39 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2018
  2. Mar 2018
    1. Largely from this fact, have arisen their cultural gifts to America

      I find the word choice in this section amusing, to say the least. The fact that the contributions that a group of people with roots in slavery and dehumanization are described as a "gift" to America seems wrong to me. Maybe could be phrased differently?

  3. Jan 2018
    1. That nothing in this act contained shall be construed to inhibit the government of the United States from dividing said Territory into two or more Territories, in such manner and at such times as Congress shall deem convenient and proper, or from attaching any portion of said Territory to any other State or Territory of the United State

      Meliora students, this clause gave the US government the right to divide the Kansas territory into multiple territories or states. Based on the statements in Sec. 14 of this document, what would each territory/state have the right to do in regards to slavery?

    1. enslaved

      Enslavement here does not refer to physical bondage, but is a rhetorical tool used to describe political oppression.

    1. (Of course, there were plenty of other things happening between the sixteenth and twenty-first centuries that changed the shape of the world we live in. I've skipped changes in agricultural productivity due to energy economics, which finally broke the Malthusian trap our predecessors lived in. This in turn broke the long term cap on economic growth of around 0.1% per year in the absence of famine, plagues, and wars depopulating territories and making way for colonial invaders. I've skipped the germ theory of diseases, and the development of trade empires in the age of sail and gunpowder that were made possible by advances in accurate time-measurement. I've skipped the rise and—hopefully—decline of the pernicious theory of scientific racism that underpinned western colonialism and the slave trade. I've skipped the rise of feminism, the ideological position that women are human beings rather than property, and the decline of patriarchy. I've skipped the whole of the Enlightenment and the age of revolutions! But this is a technocentric congress, so I want to frame this talk in terms of AI, which we all like to think we understand.)
  4. Dec 2017
    1. Also the whole of his Slaves amounting to 57 in number.

      Among the list of offerings that John Robinson of Rockbridge County is willing to make to the President of the University and the Directors of the Literary fund for locating the University in Lexington, are slaves. Moreover, he is willing to offer all 57 of his slaves. The fact that one individual would own 57 slaves in mind-baffling. 57 slaves are more humans than students in some of my larger classes here at UVA. This line of the Rockbridge Gap Report is cringe inducing for a 21st century reader. Perhaps back in 1818 when the document was written ownership of that large a number of slaves was the norm. It is completely dehumanizing to think that slaves, real humans, could be offered as a trade for a favor. However, the progress that society has made regarding equality of mankind is noteworthy, although much progress remains.

  5. Nov 2017
    1. And, in general, to observe with intelligence & faithfulness all the social relations under which he shall be placed.

      Again, I find it important to note the emphasis placed by the founders on encouraging social intelligence as well as academic intelligence. The University was not meant solely as an institution of book-learnin', but also one of character development. Still, this sentiment is rather ironic in the face of UVA's history, but I prefer to look at it from the perspective of self-betterment. The social relations of the university are certainly included in "all the social situations under which [the student] shall be placed," so change can be made from the inside, especially with the advent of student self-governance.

    2. To develope the reasoning faculties of our youth, enlarge their minds cultivate their morals, & instil into them the precepts of virtue & order.

      I do not think this goal was possible with the existence of slaves at UVA. No one can accept the most immoral institution and remain moral. I find excerpts like this extremely interesting, as these men apparently valued virtue but still supported the university’s ownership of slaves. The existence of slaves also cultivated a racist mindset among the students, not a "virtuous" one, which was counterproductive to the founders’ goal.

