207 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2022
    1. blockchain's consensus model

      blockchain uses method to batch transactions into block. Establishing which node can submit a block to the chain is the blockchain consensus model or consensus algorithm.

    2. use a more elaborate method to select transactions and choose between conflicting state transition.

      state transitions in a blockchain.

  2. Jul 2022
    1. Of course letting arbitrary code potentially run forever wouldn’t work.  So instead any program is run for only a limited number of instructions until it either completes or is terminated. The measure of the amount of compute is called “gas”, with various instructions and operations costing a different amount of gas to process.  The total cost of a transaction is the amount of gas consumed times the gas price.

      Definition of "gas" on the blockchain

    1. These programs are called smart contracts, which is misleading because look, here's an example of a smart contract. There's no legal language in there. It doesn't function as a legal document.

      No legal language in "Smart Contracts"

      A lawyer's view of blockchain "smart contracts"

  3. Jun 2022
    1. Open educational resources (OERs) are fungible functional units used in education by both educators and students

      OERs on Ethereum

    1. If we don't create good large-scale aggregates of social data, then we risk ceding market share to opaque and centralized social credit scores instead.

      Vitalik argues that if we don't create good decentralized social credit score systems, that vacuum will be filled by centralized alternatives.

    2. This is equivalent to the famous double-spend problem in designing decentralized currencies, except instead of the goal being to prevent a previous owner of a coin from being able to send it again, here the goal is to prevent the previous key controlling an account from being able to change the key. Just like creating a decentralized currency, doing account management in a decentralized way requires something like a blockchain. A blockchain can timestamp the key change messages, providing common knowledge over whether B or C came first.

      Decentralized account management may also run into a problem analogous to the double spend problem. Someone with key A signs a message they are now using key B, and an attacker gets a hold of that key and signs a message they are using key C. An observer has no way of knowing whether the message about B or C happened first.

    1. Additional NFT certificates of completion are being created for students who completed Duke Engineering’s blockchain course sequence in earlier sessions

      Makes sense to credential legacy earners; as long as the competencies didn't change, it seems inequitable to deny previous learners the same recognition as new learners.

    1. We can program a blockchain to record virtually everything or anything of value and importance, not only payments and profits, but birth and death certificates, marriage licenses, deeds, titles of ownership, educational degrees

      How can we store physical assets on the blockchain?

    1. And how about growing social inequality? Through the blockchain, we can gofrom redistributing wealth to distributing value and opportunity fairly

      How can this be accomplished, specially for people who don't have access to the internet? Will you still need an intermediary, possibly Non-profits who will be able to have better transparency for how the assets are used to accomplish the mission?

  4. Apr 2022
    1. Case Study 7: AmplyTheme: Impact investing Sub-themes: Education SDGs: What is it about: Amply, from the ixo Foundation (2017), is digitizing the management of South Africa’s early education program by recording children’s school attendance on the Ethereum blockchain and issuing tokens as proof of impact in exchange for governmental subsidies

      Amply Control de impacto en Educacion con Blockchain #Blockchain #Educacion #IxoFoundation #Tokens

  5. Mar 2022
    1. The total amount of money lost by blockchain hackers is about $ 25,295,753,270.63 Total hack events 662

      A list of known blockchain hack events.

  6. Feb 2022
    1. The second reason might support positive change. The existence of tokens and decentralization means that it’s possible to build resilient open source communities where early contributors and supporters benefit handsomely over time. No one owns these communities, and we can hope that these communities will work hard to serve themselves and their users, not the capital markets or other short-term players.

      Capitalism's subject is Capital, not the bourgeoisie or an owner class. "Open source communities" are still corporations.

    2. And that’s the first reason that the blockchain matters—because there’s a chance that it might lead to more open, resilient, market-focused networks and databases. It’s only a chance, though, because all the hype around the tokens sometimes makes it seem more likely that financial operators will simply seek to manipulate unregulated markets for their own benefit.

      There's no chance. Blockchains by principle benefit corporations in the long run.

    3. Okay, so what’s the blockchain? It’s a database. Unlike most databases, it’s not controlled by one entity and it’s not easily rewritten. Instead, it’s a ledger, a permanent, examinable, public database. One can use it to record transactions of various sorts. It would be a really good way to keep track of property records, for example. Instead, we have title insurance, unsearchable folders of deeds in City Hall and often dusty tax records.

      This wrongly assumes that

      • Permanent records are always desirable
      • Accountability undermines corporations
  7. Jan 2022
    1. It will take time for the idea of decentralized trust through computation to become a part of mainstream consciousness, and until then, the idea creates cognitive dissonance for those accustomed to centralized trust systems. With thousands of years of practical use, centralized systems of trust are accepted unconditionally and without much thought as the only model of trust.

      Agree

    1. We call blockchain the Trust Protocol. It's for people who don't know each other and with no reason to trust each other. Yet these people can still do business together on a blockchain, because they can trust the blockchain protocols. These protocols preserve the integrity of their transaction.

      Blockchain in a nutshell. Easy to understand.

    1. The prototype elaborated by P2P Models is called “Open.Smart”. Basically, the prototype is designed as a transparent database which serves to collect and order Smart member data. This data is supplemented by other records and documents required for subscription and is saved and encrypted in the blockchain. Open.Smart is an external app that relies on a digital wallet called Metamask that makes it possible to interact with the Smart platform (Figure 3 illustrates the beta version of Open.Smart)

      But ... why have it on the blockchain vs a normal database?

    1. Partisans of the blockchain might say that it’s okay if these types of centralized platforms emerge, because the state itself is available on the blockchain, so if these platforms misbehave clients can simply move elsewhere. However, I would suggest that this is a very simplistic view of the dynamics that make platforms what they are.

      Indeed ...

      However, I would suggest that this is a very simplistic view of the dynamics that make platforms what they are.

    2. MetaMask doesn’t actually do much, it’s just a view onto data provided by these centralized APIs. This isn’t a problem specific to MetaMask – what other option do they have? Rainbow, etc are set up in exactly the same way. (Interestingly, Rainbow has their own data for the social features they’re building into their wallet – social graph, showcases, etc – and have chosen to build all of that on top of Firebase instead of the blockchain.) All this means that if your NFT is removed from OpenSea, it also disappears from your wallet. It doesn’t functionally matter that my NFT is indelibly on the blockchain somewhere, because the wallet (and increasingly everything else in the ecosystem) is just using the OpenSea API to display NFTs, which began returning 304 No Content for the query of NFTs owned by my address!

