44 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2019
    1. Although such encapsulation is desirable for application-level components like FeedStory or Comment, it can be inconvenient for highly reusable “leaf” components like FancyButton or MyTextInput. These components tend to be used throughout the application in a similar manner as a regular DOM button and input, and accessing their DOM nodes may be unavoidable for managing focus, selection, or animations.
  2. Jul 2019
    1. Implication means co-occurrence, not causality!
    2. Given a set of transactions, find rules that will predict the occurrence of an item based on the occurrences of other itemsin the transaction
  3. Oct 2018
  4. Sep 2018
  5. Jun 2018
    1. officer appointed or designated under Rule 28

      What are the rules?

    2. Copies of the Transcript or Recording. Unless the parties agree or the court orders otherwise, the officer must retain the record of a deposition according to the applicable records retention and disposition schedules adopted by the Supreme Court. Upon payment of a reasonable charge, the officer must provide a copy of the transcript or recording to any party or to the deponent.
    3. and any party may inspect and copy them
    4. Review by the Deponent; Changes.(1) Review; Statement of Changes. If requested by the deponent or a party before the deposition is completed, the deponent must be allowed 30 days after being notified by the officer that the transcript or recording is available in which:(A) to review the transcript or recording; and(B) if there are changes in form or substance, to sign and deliver to the officer a statement listing the changes and the reasons for making them.(2) Officer's Certificate to Attach Changes. The officer must note in the certificate prescribed by Rule 30(f)(1) whether a review was requested and, if so, must attach any changes the deponent made during the 30-day period.
    5. Objections. The officer must note on the record any objection made during the deposition--whether to evidence, to a party's, deponent's, or counsel's conduct, to the officer's qualifications, to the manner of taking the deposition, or to any other aspect of the deposition
    6. Certification and Delivery. The officer must certify in writing that the deponent was duly sworn by the officer and that the deposition accurately records the deponent's testimony. The certificate must accompany the record of the deposition. Unless the court orders otherwise, the officer must seal the deposition in an envelope or package bearing the title of the action and marked “Deposition of [witness's name]” and must promptly deliver it to the attorney who arranged for the transcript or recording. The attorney must store it under conditions that will protect it against loss, destruction, tampering, or deterioration.
  6. Feb 2018
  7. Nov 2017
    1. BBSRC's policy on data management

      A link would be useful here, ideally to a persistent version of the policy.

    2. Keywords

      These keywords should be linked to persistent identifiers (rule number 5).

    3. machine learning

      method

    4. Laurent Gatto

      Researcher - author

    5. University of Cambridge

      University ID

    6. Gene Ontology Annotation database

      Repository service

    7. Swiss-Prot

      Repository service

    8. PRoteomics IDEntifications (PRIDE)

      Repository

    9. ProteomeXchange

      Repository

    10. MSnbase

      Standard

    11. (BB/N023129/1)

      Grant number - use of this can link actions back to requirements and support monitoring / compliance checks

