82 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2016
    1. Halloween stems from the Celtic harvest festival of Samhain (roughly, “summer’s end”) held on October 31–November 1, when people would light bonfires and wear costumes to ward off roaming ghosts

      Celtic holiday - light bonfires, wear costumes to scare off ghosts

    2. Is this getting a little too dark for you? Try “Hine pumpkin” to see cheerier photographs by legendary documentary photographer Lewis W. Hine.

      different types of pumpkins

    3. gloomy owls, and a search for “Goya witches” to a set of his most unsettling paintings and etchings; similarly, search


    4. have long been holidays in which people commemorate the departed.


    5. Day of the Dead, Halloween, and the scary side of Artstor October 21, 2011 by artstor Katsukawa Shunsho | The actors Ichikawa Danjuro V as a skeleton, spirit of the renegade monk Seigen… | Edo period, 1783 | The Art Institute of Chicago | Photography © The Art Institute of Chicago Some blocks in my neighborhood are getting downright spooky – front yards are filling with spider webs and tombstones, and ghosts peek through the bushes. Along with the piles of pumpkins and inevitable candy corn appearing in the supermarket, they are a reminder that Halloween is just around the corner.

      People go hard for halloween

    6. “Baldung witches” to see a number of the German Renaissance painter Hans Baldung’s ghoulish drawings, or search for his name to see his famous “Death and the Maiden”; and a search for Jose Guadalupe Posada will result in the Mexican artist’s famous “Calaveras,” satirical engravings of skeletons popular during the holiday.

      People search for Baldung witches

    7. You can also do a search for “Day of the Dead” to find images of calacas, skeleton toys from Mexico.

      Skeleton toys

    8. I was particularly fond of the sugar skulls; I always tried to bite into them, but they tend to be so hard that I would have to ask my father to break mine with a hammer.

      Sugar skulls were very hard to eat but very tasty.

    9. I have fond memories of visiting the cemetery with my family to clean my grandfather’s grave and play with the children of other visiting families.

      was a positive memory visiting grandfather's grave

    10. The festival was integrated into All Saints Day, a Catholic holiday observed on November 1 to honor saints and martyrs.

      was made into different holiday on november 1st

    1. Rudolph W. Giuliani in 2000 concluded that children qualified for mainstream classes more rapidly coming from English as a Second Language programs than from bilingual ones.


    2. With decentralization dismantled in 2002 and a hand-picked school chancellor installed the next year, Mayor Bloomberg seemingly backed away.

      Mayor backed away

    3. WITH Ms. Lam gone, perhaps the mayor and Mr. Klein can fulfill their erstwhile pledges. Carmen Fariña, the new deputy chancellor, yesterday promised large-scale reforms beginning next September.

      Carmen promised reforms

    4. Industrial Areas Foundation, which has worked closely with parents there for more than a decade. ''We have great confidence in Klein. We've found him to be very responsive and very aggressive.

      Some are confident on bilingual education

    5. In one respect, though, the bilingual program in Bushwick did subscribe to the English-immersion approach.

      Bilingual program did have English-immersion

    6. As a candidate for mayor, Michael R. Bloomberg assailed the status quo in bilingual education and called for its replacement with English-immersion classes. His pledge rested on firm ground.


    7. For years, bilingual education coasted along on its perception as a virtual civil right for Hispanics.

      Could be a right

    8. And the children had no trouble expressing their own frustration lucidly enough in English. ''I ask the teacher all the time if I can be in English class,'' said Alberto, a 9-year-old who will enter sixth grade in the fall. ''The teacher just says no.'' For the time being, Alberto added, he learns English by watching the Cartoon Network.

      Children are frustraited

    9. ''I'm very angry,'' Ms. Salsedo said in Spanish through an interpreter. ''The school is supposed to do what's best for the kids.

      people are very angry about this.

    10. they were the people bilingual education supposedly serves. Instead, one after the other, they condemned a system that consigned their children to a linguistic ghetto, cut off from the United States of integration and upward mobility.

      family would benefit off of bilingual edugation

    1. America’s assimilation policy of educating Native American children which was enforced through oppressive boarding schools that stripped them of their tribal languages, cultures, and beliefs means many Native languages are now lost or endangered.