      Indeed ...

    1. Enter the blockchain, the first native digital medium for peer-to-peer valueexchange. Its protocol establishes the rules—in the form of globally distributedcomputations and heavy duty encryption—that ensure the integrity of the datatraded among billions of devices without going through a trusted third party.

      Yes I have always pondered the extent, need and cons of having third parties with monopolies on our value exchange and how trust can be established without them. Blockchain is so powerful in this regard.

  8. Dec 2021
    1. Most of the descriptions I’ve seen focus on mechanisms - block chains, smart contracts, tokens, etc - but I would argue those are implementation details and some are much more likely to succeed than others. (E.g. I think using private keys for authentication/authorization is obviously better if you can get over the UX hump - SSH has shown us that for decades.)

      Most descriptions of Web3 focus on mechanisms — blockchains, smart contracts, etc — but those are implementation details.

    1. This Internet of Everything needs a Ledger of Everything. Business, commerce, and the economy need a Digital Reckoning.

      Internet of Everything -- Ledger of Everything

    1. So the smaller the smart contract the better then.

    2. So this must mean that solidity code is very lean. Importing packages takes up memory and since you're only borrowing from the miner this would be a bad idea.

      Does this mean I'll have to recreate everything again or is it the wrong approach if you have to do so?

  9. Nov 2021
    1. Maybe it’s time to dig into the non-blockchain smart contract idea that’s been floating around for a while. Drop the PoW and transaction fees, but maintain the trustless verification and open data/code

      There was publictimestamp,org. It was a blockchain but it was open, no PoW/fees. It was centralized but they asked everyone to help with attestation.

    1. Centralization vs decentralizationIn the table below, we list some of the broad-strokes advantages and disadvantages of centralized and decentralized digital networks.Centralized SystemsDecentralized SystemsLow network diameter (all participants are connected to a central authority); information propagates quickly, as propagation is handled by a central authority with lots of computational resources.The furthest participants on the network may potentially be many edges away from each other. Information broadcast from one side of the network may take a long time to reach the other side.Usually higher performance (higher throughput, fewer total computational resources expended) and easier to implement.Usually lower performance (lower throughput, more total computational resources expended) and more complex to implement.In the event of conflicting data, resolution is clear and easy: the ultimate source of truth is the central authority.A protocol (often complex) is needed for dispute resolution, if peers make conflicting claims about the state of data which participants are meant to be synchronized on.Single point of failure: malicious actors may be able to take down the network by targeting the central authority.No single point of failure: network can still function even if a large proportion of participants are attacked/taken out.Coordination among network participants is much easier, and is handled by a central authority. Central authority can compel network participants to adopt upgrades, protocol updates, etc., with very little friction.Coordination is often difficult, as no single agent has the final say in network-level decisions, protocol upgrades, etc. In the worst case, network is prone to fracturing when there are disagreements about protocol changes.Central authority can censor data, potentially cutting off parts of the network from interacting with the rest of the network.Censorship is much harder, as information has many ways to propagate across the network.Participation in the network is controlled by the central authority.Anyone can participate in the network; there are no “gatekeepers.” Ideally, the cost of participation is very low.

      Web2 vs Web3 Centralization vs Decentralization

    1. Or the PIs who enjoy and excel at raising funds can do so and even re-deploy it to the right scientists, akin to founders who become angel investors and venture capitalists.

      Sounds like a Self-Organized Funding Allocation (SOFA): https://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol24/iss3/art29/

  10. Oct 2021
    1. A blockchain system has no ability to regular "the market" in the sense of people's general ability to freely make transactions. But what it can do is regulate and structure (or even create) specific markets, setting up patterns of specific behaviors whose incentives are ultimately set and guided by institutions that have anti-collusion guardrails built in, and can resist pressure from economic actors.
    2. There is a large body of intellectual work that criticizes a bubble of concepts that they refer to as "economization", "neoliberalism" and similar terms, arguing that they corrode democratic political values and leave many people's needs unmet as a result. The world of cryptocurrency is very economic (lots of tokens flying around everywhere, with lots of functions being assigned to those tokens), very neo (the space is 12 years old!) and very liberal (freedom and voluntary participation are core to the whole thing). Do these critiques also apply to blockchain systems? If so, what conclusions should we draw, and how could blockchain systems be designed to account for these critiques? Nathan's answer: more hybrid approaches combining ideas from both economics and politics. But what will it actually take to achieve that, and will it give the results that we want?
  11. Sep 2021
    1. Active Indexers, Curators and Delegators can earn income from the network proportional to the amount of work they perform and their GRT stake.
    2. Curators are subgraph developers, data consumers or community members who signal to Indexers which APIs should be indexed by The Graph Network. Curators deposit GRT into a bonding curve to signal on a specific subgraph and earn a portion of query fees for the subgraphs they signal on; incentivizing the highest quality data sources. Curators will curate on subgraphs and deposit GRT via the Graph Explorer dApp. Because this occurs on a bonding curve, that means that the earlier you signal on a subgraph, the greater share of the query fees you earn on that subgraph for a given amount of GRT deposited. This also means that when you go to withdraw, you could end up with more or less GRT than you started with.

      cryptoeconomics still amazes me, how everything can be an opportunity for 'investment'

    1. "The current results have been established due to two test phases with a very small amount of payed testers, and thus can not enable to elaborate the total waste heat potentials in Vienna and Graz."

    1. Solana NFT Marketplace Development

      The huge trend of non-fungible tokens has necessitated the creation of a digital environment to facilitate their exchange. NFT marketplace platforms dedicated to launching and trading NFTs offer a beneficial experience for both makers and takers.

      Maticz is a top-rated NFT Marketplace Development Company that offers premium Solana NFT marketplace development to help you to launch your own NFT marketplace platform that gives a seamless user experience and helps you to stand out from the competitors. Our Solana NFT marketplace platforms come with a robust trading engine, storefront, advanced searching filters, and so forth.

