3,372 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2020
    1. Forward-thinking teachers are using technology to promote teamwork and collaborative projects, linking their students to classrooms across the globe. Yet building students’ collaborative skills is tough in traditional classrooms, where a teacher stands at the front of rows of students isolated by desks.

      this is a workplace requirement

    1. Students are digital natives. They’ve grown up with technology; it’s woven into their lives. In fact, it’s one of the basic 21st century skills that they’ll need in school and the workplace.

      this is something that has been around since the children were born

    1. Our dream is that DE will be a digital hangout for our young people—a place where they play, learn, create, problem-solve, and inspire.  We wonder about the possibilities.

      with the world on lockdown this is how we are interacting. students arent just having lessons taught but they are connecting with their classmates

    2. When students create digital content that they value, they are much more likely to be engaged. With greater engagement, they commit themselves more fully to learning so their learning is deeper and more enduring.

      Creative thinking as a way to encourage engagement. I love it!

    3. In school, most youth only consume digital stories and resources

      What kind of factors previously allowed this to occur? How can digital project based learning transform this?

    4. They inform, persuade, entertain, and inspire us to take action. Digital storytellers use technology to improve the quality of their work and amplify its impact.

      I am thinking of all of the ways this will give our students a leg up in the business world after they graduate.

    5. When students create digital content that they value, they are much more likely to be engaged. With greater engagement, they commit themselves more fully to learning so their learning is deeper and more enduring.

      This is so true. I had to ask the kid to create a document with his spelling words today and he wanted nothing to do with it. But Then I told him he could use slides or even record himself spelling them out and defining the words he was all for it because he was given choices. This excited him and he wanted to then make a video of his other assignments. He was fully engaged at that point.

    6. Storytellers can transform the world. They inform, persuade, entertain, and inspire us to take action. Digital storytellers use technology to improve the quality of their work and amplify its impact.

      Very true.

    7. We need to transition from consumption to creation of digital content, from students as consumers to students as creators of digital content. When students create digital content that they value, they are much more likely to be engaged. With greater engagement, they commit themselves more fully to learning so their learning is deeper and more enduring.

      When students create/construct and not just consume digital content, they take more pride in their work and hopefully learn better/ engage more in what they are learning

    8. Teachers can engage students in creating and sharing original digital content without Discovery Education.

      Online platforms, programs, and collaboration exposes students to global audiences.

    9. Discovery Education committed to providing professional development relating to students as creators of digital content while also enhancing opportunities for students to post original content

      Purpose and goal: greater difital content values - - - more engagement - - - committment to deeper, more eduring learning

    1. HP: Have you gotten backlash from art history purists? HW: Not that I’m aware of; they’re probably working on other things! Of course, there are occasional Internet comments that are unflattering. Someone might, for example, think something about the piece should have been done differently, or, less kindly, accuse me of copying something from somewhere. But to head any purist’s critique off at the pass, I’d refer them to the brilliant video series, “Everything Is A Remix.”

      everything is a remix reference

    2. Have you ever looked at a classical work of art and thought you just couldn’t relate to the subject matter? Enter Hillary White, an imaginative illustrator who isn’t afraid to merge Raphael — the Renaissance painter — with Raphael, the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtle. We’ve fallen hard for White’s hilarious series of “Pop Reinterpretations“ introducing works by Da Vinci, Goya and Bosch to the likes of Spiderman, R2D2 and Lady Gaga.

      Art example of remix

    1. Remixing Pedagogy: How Teachers ExperienceRemix as a Tool for Teaching English LanguageArts

      For reference that I need to read more on this dissertation

    1. As always, almost everything anyone does to get a living out of the arts won’t work – the Internet doesn’t change that. What it does change is how many ways there are to make things, and to get them into other people’s hands and minds. It changes how many people can participate in culture and satisfy their creative urges.”

      In reference to the Internet and all it's remixing tools. Getting the arts or info into people's hands and minds is so important. Same for increasing the number of people that can participate in culture (in all it's many forms).

    2. In music, and the arts more generally, collaboration has always been a boon to creativity, and the communications revolution has bolstered this in new ways. Specifically, it has allowed remix and mash-up culture to flourish like never before,

      remix is when collaboration leads to creativity

    1. Creation can be viewed simply as the act of producing, or causing to exist.  Construction is the building or assembling of an infrastructure

      These two things do seem very similar but if you really think about it, they are very different. Creating something is putting together your very own ideas and putting it out into the world. Construction is just borrowing others ideas' and aligning them in a way that makes things work together.

    2. Learners are encouraged to be creative as they build and revise content.

      I think students need to be encouraged more to be creative when creating content online or offline.

    3. online collaborative inquiry, and online content construction to help expand the work students are involved in as they use online information sources to research and develop media skills.

      This is a good statement, emphasizes online collaborative inquiry and online content construction helps students develop media skills.

    4. The ideas and concepts in all of this work does overlap sometimes…and students and teachers should feel empowered to move in, out, and between all of the concepts. Working online is a fluid experience which calls for flexible learners.

      I agree with this

    5. Online reading comprehension (ORC) has elements of “communication” identified as the last of the five skills students need. In order to fill the void I would see concerning the creativity, composition, and design skills students need…we have been developing online content construction (OCC).

      ORC vs OCC

    6. Construction is equal parts inspiration and perspiration. Construction calls on creativity as well as persistence, flexibility, and revision. Construction asks our students and teachers to focus on the power and patience employed during work process…and not just the final resultant work product. Construction also brings in the role of groups of learners in the process of learning and as a result includes elements of social and cognitive constructivism. Learners are encouraged to be creative as they build and revise content. They should look to see if it meets their needs and how representative it is to other elements of online information. But, most importantly, they are to use the expertise of other students and the teacher in the classroom.

      online construction vs. Online creation. Creation is the act of creation or causing to exist. Construction is a bit more of a fluid concept.

    7. Working online is a fluid experience which calls for flexible learners.

      Very true. Students need to be flexible in working online and all mediums

    8. sustained, informed, evaluative elements embedded in construction.

      Nice descriptions of what it means to be constructive in work.

    9. Construction is the building or assembling of an infrastructure. Construction is equal parts inspiration and perspiration. Construction calls on creativity as well as persistence, flexibility, and revision.

      You don't just stop at 'creation.' When working and collaborating online, there must be space for frameworks and developments within those creations.

    10. During the ORC process students learn during an inquiry process and then send this message out to others using a text or tool of their choosing.

      Comparing ORC to OCC - virtually sharing what students 'consume' online vs. creating & building content for communication

    1. PBL Lends Itself to Authentic AssessmentAuthentic assessment and evaluation allow us to systematically document a child's progress and development. PBL encourages this by doing the following:close modalMott Hall School: A popular science lab activity is the culmination of several days' worth of exploration into the heat of fusion.Mott Hall School: A popular science lab activity is the culmination of several days' worth of exploration into the heat of fusion.It lets the teacher have multiple assessment opportunities. It allows a child to demonstrate his or her capabilities while working independently. It shows the child's ability to apply desired skills such as doing research. It develops the child's ability to work with his or her peers, building teamwork and group skills. It allows the teacher to learn more about the child as a person. It helps the teacher communicate in progressive and meaningful ways with the child or a group of children on a range of issues.

      The benefits are deeper than just a grade.

    2. These 21st century skills includepersonal and social responsibility planning, critical thinking, reasoning, and creativity strong communication skills, both for interpersonal and presentation needs cross-cultural understanding visualizing and decision making knowing how and when to use technology and choosing the most appropriate tool for the task

      These can be applied easily into all classrooms, and I am already brainstorming so many projects that these play into.

    1. The World Wide Web was made public domain only a few months after MOSAIC was released.

      Internet released to the public towards the beginning of 1993.

    1. . As students gain skills and confidence, they can be encouraged to develop ideas for new computational projects of their own design that address issues of their choosing (the “Create” stage).

      This is definitely a confidence builder. Being encouraged to develop their own design and choice.

    2. Computational thinking requires understanding the capabilities of computers, formulating problems to be addressed by a computer, and designing algorithms that a computer can execute. The most effective context and approach for developing computational thinking is learning computer science;

      This situation we are in today has a good portion of people wishing they knew anything about computers. Computer science and understanding how a computer works is necessary in this day and age. Welcome to the Technological world.

    3. Computational thinking requires understanding the capabilities of computers, formulating problems to be addressed by a computer, and designing algorithms that a computer can execute.

      Intertwined with computer science studies, computational thinking encompasses solutions that are understood like a series of algorithms or stelps that a computer could perform.