    12. open access

      access mode

    13. Bioconductor

      software repository / service

    14. BBSRC

      Research funder - link to funder ID

    1. This is the indirect pursuit of the golden rule that focuses on ideally good means to ideally good ends. “Love the good with your whole mind, your whole heart and your whole strength,” then you will love your neighbor as yourself, and also treat her as you’d wish to be treated by her. The differential diagnosis here identifies devotion that leads to embodiment as the cause of golden rule effect. And this devotion need not include any following or practicing rules of thumb like the golden rule, purposely fulfilling duties, or practicing those conventional activities associated with being morally upright. It can be as spiritual and abstract an activity as concentrated rational intuition ever-intent on an imagined Platonic form of good, which presumably would direct one’s perception of every reflection of the Form, in every ethical matter one dealt with in life.
    2. A behavioral route can be taken instead to these simulations, side-stepping direct reference to the rule. In some ways it is more revealing of our simulation. Here we engage in repetitive behaviors that conform to a reciprocity convention that conforms to the rule. We do not act out of adherence to the rule, but only out or imitation of its applications or illustrations. This again was the Aristotelian approach to learning virtues and also the Confucian approach for starting out. In Japan, this sort of approach extended from the Samurai tea ceremony to the Suzuki method of learning the violin (See Gardner 1993). Such programming is akin to behavioral shaping in behaviorist psychology though it rests primarily on principles of competence motivation, not positive and negative reinforcement. Social psychology has discovered that the single best way to create or change inner attitudes and motivations is to act as if one already possessed them. Over time, through the psychology of cognitive dissonance reduction, aided by an apparent consistency process in the brain, the mind supplies the motivation needed (Festinger 1957, Van Veen, and others, 2009).  These processes contradict common opinion on how motivations are developed, or at least it does so long as our resolve does. Unless one keeps the behavior going, by whatever means, our psychology will extinguish the behavior for its lack of a motivational correlate. Here, as elsewhere, the golden rule can act as a conceptual test of whether the group reciprocity conventions of a society are ethically up to snuff. As a means to more morally direct simulation, those interested in the golden rule can try alternative psychological regimens—role-taking is one, empathy might be another. And these can be combined. Those who assume that exemplars must have taken these routes in their socialization may prefer such practices to conventional repetition. However, each is discretionary and but one practical means to it. Each has pros and cons: some routes serve certain personality types or learning styles, others not so well.  In certain cultures, mentoring, mimicking and emulating exemplars will be the way to go.
    3. The golden rule displays one algorithm for programming exemplary fair behavior, which can be habituated by repetition and even raised to an art by practice. Virtue ethics (habits) and deliberation ethics (normative ethics) fall here. What we are simulating are side-effects of a moral condition. We are trying to be good, by imitating symptoms of being good.
    4. The fourth way, is more a simulation than a “way.” It is not a form of embodiment at all, and therefore does not generate golden rule effect as a spontaneous offshoot. We learn to act, in some respects, as a master or exemplar would, but without embodying the character being expressed, or being truly self-expressive in our actions. What we call ethics as a whole—the ethics of duties, fulfilling obligations, adhering to responsibilities, and respecting rights can be seen as this sort of partial simulation. We develop moral habits, of course, some of which link together in patterns and proclivities. And we can  “engage” these. But we would not continue to carry around a sense of ethical assembly instructions or recipes needing sometimes to refer to them directly—if we were ethics, if we embodied ethics. We don’t retain rules and instructions when we are friends or parents. (Those who read parenting books are either looking for improvements or fearing that they aren’t true parents yet.)
    5. Getting some perspective, the second and third avenues or “ways of embodiment” above are analogous to the two main schools of Zen Buddhism—Rinzai and Soto. In the first, one experiences satori or enlightened awakening in a sudden flash. It is not known how, even a non-devotee may be blessed by this occurrence. One smiles, or laughs as a result, at the contrast in consciousness, then goes back to one’s daily life with no self-awareness of the whole new sense of reality and living it creates. Those around cannot help but notice the whole new range of behaviors that come out, filled with the compassion of a bodhisattva. To the master, it is daily life and interaction: “I eat when I am hungry, I sleep when I am tired.” The third way is that of gradual enlightenment. One meditates for its own sake, with no special aim in mind—no awaited lightning strike from the blue. “Over time, as one constantly “polishes one’s mirror,” Zen consciousness continually grows until normal consciousness and ego fade out, akin to the Hindu version of enlightenment or moksha. Compassion grows beside it, imperceptibly, until one is bodhisattva. To the recipient, Zen-mind seems ordinary mind.
    6. the secular spiritual transformation that comes from single-mindedness. When someone’s striving for a cherished goal becomes a life-mission, be it mastering a musical instrument or fine art, or putting heart and soul into building a business, or putting a public policy in place (a new drunk-driving ban or universal health care) they often come to embody their goal. “He is his company.” “She has become her music” (“and she writes the songs”).  Certainly in religion this is what is meant by terming someone holy or a living saint. This is also the secular goal of Confucian practice, to make li (behavioral ritual) yi (character). One accomplishes this transformation by complete and intense concentration of thoughts and behavior, and by “letting go” of one’s self-awareness or ego in the task. The work takes over and one becomes “possessed” by it, either in an uplifting way, or as in the need for exorcism, rehab, or at least “intervention” by friends and family. When morality sets the goal and means here, we term their culmination “moral exemplarism.”
  8. Oct 2017
    1. Unlike every other ethic, agape provides no basis for according ourselves special first-person discretion or privacy.  The self-other gap is transcended. It’s not even clear how the typical moral division of labor is justified in agapeistic terms. In principle, when we raise our spoon filled with breakfast cereal at the morning table, the matter of whose mouth it goes into is in question
    2. for those who use its ethic to rise above good and evil in a mundane sense, the golden rule is a wisdom principle. It marks the transcendence of interested and egoistic perspectives. It points toward its sibling of loving thy neighbor as thyself because thy neighbor is us in some deeper sense, accessible by deeper, less egoistic love
  9. Jan 2017
    1. If the rule is relaxed to embrace pattern alone, as explicitly advocated by Rensch and Mayr, exceptions can still be found both intra- and interspecifically. Within species, Rensch (1938) reported that 10–30% of the warm-blooded species examined by him were exceptions to Bergmann's rule. Ray (1960) reviewed the literature on body size variation in relation to climate for poikilotherms, and concluded that the rule was supported by 75% of species studied. Nevertheless, these percentages (see also James, 1970; Yom-Tov & Nix, 1986) support Mayr's (1956) contention that the rule would be proved if upheld by the majority of species, although his subsequent definition of a majority as more than 50%(Mayr, 1963) is rather generous in respect of a ‘rule’. Some studies, however, do find that the percentage of species in agreement with the intraspecific rule fails even this criterion (McNab, 1971).