    2. “Students need to see themselves in the school in order to excel academically,”

      students need to have confidence.

    3. planning and executing a dual-language effort is complicated by the supply of available teachers, with the analysis concluding,

      Planning a dual language program can be hard

    4. The situation is worsened, Hazlehurst stresses, when the first language isn’t taught, hindering a child’s ability to communicate.

      when first language is not learned, is makes it harder to communicate.

    5. The goals of dual-language are closely related and intertwined—better teaching models for non-English speakers, fostering cross-cultural understanding, and in special settings reclaiming disappearing Native American languages—and the approach is earning praise.

      Better for non english speakers.

    6. Today, more California students are learning the three Rs in their native languages

      more people are learning 3 rs in their language

    7. Nationally, bilingual education has been rechristened “dual-language programs” and is gaining fresh appeal.

      Dual language programs are becoming better

    8. 61 percent of the vote

      Ballot with 61% of vote. Wow, that's rough

  2. Sep 2016
    1. With a decline in negative publicity, 2013 began what Colombian officials hope is a continual dramatic increase in tourism, hosting three times the number of tourists than was the case a decade earlier. This included an increase in spending to 5.4 percent of GDP, as compared to 1.9 percent in 2008. Investment programs in 2008 and 2011 seem to be producing benefits, and the Colombian government hopes to increase employment in this area by 50 percent within the next four years.

      People are hoping for more tourists to come to colombia

    2. Medellín is the largest city in the northwest region, and is dominated by two distinct landscapes: the rainforests and the mountains. While Medellín is an industrialized city, Santa Fe de Antioquia, 50 miles to the northwest, retains the look and feel of the Spanish colonial period.

      Medellin is largest city in region

    3. Tourists who decide to visit Bogotá are treated to colonial churches and museums nestled among the modern architecture of the capital city. The Caribbean coast near Cartagena is home to historic Spanish forts, and islands boasting coral reefs that are ideal for snorkeling. The town itself is famous for its Spanish colonial architecture.

      More stuff to do for tourists

    4. Colombia offers a multitude of options for the traveler. Its mountains, beaches, rivers, and cities the country should be a popular vacation spot. However, Colombia has gained a reputation as an unsafe destination due to news of drug dealers, kidnappings, and guerilla violence.

      Lots of things to do as a tourist like mountains, beaches, rivers, and cities. But, visitors should be cautious of the drug dealers, kidnapping, and guerilla violence

    5. Livestock has exceeded coffee in terms of its share of exports. Cattle are providing meat as well as leather. Colombia has the fourth highest cattle population in Latin America and is among the top 13 cattle producers in the world. Its beef industry is poised for further growth in the early 21st century. Beef, poultry, and pigs dominate the livestock industry.

      Livestock has done better than exporting coffee

    6. Coffee plantations cover about one million hectares (approximately 2.5 million acres) of Colombia's mountainous areas at altitudes of 900 to 1,800 meters (about 3,000 and 6,000 feet). There are nearly 150,000 small coffee plantations operating in the county today. Other cash crops include cacao beans, sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, bananas, and cut flowers.

      Coffee plantations cover a lot of land

    7. Coffee was once Colombia's principle money maker, but it has been surpassed by petroleum. Export earnings from coffee have fallen nearly 70 percent since the 1980s. Since 2000, output has dropped by 25 percent due to the economy and an increase in temperature in the region.

      Coffee was Colombia's primary way of making money but it has dropped dramatically since 1980

    8. Petroleum and coal are the main mineral products of Colombia. The country now produces enough petroleum to provide for all of its own energy needs, while still having significant amounts to export. As one of the world's largest exporters of coal, in 2013, Colombia produced about 85.5 metric tons. Most of the coal originates in a single mine on the Guajira peninsula. Other minerals mined for export include gold, silver, emeralds, platinum, copper, nickel, and natural gas.

      A lot of things to mine in colombia

    9. Of Colombia's total area of 282 million acres, 148 million are forested. The Colombian government has established the goal of expanding that area by reclaiming 2.7 million acres. The country's timber needs have largely been filled by imports.

      148 million acres are forested.