    1. "can never be a perfect translation from one mode to another: Image does not have “word,” just as writing does not have “depiction”; forms of arrangement (i.e., syntax) differ in modes that are temporally or spatially instantiated." In my opinion this is right there can be no perfect translation... however, everything is a matter of opinion. An Image can have "word" it just isn't the same "word" for everyone else. It becomes a personal depiction depending on how you feel and the way you think.

    2. When I think of modes I think of mediums. I believe that they go hand in hand. You think of the message you want to get across and how you will do so. What programs or what item are you going to need to materialize this.

    3. This is graphic design 101. Mode as a socially and culturally shaped resource for making meaning. You can't use comic sans in an obit, it sends the wrong message. being able to use different resources, fonts, colors, framing ... is all important to get a point across

    4. This is very interesting. Our ways of learning are changing- rightfully so! This change shows us what we deem important. We are using all of our senses to learn.

    1. multimodality can be described as an eclectic approach, although itis primarily informed by linguistic theories, in particular, the work of Halliday’s (1978)social semiotic theory of communication and developments of that theory (Hodge &Kress, 1988). Multimodality has developed in different ways in the decade since itsinception around 1996. Although a linguistic model was seen as wholly adequate forsome to investigate all modes, others set out to expand and reevaluate this realm of ref-erence, drawing on other approaches (e.g., film theory, musicology, game theory

      An eclectic approach. Not the norm. I think that is important so that kids see that learning isn't always cut and dry.

    2. Alongside this, the representational and communicational environ-ment is also changing in highly significant ways that can be described as a shift fromprint as the primary medium of dissemination toward digital media

      As the worlds has gone online, digital media is our saving grace. The one way to keep children learning as all our schools have shut down and the children are forced to be homeschooled. Though packets were sent home they were sent with only 2 weeks worth of work. Now they will be out until may possibly longer and their work as migrated to be online.

    3. Sefton-Green’s (2006) Reviewof Research in Educationreview of how current media debates frame children’s interac-tions with media as pedagogic argues that interest in children’s media culture opens widernotions of learning beyond education and school systems

      If you can manipulate a lesson to include something relatable like spongebob, or mindcraft the kids are intrigued. They want to engage in learning.

    1. Our collaborative inquiryrevealed that‘Property of No One’involved young people working within the constraints of the sys-tems they occupy and with the tools they have at their disposal to do socially just work.

      OCC with purpose and passion.

    2. Not only did the school provide a set of tools andresources for media production in the form of the lab space and a dedicated media teacher, butthe very structure of the school providedflexibility in how students performed their requirements.

      Opportunities and tools within the school to expand learning outcomes through a multimodal version of the assignment.

    3. Sara described its broader narrative as a‘sister story

      Sara: Black, female, muslim. Partipated in documentary creatyion, "Property of No One" where the events were based off of her story - gives viewers a new understand of her (and others' experiences). Combination of words and images that captured their reality better.

    4. how critical media literacy potentials are realized in practice, as they study how adults, youth mediaorganizations, funders, and popular culture shape the ways youth engage with media and the storiesthey tell

      The roles of adults and influencers on youth as they help shape online media presences and engagement.

    5. We theorized restorying as a way young peopleuse digital tools to write themselves into existence,first narrating and analyzing their lived experi-ences and then synthesizing and recontextualizing those stories to represent a diversity of perspec-tives and reshape dominant narratives.

      Recontextualizing stories to create new narratives that shed light on aspects of reality.

    6. how young people use new media tools in school to engagethe narrative imagination and build the worlds they want to live in,simultaneously representing the political histories and realities of theireveryday worlds

      Just from the abstract, I'm hooked. Very relevant, thought-provoking material.

    1. The goal of inquiry-based teaching is to “stimulate children’s innate curiosity and capacity for investigating” (Forbes, 2010, p.132).  

      Great way to explain what inquiry based teaching's goal is.

    1. Early Learning STEM LessonsUnit 2:Building Structures and Exploring ShapesThis unit was developed by the Bremerton School District in partnership with the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction and funded through grantsfrom the Boeing Company and EPA Region 10 to support Early Learning STEM Education.The Early Learning STEM units are designed for educators, teachers, and childcare providers touse with children between the ages of 3-5

      building unit for 3-5 year olds

    1. I’ve seen Boomer stop a child’s tears in record time, help a school-phobic kindergartner walk into school with enthusiasm, reset an anxious student’s day, ease test-taking tension, and bring smiles and laughter to everyone he encounters.

      use of therapy dog

    1. This season marks three years ago that we tried an awesome Pumpkin-Cano Science Experiment! It also lead to an Erupting Apple Volcano! Baking soda science is one of the best science experiments for the beginner or young scientist! You can build so many themes around this basic science activity. This year we are checking out erupting mini pumpkin volcanos fall science activity! 

      Pumpkin-cano or apple-cano science experiment for Fall

    1. This lesson marries Music and STEM creating STEAM for kindergarten! I used the song "5 Little Pumpkins" for a music component by having the kids learn the words and actions that go along with it. Then I tied it to one of our learning centre activities. In this learning centre kids had to build a structure to hold at least 5 little pumpkins. The kids had a lot of fun and came up with many very interesting designs.

      Pumpkin STEAM idea. Sing the song, "5 Little Pumpkins" for the music part (learning the works and actions) and then at a center, have them build a structure to hold at least 5 little pumpkinds.

    1. Among the skills that can be developed and enhanced in preK and kindergarten classes are four that have been identified as critical to the success of 21st century workers: creativity, communication, collaboration, and critical thinking. These can all be integrated into STEAM-related projects, along with other key skills such as analyzing information.

      STEAM

    1. 1. Problem-Based The first puzzle piece in creating an amazing STEAM unit is to select a problem for students to solve. A problem-based project creates a setting for processing skills, such as collaboration, analyzing, and modeling, to take place. This can also help create a context for learning. Examples of problem-based STEAM scenarios: For Elementary Students: How can we create an outdoor “green” MakerSpace that will connect to our existing playground and be able to withstand our city’s year-round weather conditions?

      To create a STEAM unit, you must first select a problem for students to solve: Step 1

    1. One study found that during unstructured free play, four- and five-year-old children spent almost half of their time engaged in math-related activity. Play often involves math language and thinking, even though math isn’t the focus of their activity. Children talk about things like, “How much is a lot?” and “How little is little?” They often use their body to show size, such as stretching their arms to show how big a pumpkin is or holding fingers close together to show that something was “a little bit sc a r y.”This early play with math ideas and concepts lay the foundation for the development of more complex math and science skills later on

      STEAM and math concepts come from play and kids everyday questions about things.

    2. Math is number and operations, measurement, patterns, geometry and spatial sense. From birth until age five, children explore everyday mathematics, including informal knowledge of “more” and “less,” shape, size, sequencing, volume, and distance. Math is a tool children use every day!

      Math in STEAM

    3. Music is also linked to STEAM skills such as pattern recognition and numeration. Research shows that early experience with creative arts supports cognitive development and increases self-esteem

      Music is also part of the Arts in STEAM

    4. Active and self-guided discovery is core to the arts and to STEAM learning. Children engage in painting, pretend play, music, and drawing. Art is sensory exploration.

      Art in STEAM

    5. Engineering applies science, math, and technology to solving problems. Engineering is using materials, designing, crafting, and building – it helps us understand how and why things work.

      engineering in STEAM

    6. the “T” in technology also stands for any type of man-made object. Technology includes simple tools such as pulleys, wheels, levers, scissors, and ramps. They support children’s cognitive development, because as children play with these tools, they observe and learn from the underlying cause and effect.These simpler technologies allow children to understand how tools help us accomplish tasks.

      Technology is STEAM is any type of man-made object. It doesn't have to be a computer or something tech-y

    1. The findings from this study suggest that students learn online reading comprehension skills best from other students, within the context of challenging activities designed by the teacher. Increased levels of challenge appeared to prompt students to try multiple approaches to making sense of complex information and encouraged them to think deeply about solving problems."

      Students learn online reading comprehension best from other students in the context of a challenge

    2. In short, online reading is online research. Second, online reading also becomes tightly integrated with writing, as we communicate with others to learn more about the questions we explore and as we communicate our own interpretations. A third difference that exists is that new technologies . . . are used online. Additional skills are required to use each of these technologies effectively. . . ."Finally, and perhaps most importantly, online reading may require even greater amounts of higher-level thinking than offline reading. In a context in which anyone may publish anything, higher-level thinking skills such as critical evaluation of source material and understanding an author's point of view become especially important online."

