48 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2023
  2. Jan 2023
    1. 个人学习可能取决于他人行为的主张突出了将学习环境视为一个涉及多个互动参与者的系统的重要性
  3. Dec 2022
    1. n the works of Peele, Riley, and Glover, as in the plantation fables of thenineteenth century, animals exceed the racist and anthropocentric logics ofmere substitution. They work in other registers: as revolutionary symbols, asallies in resistance, and as agents who exceed their own use as symbols. Likethe Tar Baby, these animals may seem silent, inert. But if you listen closely,you can hear them speak
    2. We see this in the derogation of populations such as people of color, refu-gees, or immigrants as vermin to be contained
    3. As Chris brains Jeremy with abocce ball, the deer’s head is prominent in the background of the shot. Wewould hypothesize that the deer is a reminder not only of his mother (viahis earlier experience with the dying doe), but also of his ancestors moregenerally. African rhythms begin to pulse as Chris takes down Jeremy, andas Chris’s eyes flick to the buck’s head, lyrics are whispered in Swahili, thesame as the opening credits, translating to “Something bad is coming, listento your ancestors, run.” Through this non-diegetic song, with its whisperedmessage from the ancestors, the deer effectively speaks. It then aids Chris inhis escape when the buck’s horns serve as a weapon to kill Dean Armitage


    4. pests as animportant theme in African American nature poetry, where connectionsare drawn “between African Americans and birds, insects, and other mar-ginalized creatures
    5. persistent metaphoric or meto-nymic link between despised animals and marginalized human populations
    6. In thetexts we investigate here, animals are sometimes surrogates for devaluedBlack life, as we read them in the context of antebellum animal folktales. Inseeking out the ways that speaking animals covertly share strategies of resis-tance, however, we will argue that they may equally point to the reality ofanimal life beyond its symbolic uses. In the best cases, they might remindus of our own existence alongside animals and of a need to practice care forall living things
    7. Like the trickster tales discussed above, the films we are lookingat here do not make animals the focal point, but use them as a means of“thinking with” humans.
    8. it in conversation with historical and theo-retical work on vermin, which offers three corresponding insights
    9. the tacit communicationthat Black lives don’t matter to the powers that be, as seen in the poisoneddrinking water of Flint, Michigan, and the exoneration of cops for the murderof unarmed Black civilians—to our nation’s history, in particular the slaveplantation’s complete mastery of the enslaved person’s life
    10. Following themovements of this myth allows us to read the expansion of empire but alsothe persistence, through story-telling, of a resistive history, one that maycontinue in different forms
    11. Wagner emphasizes thatsuch animal tales often provided coded ways of imparting strategies forresistance and that this story has historical connections not only to the tropeof the speaking animal from African trickster mythologies like the spiderAnansi, but also perhaps, to Aesop’s animal fable
    12. educe animals to mere metaphors, similes, or symbolsdo not seem promising for theorizing ethical recognition of actual animals.Donna Haraway, for example, criticizes philosophical texts that show a “pro-found absence of curiosity about or respect for and with actual animals,even as innumerable references to diverse animals are invoked.” 15 SusanMcHugh, meanwhile, suggests that “the aesthetic structures of metaphor,though precariously supporting the human subject, seem unable to bearanimal agency.”16 An
    13. She maybelieve the comparison reveals the moral horror of industrial animal agri-culture, but, as Bénédicte Boisseron argues, such comparisons “instrumen-talize” Blackness in a “self-serving” way, ignoring the complex and ongoingBlack struggle against dehumanizing discourses and institutions in order toframe “the animal” as “the new black.
    14. remind us of the historical reduction of the human to the status of ananimal under transatlantic slavery, but also were used as a mode of resistancefor enslaved peoples