      Know more: Solana NFT Development >>>

    1. Liquidity pools are pools of tokens that are locked in a smart contract. By offering liquidity, they guarantee trading, and because of this, they are widely used by decentralized exchanges.
    1. Then there are tokens. Tokens by definition do not run on their own blockchain, unlike a coin. They have been added to an already existing blockchain. Tokens can have the same functionality as a coin, although this is not common.Tokens that are created on the Ethereum network are typically ERC-20 tokens.
    2. Developers can program applications that can create, store and manage digital assets, also known as tokens, on the blockchain. For this to work, smart contracts and decentralized applications (DApps) are written and built. The expiration of these contracts and agreements is automatically enforced if the blockchain receives the correct data. You can make complex, irreversible agreements without the need for an intermediary.
  12. Jul 2021
    1. who’s gonna let me create a digital garden / commonplace book on the blockchain

      Registering that this was a question in the wild. Crazypants, but there it is.

      What problem would this actually be solving though?!?

  13. Jun 2021
    1. Though things are improving, the fact remains that no Blockchain model is truly energy efficient, so if you’re in doubt as to whether you need it and are concerned about CO2 emissions, you should proceed with caution. In some ways, the problem of the Blockchain is that it hit the public imagination - and that of app developers and entrepreneurs - long before the technology was fully mature (it definitely still isn’t) and many of these scalability and energy-consumption problems have yet to be ironed out. 
    1. The high costs of implementing a TTP come about mainly because traditional security solutions, which must be invoked where the protocol itself leaves off, involve high personnel costs. For more information on the necessity and security benefits of these traditional security solutions, especially personnel controls, when implementing TTP organizations, see this author's essay on group controls. The risks and costs borne by protocol users also come to be dominated by the unreliability of the TTP – the DNS and certificate authorities being two quite commom sources of unreliability and frustration with the Internet and PKIs respectively.

      The high costs of TTPs have to do with the high personnel costs that are involved in the centralized solutions.

    1. So, what problem is blockchain solving for identity if PII is not being stored on the ledger? The short answer is that blockchain provides a transparent, immutable, reliable and auditable way to address the seamless and secure exchange of cryptographic keys. To better understand this position, let us explore some foundational concepts.

      What problem is blockchain solving in the SSI stack?

      It is an immutable (often permissionless) and auditable way to address the seamless and secure exchange of cryptographic keys.

    1. organizationally organizationally centralized decentralized logically eg *new* centralized Paypal Bitcoin logically eg eg decentralized Excel e-mail

      Organizationally decentralized, logically centralized

      Organizationally centralized are systems that are controlled by a single organization. Organizationally decentralized are systems that are not under control of any one entity.

      Logically decentralized are systems that have multiple databases, where participants control their own database entirely. Excel is logically decentralized. Logically centralized are systems that appear as if they have a single global database (irrespective of how it's implemented).

    1. Organizationally decentralized but logically centralized state will allow for the creation of protocols that can undermine the power of the centralized incumbents.

      Organizationally decentralized but logically centralized

  14. May 2021
    1. blockchain-based system

      I see the point that blockchain helps make provenance tracing possible, but will need more details of how blockchain technology is leveraged here. Otherwise, I still feel stuck by questions like "Why it has to be blockchain?" and "Can't other technologies serve the same function?".

    1. the company has “reasonable plans” to onboard 100 million users on this identity platform within the next couple of years.

      That sounds like a vision-less idea of incorporating user identities to gain profits is not really discernible from facebook's Libra.

    1. Audius is trying to avoid SoundCloud’s copyright issues by not hosting the user-uploaded content itself. Its open-source protocol, built on blockchain, means that the responsibility of hosting and making uploaded content available is spread out among people who register as node operators.
    2. This article kind of reads like a smear piece on Audius

    3. Blockchains make piracy more of a headache.

      How so? Couldn't you just crosscheck the public ledger to verify the uploaders' info??

    1. Right now, most of the blockchain mining in the world happens in China, where provinces with the cheapest energy set up mining operations to do the ‘proof of work’ calculations that the dominant paradigm of blockchain requires. Factories that ostensibly make other things now acquire significant computing hardware and dedicate energy in order to, essentially, print money that’s then stored offshore. A recent study shows that 40% of China’s mostly bitcoin mining is powered by coal-burning. We also already know that non-blockchain server farms in cheap energy countries consume so much energy they distort national grids, and throw off huge amounts of heat that then need cooling for the servers to operate, creating a vicious cycle of energy consumption
  15. Feb 2021
    1. A private blockchain still involves the record keeping of everyone's transactions by each node of this network.
    2. , private blockchain. It's organized and controlled by a known and trusted consortium of entities, like say, banks.

      private blockchain

    3. The computers connected to the blockchain network are known as nodes. Some nodes donate their processing power to solve a math problem associated with a new block. The Bitcoin community calls these people "miners,

      Nodes and Miners defination

    4. With blockchain, trust comes from the network itself. Instead of simply trusting a middleman institution, we can trust the blockchain code. The way that the blockchain is built means all parties in the system, not just the ones involved in the transaction, come to an agreement on what the facts are. And once they agree, a new block is added

      Trust in blockchain

    5. This validation process makes theft impossible by any practical measure. If you wanted to steal a bitcoin, you'd have to rewrite the coins' entire history on the block chain.

      Security of blockhain

    6. At its most basic, Blockchain is open-source code. Anyone can download it for free, run it, and use it to develop new tools for managing transactions online

      Blockchain is most stimply and The blockchain is public, it's open-source code, it's a protocol, not a product.

    1. Blockchain is tackling value industries like financial services and supply chains. These are far larger than information industries like media and publishing, and so the impact of blockchain will be that much greater, and so potentially will the aggregate value. Sometimes the saying goes, "We need a little irrational exuberance to build the future."

      Blockchain is looking beyond information. Blockchain is looking for value

  16. Jan 2021
    1. This is possible when all records, documents, contracts, and digital identity are verifiable as the one-and-only master copy.