      Online reading comprehension

    3. has found that good reading in print doesn’t necessarily translate to good reading on-screen. The students do not only differ in their abilities and preferences; they also need different sorts of training to excel at each medium. The online world, she argues, may require students to exercise much greater self-control than a physical book. 'In reading on paper, you may have to monitor yourself once, to actually pick up the book,' she says. 'On the Internet, that monitoring and self-regulation cycle happens again and again.'"

      reading in print doesn't mean you will read well online. Online reading requires more attention.

    4. he found that several things had changed. On screen, people tended to browse and scan, to look for keywords, and to read in a less linear, more selective fashion. On the page, they tended to concentrate more on following the text. Skimming, Liu concluded, had become the new reading: the more we read online, the more likely we were to move quickly, without stopping to ponder any one thought. . . .

      online reading we scan, print reading we follow the text more

    5. Online reading is the process of extracting meaning from a text that is in a digital format. Also called digital reading. Most researchers agree that the experience of reading online (whether on a PC or a mobile device) is fundamentally different from the experience of reading print materials. As discussed below, however, the nature and quality of these different experiences (as well as the particular skills required for proficiency) are still being debated and explored.

      what is online reading and that reading online and in print are fundamentally different

    1. Comprehension matters, but so does pleasure.

      "Situation models" or mental representations that form while we read help guide our compresehension of and interest in the text. Novelists consider this when they write, especially online.

    2. readers perceive paper as being better suited for “effortful learning,” whereas the screen is perceived as being suited for “fast and shallow reading of short texts such as news, e-mails, and forum notes.” They tested the hypothesis that our reading habits follow from this perception, and found it to be correct: Students asked to read a text on-screen thought they could do it faster than students asked to read the same text in print, and did a worse job of pacing themselves in a timed study period. Not surprisingly, the on-screen readers then scored worse on a reading comprehension test.

      online vs. offline readers

    3. There’s no question that digital technology presents challenges to the reading brain, but, seen from a historical perspective, these look like differences of degree, rather than of kind.

      The comparispons made following this statement are really interesting. Our brains are constantly "wandering off" and have always been presented with both challenges and opportunities to adavance as it relates to online reading.

    1. O f f l i n e r e a d i n g c a n t a k e m a n y f o r m s , w h e r e a s o n -line reading is typically much more focused on reading to solve a problem or answer a question

      I think that reading a book is more for learning/school related but online reading is more for "why does my head hurt after blah blah blah..." Online reading is more accessible than offline because with offline we have to find the book, buy it/check it out, find the page and read it. Online reading we just type something in a push a few buttons, takes less than 5 minutes to do.

    2. favoring West Town students in offline reading scores, offline writing scores, and online research and comprehension scores.

      I feel like we all knew that the advantaged students were going to score higher because they have access to better schooling and parents who can provide tutors for them.

    3. Until and unless online research skills are more visible in both standards and assess-ments, economically challenged schools may be less likely to incorporate them into their curriculum.

      But, as explained in the next paragraph, standards and assements raise potential for an increase in the achievement gap concerning online reading.

    4. Online research and comprehension is important to learning across all disciplinary areas, in addi-tion to reading.

      Important to remember that online reading tests are not always true, accurate reflections of online reading abiility (due to achievement gap)

    5. We also wanted to evaluate whether income inequality was associated with online reading achievement. It was.

      HIgher online reading mean scores with higher achieving score school.

    6. Particularly troubling is that income inequality in the United States is also increasing (Congressional Budget Office, 2007 ), suggesting that the offline reading achievement gap may get even larger over time. R e a d i n g i s a n i m p o r t a n t g a t e w a y t o l e a r n i n g a n d success in school (Anderson, Hiebert, Scott, & Wilkinson, 1985 )

      Income inequality affects so much. This is just talking about offline achievement gaps… As educators, we need to assess our classrooms and not assume that our students are on equal levels of comprehension based off of what they may or may not have access to at home. Adequate reading comprehension is essential for future achievement milestones - not attainable for all students.

    7. L o w e r c a s e t h e o r i e s e x p l o r e a s p e c i f i c a r e a o f n e w literacies and/or a new technology, such as the social communicative transactions occurring with text mes-saging (e.g., Lewis & Fabos, 2005 ). Lowercase perspec-tives also include those that explore a focused disciplinary base, such as the semiotics of multimodal-ity in online media (e.g., Kress, 2003 ); a distinctive con-ceptual approach, such as new literacy studies (Street, 1 9 9 5 , 2 0 0 3 ) ; o r o n l i n e l i t e r a c i e s w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c d e v e l -opmental level (e.g., Alvermann, Hutchins, & McDevitt, 2012 ; Marsh, 2011

      lowercase theories

    8. . These lowercase theories are better able to keep up with the rapidly changing nature of lit-eracy in a deictic world because they are closer to the specific types of changes that are taking place

      lowercase theories

    9. How can adequate theory be developed when the object that we seek to study is itself ephemeral, continuously being redefined by a changing context? Recently, a dual-level theory of New Literacies has been proposed to re-spond to this problem (Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, Castek, & Henry, 2013 ). It conceptualizes new literacies on two levels: uppercase (New Literacies) and lowercase (new literacies). We used both levels of New Literacies theory to frame this study

      Dual-level theory of New Literacies: uppercase (New Literacies) & lowercase (new literacies)

    10. Is there an achievement gap for online reading ability based on in-come inequality that is independent of the achievement gap in traditional, off line reading?

      Is there an achievement gap for online reading due to inequality? "Analyses on reading achievement gaps have only evaluated differences in offline reading."

    11. ). Despite attempts at policy remedies, a sub-stantial gap based on income inequality continues to exist in students’ reading achievement levels (National Center for Educational Statistics [NCES], 2011b , 2013 ), and evidence indicates that it is growing, over time (Reardon, 2013 ).

      The reading gap due to income inequality is growing

    1. Explore and engage critically, thoughtfully, and across a wide variety of inclusive texts and tools/modalities

      Texts that vary in format, genre and medium - analyzing purpose, being intentional with selection and interpretations

    2. . Cooperation is not collaboration

      This is a very important statement. I think that people do not think about this when they are working on a project, or when they assign a project. Collaboration is when people work together on the same project, or the same idea, and cooperation is when people help someone else's goal. The goal is not theirs, but they support is and can provide help

    3. Learners need communicative skills in order to work collaboratively in both face-to-face and virtual environments to use and develop problem-solving skills

      If a student cannot effectively communicate in person, then the will not be able to communicate online. If we want students to be successful, we have to help them learn how to communicate

    4. Having knowledge and understanding of the various texts and tools available is important for using them intentionally. Being literate means making choices and using texts and tools in ways that match purpose. It also means thinking about texts and tools in new ways. Do learners seek out texts that consider multiple perspectives and broaden their understanding of the world? Do learners critically analyze a variety of information and ideas from a variety of sources? Do learners choose texts and tools to consume, create, and share ideas that match their need and audience? Do learners create new ideas using knowledge and insights gained? Do learners analyze the credibility of information, authorial intent, and its appropriateness in meeting their needs? Do learners use information and the ideas of others to solve problems and make decisions as informed citizens? Do learners strive to see limitations and overlaps between multiple streams of information? Do learners gain new perspectives because of the texts they interact with? Do learners use tools to deepen understandings, to share ideas, and to build on others’ thinking? Do learners develop new skills strategies to meet the challenge of new texts and tools?

      Explore & engage critically, thoughtfully, and across a wide variety of inclusive texts and tools/modalities.

    5. The internet is one of the primary information sources of the modern era, making it a necessity for learners to understand how to participate and navigate the networked world. Building and utilizing connections between people, ideas, and information provides opportunities for them to be critical consumers of information, builds agency in their own work, and prepares them for the global world beyond the classroom. Do learners select, evaluate, and use digital tools and resources that match the work they are doing? Are learners critical, savvy producers and consumers? Do learners build and utilize a network of groups and individuals that reflect varying views as they analyze, create, and remix texts? Do learners analyze information for authorial intent, positioning, and how language, visuals, and audio are being used? Do learners find relevant and reliable sources that meet their needs? Do learners take risks and try new things with tools available to them? Do learners, independently and collaboratively, persist in solving problems as they arise in their work? Do learners use a variety of tools effectively and efficiently? Do learners select and use appropriate tools and modalities for audience and purpose? Do learners take responsibility for communicating their ideas in a variety of ways with different modalities and clear intentions?