      first half is type 1, first half is type 2

    15. recall the plantation fables that spoke backto power, cloaking human issues under the guise of entertaining tales aboutcrafty creatures. These creatures may also operate as revolutionary symbols,whereby one thing is made to stand in for another so as to seem innoc-uous to outsiders.
    16. As metaphoric operations, plantation animal tales andthe films under discussion here work by pointing out a false equivalency:whereas, under slavery, Black life was set on a par with the animal, whichcould be bought and sold, traded away from family members like chattel, thisequation is rerouted in Black storytellers’ uses of the symbolic animal. Theequivalence of the slave with the animal is reanimated, but now the harm-less animal tale becomes the mechanism for delivering resistive strategies.
    17. It’s well known that throughout modern history (and especiallyafter the rise of social Darwinism and race science in the nineteenth century),racist regimes have used animal metaphors and similes to dehumanize theirtargets—for example, anti-Semites comparing Jews to rats, white suprem-acists comparing Black people to apes or monkeys, or imperialist propa-ganda comparing colonized peoples to animals incapable of self-government.
    18. Rather than viewing fables as operating with a purely substitutivelogic, where the animal stands in for the human, recent criticism explores thepossibility that the fable can imagine relationality and even allyship amongspecies
    19. lens of alliance, not solely analogy
    20. moves beyond the frameworkof Eurocentric humanism altogether; he asks, “What do black authors createwhen they are willing to engage in a critical embrace of what has been usedagainst them as a tool of derision and denigration, to leap into a vision ofhuman personhood rooted not in the logics of private property or dominionbut in wildness, flight, brotherhood and sisterhood beyond blood?
    21. In particular, we will look at animal lives deemed not worthliving, represented in Jordan Peele’s Get Out, where the figure of the deer isdepicted as vermin to analogize the white characters’ devaluation of Blacklife, but which nonetheless incarnates the resistive potential of turning thisdevaluation upon the oppressor
    22. Rather, the appearance of animals in some recentfilms highlights the unequal treatment of Black lives in America in a mannerthat continues the fable tradition, and simultaneously emphasizes the human
    23. Theseworks encode various strategies of survival in an era in which Black livescontinue to be devalued
    24. Any resistance must be sanitized soas to be tolerable” for the general audience. 5 But resistance also works not bybeing sanitized, but by being hidden in plain sight, coded as symbols legibleto some but not to all. The use of animal fables has a long-standing historydating back to slavery as providing such a coded language of resistance

      get out use of deer ... chris, black resistance, fables...taxidermy hidden in plain sight, coded/only chris to understand

    25. the animal as a means of encoding a nuanced dis-cussion about the objectification of beings especially in Atlantic slavery.


  4. Jul 2022
    1. Others have called these“Main Notes” or “Permanent Notes” or “EvergreenNotes”. I called them Point Notes to remind myself thatwhen I write them I should be making a point.

      Part of Allosso's definition of point notes: they should be making a point.

      (No mention of "atomic notes"?)

  5. Mar 2021
  6. Feb 2021
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  8. Nov 2020
  9. Oct 2020
  10. Nov 2019
    1. Today, U.S. public transportation resembles an elevator that can take you to dozens of floors, but not the one with your desk. The vast majority of Americans live within 3/4 miles of a public transit stop, but 60 percent of metro jobs and low-income housing are in poorly connected suburbs. We've reached a paradox in public transportation, Puentes says: Good transit coverage but poor job access. Across income levels, the paradox is even starker: 89& of low income communities live within 3/4 miles of a transit stop but only 26% of low skill jobs are accessible by public transportation.

      background/main point/problem

    1. And while Uber and Lyft have grabbed headlines for convincing people to abandon transit in big cities like New York and Chicago, the TransitCenter says that the effects of those services are limited to just a few dense, urban places. “The broader issue is clearing space for your transit to get through congestion, and most of that congestion is from private cars, not [ride-hail],” says Ben Fried, the group’s communications head. “Cities need to make transit fast, affordable, convenient." Truly attractive transit has to do that better than private cars.

      main point

  11. Oct 2018
    1. Second, and more importantly: political toleration does not require the strong and doctrine of philosophical relativism. Increased awareness of diversity together with an awareness of the historical contingency of one’s own convictions will promote political toleration just as effectively.

      This is it chief

    2. The anti-relativists counter-argue that even if we grant that political tolerance is an important value, and that accepting relativism would promote it, we should never adopt philosophical views about the nature of truth or justification simply because of their assumed good moral or political consequences.

      There is a key difference between moral relativism and tolerance, and making decisions and being a dick.

    3. Advocates of relativism, particularly outside philosophical circles, often cite tolerance as a key normative reason for becoming a relativist. On this rationale, all ways of life and cultures are worthy of respect in their own terms, and it is a sign of unacceptable ethnocentrism to presume that we could single out one outlook or point of view as objectively superior to others.

      This is the main point I will be arguing against, the belief that I thought I previously had.

  12. Feb 2017
    1. We suggested that employee perceptions of voice vary between the different levels of an organisation and proposed that trade union membership will be more likely to enhance individual employee perceptions of voice at the wider organisational level.