    1. Also the whole of his Slaves amounting to 57 in number.

      I had previous knowledge that the University has a unique history with slavery, yet I found it interesting how the author chose to list the slaves mentioned here as property alongside the other land acquisitions. The 57 slaves noted in this line were dehumanized and treated as property to be bought and sold. The evidence of slavery literally being in the founding document of this University demonstrates how although the school has a racist past, we can move forward today by recognizing, addressing, and recontextualizing the past dehumanization of individuals. -Komal Kamdar

  6. Oct 2017
    1. Also the whole of his Slaves amounting to 57 in number.

      This is the only time slaves are mentioned outright in this document. Jefferson and the other founders obviously view them as property, listing them between acres of land and placing them low on the list. This is interesting to me as without slaves the university likely never would have been founded, built, or maintained. It's disheartening that they provided so much to this university, unwilling as well, and yet seem to be almost an afterthought in this document. According to Encyclopedia Virginia, these slaves cleared land, cut and hauled lumber, made bricks, and transported stone in the beginning. Most were rented from their owners, likely causing them to be separated from their homes and loved ones. It also gives the name of a few slaves such as Carpenter Sam, who helped to build pavilions, Elijah who hauled stone, and William Green working as a blacksmith. It's important we recognize not just the labor they provided to the University, but also them as people and human beings who are apart of the University's complex history.

      • Maddie S.
  7. Aug 2017
    1. wholly destitute of all education but what he received in common with other domesticated animals, enjoying no advantages that could lead him to suppose himself superior to the beasts, his fellow servants.

      This is an accurate description of chattel slavery. Slaves were dehumanized to justify treating them inhumanely. They could be bought, sold, traded, and inherited just as livestock.

  8. Jun 2017
    1. If the purchasing a Negroe for a slave be an infringement of devine and human laws, in God's name, why is such a trade permitted?

      If the purchasing of a slave is against divine and human laws, why are we allowing such thing?

  9. Apr 2017
    1. Great Slave Lake

      The Great Slave Lake was found in 1771 by Samuel Hearne (Ernst). Many others passed through during the Klondike Gold Rush in 1896-1899, but the region surrounding the Great Slave Lake remained greatly unoccupied. In 1930, a radioactive uranium mineral called pitchblende, or uraninite, was discovered on the shore of the Great Slave Lake and incentivized colonizers. 1934, gold was discovered on Yellowknife Bay, which led to a Yellowknife community settlement. Today, additional communities in this region include Hay River, Fort Resolution, Fort Providence, and Behchoko. The Great Slave Lake is the fifth largest lake is North America and is part of the Mackenzie River System. The Lake gets its name from a tribe of Native Americans called Slavery First Nations (National Geographic). This tribe fished for sustenance and did not explore farther than their immediate surroundings. Their neighbors, the Cree, thought the tribe was weak and often called them awonak, which means slaves. Explorer Peter Pond named the lake the Slave Lake in 1785 and then the Great Slave Lake in 1790. The Lake is known for its variety of types of fish, including trout, pike, and Arctic grayling. The Great Slave Lake is covered in snow and ice 8 months out of the year. The Great Slave Lake region is also the home to the largest intact forest in the world, the Boreal Forest, which contains evergreens, bogs, shallow lakes, and ponds (Pala). This Great Slave Lake cove is the habitat for caribou, waterfowl, beavers, and many fish species.

      Ernst, Chloe. "The History and Sites of Great Slave Lake: A Visitor's Guide.” PlanetWare.com. Accessed April 06, 2017. http://www.planetware.com/northwest-territories/great-slave-lake-cdn-nt-ntgs.htm.

      National Geographic, February 2002, 1. Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources (accessed April 5, 2017). http://find.galegroup.com/grnr/infomark.do?&source=gale&idigest=6f8f4a3faafd67e66fa023866730b0a1&prodId=GRNR&userGroupName=bucknell_it&tabID=T003&docId=A83374988&type=retrieve&PDFRange=%5B%5D&contentSet=IAC-Documents&version=1.0.

      Pala, Christopher. "Forests forever. (Forest conservation in Canada)." Earth Island Journal, September 22, 2010.

  10. Feb 2017
  11. Oct 2016
    1. Oklahoma Correctional Industries; workers scan the original photos and prepare metadata

      We can make the argument here that the University of North Texas, the Oklahoma Historical Society, and the Ethics in Journalism Foundation support de facto slave labor. Let's be honest here: "workers" = "prisoners"

  12. Dec 2015
    1. while in the process shattering the longstanding assumption that African slaves could not also be rulers.

      This should have proved that slaves are capable of governing their selves.

  13. Nov 2015
    1. [“Intellect,” whispered someone near.] That’s it, honey. What’s that got to do with women’s rights or negro rights?