      -Participate effectively and critically in a networked world

    1. Although Yahoo!, Alta Vista, and Excite were all in the market, Gruener felt Ask Jeeves set itself apart with its interface. His team had spent months building a library of "knowledge capsules," snapshots of answers to questions they felt would be most commonplace. If a question wasn’t addressed in their content, the site would default to a more general search

      it was snapshots of info which would lead to further searching if it wasnt answered right away.

    1. M

      ways to use technology to make the process of reading and accessing text easier

    2. found that 43% of Americans and 48% of those between the ages of 18 and 29 read lengthy texts, such as newspapers or books, digitally—a number expected to increase exponentially (Stephens, 2014). These figures raise the fundamental question of how the use of such digital reading materials might potentially alter perceptions of what it means to read and the comprehension that results, for better or for worse.

      Will our perception of reading and comprehension change due to the growing shift towards digital reading?

  2. Feb 2020
    1. Successful online research and comprehension requires the ability to generate effective keyword search strategies (Bilal, 2000 ; Eagleton, Guinee, & Langlais, 2003 ; Kuiper & Volman, 2008 ), to read and infer which link may be most useful within a set of search engine results (Henry, 2006 ), and to scan efficiently for relevant information on website

      What are effective ways that we can teach our students to filter their searches and be sure they are receiving relevant and helpful information?

    2. The rapidly evolving nature of literacy presents an important challenge for theory development

      adaptation

    3. new literacies

      relevant to our what is text post

    4. The results of the questionnaire indicated that West Town students had greater access to the Internet at home and were required to use the Internet more in school. These results suggest that a separate and independent achievement gap existed for online reading, based on income inequality.

      The achievement gap is multifaceted, so as educators, we need to attack it in more ways. Getting children library cards (internet access) and technology experiences from a younger age can help close this gap, but only if it is in a equitable way.

    1. As society and technology change, so does literacy.

      Literacy isn't just about being able to read text, its about expanding and growing your knowledge in multiple fields.

    2. Do learners seek out texts that consider multiple perspectives and broaden their understanding of the world? Do learners critically analyze a variety of information and ideas from a variety of sources? Do learners choose texts and tools to consume, create, and share ideas that match their need and audience? Do learners create new ideas using knowledge and insights gained? Do learners analyze the credibility of information, authorial intent, and its appropriateness in meeting their needs? Do learners use information and the ideas of others to solve problems and make decisions as informed citizens? Do learners strive to see limitations and overlaps between multiple streams of information? Do learners gain new perspectives because of the texts they interact with? Do learners use tools to deepen understandings, to share ideas, and to build on others’ thinking? Do learners develop new skills strategies to meet the challenge of new texts and tools?

      These are the goals of digital literacy.

    1. It’s true that studies have found that readers given text on a screen do worse on recall and comprehension tests than readers given the same text on paper

      I know this to be the truth... But I really think it has more to do with the fact that digital tests are more or less timed. That timer is the killer. I also think it could be the fact that there is more distraction. I know that I get little pop ups in the bottom corner of my screen when I receive a notification if I haven't logged off of something and that can pose a problem during a test.

    2. The fear of technology is not new. In the fifth century B.C., Socrates worried that writing would weaken human memory, and stifle judgment. In fact, as Wolf notes in her 2007 book Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain, the opposite happened: Faced with the written page, the reader’s brain develops new capacities.

      I think it is interesting that writing was thought to weaken human memory when it's taught that we should take notes to help us memorize.

    3. here’s no question that digital technology presents challenges to the reading brain, but, seen from a historical perspective, these look like differences of degree, rather than of kind. To the extent that digital reading represents something new, its potential cuts both ways. Done badly (which is to say, done cynically), the Internet reduces us to mindless clickers, racing numbly to the bottom of a bottomless feed; but done well, it has the potential to expand and augment the very contemplative space that we have prized in ourselves ever since we learned to read without moving our lips

      I feel as though most of the time the internet does have that feeling of mindless clickers looking down a bottomless feed but at the same time it's not the case for everyone. its an option to stay connected and read what others are saying but there is much more to digital reading then that.

    4. To read silently is to free your mind to reflect, to remember, to question and compare. The cognitive scientist Maryanne Wolf calls this freedom “the secret gift of time to think”: When the reading brain becomes able to process written symbols automatically, the thinking brain, the I, has time to go beyond those symbols, to develop itself and the culture in which it lives.

      To read silently is to envision what your reading. I love that Maryanne Wolf called this the secret gift of time to think.

    1. NEW LITERACIES 5CENTRAL PRINCIPLES OF AN UPPERCASE THEORY OF NEW LITERACIESAlthough it is too early to define a complete uppercase theory of New Literacies emerging from the Internet and other ICTs, we are convinced that it is time to begin this process by identifying the cen-tral principles upon which it should be built. Our work is pointing us to these principles of New Literacies that appear to be common across the research and theoretical work currently taking place:1. The Internet is this generation’s defining technology for literacy and learning within our global community.2. The Internet and related technologies require additional new literacies to fully access their potential.3. New literacies are deictic.4. New literacies are multiple, multimodal, and multifaceted.5. Critical literacies are central to new literacies.6. New forms of strategic knowledge are required with new literacies.7. New social practices are a central element of New Literacies.8. Teachers become more important, though their role changes, within new literacy classrooms.

      I disagree with the 8th principle. I think that teachers are just as important if they use technology or if they don't.

    2. How are we to solve the conundrum posed earlier, where the nature of literacy changes even faster than we can develop adequate theory, especially within a context where there are so many com-peting theoretical perspectives that have emerged to direct separate lines of research?

      This is a good question. We are unable to see the effects of technology because new forms of literacy are being created every day. This does not allow for people to truly study the impact that they have.

    1. to determine how participants’ comprehension was gauged. Our intention was to chart the levels of comprehension (i.e., locate and recall, integrate and interpret, and critique and evaluate; NAGB, 2008) assessed within each study. This decision was informed by the assumption that medium may play a more influential role when comprehension questions move beyond gist understanding

      Considering some people just kind of know something but can't speak past just that they know of the thing having a better assessment of understanding makes sense.

    2. broadly defined reading as the dynamic process of understanding and drawing meaning from written text. We regarded this general conception as relevant whether the process of reading occurred in print or digitally.

      to comprehend is to understand so....yeah

    3. all signs point to a growing presence of digital reading in the lives of students and their teachers. One reason for our conviction regarding this trend is that there are now a plethora of devices to employ when reading digitally, from computers to other mobile devices such as iPads, Kindles, and even smart watches

      This is a trend that has grown on even myself. It just seems easier to read on my phone than to carry a thick book around. I still sometimes prefer to read an actual book but it's not always the easy option.

    1. North Carolina Department of Public Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics AssessmentKindergarten Summative Assessment Page 89The Kindergarten PortfolioThe tasks included in this section are meant as culminating events that are given atthe end of the academic year.As students progress through the enormous changes that a year in Kindergarten impliesit is of great importance that their struggles, progress and successes be well-documented. Research tells us that students at this age make enormous, uneven stridesin both social and academic development. This fact alone demands that schools keepaccurate records of students’ work and convey these documents to subsequent teachers

      North Carolina's Kindergarten Math Summative assessment

    1. 54 different examples of formative assessment.

      examples of how to do formative assessments and the definition of formative assessment

    1. Fun facts about apples Apple trees are 4 or 5 years old before they actually have apples. Apple are members of the rose family. The first apple tree in the United States was planted by the pilgrims when they came to the United States from Europe. It takes about 36 apples to make 1 gallon of apple cider. Apple trees can live to be about 100 years old. China grows more apples than any other country in the world. Apples have to be picked by hand when it is time to harvest them. Apples are amazing!

      Fun apple facts

    1. The criteria you put in your assessment will guide students toward the content and skills you want them to learn. You might even want to get their input before you finalize the project’s assessment.Be sure that your assessment gives students lots of leeway in how they investigate and share their projects. Every project should turn out differently. As Chris Lehmann says, “If you assign a project and you get back 30 of the exact same thing, that’s not a project, that’s a recipe.”

      assessments and project based learning

    2. Below is a checklist to help you refine your question. You might not be able to check off all the items, but the more the merrier! ‼️ The question is appealing to students.🗜 The question is concise. 💦 The question has no easy answer. 😍 The question taps into students’ interests and passions. 💤 The question does not sound like a test question. 💗 The question leads to more questions. 🔀 There is more than one answer to the question. 🔰 The topic is personal or local.🏡 Students can relate to the question in their daily lives.🤔  Students will have choices for end products. 💬 There is an authentic audience for the project.🕵️‍♀️ The question requires serious investigation. ℹ️ Students will learn important skills and content.💥 The project will somehow make a difference in the world.