    10. While Colombia's catch is comparatively small, its fisheries industry enjoys an international market. Tuna fishing is the leading industry, and much of the nation's catch is used for export. Along with tuna, other major catches include shrimp, white fish (snapper, grouper, etc.), anchovy, herring, crayfish, and conch. Shrimp and shark stocks are threatened by overfishing. Aquaculture products include shrimp, tilapia, rainbow trout, cachamas, bocachico, and carp.

      Has international fishing market. Lots of tuna, crayfish, and conch. Shrimp and shark populations are threatened.

    11. In the major cities, Colombia has the same environmental challenges, especially air pollution caused by vehicle emissions, faced by any industrialized nation. This problem is particularly critical in Bogotá. Deforestation from logging efforts and soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides have taken a toll on the countryside as well.

      A lot of polution in urban areas and pesticides

    12. Deforestation, as a result of intense logging efforts, has plagued Colombia's once lush landscape, while over-hunting has affected almost every animal species in the country. To combat this problem, national parks have become increasingly widespread in hopes of restoring the landscape.

      Deforestation has been a problem for Colombia

    13. Colombia's reputation as an agricultural country often hides the fact that it is rich in minerals and energy sources. South America's largest producer of gold, Colombia also accounts for nearly half of the world's high-quality emeralds. The country ranks among the world's leaders in oil reserves, and is Latin America's largest producer of coal.

      Colombia is knows for agriculture

    14. Colombia's labor force was estimated at roughly 23.75 million in 2013, with an unemployment rate of 9.7 percent, down from 12 percent in 2009. Approximately 62 percent of the labor force is employed in the services sector while the agricultural and industry sectors averaged 17 and 21 percent of the collective work force, respectively (2013).

      Colombia has been improving in their trade and their labor force was 23.75 million in 2013.

    15. Manufacturing is a key component of Bogotá's economy. The city produces textiles, machinery, tires, electrical equipment, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals, as well as food and drink. Bogotá also has a thriving publishing industry, as well as a major stock exchange.

      Bogota is great at producing and great at publishing

    16. Mainly smaller operations, Colombia's manufacturers generally produce goods for domestic consumption. Manufacturing activity accounts for about 38 percent of the country's yearly national output. Cotton spinning mills are the largest-scale manufacturers. Other manufactured items include foodstuffs, clothing, and footwear, ceramics, tobacco products, iron and steel, and transportation equipment.

      Cotton spinning mills play a major role in what the country produces.

    17. Colombia is a member of two trade organizations: the Andean Community, and the Group of Three, which includes Mexico and Venezuela. Its main trading partner is the United States.

      Colombia is part of two trade organizations

    18. In 2013, Colombia's gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $369.2 billion USD. The per capita GDP was estimated at $11,100 USD.

      GDP was $369.2billion

    19. olombia, once known primarily as a coffee-producing country, has successfully diversified its economy. Today, petroleum ranks as its principal export. Other important exports include coffee, vegetables, chemicals, coal, textiles, fresh-cut flowers, bananas, sugar, gold, emeralds, and cattle.

      Colombia was a coffee-producing country but has made what hey import more diverse.

    20. 50

      It seems like overall, Columbia has some great things going on but they are also struggling with some severe problems.

    21. Colombia, once known primarily as a coffee-producing country, has successfully diversified its economy. Today, petroleum ranks as its principal export. Other important exports include coffee, vegetables, chemicals, coal, textiles, fresh-cut flowers, bananas, sugar, gold, emeralds, and cattle.


    22. Due to internal civil problems, Colombian foreign relations reflect the domestic conflicts that persist within the country. Historically, Colombia has held strong relations with the United States. At the turn of the 20th century, the proximity of the Panama Canal and increased American investment in Colombia by corporations such as the United Fruit Company, led to a regular American diplomatic presence in Colombia. This involvement increased throughout the century and reached a high point with the advent of the “war on drugs” launched by the U.S. in the late 1980s. The massive drug eradication campaign was implemented to destroy the supply of illicit drugs, mostly cocaine, being smuggled from Colombia to the U.S.


