one best way” to integrate technology into curriculum. Rather, integration efforts should be creatively designed or structured for particular subject matter ideas in specific classroom contexts.

      technology in the classroom should be specifically altered to fit the subject matter for that class

    9. this knowledge is unlikely to be used unless teachers can conceive of technology uses that are consistent with their existing pedagogical beliefs

      teachers are most likely not going to use new technological advances if it does not correspond to their pedagogical beliefs.

    10. Many teachers earned degrees at a time when educational technology was at a very different stage of development than it is today

      Technology is constantly changing and teachers learned how to use different forms of technology in the classroom that have transformed today

    11. Digital technologies—such as computers, handheld devices, and software applications—by contrast, are protean (usable in many different ways; Papert, 1980); unstable (rapidly changing); and opaque (the inner workings are hidden from users;

      digital technologies are said to be unstable since they arent part of the basic technologies

    12. specificity (a pencil is for writing, while a microscope is for viewing small objects); stability (pencils, pendulums, and chalkboards have not changed a great deal over time); and transparency of function (the inner workings of the pencil or the pendulum are simple and directly related to their function)

      these three are pedagogical technologies

    13. effective teaching depends on flexible access to rich, well-organized and integrated knowledge from different domains

      technology is one of the domains required for teaching

    14. The TPACK framework for teacher knowledge is described in detail, as a complex interaction among three bodies of knowledge: Content, pedagogy, and technology. The interaction of these bodies of knowledge, both theoretically and in practice, produces the types of flexible knowledge needed to successfully integrate technology use into teaching.

      the knowledge and practice of the three bodies of knowledge is essential for integrating technology into teaching

    15. Most traditional pedagogical technologies are characterized by specificity (a pencil is for writing, while a microscope is for viewing small objects); stability (pencils, pendulums, and chalkboards have not changed a great deal over time); and transparency of function (the inner workings of the pencil or the pendulum are simple and directly related to their function) (Simon, 1969). Over time, these technologies achieve a transparency of perception (Bruce & Hogan, 1998); they become commonplace and, in most cases, are not even considered to be technologies. Digital technologies—such as computers, handheld devices, and software applications—by contrast, are protean (usable in many different ways; Papert, 1980); unstable (rapidly changing); and opaque (the inner workings are hidden from users; Turkle, 1995).On an academic level, it is easy to argue that a pencil and a software simulation are both technologies. The latter, however, is qualitatively different in that its functioning is more opaque to teachers and offers fundamentally less stability than more traditional technologies. By their very nature, newer digital technologies, which are protean, unstable, and opaque, present new challenges to teachers who are struggling to use more technology in their teaching.

      technologies used in in education

    16. effective teaching depends on flexible access to rich, well-organized and integrated knowledge from different domains (Glaser, 1984; Putnam & Borko, 2000; Shulman, 1986, 1987), including knowledge of student thinking and learning, knowledge of subject matter, and increasingly, knowledge of technology.

      the components of effective teaching

    17. TPACK framework for teacher knowledge is described in detail, as a complex interaction among three bodies of knowledge: Content, pedagogy, and technology. The interaction of these bodies of knowledge, both theoretically and in practice, produces the types of flexible knowledge needed to successfully integrate technology use into teaching.

      TPACK defined

    18. a framework for teacher knowledge for technology integration called technological pedagogical content knowledge (originally TPCK, now known as TPACK, or technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge)

      technological pedagogical content knowledge

    19. using a new educational technology suddenly forces teachers to confront basic educational issues and reconstruct the dynamic equilibrium among all three elements

      This is important to note that technology can enhance teaching and learning and is a useful resource.

    20. Many teachers earned degrees at a time when educational technology was at a very different stage of development than it is today

      I think it would be a good idea to educate these teachers in the usefulness of technology.