      Suggestions on how to refine a driving question

    3. 📐 Solve a Problem: There’s a real-world predicament with multiple solutions.How can we stop phantom traffic jams?How can we beautify the vacant lot across the street for $200?What’s the best way to stop the flu at our school?Design a better lunch menu for our school.Design a safe and sturdy bridge to replace one in our city.🎓 Educational: The purpose of the project is to teach others.How can we teach second graders about helpful insects.Create a campaign to teach senior citizens how to use an iPad.What do the students at our school need to know about being respectful?👍 Convince Others: Students persuade a specified audience to do something or change their opinions.Create a public service announcement (PSA) that persuades teens to drink more water.Drive yourself to define a question and then Prove It to your classmates.Convince grocery shoppers to return their shopping carts.How can we convince our principal that we should have a party in December?🌏 Broad Theme: The project tackles big ideas.What does it mean to read?How does conflict lead to change?How does math influence art?How do writers persuade others?How are good and evil depicted in different cultures?💬 Opinion: Students need to consider all sides of an issue in order to form and justify their opinions.Should pets be allowed to attend class?Why has a woman never been a U.S. president?What makes a good astronaut?🚥 Divergent: Students make predictions about alternative timelines and scenarios.What if Rosa Parks gave up her seat?What if the world ran out of oil tomorrow?How might your city change if the climate became an average of 10°F warmer?What if the USA switched to the metric system?🚀 Scenario-Based: Students take on a fictional role with a mission to accomplish.You’re a NASA engineer, and you are in charge of building a moon base. What are the ten most important things to include and why?Imagine that you are King George. What would you have done differently to keep American part of England?You are the CEO of a company that is designing a new social media app. Present a business plan to your investors that explains how your company will make money.You’ve been hired to revamp your local shopping mall. Come up with a plan to increase business.How would you spend $1,000,000 to help your community?🚧 Scaffolded Around Framing Words: BIE has a tool to help you develop driving questions called a Tubric. It provides possible framing words, actions, audience, and purpose. If you’d rather not take the time to construct a tube, you could use Rhoni McFarlane’s Developing Inquiry Questions chart, Amy Mayer’s Scaffold for Writing a Driving Question, or TeachThought's PBL Cheat Sheet.How can I create a campaign to reduce bullying in my school? (from Rhoni McFarlane)How can we find a solution to reduce the litter in our school permanently? (also from Rhoni McFarlane)How can we as first graders create geocaching sites to promote physical fitness in our neighborhood? (from Washington Discovery Academy)

      Types of Driving Questions with examples

    4. Driving questions pose simply stated real world dilemmas. They pose predicaments that students find interesting and actually want to answer. The question drives students to discuss, inquire, and investigate the topic. It should push them toward a production or solution. In the process of investigating the question and sharing their answers, students learn important content and skills.  

      Driving Question

    5. it’s not surprising that we have a variety of other terms for a question or statement that is the project’s driving force. These terms include essential question, challenge, prime question, WILD HOG question, focus question, and smart question. I’ll stick with driving question, but do know that sometimes the driving question is not interrogative. It might be a statement, but I’ll still refer to is as a question.

      Other "names" for a Driving Question

    6. Projects begin with a driving question—an open-ended question that sets the stage for the project by creating interest and curiosity.

      What is a driving question in project based learning?

    1. Here are a few guidelines for parents to consider: In terms of social interaction, a child who is kindergarten-ready should be able to play and work well with others and know how to cooperate and share (both with physical objects and with ideas). While some children are slow to warm to others, particularly if they don't have siblings, it's best if they are at least willing to participate in group activities such as singing, rhyming, and talking. For the most part, a child who is in kindergarten will be expected to listen to the teacher and to other children, be able to pay attention and follow directions, and have some level of self-control, particularly in a group setting.

      General Social Skills for kids in kindergarten

    1. understanding of other cultures, and other people seems to be more critical than ever. In addition to learning about other countries and cultures, children need to learn early about the ways in which countries and people are connected. This includes an understanding of history and economics. It's not that children will learn all about world history or even all about the history of their own country and certainly not that they will learn all about economic theory. However, they can begin to learn some basics. We can think of this learning as "social science readiness."

      General Social Science learning in Kindergarten

    1. Usually, before kindergarten, most children can use words they've learned from conversations with others or by being read to. Throughout the academic year, your child's speech will become more structured and understandable, and reading and writing skills will emerge and advance. As the school year goes on, children should be able to understand basic sentence structure and punctuation. They will learn, for example, that the first word in a sentence is capitalized and that sentences end in periods, question marks, or exclamation points. Most kindergarteners learn to print letters in both lower- and uppercase. During kindergarten, children also learn to use question words, such as who, what, when, where, why and how, as well as how to make words plural by adding an 's' or "es". They also learn how to use common nouns and prepositions. By the end of kindergarten, most children can learn to read age-appropriate books by themselves, and your child might like to have you listen while he or she reads out loud at home.

      What kindergartener's generally learn in language arts

    2. In kindergarten math, children learn the names of numbers and how to count them in sequence. They begin to become familiar with numbers 11-19. They should also be able to count objects and begin an introduction to geometry by learning to recognize and name shapes such as triangles, rectangles, circles, and squares. Kindergartens begin to learn the concepts of addition and subtraction, respectively, as "putting together and adding to" and "taking apart and taking from," according to the Common Core State Math Standards.

      What kindergartener's generally learn in math

    1. What can you expect your child to learn about science by the end of kindergarten? In general, they will learn some basics of the physical sciences, Earth sciences, life sciences, and scientific principles of investigation and experimentation. Children are encouraged to develop their curiosity about the world around them and to make observations. As they are introduced to science, children develop organized and analytical thinking as well as problem-solving skills.

      what kindergarteners learn in science generally

    1. 1. PersistingHave students identify characteristics of persistence shown by individuals in well-known events, or imagine what might have occurred if more or less persistence was shown in a given scenario.2. Managing ImpulsivityModel the use of patience in the classroom, including wait time during discussion, or using helpful sentence stems that reflect intentional choice (such as "After reviewing all of the possible solutions . . . ").3. Listening to Others with Understanding and EmpathyIdentify the most common "listening set-asides" in conversation so that students can begin to recognize common "errors" that occur in everyday communication. These errors might include comparing, judging, placating or giving advice instead of really listening and understanding a message.4. Thinking FlexiblyUse RAFT assignments (Role, Audience, Format, Topic) where students must consider a situation, letter, speech or poem from a perspective other than their own, or that of the original speakers.5. Thinking About Our Thinking (Metacognition)Ask students to map out their own thinking process. This can be done simply at first, e.g., diagramming the relationship between a want and a need, a gesture and a need to gesture. Then make it increasingly complex -- mapping out how characters from books or thinkers in history might have arrived at certain starting or stopping points in thought.6. Striving for Accuracy and PrecisionUse "three before me," a strategy that insists on any important assignment being checked by at least three other people before being handed in.7. Questioning and Posing ProblemsCreate a "parking lot" area in the classroom -- stocked with post-it notes -- where students can post questions that may not fit into the pace or format of a given class. Then highlight the better questions periodically, or use them as jumping off points for discussion or even lesson planning.8. Applying Past Knowledge to New SituationsUse question stems like "What do you remember about . . . ?", "When have you ever seen anything like this?" or "Tell me what you know about . . . " Whether you consider this activating schema, prior knowledge, or simply getting students more comfortable and in tune with what they already know, it can be a huge boost to the learning process.9. Thinking and Communicating with Clarity and PrecisionRemind students to avoid the vagueness and abstraction -- and imprecision -- of terms like always, never, all, everybody, teachers, celebrities, technology, they, we, should and must. Post these kinds of words or phrases where students can be reminded of them -- and know to avoid them. And hopefully know why they should avoid them.10. Gathering Data Through All SensesPlayfully allow students to "cite" sources from sensory data in addition to traditional textual sources. Also consider including the compelling use of such data in a rubric for formal assessment.11. Creating, Imagining and InnovatingOffer persistent sources of inspiring thought, design, art or multimedia through writing prompts, discussion points or simply as a daily class closure. This models not only creativity, but also expertise, and is readily available on YouTube, Pinterest and Instagram.12. Responding with Wonderment and AweDon't just allow opportunities for student choice in topics, formats or learning pathways -- insist on it. Refuse to move the class forward until they are bringing their own passions into the learning experience.13. Taking Responsible RisksCreate an environment where failure is analyzed, not punished.14. Finding HumorPoint out humor where it is not immediately apparent, especially in stories and examples from your own life. This can help establish the "relativity" of "things," which supports more accurate analysis. Humor makes everything better.15. Thinking InterdependentlyUsing digital and social media imposes at least a topical need for interdependence from the beginning. The more thinking is published and shared, the more opportunity there will be for cognitive interdependence, though even opportunities aren't guarantees that it will happen.16. Learning ContinuouslyIntermittently revisit old ideas, writing and projects to identify areas for development, improvement or revision. This is especially natural in digital domains, where content is more fluid -- updated, shared, hyperlinked, curated, reformatted into more or less visual terms, then shared again.