      So combine the verifiability of all:

      • Records
      • Documents
      • Agreements and
      • Transactions that can be made between individuals as a new normal and you can see how 4th Density realities can shape us.
    2. In a world free of bad-actors, our societies become safer, more civil, and more trusted. Even though the heart of a person may be evil, that personal evil cannot be acted-out with data that is behind a database that leverages Blockchain methodologies.

      This makes me wonder...could this be a characteristic of 4th density? A type of openness where ALL "bad acting" is exposed to all and thereby diminished? Talk about the power of positive peer pressure!

    3. The tragedy of these heinous activities are accomplished through bad actors who are capable of hiding the truth through the primitive nature of databases within computer systems.

      Envision a "table" where money can be exchanged on top (visible business) and "under the table" (off the records).

      Think of Blockchain as a system that openly reports ALL transactions...taking out the "table"!

    4. Many of the deceptive practices mentioned below, have each become larger than any Fortune 500 Business.
      • Human Trafficking
      • Sex Trafficking
      • Drug Trade
      • Blood Diamond Trade
      • Counterfeit Products
      • Abusive Religious Belief Systems

      These are all "MONSTERS" that exist because they haven't been checked. Kinda like radio active waste from a useful energy source. If we don't bring regulation into the system, the system will self-sabotage in order to self-regulate.

      I disagree that these companies purposely prey on people. They passively prey on people by not regulating their practices and thereby leaving room for these loopholes to exist!

    5. have each become larger than any Fortune 500 Business.

      This is HUGE!

      • Slave Trade
      • Drug Trade
      • Crime and Counterfeit

      ARE ALL BIGGER THAN ALL FORTUNE 500 COMPANIES

    6. Blockchain is a fairly simple approach that leverages the Internet of Things (IoT), digital access to records, and the need for better security and transportability of data between people and organizations.

      Blockchain = uses direct knowledge of signal to secure it's movement and it's identity.

      • Knowing what a thing is and where a thing is.
      • Blockchain separates signal from noise.
    7. In its simplest form, Blockchain is a database designed to allow the Internet to take advantage of better security. It accomplishes this through a digital ledger (distributed-ledger) that acts like a supply-chain which defines who can access the data within the chain

      Blockchain is an elaborate list that is so openly accurate that it can be used as a security system where WE ALL SEE THE EXCHANGING HANDS

      • This means "no more money under the table"
      • Trickery is that slight of hand that deceives us!
    8. The current distrust around the globe is at its highest level due to unfair trading practices, cybercrime, false reporting mechanisms, ability to falsify documents, and the buzz word of the day …‘fake-news.’
      • Unfair trading practices
      • cybercrime
      • false reporting mechanisms
      • ability to falsify documents
      • fake news
    1. An incentive is any design element of a system that influences the behavior of system participants by changing the relative costs and benefits of choices those participants may make.
    1. unlike a traditional computer, a blockchain computer can offer strong trust guarantees, rooted in the mathematical and game-theoretic properties of the system. A user or developer can trust that a piece of code running on a blockchain computer will continue to behave as designed, even if individual participants in the network change their motivations or try to subvert the system. This means that the control of a blockchain computer can be placed in the hands of a community
    1. Aventus, Ticketchain or Blocktix tokens (all three are blockchain-based ticket issuance platforms)
    2. Basically, all token pitches include a line that goes something like this: “There is a fixed supply of tokens. As demand for the token increases, so must the price.” This logic fails to take into account the velocity problem.
    1. With an immutable, public record of every transaction,

      Só tem como ser imutável se tiver alguma garantia de que os nós não possam ser alterados, mas aí term que manter vários nós, quem vai ter interesse me manter os nós?

  17. Dec 2020
  18. Nov 2020
      • Functional blockchain library in Typescript
      • Svelte & Sapper for all things UI.
      • Blockchain sync with IndexedDB and reactivity hook.
      • Created some mini-apps to refine and test the core functionality.
      • User Authentication flow.
      • MVP: Kanban app.
    1. primera clase block chain

      5 grandes idesas a desarollar:

      1. Cripto activos: capacidad para comerciar activos digitales peer-to-peer sin pasa a traves de un banco o intermediario.

      2. identidad digital: capacidad para capturar, procesar y administrar nuestros datos, caja negra digital con el fin de que no sean administrados por google,facebook,etc

      3. smartcontracts: pieza de codigo que con un objetivo especifico que ejecuta un conjunto de instrucciones en blockchain (garantiza el cumplimiento contraactual y son autoejecutables

      4. modelos de negocio descentralizados: sin humanos

      5. libro de conocimientos: transacciones entre dispositivos, internet de las cosas

    1. Solving all those complex puzzles requires a huge amount of energy. So much energy that the two biggest blockchains in the world – bitcoin and Ethereum – are now using up the same amount of electricity as the whole of Austria. Carrying out a payment with Visa requires about 0.002 kilowatt-hours; the same payment with bitcoin uses up 906 kilowatt-hours

      cryptocurrencies require A LOT of energy

    2. The fact that no one is in charge and nothing can be modified also means that mistakes cannot be corrected. A bank can reverse a payment request. This is impossible for bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. So anything that has been stolen will stay stolen. There is a continuous stream of hackers targeting bitcoin exchanges and users, and fraudsters launching investment vehicles that are in fact pyramid schemes.

      3rd reason for blockchain not being widely implemented: it's not safe for a general public

    3. Also, in a blockchain you aren’t anonymous, but “pseudonymous”: your identity is linked to a number, and if someone can link your name to that number, you’re screwed. Everything you got up to on that blockchain is visible to everyone. 

      2nd reason for blockchain not being widely implemented: users aren't fully anonymous

    4. Firstly: the technology is at loggerheads with European privacy legislation, specifically the right to be forgotten. Once something is in the blockchain, it cannot be removed. For instance, hundreds of links to child abuse material and revenge porn were placed in the bitcoin blockchain by malicious users. It’s impossible to remove those.

      1st reason for blockchain not being widely implemented: once something is in blockchain, it can't be removed

    5. Out of over 86,000 blockchain projects that had been launched, 92% had been abandoned by the end of 2017, according to consultancy firm Deloitte.