      Historical evaluations of the validity of the intra-specific Bergman's Rule as a pattern.

    2. It is the definition of Bergmann's rule, and specifically the taxonomic level at which the rule is considered to act, that has done most to cloud the degree of generality of the effect it describes. Bergmann himself (quoted in James, 1970) stated that ‘(i)f we could find two species of [homeothermic] animals which would only differ from each other with respect to size, . . . (t)he geographical distribution of the two species would have to be determined by their size . . . if there are genera in which the species differ only in size, the smaller species would demand a warmer climate, to the exact extent of the size difference.’ Also: ‘(a)lthough it is not as clear as we would like, it is obvious that on the whole the larger species live farther north and the smaller ones farther south.’Bergmann's formulation was later altered by Rensch (1938), whose revised definition was that ‘within a Rassenkreis [complex of races] of warm-blooded animals the races living in colder climates are generally larger than the races living in warmer regions.’ Rensch considered that the new definition better fitted the rule as then understood, but was quite clear that the revision was his own (‘I myself reduced it to the geographical races of a species’; Rensch, 1938). It was this revision that subsequently became the accepted formulation of Bergmann's rule; later definitions included ‘Races of warm blooded vertebrates from cooler climates tend to be larger than races of the same species from warmer climates’(Mayr, 1956), and ‘The smaller-sized geographic races of a species are found in the warmer parts of the range, the larger-sized races in the cooler districts’(Ray, 1960; see also definitions in Gittleman, 1985; Goudie & Ankney, 1986; Paterson, 1990; McDowall, 1994; Steudel, Porter & Sher, 1994; Smith, Betancourt & Brown, 1995; Atkinson & Sibly, 1997).The notion that the application of Bergmann's rule at the intraspecific level is a derived state was emphasized by James (1970), who noted that it was a considerable modification of Bergmann's original message, although one that fitted well with knowledge of intraspecific body size variation. Quotations from Bergmann (1847; given in translation by James, 1970) imply that he considered the effect to be interspecific, but between closely related species. Whether he intended the example he gave of ‘species within a genus’ to be literal is unclear. Whichever, it is clear that his formulation was not intraspecific, as he thought it ‘paradoxical that the effects of the same rule in races of animals are not very apparent’(Bergmann, 1847, quoted in James, 1970). In this context, it is interesting that Mayr (1956; see also Rensch, 1938) noted that many of the species considered by Bergmann were, when Mayr was writing, afforded only sub-specific status! Nevertheless, since James's paper, Bergmann's rule has been examined at a variety of taxonomic levels, for example within species (Barnett, 1977; Ralls & Harvey, 1985; Yom-Tov & Nix, 1986; Geist, 1987; Graves, 1991; Smith et al., 1995, 1998; Van Voorhies, 1996, 1997; Mousseau, 1997; Partridge & Coyne, 1997), between species within genera (Gittleman, 1985; Taylor & Gotelli, 1994), between functionally related species (Geist, 1987; Cotgreave & Stockley, 1994), and between species within a range of higher taxa (Zeveloff & Boyce, 1988; Cushman et al., 1993; Barlow, 1994; McDowall, 1994; Hawkins, 1995; Hawkins & Lawton, 1995; Poulin, 1995; Poulin & Hamilton, 1995; Blackburn & Gaston, 1996a).