      Examples of how to integrate the 16 habits of mind into your classroom

    2. The Habits of Mind by Art Costa and Bena Kallick don't simply represent fragments of practice to "add on" to what you already do, but rather new ways to think about how people learn.

      How people learn = Habits of Mind

    3. the Habits of Mind that (often predictably) lead to success or failure in the mastery of given standards. In fact, it is not in the standards or assessments, but rather these personal habits where success or failure -- in academic terms -- actually begin.

      Habits of Mind are really more personal habits on how people learn

    1. Habits of Mind are dispositions that are skillfully and mindfully employed by characteristically intelligent, successful people when they are confronted with problems, the solutions to which are not immediately apparent. When we draw upon these mental resources, the results are more powerful, of higher quality, and of greater significance than if we fail to employ those habits.

      Habits of mind. How we handle things when we are confronted with a problem.

    2. What Are Habits of Mind? According to Kallick and Costa, the Habits of Mind are less about behavior and more about intent. A “Habit of Mind” means having a disposition toward behaving intelligently when confronted with problems, the answers to which are not immediately known. When humans experience dichotomies, are confused by dilemmas, or come face to face with uncertainties–our most effective actions require drawing forth certain patterns of intellectual behavior. When we draw upon these intellectual resources, the results that are produced through are more powerful, of higher quality and greater significance than if we fail to employ those patterns of intellectual behaviors.

      Habits of Mind definition

    1. Expectations for instruction, assessment, and student work are called Performance Standards. These incorporate Content Standards and define the level of work that demonstrates achievement of the standards. Performance standards isolate and identify skills needed for problem-solving, reasoning, communicating, and making connections with other information. They provide all constituents with the evidences that students have met the content standards, helping teachers define what level of work is satisfactory.

      Performance Standards defined/ explained

    2. Broad statements that describe specific content areas that groups of students should learn at each grade level are called Content Standards. They define the knowledge within each discipline.

      Content Standard definition

    1. Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages through verbal or nonverbal means, including speech, or oral communication; writing and graphical representations (such as infographics, maps, and charts); and signs, signals, and behavior.

      Definition of communications

    2. To break it down, in any communication there is a sender and a receiver, a message, and interpretations of meaning on both ends. The receiver gives feedback to the sender of the message, both during the message's conveyance and afterward. Feedback signals can be verbal or nonverbal, such as nodding in agreement or looking away and sighing or other myriad gestures. There's also the context of the message, the environment it's given in, and potential for interference during its sending or receipt. 

      Explanation of communications

    1. Impacts of TPACK:Impact on the Teacher: It is important for the teacher to be completely up to date and knowledgeable with the curriculum and the components of TPCK to effectively incorporate it into their lessons.Impacts on the Students: Students of the millennium work better through technology and quite often find the content and direct teaching quite stale. Therefore by adding the technology component to the already existing PCK model the students become more engaged in their learning.

      Impacts of TPACK

    2. TPACK is an essential part of the education system today as it incorporates the growing demand on the use of technology in the classroom as well as continuing the focus on the content and how we teach it. Therefore it sets up education for the future as well as setting up the students for their future.

      Importance of TPACK

    1. The SAMR model considers four levels of integration: substitution, augmentation, modification, and redefinition. The TPACK model addresses the interaction of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge and how they relate to teaching in a technology-enhanced learning environment.

      SAMR vs TPACK SAMR- the levels of integration TPACK- how pedigogy, content and techology knowledge interact and relate to teaching in a tech-enhanced learning environment

    1. The SAMR model was created by Ruben Puentedura, and provides some context for assessing the quality of the technology task that we integrate into learning. 

      A way to assess the quality of a technological task wanting or is being used by a teacher for a lesson

    2. Filtering instructional planning through the TPACK model should serve to eliminate frivolous or irrelevant use of technology, and inspire teachers to make deeper connections to all aspects of effective instruction.

      TPACK is good for filtering instructional planning to make better use of technology for instruction

    1. Without educational alternatives that expand and diversify meaningful life options and pathways available to young people, we risk reinforcing an educational system that only serves the interests of elites, breeding a culture of competition for scarce opportunities.

      This is the sad realty that we're hoping to change. We need educational alternativies without isolating one group of students from the other.

    2. Today’s educational institutions are struggling to fulfill their mission of providing pathways to opportunity for all youth

      Overarching problem - dropout rates, charter/magnet school alternatives.

    3. he reality for too many youth, however, is that they see a shrinking set of options and little guidance towards new kinds of learning opportunity, community contribution, and diverse careers.

      A challenge to collaborating through onlines forms of education and translating it to reality without the proper resources

    4. What would it mean to consider an educational agenda that includes more flexible, informal, diverse, and interest-driven learning environments? Can we do this in a way that elevates all youth rather than serving the privileged minority?

      Elevating all youth, despite their socioeconomic status. Sharing parts of the world and opportunities through connected learning that may have not been accessible otherwise.

    1. Academically Oriented Connected learning recognizes the importance of academic success for intellectual growth and as an avenue towards economic and political opportunity. When academic studies and institutions draw from and connect to young people’s peer culture, communities and interest-driven pursuits, learners flourish and realize their true potential.

      Connected Learning- Academically Oriented

    2. Openly Networked Connected learning environments link learning in school, home and community because learners achieve best when their learning is reinforced and supported in multiple settings. Online platforms can make learning resources abundant, accessible and visible across all learner settings.

      Connected Learning- Openly networked

    3. Peer Supported Connected learning thrives in a socially meaningful and knowledge-rich ecology of ongoing participation, self-expression and recognition. In their everyday exchanges with peers and friends, young people fluidly contribute, share and give feedback. Powered with possibilities made available by today’s social media, this peer culture can produce learning that’s engaging and powerful.

      Connected Learning- Peer Supported. Exchanges with peers, even thru social media, produces engaged and powerful learning

    4. While wealthy families are embracing the potential of new technologies for learning, and investing more and more in out-of-school and connected learning, less privileged kids are being left behind

      The Haves vs the Have Nots

    5. Connected learning is when someone is pursuing a personal interest with the support of peers, mentors and caring adults, and in ways that open up opportunities for them. It is a fundamentally different mode of learning than education centered on fixed subjects, one-to-many instruction, and standardized testing. The research is clear. Young people learn best when actively engaged, creating, and solving problems they care about, and supported by peers who appreciate and recognize their accomplishments.

      Connected learning definition/ explanation

    6. when the topic is personally interesting and relevant, learners achieve much higher-order learning outcomes.

      Teachers should find ways to create an interest to learn a topic, they should incorporate more hands on and technology rather than just lecture and notes.

    7. While connected learning is not new, and does not require technology, new digital and networked technologies expand opportunities to make connected learning accessible to all young people.

      Tech is not required but is an aid to the learning process and educational experience.

    8. Principles of Connected Learning

      -Interest powered -Production centered -Peer Supported -Shared Purpose -Academically Oriented -Openly Networked

    9. when the topic is personally interesting and relevant, learners achieve much higher-order learning outcomes. Connected learning views interests and passions that are developed in a social context as essential elements.

      The desire to learn is fostered by a students interest

    10. Connected learning is when someone is pursuing a personal interest with the support of peers, mentors and caring adults, and in ways that open up opportunities for them. I

      Definition of connected learning

    11. We need to harness these new technologies for learning rather than distraction.

      This is a great point. Sometimes we find ourselves abusing the technology we are gifted by using it to distract ourselves instead of fully engage the potential.

    12. The “connected” in connected learning is about human connection as well as tapping the power of connected technologies.

      This is an important clarification.

    13. Young people learn best when actively engaged, creating, and solving problems they care about, and supported by peers who appreciate and recognize their accomplishments.

      This is very true. Even adults are more attuned when they know that they are recognized for their accomplishments.

    14. Connected learning is when someone is pursuing a personal interest with the support of peers, mentors and caring adults, and in ways that open up opportunities for them.