      Some sad statistics of blockchain

    6. It’s very slow (sometimes a transaction takes nine minutes, sometimes nine days!), a lot of hassle (try it for yourself – cutting open hard plastic packaging with scissors is more user friendly), and very unstable (its price rose to €17,000 euros; dropped to €3,000; rose again to now €10,000).

      Bitcoin transactions are slow & the currency is very unstable

    7. Not only that, but the decentralised utopia that Nakamoto dreamed about, namely avoiding trusted third parties, is still far out of reach. Ironically, there are now three mining pools – a type of company that builds rooms full of servers in Alaska and other locations way up above the Arctic circle – which are responsible for more than half of all the new bitcoin (and also for checking payment requests). 

      Blockchain isn't also yet fully free from third-parties to check the payments

    8. This is pretty inefficient. And it would be a lot less complicated if you trusted someone to manage your data (a bank, for instance). But that’s not what Satoshi Nakamoto did, which is what the inventor of bitcoin calls himself. He thought banks were bad news. They can make money disappear from your account. So he invented bitcoin. And bitcoin works, it exists, and according to the latest count, there are nearly 1,855 other bitcoin-like currencies out there.

      Why bitcoin was created to replace banks

    9. At its core, blockchain is a glorified spreadsheet (think: Excel with one table). In other words, a new way to store data. In traditional databases there’s usually one person who’s in charge, who decides who can access and input data, who can edit and remove it. That’s different in a blockchain. Nobody’s in charge, and you can’t change or delete anything, only view and input data.

      Simple explanation of blockchain

  19. Oct 2020
    1. They also noted that the OCEAN contract “contained a pause function for unforeseen emergencies like this one,” which calls into question the claims made by the developers of these protocols who say their platforms are “decentralized.” If they were truly decentralized, then it would not be possible to shut them down, even if there is an emergency.

      Yes, kind of not so decentralized ...

  20. Sep 2020
  21. Aug 2020
    1. Bottom line: Blockchain can help a bit with voting, but it’s not doing the most important part of the work. It doesn’t help tally secret ballots in a publicly verifiable way. It doesn’t provide individual verifiability that a ballot was correctly encoded. And it’s not useful for voting eligibility, since that’s all about human authentication and a centrally produced voter list. At best, in voting, Blockchain can be a ledger that helps us track the voting metadata.

      Blockchain can only solve some of the problems that need to be solved in a voting system. Where it falls short:

      • It doesn't help count secret ballots in a publicly verifiable way
      • It doesn't provide individual verifiability that a ballot was recorded and counted
      • It doesn't help with voting eligibility, since that's about human authentication (and a centrally maintained voter list)
    2. Then there’s the need to check voter eligibility, a critical piece of global verifiability. No matter what technology we use, we need a clear list of eligible voters, and each voter should get to vote only once. Ultimately, the list of eligible voters is set in a centralized way: it’s produced by the State. There’s nothing distributed about voter eligibility. Even when there is federation / delegation to individual counties, like in the US, there is a centralized effort to cross-check that a voter isn’t registered in multiple counties.

      The list of eligible voters is, in the modern nation state, inherently centralized. There's nothing distributed about it.

    3. In a typical election setting with secret ballots, we need: enforced secrecy: a way for each voter to cast a ballot secretly and no way to prove how they voted (lest they be unduly influenced) individual verifiability: a way for each voter to gain confidence that their own vote was correctly recorded and counted. global verifiability: a way for everyone to gain confidence that all votes were correctly counted and that only eligible voters cast a ballot.

      The requirements of the ideal voting system are:

      1. Enforced secrecy — Each voter can be sure their vote cannot be tied to their identity.
      2. Individual verifiability — Each voter can verify their vote was cast and counted.
      3. Global verifiability — Everyone can verify that all votes were correctly counted and that only eligible voters cast ballots
    4. Blockchain isn’t just a distributed database, it’s a very specific kind of distributed database where the database maintainers aren’t authenticated: anyone can be a blockchain maintainer without revealing who they are or having any kind of privileged relationship with other maintainers. the set of maintainers changes over time. New maintainers come in, existing maintainers leave, without central planning or predictability. The maintainers of the Bitcoin blockchain 5 years ago are very different from the maintainers today.

      Blockchain is a special kind of distributed database. A database where (1) the maintainers are not authenticated and (2) where there is a cycling of maintainers over time.

  22. Jun 2020
    1. 5A85F3

      I have signed up for hypothesis and verified my email so i can leave you this following comment:

      long time reader, first time poster here. greatest blog of all time

  23. May 2020
    1. quantum blockchain

      Do they really use a quantum blockchain? What exactly do they mean by that? Probably just a buzzword they're using to attract interest but aren't actually meaning literally.

    1. A quantum blockchain, the pair suggests, would take advantage of entanglement, which in most cases, applies to situations regarding space. But it could also be useful for situations involving time, such as blockchains. In such a blockchain, the pair explains, transaction records could be represented by pairs of entangled photons linked in chronological order. When transfers take place, photons would be created and absorbed by the hubs that comprise a network. But since entangled photons are linked across time, they can be caused to have never existed at the same time.
  24. Apr 2020
    1. When a user in an AWS account creates a blockchain network on Amazon Managed Blockchain, they also create the first member in the network. This first member has no peer nodes associated with it until you create them. After you create the network and the first member, you can use that member to create an invitation proposal for other members in the same AWS account or in other AWS accounts. Any member can create an invitation proposal.

      about members of blockchain

  25. Feb 2020
  26. Jan 2020
    1. This is just the tip of the innovation iceberg in a new deep-truth reality that is here today

      In a moment of crisis for truth and trust, it is encouraging to encounter the term deep-truth and may offer a valuable term that is both accessible and powerful in advocating not just against what we despise but for what we hope to see in a better world.

    2. This is just the tip of the innovation iceberg in a new deep-truth reality that is here today

      In a moment of crisis for truth and trust, it is encouraging to encounter the term deep-truth and may offer a valuable term that is both accessible and powerful in advocating not just against what we despise but for what we hope to see in a better world.

  27. Dec 2019
    1. Blockchain real estate plays a significant role, as the data, once updated, will remain as it is. Inputting data with Blockchain will be great for the buyers as there will be no chance of committing fraud in the future.