      Excellent history of the use of different taxonomic levels for Bergman's Rule.

  10. Feb 2016
    1. 44-45 Ingelfinger rule: won't publish articles that have been presented, discussed with reporters, or published in any form elsewhere--including data. Once a paper is under consideration and production, it can't be discussed with reporters.

      This clearly harms science in the interest of journals.

  11. Feb 2014
    1. The breakthrough patent that produces a Polaroid company is more the exception than the rule. The rule is the modestly successful novelist, the minor [*292] poet, and the university researcher -- all of whom may profit by licensing or selling their creations.

      Breakthrough patent of Polaroid (the exception) vs modestly successful novelist (the more common case)

    1. Rule of Law: In some cases this will be clearer than others, but basically you want to identify the principle of law on which the judge or justice is basing the resolution of the case. This is what you’ll often hear called “black letter law.”
    1. The cases on the subject are collected in a footnote to Somerset Bank v. Edmund, 10 Am. & Eng. Ann. Cas. 726; 76 Ohio St. Rep. 396, the head-note to which reads: "Public policy and sound morals alike forbid that a public officer should demand or receive for services performed by him in the discharge of official duty any other or further remuneration or reward than that prescribed or allowed by law." This rule of public policy has been relaxed only in those instances where the legislature for sufficient public reason has seen fit by statute to extend the stimulus of a reward to the public without distinction, as in the case of United States v. Matthews, 173 U.S. 381, where the attorney-general, under an act for "the detection and prosecution of crimes against the United States," made a public offer of reward sufficiently liberal and generic to comprehend the services of a federal deputy marshal. Exceptions of that character upon familiar principles serve to emphasize the correctness of the rule, as one based upon sound public policy.

      1) A public officer cannot demand or receive remuneration or a reward for carrying out the duty of his job as a matter of public policy and morality

      2) However, it is not against public policy for a police officer to receive a reward in performance of his legal duty if the legislature passes a statute giving the reward to the public at large in furtherance of some public policy - such as preventing treason against the US.

  12. Jan 2014
    1. An effective data management program would enable a user 20 years or longer in the future to discover , access , understand, and use particular data [ 3 ]. This primer summarizes the elements of a data management program that would satisfy this 20-year rule and are necessary to prevent data entropy .

      Who cares most about the 20-year rule? This is an ideal that appeals to some, but in practice even the most zealous adherents can't picture what this looks like in some concrete way-- except in the most traditional ways: physical paper journals in libraries are tangible examples of the 20-year rule.

      Until we have a digital equivalent for data I don't blame people looking for tenure or jobs for not caring about this ideal if we can't provide a clear picture of how to achieve this widely at an institutional level. For digital materials I think the picture people have in their minds is of tape backup. Maybe this is generational? New generations not exposed widely to cassette tapes, DVDs, and other physical media that "old people" remember, only then will it be possible to have a new ideal that people can see in their minds-eye.