      Definitely pinpoints the collaborated learning or connected learning. Collaboration depends on support.

    1. technology tools allow educators to redefine a traditional task in a way that would not be possible without the tech, creating a novel experience.

      Redefintion: global connection, online working and communicating

    2. Instead of replacement or enhancement, this is an actual change to the design of the lesson and its learning outcome. The key question here—does the technology significantly alter the task?

      Modification

    3. The technology is again directly substituted for a traditional one, but with significant enhancements to the student experience.

      Augmentation: augmenting a student's productivity or potential

    4. At this stage, technology is directly substituted for a more traditional one. It is a simple, bare-bones, direct replacement

      Substitution. Think online textbook

    5. The SAMR model was created to share a common language across disciplines as teachers strive to help students visualize complex concepts.

      Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefintion: created by Dr. Ruben Puentedura Framework and spectrum

    6. The last stage of the SAMR model is Redefinition and represents the pinnacle of how technology can transform a student’s experience. In this case, you ask yourself if the technology tools allow educators to redefine a traditional task in a way that would not be possible without the tech, creating a novel experience.

      SAMR Model- Redefinition

    7. At this stage, technology is directly substituted for a more traditional one. It is a simple, bare-bones, direct replacement.

      SAMR Model- Substitution

    8. Contributed By H. L. Assistant Principal Share SAMR Model: A Practical Guide for EdTech Integration Posted in Pro Tips | October 30, 2017 Share The SAMR Model is a framework created by Dr. Ruben Puentedura that categorizes four different degrees of classroom technology integration. The letters "SAMR" stand for Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition. The SAMR model was created to share a common language across disciplines as teachers strive to help students visualize complex concepts. Image Modified from Original by Lefflerd’s on Wikimedia Commons While it’s often visualized as a ladder or staircase as above, this can be misleading because Substitution (the bottom of the ladder) is sometimes the best choice for a particular lesson. This is why it’s better to think of the SAMR model more as a spectrum. On one end technology is used as a one-to-one replacement for traditional tools, and on the other end technology enables experiences that were previously impossible without it. Click here to learn how to transform static resources, particularly PDFs, into engaging content in 3 easy steps   Regardless of how you visualize it, the SAMR framework can be a simple and effective way to assess how you are incorporating technology into your instruction. The SAMR Model Explained (with Examples) The SAMR model is made up of four steps—Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition. Substitution and Augmentation are considered "Enhancement" steps, while Modification and Redefinition are termed "Transformation" steps. Think of the difference between seasoning an old family recipe (Enhancement) and creating an entirely new, original dish (Transformation). Susan Oxnevad referred to this movement across the spectrum as "teaching above the line." Substitution At this stage, technology is directly substituted for a more traditional one. It is a simple, bare-bones, direct replacement. For example, if you are teaching a government lesson on the Constitution, you might use an electronic or web-based version of the document instead of a hard copy. Students might also answer questions about the Constitution using a Microsoft Word instead of filling out a worksheet. Substitution might also include a student using Keynote, PowerPoint, Prezi, Slides, or a similar program to present information about an article or amendment to the class. In this step, you ask yourself what we stand to gain by replacing traditional tools with technology. Invariably, some situations will be better served with pen and paper.

      SAMR Model- Substitution

    9. Augmentation The technology is again directly substituted for a traditional one, but with significant enhancements to the student experience. In other words, you ask yourself if the technology increases or augments a student's productivity and potential in some way.

      SAMR Model- Augmentation

    10. beginning to move from enhancement to transformation on the model. Instead of replacement or enhancement, this is an actual change to the design of the lesson and its learning outcome. The key question here—does the technology significantly alter the task?

      SAMR Model- Modification

    11. a group of students might collaborate in a cloud-based workspace to propose a modern definition of equal protection under the law and solicit feedback on their proposals from classmates.

      SAMR Model- Modification

    12. The SAMR model is made up of four steps—Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition. Substitution and Augmentation are considered "Enhancement" steps, while Modification and Redefinition are termed "Transformation" steps. Think of the difference between seasoning an old family recipe (Enhancement) and creating an entirely new, original dish (Transformation).

      SAMR model Transformation vs Enhancement

    13. The SAMR Model is a framework created by Dr. Ruben Puentedura that categorizes four different degrees of classroom technology integration. The letters "SAMR" stand for Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition. The SAMR model was created to share a common language across disciplines as teachers strive to help students visualize complex concepts.

      SAMR Model definition

    1. Instead, TPACK is the basis of effective teaching with technology, requiring an understanding of the representation of concepts using technologies; pedagogical techniques that use technologies in constructive ways to teach content; knowledge of what makes concepts difficult or easy to learn and how technology can help redress some of the problems that students face; knowledge of students’ prior knowledge and theories of epistemology; and knowledge of how technologies can be used to build on existing knowledge to develop new epistemologies or strengthen old ones. By simultaneously integrating knowledge of technology, pedagogy and content, expert teachers bring TPACK into play any time they teach. Each situation presented to teachers is a unique combination of these three factors, and accordingly, there is no single technological solution that applies for every teacher, every course, or every view of teaching. Rather, solutions lie in the ability of a teacher to flexibly navigate the spaces defined by the three elements of content, pedagogy, and technology and the complex interactions among these elements in specific contexts.

      TPACK

    2. TPACK is an emergent form of knowledge that goes beyond all three “core” components (content, pedagogy, and technology). Technological pedagogical content knowledge is an understanding that emerges from interactions among content, pedagogy, and technology knowledge.

      TPACK

    3. Thus, TPK requires a forward-looking, creative, and open-minded seeking of technology use, not for its own sake but for the sake of advancing student learning and understanding.

      TPK

    4. An understanding of the affordances of technology and how they can be leveraged differently according to changes in context and purposes is an important part of understanding TPK.

      TPK

    5. TPK is an understanding of how teaching and learning can change when particular technologies are used in particular ways. This includes knowing the pedagogical affordances and constraints of a range of technological tools as they relate to disciplinarily and developmentally appropriate pedagogical designs and strategies. To build TPK, a deeper understanding of the constraints and affordances of technologies and the disciplinary contexts within which they function is needed.

      TPACK component- Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK)

    6. TCK, then, is an understanding of the manner in which technology and content influence and constrain one another. Teachers need to master more than the subject matter they teach; they must also have a deep understanding of the manner in which the subject matter (or the kinds of representations that can be constructed) can be changed by the application of particular technologies. Teachers need to understand which specific technologies are best suited for addressing subject-matter learning in their domains and how the content dictates or perhaps even changes the technology—or vice versa.

      TPACK component- Technology Content Knowledge (TCK)

    7. FITness goes beyond traditional notions of computer literacy to require that persons understand information technology broadly enough to apply it productively at work and in their everyday lives, to recognize when information technology can assist or impede the achievement of a goal, and to continually adapt to changes in information technology. FITness, therefore, requires a deeper, more essential understanding and mastery of information technology for information processing, communication, and problem solving than does the traditional definition of computer literacy. Acquiring TK in this manner enables a person to accomplish a variety of different tasks using information technology and to develop different ways of accomplishing a given task

      TPACK component- Technology knowledge (TK). Hard to define because TK becomes outdated quickly

    8. Understanding the impact of technology on the practices and knowledge of a given discipline is critical to developing appropriate technological tools for educational purposes.

      Technological Content Knowledge

    9. the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning. They encompass, among other things, overall educational purposes, values, and aims. This generic form of knowledge applies to understanding how students learn, general classroom management skills, lesson planning, and student assessment.

      Helps the teachers understand how students aquire knowledge and expand cognitive development. relationship with content knowledge

    10. PCK is consistent with and similar to Shulman’s idea of knowledge of pedagogy that is applicable to the teaching of specific content. Central to Shulman’s conceptualization of PCK is the notion of the transformation of the subject matter for teaching. Specifically, according to Shulman (1986), this transformation occurs as the teacher interprets the subject matter, finds multiple ways to represent it, and adapts and tailors the instructional materials to alternative conceptions and students’ prior knowledge. PCK covers the core business of teaching, learning, curriculum, assessment and reporting, such as the conditions that promote learning and the links among curriculum, assessment, and pedagogy.

      TPACK component- Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK)

    11. Pedagogical knowledge (PK) is teachers’ deep knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning. They encompass, among other things, overall educational purposes, values, and aims. This generic form of knowledge applies to understanding how students learn, general classroom management skills, lesson planning, and student assessment. It includes knowledge about techniques or methods used in the classroom; the nature of the target audience; and strategies for evaluating student understanding. A teacher with deep pedagogical knowledge understands how students construct knowledge and acquire skills and how they develop habits of mind and positive dispositions toward learning. As such, pedagogical knowledge requires an understanding of cognitive, social, and developmental theories of learning and how they apply to students in the classroom.