    23. Most Colombian cities have a system of private bus and taxi lines to transport people through the city. Privately owned buses, known as collectivos, are used as a reliable system of transport for a majority of urban workers. The larger cities in Colombia have invested in public transportation systems that are run by municipalities. Bogotá, for example, has a public bus system, the Transmileno, which continues to expand service into new areas. Additionally, the city of Medellín constructed a light rail system, the Metro, which, with a 2012 expansion has two lines, 29 kilometers (18 miles) and 38 kilometers (24 miles) in length. Bogotá has also restricted car use in the city and increased bicycle and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) traffic, as well as creating public pedestrian spaces. Many parking spaces have been demolished and wider sidewalks have been put in their place. The Pan-American Highway is a major thoroughfare that runs through Bogotá, and connects it with other urban areas. A railroad system connects the city with Colombia's two coasts, on the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Bogotá is also where Avianca, the first South American commercial airline, is based. Traffic in the country moves on the right-hand side of the road.

      Buses and taxis

    24. Historically, Colombia is home to many distinctive music styles that vary from region to region. Many of these styles have devoted adherents who celebrate their musical passions through dances, concerts, and festivals throughout the country.

      Very different music

    25. Bogotá is perhaps best representative of Colombia's architectural heritage. Much of the city's architecture is old and reminiscent of the Spanish colonial style, including the gold art that was common in the early days of the conquistadors (Spanish conquerors). However, Bogotá is also home to many modern high rises and skyscrapers, and the contrast of these two worlds is what makes the cityscape so unique. Bogotá's streets are laid out in a grid, with several plazas throughout. “Calles” run from east to west, while “carreras” run north to south, parallel with the hills.

      Old architecture

    26. ike many other Latin American cultures, Colombians have historically emphasized strong family ties. Traditionally, the Colombian family incorporated a wide range of distant relatives, including cousins, uncles, aunts, and other distant relations. Thus, the family unit is more akin to a clan rather than the nuclear family that is common in Western cultures. Families could also be defined as patriarchal, meaning that much of the traditional authority was delegated to male members of the family. Traditionally, the males worked in business and industry to financially provide for the family while the female family members retained control over domestic affairs. As a result, Colombian homes often resembled small communities with several generations residing under the same roof. In addition, children remained at home until marriage, and it was not uncommon for unmarried women to live their entire lives in the same family household.

      Strong family ties

    27. In Colombia, greetings are usually profuse and public, and accompanied by inquisitive phrases toward the other party. These include phrases such as “¿Que tal?” (“How are things?”) or “¿Como le va?” (“How's it going with you?”) or “¿Que mas?” (“What else?”). In formal or business settings, Colombians prefer the handshake; among acquaintances and friends, the embrace, or abrazo, is used by both men and women. Between sexes, it is common to kiss a woman on the cheek only upon first introduction. The phrase “Con mucho gusto” (“With much pleasure”) is typically used when meeting a new acquaintance.

      Has different greeting phrases

    28. Despite widespread logging activity, Colombia is still rich in plant and animal life. Colombia is home to the world's widest variety of birds, with 1,754 species living within its borders. These include ducks and other fowl, tropical birds such as toucans, parakeets, and parrots, and larger birds such as buzzards, condors, and eagles. Brazil is the only other country that is home to a wider variety of plant species than Colombia. Common trees include coconut palms, rubber trees, bamboo, and tropical hardwoods. The secret to the country's impressive biodiversity is its wide range of habitats. Few countries can match Colombia's diversity with its mountains, lowlands, seas, lakes, deserts, and swamps.

      Has lots of plants and animals

    29. The Andes Mountains dominate the western part of the country, while the lowlands expand over two-thirds of the east. Most of the population lives in the shadow of the Andes, leaving the lowlands lightly populated. While Colombia is bordered by two bodies of water, most of its ports are located on the Caribbean Sea, where a large portion of the population lives.