      Very good point.

    2. I have borne thirteen children, and seen them most all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother’s grief, none but Jesus heard me! And aren’t I a woman?

      I can't imagine a woman going through this today and it wasn't uncommon a little over 150 years ago.

    3. I could work as much and eat as much as a man—when I could get it—and bear the lash as well! And arn’t I a woman?

      She could take anything a man could take and works hard. How come she is not given rights?

    1. The reports of Peace, Temperance, and Anti-Slavery conventions were examined, but all alike seemed too tame and pacific for the inauguration of a rebellion such as the world had never before seen.

      They are saying that the world was not ready for these causes to go into action.

    1. Moral suasionists, led most prominently by William Lloyd Garrison, felt that the United States Constitution was a fundamentally pro-slavery document, and that the present political system was irredeemable.

      The nation was set up to maintain slavery

    2. colonization was an inherently racist project and that African Americans possessed a hard-won right to the fruits of American liberty.

      African Americans deserved the fruits of American liberty just as much as anyone else.

    1. they are not permitted to be a moment idle until it is too dark to see

      There would be consequences otherwise.

    1. First, and most immediate, was the fear and risk of rebellion.

      Slave owners constantly feared rebellion

    2. In many cases, cotton growers, especially planters with large lots and enslaved workforces, put up slaves as collateral for funds dedicated to buying more land.

      Slaves were in demand.

    3. Perhaps the most important aspect of Southern slavery during this so-called “Cotton Revolution” was the value placed upon both the work and the body of the slaves themselves.

      The slaves were an in-demand object but the lives of the Africans were not valued at all.

    4. The free population of the South also nearly doubled over that period—from around 1.3 million in 1790 to more than 2.3 million in 1810.

      Does this free population include Africans? How were Africans capable of being free at this time?

    5. Although slavery arrived in the Americas long before cotton became a profitable commodity, the use and purchase of slaves, the moralistic and economic justifications for the continuation of slavery, even the urgency to protect the practice from extinction before the Civil War all received new life from the rise of cotton and the economic, social, and culture growth spurt that accompanied its success.

      Americans were looking for an excuse to keep slavery alive and the rise of cotton gave them their reason.

    6. III. Cotton and Slavery
  14. Oct 2015
    1. “Any contemplation of compensated emancipation must grapple with how several counties, and some states in the South, would react to finding themselves suddenly outnumbered by free black people.”

      It's easy to imagine the white men being outnumbered by the amount of enslaved african americans.. now let's think about the white men's fear if suddenly all those african americans were set free..

  15. Sep 2015
    1. II. Slavery and the Making of Race

      Week 6 Video Lecture

      Study Questions for this section:

      What change occurs in the 1660s that dramatically affects the nature of slavery?

      What was the Middle Passage?

      How does the idea of race evolve with the evolution of slavery?

    1. First Hand Accounts Case Study

      Study Questions:

      How do these descriptions of the “Middle Passage” from slave narratives confirm your understanding of the previous readings of this week?

      How do these conditions lead to rebellion?

    1. When the Spaniards saw that some of these had escaped, they sent a ship to find them, and it voyaged for three years among the islands searching for those who had escaped being slaughtered

      Seems like a waste of time to be searching for them, but I can only think that they were viewed as valuable slaves.

    1. High mortality rates on sugar plantations required a steady influx of new slaves

      Were the slaves worked to death? Was the work grueling? What was it that caused the high mortality rate?

  16. Aug 2015
    1. coming.

      Study questions for this section:

      What roles do sugar and slavery play in the expansion of European empires?

      What diseases devastate Native American peoples?

  17. Feb 2014
    1. Its purpose was to give them, the lords and masters, the freedom to do as they pleased with their property, their servants and their slaves. Echoes of Magna Carta could be heard even in post-revolutionary America and they may resolve the puzzle of how, in the US, the loudest voices for liberty came from slave-owners.

      Wish I could remember ref now: apparently there's evidence that more capricious government officials meant less capricious slavemasters -- even random actions by capricious officials would sometimes protect slaves, while restrained officials never would.