      TPACK component- Pedagogical Knowledge (PK)

    12. Knowledge and the nature of inquiry differ greatly between fields, and teachers should understand the deeper knowledge fundamentals of the disciplines in which they teach.

      Essential for content knowledge; being thorough to avoid misunderstandings and to be as accurate as possible.

    13. At the heart of good teaching with technology are three core components: content, pedagogy, and technology, plus the relationships among and between them.

      TPACK framework

    14. Content knowledge (CK) is teachers’ knowledge about the subject matter to be learned or taught.

      Content Knowledge (CK) definition.

    15. Equally important to the model are the interactions between and among these bodies of knowledge, represented as PCK, TCK (technological content knowledge), TPK (technological pedagogicalknowledge), and TPACK. Figure 1. The TPACK framework and its knowledge components.

      TPACK mondel

    16. newer digital technologies, which are protean, unstable, and opaque, present new challenges to teachers who are struggling to use more technology in their teaching.

      Each digital technology has its own affordances and contraints; social and contextual factors can prohibit successful tenchology integration in the classroom (unsupported institutional efforts); lack of training

    17. At the heart of good teaching with technology are three core components: content, pedagogy, and technology, plus the relationships among and between them.

      The core components to TPACK

    18. An approach is needed that treats teaching as an interaction between what teachers know and how they apply what they know in the unique circumstances or contexts within their classrooms. There is no “one best way” to integrate technology into curriculum. Rather, integration efforts should be creatively designed or structured for particular subject matter ideas in specific classroom contexts. Honoring the idea that teaching with technology is a complex, ill-structured task, we propose that understanding approaches to successful technology integration requires educators to develop new ways of comprehending and accommodating this complexity.

      TPAC- integrating technology in classroom should be creative and done by subject matter

    19. effective teaching depends on flexible access to rich, well-organized and integrated knowledge from different domains (Glaser, 1984; Putnam & Borko, 2000; Shulman, 1986, 1987), including knowledge of student thinking and learning, knowledge of subject matter, and increasingly, knowledge of technology

      What is needed to be an effective teacher

    20. Most traditional pedagogical technologies are characterized by specificity (a pencil is for writing, while a microscope is for viewing small objects); stability (pencils, pendulums, and chalkboards have not changed a great deal over time); and transparency of function (the inner workings of the pencil or the pendulum are simple and directly related to their function) (Simon, 1969).

      traditional pedagogical technologies

    21. Thus, effective teaching depends on flexible access to rich, well-organized and integrated knowledge from different domains (Glaser, 1984; Putnam & Borko, 2000; Shulman, 1986, 1987), including knowledge of student thinking and learning, knowledge of subject matter, and increasingly, knowledge of technology.

      Effective teaching

    22. Pedagogical knowledge (PK) is teachers’ deep knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning. They encompass, among other things, overall educational purposes, values, and aims. This generic form of knowledge applies to understanding how students learn, general classroom management skills, lesson planning, and student assessment.

      This is definitely important you need organization for the students to grow and succeed

    23. Understanding how these affordances and constraints of specific technologies influence what teachers do in their classrooms is not straightforward and may require rethinking teacher education and teacher professional development

      Access to different technologies and understanding the constraints of each is important. It's necessary to limit what technology is in the classroom and how long the students will spend on it. It's also important that there is balance.

    24. Over time, these technologies achieve a transparency of perception (Bruce & Hogan, 1998); they become commonplace and, in most cases, are not even considered to be technologies

      This is accurate. I would not consider a pencil to be technology.

    25. effective teaching depends on flexible access to rich, well-organized and integrated knowledge from different domains (Glaser, 1984; Putnam & Borko, 2000; Shulman, 1986, 1987), including knowledge of student thinking and learning, knowledge of subject matter, and increasingly, knowledge of technology.

      This is important. You want your students to be encouraged and engaged. In order to do that you need to understand what's important to them and how they learn.

    1. In the revised taxonomy, knowledge is at the basis of these six cognitive processes, but its authors created a separate taxonomy of the types of knowledge used in cognition: Factual Knowledge Knowledge of terminology Knowledge of specific details and elements Conceptual Knowledge Knowledge of classifications and categories Knowledge of principles and generalizations Knowledge of theories, models, and structures Procedural Knowledge Knowledge of subject-specific skills and algorithms Knowledge of subject-specific techniques and methods Knowledge of criteria for determining when to use appropriate procedures Metacognitive Knowledge Strategic Knowledge Knowledge about cognitive tasks, including appropriate contextual and conditional knowledge Self-knowledge

      The types of knowledge used in cognition in the revised taxonomy

    2. The authors of the revised taxonomy underscore this dynamism, using verbs and gerunds to label their categories and subcategories (rather than the nouns of the original taxonomy). These “action words” describe the cognitive processes by which thinkers encounter and work with knowledge: Remember Recognizing Recalling Understand Interpreting Exemplifying Classifying Summarizing Inferring Comparing Explaining Apply Executing Implementing Analyze Differentiating Organizing Attributing Evaluate Checking Critiquing Create Generating Planning Producing

      Revised Bloom's Taxonomy using verbs instead of nouns to label the categories and subcategories

    3. consisted of six major categories: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation. The categories after Knowledge were presented as “skills and abilities,” with the understanding that knowledge was the necessary precondition for putting these skills and abilities into practice. While each category contained subcategories, all lying along a continuum from simple to complex and concrete to abstract, the taxonomy is popularly remembered according to the six main categories.

      Bloom's Taxonomy- what is it

    1. The rationale behind a great deal of personalized learning technologies is that, once complexity is minimized for the user, then teachers are freed up to use their time for other, more important tasks. Whether it’s conferencing with students, analyzing assessment data, or even taking some time for self-care, technology is intended to help us become more powerful and increase our potential as teachers and learners.

      Berkeley county has been doing online learning days this school year to allow for teachers to have staff development days and parent teacher conferences. They give out a detailed plan of what the children should do through out the day all revolving around apps.

    2. This is the intention behind a great deal of personalized learning technologies, which oftentimes individualize instruction on the students’ behalf, using assessment data to determine which activities are appropriate. Doing so minimizes the complexity of the role an educator plays, because they are no longer making decisions about content, but instead allowing the technology to take over that responsibility.

      I think this is hit or miss really. I hear the kids talking about what level they are on in prodigy and in reflex and how advance they are. They start to discuss who is smarter... But I think that the content is still on par with the grade level. If it stays on grade level then is it really taking over what content is being taught in the classroom? I think the Teacher still has a role.

    3. The problem with many personalized learning tools is that they live mostly in realm of Substitution or Augmentation tasks. While there may be some functional improvement with regard to delivering content and collecting assessment data, there is little to no redefinition of the learning experience, which still sees students simply consuming and regurgitating materials, albeit through more efficient digital means.

      I agree with this. The kids I babysit no longer bring home math sheets where they write out the problem to solve it. Instead they do something online through an app called reflexmath. They can't tell you how they did the problems just that they did them.

    4. When redefining learning experiences, we cannot do so at the expense of human connection. The most powerful technologies known to human did more than simply minimize complexity or do something new and catchy: they enhance communication, making it easier for individuals to connect with one another

      Will technology preserve or enhance human connection in the classroom is by far a great question. Technology does make it easier to connect you leave an imprint everywhere you go online. I think as much as it enhances communication it also hinders it.

    5. It consists of four steps: Substitution (S), Augmentation (A), Modification (M), and Redefinition (R).The SAMR Model. Source: Wikimedia Commons

      SAMR is a model to guide how to integrate technology into classrooms. Substitution, augmentation, modification, and redefinition are all aspects of this model.

    1. The image depicted in these sculptures originally was for the teaching of the Biblical story of creation to natives in the early colonial period

      Tree of life as text

    1. L’arte sa nuotare, meaning art knows how to swim, is about two ways one can live life, like eros and love or life and death. We can choose to be stuck with fear due to the crisis or we can choose to take it as an opportunity to overcome our limitations while being confidence in the future and in our potential. So, even though it seems like we are all underwater it is time to learn how to swim! Renaissance art in Florence is still strong and hides today’s art that is alive and contemporary, so by using icons of the past with diving masks the theme presents a mix between the past and the contemporary world. There is no need to deny the past in order to look at the present, but at least acknowledge it.

      scuba mask art in florence, italy