      Colombia has the Andes Mountains

    30. Native Americans account for about one percent of Colombia's modern population, as most of their ancestors died or vanished after the arrival of the conquering Spanish. Today, there are still about 50 different Native American groups living in Colombia, with the largest being the Guajiro


    31. Bogotá (8,743,000) Medellín (3,694,000) Cali (2,453,000) Barranquilla (1,900,000) Cartagena (988,000) Cúcuta (637,000) Soledad (661,851) Bucaramanga (1,120,000) Ibagué; (553,524) Soacha (511,262


    32. Official Language: Spanish Population: 46,245,297 (2014 estimate) Currency: Colombian peso Coins: Coins are available in denominations of 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 pesos, with a rarely used 20 peso also in circulation. Land Area: 1,109,104 square kilometers (428,227 square miles) Water Area: 100,210 square kilometers (38,691 square kilometers) National Motto: “Libertad y Orden” (“Liberty and Order”)


    1. A study published last year in the Journal of Labor Economics found that the parents of more than a quarter of third-generation children with Mexican ancestry do not identify their children as Latino on census forms.


    2. “I am light-skinned” and that is how she is viewed in her native Dominican Republic.

      Context for quote above.

    3. A majority of Latinos identify themselves as white

      Most Latinos think that they are white.

    4. This racial effect “weakens the political effectiveness of Latinos as a group,” said Gary M. Segura


    5. Ms. Lubliner, a recent graduate of the medical school at the University of California, Los Angeles, in her mid-30s, was only 9 when her father died, and she grew up steeped in the language and culture of her mother. She said she has never identified with “the dominant culture of white.” She believes her mother is a mix of white and Indian.

      Ms. Lubliner thought she was dominantly white.

    6. Latinos, who make up close to 20 percent of the American population, generally hold a fundamentally different view of race.

      Some Latinos can view race differently.

    7. This argument over identity has gained momentum with the growth of the Latino population, which in 2010 stood at more than 50 million.


    8. So when they encounter the census, they see one question that asks them whether they identify themselves as having Hispanic ethnic origins and many answer it as their main identifier.


    9. The main reason for the split is that the census categorizes people by race, which typically refers to a set of common physical traits.

      Traits separate the categories of race.

    10. More than 18 million Latinos checked this “other” box in the 2010 census, up from 14.9 million in 2000.


    11. Every decade, the Census Bureau spends billions of dollars and deploys hundreds of thousands of workers to get an accurate portrait of the American population. Among the questions on the census form is one about race, with 15 choices, including “some other race.”

      Census Bureau studies American population.

    1. We may see this interpretive aspect more clearly if we think of culture as a cogni-tive map. In the recurrent activities that make up everyday life, we refer to this map.

      Look at map to see which places do what

    2. The first premise is that “human beings act toward things on the basis of the meanings that the things have for them.”


    3. All of us needed to know what kinds of messages were intended by whoever wrote what we read. If a person cannot distinguish the importance of a message on a billboard from one that comes in a letter from a spouse or child, problems would develop.


    4. All of us were engaged in the same kind of cultural behavior: reading.

      Same bias based on event above

    5. The essential core of ethnography is this concern with the meaning of actions and events to the people we seek to understand.


    6. The naive realist assumes that love, snow, marriage, worship, animals, death, food, and hundreds of other things have essen-tially the same meaning to all human beings

      Naive realists think that humans share the same morals.

    7. First, and perhaps most difficult, she would have to set aside her belief in naive realism,

      People have to get rid of their biases

    8. George Hicks set out, in 1965, to learn about another way of life, that of the moun-tain people in an Appalachian valley. 2 His goal was to discover their culture, to learn to see the world from their perspective. With his family he moved into Little Laurel Valley, his daughter attended the local school, and his wife became one of the local Girl Scout leaders. Hicks soon discovered that stores and storekeepers were at the center of the val-ley’s communication system, providing the most important social arena for the entire valley.


    9. Ethnography is the work of describing a culture. The central aim of ethnography is to understand another way of life from the native point of view. The goal of ethnography, as Malinowski put it, is “to grasp the native’s point of view, his relation to life, to realize his vision of his world.” 1


    10. eating strange foods, learning a new language, watching ceremonies, taking field notes, washing clothes, writing letters home, tracing out genealogies, observing play, interviewing informants, and hundreds of other things.

      All ways of learning about a culture

    11. Ethnographic fieldwork is the hallmark of cultural anthropology.

      Ethnography is the main part of anthropology.