    1. Four databases of citizen science and crowdsourcing projects —  SciStarter, the Citizen Science Association (CSA), CitSci.org, and the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (the Wilson Center Commons Lab) — are working on a common project metadata schema to support data sharing with the goal of maintaining accurate and up to date information about citizen science projects.  The federal government is joining this conversation with a cross-agency effort to promote citizen science and crowdsourcing as a tool to advance agency missions. Specifically, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), in collaboration with the U.S. Federal Community of Practice for Citizen Science and Crowdsourcing (FCPCCS),is compiling an Open Innovation Toolkit containing resources for federal employees hoping to implement citizen science and crowdsourcing projects. Navigation through this toolkit will be facilitated in part through a system of metadata tags. In addition, the Open Innovation Toolkit will link to the Wilson Center’s database of federal citizen science and crowdsourcing projects.These groups became aware of their complementary efforts and the shared challenge of developing project metadata tags, which gave rise to the need of a workshop.  

      Sense Collective's Climate Tagger API and Pool Party Semantic Web plug-in are perfectly suited to support The Wilson Center's metadata schema project. Creating a common metadata schema that is used across multiple organizations working within the same domain, with similar (and overlapping) data and data types, is an essential step towards realizing collective intelligence. There is significant redundancy that consumes limited resources as organizations often perform the same type of data structuring. Interoperability issues between organizations, their metadata semantics and serialization methods, prevent cumulative progress as a community. Sense Collective's MetaGrant program is working to provide a shared infastructure for NGO's and social impact investment funds and social impact bond programs to help rapidly improve the problems that are being solved by this awesome project of The Wilson Center. Now let's extend the coordinated metadata semantics to 1000 more organizations and incentivize the citizen science volunteers who make this possible, with a closer connection to the local benefits they produce through their efforts. With integration into Social impact Bond programs and public/private partnerships, we are able to incentivize collective action in ways that match the scope and scale of the problems we face.

    1. a world in which contracts are embedded in digital code and stored in transparent, shared databases, where they are protected from deletion, tampering, and revision. In this world every agreement, every process, every task, and every payment would have a digital record and signature that could be identified, validated, stored, and shared.

      The potential benefits of blockchain

  28. Oct 2019
    1. ) Blockchain MemoryWe let LL be the blockchain mem-ory space, represented as the hastable L:{0,1}256→{0,1}NL:\{0,1\}^{256}\rightarrow \{0, 1\}^{N}, where N≫N \gg 256 and can store sufficiently-large documents. We assume this memory to be tamperproof under the same adversarial model used in Bitcoin and other blockchains. To intuitively explain why such a trusted data-store can be implemented on any blockchain (including Bitcoin), consider the following simplified, albeit inefficient, implementation: A blockchain is a sequence of timestamped transactions, where each transaction includes a variable number of output addresses (each address is a 160-bit number). LL could then be implemented as follows - the first two outputs in a transaction encode the 256-bit memory address pointer, as well as some auxiliary meta-data. The rest of the outputs construct the serialized document. When looking up L[k]L[k], only the most recent transaction is returned, which allows update and delete operations in addition to inserts.

      This paragraph explains how blockchain hides one's individual identity and privacy, while giving them a secure way of using the funds. In my opinion lot hacker ransomware are done using block-chain technology coins, this and one more paragraph here is really interesting to read about how blockchain helps protect personal data. and i also related this this hacking and corruption or money laundering

    1. This paper explores how the Internet of Things and blockchain technology can benefit shared economy applications. The focus of this research is understanding how blockchain can be exploited to create decentralised, shared economy applications that allow people to monetise, securely, their things to create more wealth. Shared economy applications such as Airbnb and Uber are well-known applications, but there are many other opportunities to share in the digital economy. With the recent interest in the Internet of Things and blockchain, the opportunity exists to create a myriad of sharing applications, e.g. peer-to-peer automatic payment mechanisms, foreign exchange platforms, digital rights management and cultural heritage to name but a few

      This article sheds light into shared economy, have highlighted just the abstract, but this entire article is so interesting and the application it talks about is great, like how can airbnb or uber use blockchain to protect it's clients privacy. Must read

  29. Sep 2019
    1. Expert Smart Contract Development Guide for 2019

      What is a smart contract?

      For those of you who don’t know, a smart contract is a self-executing contract that digitally facilitates, verifies and enforces the agreed terms between two or more parties.

  30. Aug 2019
  31. Jul 2019
  32. Jun 2019
    1. most popular smart contract

      Official basic solidity explanation. Notice the warnings about new versions breaking old coding methods. This is very common in solidity as it is still viewed as an in development language. Solidity is expected to remain a blockchain smart contract programming standard for quite sometime while other competing languages such as Rust, Java, C++, etc are expected to gain more ground particularly due to the introduction of the WASM low level language and the toolkit that supports it which is well established and well integrated. Here's a link to some more WASM goodness. https://hackernoon.com/the-three-eggs-in-a-distributed-basket-wasm-blockchain-and-reputation-296892cdd77c

  33. Apr 2019
    1. Overall, the blockchain technology has the potential to revolutionize several industries, from advertising to energy distribution. Its main power lies in its decentralized nature and ability to eliminate the need for trust.

      Main power: Decentralise authority + Eliminate the need for trust

  34. Mar 2019
    1. Is it possible to reverse the deterioration we are experiencing today? I spoke with individuals who are working actively within the values of the decentralized web and are building towards this panacea.

      Oh yes. Blockchain and Tim Berners-Lee's idea of the decentralised web, thank you.

    1. We are devoted blockchain app to design and assemble better programming to introduce over the significant brilliant gadget. Consequently, it conveys better solace to deal with whenever without meeting any danger of it. Our app gives the correct clarification, in the event of any issue; emerge at the season of utilizing such the blockchain programming. In this way, businessmen can build a blockchain app and get a to z business programming with every fundamental element.

