- Sep 2020
conflicting information on the cross-organizational level or even cross-team level. For example, different organizations perceive the same activityin different states (e.g. the police thinks that the activity “Build Dam”has failed while the fire fighters arestill executing this activity).This leads to conflicts which needto be resolved and system support can be helpful for that(e.g. by defining governance mechanisms to resolve these conflicts)
This is potentially useful...the idea that the model may highlight potential conflicts in governance, or at least, helping to foreground them (vs not seeing/missing them)
s of now, we have been discussing the model with one senior (i.e. professor) and one junior organizational scientistspecialized in firefighting proceduresby providing an animated version of our model. Thus, the terminology we used for describing concepts (e.g. activity) is in line with the terminology of organizational scientists. Out of our discussions, they have evaluated our model from an end user perspective.They confirmed that the model from an activity and dependency level can be useful for first responders
Data? just discussion? Interesting, but no methodological rigor re: how they "demo'd" the model; why they talked with these particular folks (other than academic experts...?); how they interviewed and then analyzed the interview data....
Example for Execution of Activities
Seems like state (3) should show Determine People to be able to move to Execute first... (to distinguish between the problem shown in (2)).
We do not describe the technical details of the execution mechanism here, because this is not the scope of this paper
Wondering if it's published anywhere --or not. [not substantive comment - just wondering.]
Visualization: Each user can visualize the activities and their dependencies differently, e.g. by providing a map of activities or an activity matrix.
Works for role-based dashboard view. But who has the holistic view (e.g., admin view, like MIRROR PCS...?). How is the overarching system viewed or seen, if at all?
An activity type isdescribed as:
Similar to finite state automata/algorithm design... (and/or network graphs that don't allow cyclical graphs)
The role “accountable” is allowed to change the state from “Plan” to “Execute”. The role”responsible” is allowed to change the state from “Execute” to “Finish”
Could use this ideas as permission flags on allowed actions (per role).....
Currently, we have not identified much research on how these kinds of dependencies can be supported by a crisis response activity management system.
Gap....? (or just an incomplete lit review...?)
There is also a need for defining clear accountability and responsibility (i.e. governance) for each activity. For example, the police chief is accountable for the activity “Evacuation of Residential area”, but the police field team is responsible for its execution. There are dependencies between activities illustrated as dotted lines
This is a great concrete instantiation of jigsaw..."clear accountability and responsibility for each activity. "
There arethree different organizations responding to the flood
Related to possible role delineation for PCS.
However it can become very difficult to describe a situation in a textual way in a logic languag
Need for multi-modal modeling tools -- and supports/scaffolds.
Models thus become difficult to manage, in particular for unexpected events
This is a potentially nuanced learning outcome -- i.e., you can plan, but there will always be some level of uncertainty.
Similar to the cybersecurity risk assessment activity -- you can't ever remove risk, but you can mitigate it smartly.......
ittle has been published in the area of coordinating disaster response activities. The problem is related to the sense-making problem: Who is doing what and how is it related to the own activities.
Interesting. Did they cite Toups et al, at all? some design refs may be missing...?
Several interviews and workshops have been conducted to investigate integrated information technology support for crisis response management in the SoKNOS project(SoKNOS 2009)
Similar to the "expert interviews" approach to understand the design space and required resources from an expert PoV (used in PCS design).
ad-hocactivity management system
Is this a tool that can be incorporated into the PCS, around which the players' (and specific roles) coordinate their activities....?
technicalsupport for temporal coordination of these activities by a system
Not sure why temporality/time and collaboration-over-time cannot be visualized, but will revisit...
Are there tools, cognitive, or social supports that promote or foreground collaborative sensemaking?
hese plans can be challenged by the dimensionof the event, by its unexpected consequences and by the appearance of related or unrelated new events
Contextual constraints/considerations that impact plans, or that teams need "contingencies" for. (thinking of what variables affect the design and planning process.
- division of labor
- design Tools
- professional skills
- jigsaw collaboration