  35. Feb 2019
    1. 現在比特幣區塊鏈大小已經來到了220 GB,或許大家會認為這是一個不大的數字,但假設在比特幣運作的那一年開始區塊鏈一直保持在滿載的狀況下,以每十分鐘增加1MB計算到滿十週年的今天,應當要超過525.6 GB,十年前的525.6 GB 是一種奢侈,當今的社會一人1TB、2TB 的硬碟或許是一件很正常的事情。 對我而言,「這是中本聰跟儲存和計算成本的對賭」,他在賭硬碟空間的製作工藝促使的單位空間的成本降低這件事的速度比較快,還是區塊鏈成長的速度比較快,倘若區塊鏈的成長速度較快的話,我相信這世界上不存在儲存完整區塊鏈的硬碟,這使得去中心的區塊鏈更難以被實現出來。 所以對我而言,如果要再創造一個新的區塊鏈的應用,必須要尋找一個低訊息產出速度,也就是低 TPS,且單位訊息的大小不能太大,越小越好。以降低頻率、降低單位訊息大小的方式抑制區塊鏈大小的成長速度,屆時巡找的目標或許就是一個低頻率高單價的應用場景。

      <big>评:</big><br/><br/>在中国人的习武观里,讲究「天下武功,唯快不破」。快,即应变迅速,无论是在追求高 TPS 的技术环境,还是在需要快速迭代的商业世界,「快」都不失为一计上策。 <br/> <br/> 但是要如何才能保使自己在迅速登上高度的同时,不失风度?中本聪给出的答案从侧面应证了日式「侘寂」(wabi-sabi)美学对此问题的态度——「接受短暂和不完美」。中国人能否在自己的哲学智慧里寻到一个类似解呢?我看是有的,所谓「上善若水,以柔克刚」。

    1. 若先不論這些國家實踐國家數字貨幣的可能性,比特幣這種無主權的貨幣背後的區塊鏈技術,確實勾起了這些反美國家的興趣。 在數位化時代下,透過分散式帳本技術,它賦予了國家發行具有主權性質的密碼貨幣的能力,這也讓國際政治之間的糾紛多添了一些變數。 一方想要透過區塊鏈自建金融體系,一方想要強烈抵制這樣的行為,區塊鏈作為達到開放性金融(Open Finance)的一種「手段」,而美國作為目前世界的霸權,反美政權有機會挑戰該國對於世界經濟的「完全主導權」?還是對於透過區塊鏈創造金融壁壘的想像只是曇花一現?值得關注。

      <big>评:</big><br/><br/> 「比特币这种无主权货币背后的区块链技术,赋予了国家发行具有主权性质的密码货币的能力」,此番境遇,放到加密货币市场遇冷的 2019 年初来看,着实有股「有心栽花花不开,无心插柳柳成荫」的意味。分布式账本技术真的能在国际政坛间再度搅起波澜吗?区块链技术真能引导现有体系走向开放性金融(Open Finance)吗?或许,人类自身的求生欲会给予上述提问一个肯定的答复,但是这种充满跳跃性的惊喜感赖以维系的前提在于——比特币是一种无主权的货币,信息技术能够自由流动。

  36. Jan 2019
    1. 计算机领域在分布式处理过程中追求高效、一致。对错误数据记录的修复和更正,通常会另行设计一套机制来保证。相对传统数据库,区块链由于需要保证事后数据的不可篡改,引入了共识机制,为错误的出现和修复提供更多的容忍度。这一重要思想通常被许多区块链设计者所忽略,众多项目纷纷追求提高短交易及确认速度,这会导致弱化甚至牺牲其他节点对数据的验证过程。同时,更早更快的确认也会带来问题。参与生成数据的节点需要满足生成数据不能出错等更严苛要求,导致现在很多区块链项目的在落地过程中出现困难。因为系统使用方会背上了数据必须一次性正确输入的包袱,需要非常保守和谨慎地选择上链数据。最终,区块链落地应用范围的狭窄,许多存在出错可能性的数据难以结合区块链的优点参与业务升级改造。

      <big>评:</big><br/><br/> 传统数据库与区块链式处理,哪个才是更佳的业务模式?这个问题的回答早已在我们的日常工作中得以体现,但却迫于某种难以逾越的权力边界而成了难言之隐。「事中容错,事后一致」是一种颇为崇高的境界,甚至可以从中一窥理想社会的光耀图景,但人们目前尚未能大规模应用这套 workflow,究其原因,并非目标遥远,而是由于决策权被少部分人掌控着,和数据打交道的主体只是把数据当作本职工作,并未主动贡献、积极参与。系统使用方背上的不是「数据必须一次性正确输入」的包袱,他们直面的,是将权利拱手让人后的自责,是与民主开放的理想世界背道而驰的困惑。

    1. Freedom to organizeAragon lets you freely organize and collaborate without borders or intermediaries. Create global, bureaucracy-free organizations, companies, and communities.
    2. The world’s first digital jurisdictionAragon organizations are not only great because they are decentralized, global and unstoppable. They will also benefit from the Aragon Network, the world’s first digital jurisdiction.

      "digital jurisdiction"

    1. 援引《彭博社》消息,華爾街證券研究公司 Fundstrat Global Advisors 的聯合創辦人 Tom Lee 12 月 13 日向客戶發電郵時透露,已經厭倦人們不斷詢問目標價格,有鑑於加密貨幣的內在波動性,該公司將停止提供任何「實現公允價格」的時程表。 換句話說,這表示華爾街最著名的比特幣預言家,已經決定放棄對其價格進行預測。 原因很簡單,若回顧 Tom Lee 過去的研究報告,我們會發現他曾預測比特幣的價格將在 2018 年終達到 20,000 美元的目標價格;而年終的預測價格則為 25,000 美元。到了 11 月,他將目標價格削減至 15,000 美元,但比特幣當時的交易價格僅為 5,500 美元,隨後更跌至 4,000 美元左右。總體而言,比特幣價格全年下降超過 70%,而 Tom Lee 最近一次預測的「公允價格」範圍在 13,800 美元到 14,800 美元之間。

      <big>评:</big><br/><br/>出于加密货币与生俱来的独特性,其价格走势本不应该被人为地解读,而场外观众们也无需矫情地揣测低迷熊市与失守分析师之间的暧昧联系。比特币可谓区块链世界第一个广为人知的创业项目,考虑到它对现有金融体系的颠覆性冲击,这些华尔街拥趸们的「洋相」或许不失为一种班门弄斧式的保身明哲。

    1. Blockchains are NOT about cutting computational costs (at least relative to centralized servers). Blockchains are about incurring a sacrifice in the form of INCREASED computational costs to achieve a *decrease* in *social costs*.

      <big>评:</big><br/><br/>「区块链以增加计算成本为代价来降低社会成本」,这样的论断让人联想到前几年有关新能源汽车的讨论。新能源汽车的 per unit actual consumption 不一定比内燃机车辆低,但人们寄厚望于它的 social benefit。<br/><br/>我们现在已经知道,区块链会把人类带向一个新世界。试追问:区块链就是这个「世界」本身吗?又或者只是新世界的运行规则?大脑在变得更加聪明,而思维在变得更加固化,已然练就了一种表述:每个世界都要有自己的运行法则。<br/><br/>在上述疑问尚无共识之前,我们不妨先关注一下特斯拉的股价?

    1. 区块链技术仍然能在解决移民问题方面发挥不可替代的作用,这项神秘的无政府主义者和密码朋克们创造出的去中心化技术,赋予了民众挑战国际政治与金融体系的权利,而这些权利本来就是人民赋予的。 区块链技术能够帮助难民保存本就应是属于他们的、不可篡改的身份信息,帮助他们获得本就应该送到他们手里的国际援助,帮助他们在新国家尽快开始正常人的生活。或者简单来说,为他们所承受的痛苦和对新生活的憧憬之间,搭起一条希望的桥梁。

      <big>评:</big><br/><br/>技术在为人们勾画远景宏图的同时,也引人深思——发明技术的人类,已经演化到了其自身权利得由技术赋予的状态了吗?想必最激进的技术主义者也不会否认,教会他识字表达的不是命令行,而是活生生的人。廿一世纪的我们已经知道,「天赋人权」不过是句颇具浪漫主义色彩的政治标语,那些被我们珍视的权利其实是人类自己争取而来的。谈论区块链落地场景时更富批判性的靶向在于技术文化与身份认同之间的张力,可参见评论文章《新时代新气象,个体式激进与集体式自律》

    1. I respect the idealism of blockchain developers who, I believe, are sincere in their faith that they are building a better world. But I am confounded by their inability to see that they are falling victim to exactly the same fallacies their hacker forebears embraced: this notion that we can code ourselves out of the deep holes we’ve dug; that we are building utopias in our virtualities that will finesse away the imperfections of human character.

      <big>评:</big><br/><br/>将区块链与互联网发展史作同类比较,的确能发现相似的轨迹,但也难逃倚老卖老的嫌疑。从何时起,我们给自己立下了「后来者无论成功与失败,始终跑在前人滑破的气流里」这一金科玉律?值得一提的是,见证时代前沿发展的进步主义者,在世界观上大多并不前沿,甚至很前现代。<br/><br/>试问:你渴望完美无缺的人设吗?若是,那你又可否期待「能加速该进程」的技术横空出世?自渡与普渡,向来是技术社群必须直面的哲学迷思。

    1. 项目参与者报告称,通过应用区块链技术,可确保地籍数据更高的透明度,并可在房地产登记期间避免未经授权的变更。此外,参与者一致认为,通过区块链技术创建单一登记处的所有好处将对乌兹别克斯坦的投资环境产生积极影响。

      <big>评:</big><br/><br/>如果没有区块链的加持,公权力是否会想到采用类似分布式技术等颇为 geek 的手段来维护现有体系?就算这只是个早晚会实现的时间问题,那民众也应该保留不停追问的权利。要知道,公权力与 geek 在精神上互为对立——回顾一下当年快播王欣案上公诉方那贻笑大方的审问吧——「(针对媒体类大文件的分布式存储)你为什么要粉碎文件?你到底有何企图?」<br/><br/>同样令密码学社群捉摸不透的企图是,区块链确权被运用在现实资产上。高度透明、单一登记,这与现在的互联网秩序在目标上又有何区别?真可谓理想主义者的又一次溃败。

    1. 在整个过程中,中心化交易所不但是现实世界与区块链世界的出入口,还是不同区块链网络的连接器。简单来说,交易所决定了一个新的 Token 是否有资格接入其他 Token 以及法币共同构成的清算网络。很多区块链项目的发展在被扭曲为满足交易所需求的方向上越走越远。区块链经济网络急需分布式的清算机制加入,其意义不在于要迅速替代中心化的交易所,而是带来一种新的选择与制衡,让区块链的真正价值被再次发掘,让用分布式的方式解决分布式的问题成为可能。

      <big>评:</big><br/><br/>至今为止我们还没有遇到完美的币种,可能以后也不会有。哪怕是久居排行榜单之首的比特币,也难以自视清高,不加入这首群雄逐鹿的协奏曲,但是契合乐谱精神的指挥家想必不是中心化的交易所。倘若让这曲华章无限延伸,我们或终将寻到一位让乐迷们心悦诚服的意中人。</br></br>然而,总有些东西是永恒的。不妨就让他们在此演奏,直到永远。

    1. 塔塔首席數字官C.R. Srinivasan表示:「《發展周期》像是對企業發出的警告,提出了由於革新的出現組織中不同層面開始浮現的『理想與現實』間的差距,他還表示:「這種差距表明,企業決策者和各個部門主管應該主動向企業 CEO提出其面對物聯網和人工智能技術時遇到的困難。」

      <big>评:</big><br/><br/>Tata 释出的这份调查报告《发展周期(The Cycle of Progress)》枚举了企业在区块链应用上面临的主要障碍,但这并非警告——我们有必要正视不同层面的差距。事实上无论是在公司内部还是在更广的社会层面,这种异步感早已存在,甚至可以说,恰恰是这种异步感造成了人们认知上的差别,庞大的生态体系因此得以建立、维系。<br/><br/>如今,这些巨型组织的内部孵化出了一股新生力量——他们面对新技术的诱惑蠢蠢欲动,又无法轻松甩掉旧资产的包袱,还要和那些持不同意见的高管和股东们做对抗。但这样的拉扯并不一定是零和游戏,在这争斗中不同派别也能射出良性互动的微光,亦向现状抛出问题——既然我们做好了迎接新技术到来的外部战略准备,为何不改变自下而上的内部交互方式?