96 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Apr 2021
    1. It should be defined inline. If you are using the img tag, that image should have semantic value to the content, which is why the alt attribute is required for validation. If the image is to be part of the layout or template, you should use a tag other than the img tag and assign the image as a CSS background to the element. In this case, the image has no semantic meaning and therefore doesn't require the alt attribute. I'm fairly certain that most screen readers would not even know that a CSS image exists.

      I believed this when I first read it, but changed my mind when I read this good rebuttal: https://hyp.is/f1ndKJ5eEeu_IBtubiLybA/stackoverflow.com/questions/640190/image-width-height-as-an-attribute-or-in-css

    2. Ah yes, excactly the right answer. Img tags are for information, css backgrounds are for layout.
  3. Feb 2021
    1. § 2630. Applicability Except as otherwise provided, and to the extent that such a construction would be reasonable, the provisions of this title shall apply to this chapter. (Added 1977, No. 269 (Adj. Sess.), § 1.) § 2631. Municipal charters (a) Unless otherwise provided by law, when the charter of a municipality provides for procedures other than those established by law, the provisions of that charter shall prevail. (b) Except as provided in subsection (a) of this section, all provisions of law relating to a municipality shall apply to such a municipality with a charter. (Added 1977, No. 269 (Adj. Sess.), § 1; amended 2005, No. M-13 (Adj. Sess.), § 21; 2017, No. 99 (Adj. Sess.), § 1, eff. April 11, 2018.)

      Vermont Election Rules

      If specified in charter, Charter prevails, with exceptions

    1. In other words: the controllers usually contain only routing and rendering code and dispatch instantly to a particular operation/activity class.
  4. Jan 2021
    1. The bedrock upon which the American political system is built is the rule of law.

      Here's another theme that emerges in the document repeatedly. Watch over the next ten pages or so as it goes from natural rights and law-over-ruler to obedience.

    1. If it's behaviour that you can imagine needing to reuse among multiple components, or if it's something that you can imagine applying to an element inside an {#if ...} block (for example), then it probably belongs in an action. It it's something that 'belongs' to the component itself, rather than a specific element, then it's probably more of a lifecycle thing.
  5. Nov 2020
    1. Note: Yes, it is sentence case, and yes, there should be a full stop if it was true sentence case — but for the love of all things good and designy, please don’t add a full stop.
    1. In the case of email, it can be argued that the widespread use of the unhyphenated spelling has made this compound noun an exception to the rule. It might also be said that closed (unhyphenated) spelling is simply the direction English is evolving, but good luck arguing that “tshirt” is a good way to write “t-shirt.”
    1. To detect foreign DNA in 5 ml of lake water, 15 ml of lake water must be screened.

      Why is this multiplied by 3? Related to statistical error of subsampling - rule of three)

  6. Oct 2020
    1. A simple rule of thumb: the name of the updated variable must appear on the left hand side of the assignment. For example this... const foo = obj.foo; foo.bar = 'baz';...won't update references to obj.foo.bar, unless you follow it up with obj = obj.
    1. However, know when to be inconsistent -- sometimes style guide recommendations just aren't applicable.
    2. When applying the guideline would make the code less readable, even for someone who is used to reading code that follows this PEP.
    1. Could I get your intuition for why that rule of thumb applies to svelte components but not Javascript functions? I tend to make heavy use of let x = e when writing normal Javascript, as I do in most other languages (though unlambda is a notable exception). How is svelte different?
    1. Generally, you should read the value of a store by subscribing to it and using the value as it changes over time. Occasionally, you may need to retrieve the value of a store to which you're not subscribed. get allows you to do so.
    1. If a part of the content deserves its own heading, and that heading would be listed in a theoretical or actual table of contents, it should be placed in a <section>. The key exception is where the content may be syndicated; in this case, use <article> element instead.
  7. Sep 2020
    1. The value of dotAll is a Boolean and true if the "s" flag was used; otherwise, false. The "s" flag indicates that the dot special character (".") should additionally match the following line terminator ("newline") characters in a string, which it would not match otherwise: U+000A LINE FEED (LF) ("\n") U+000D CARRIAGE RETURN (CR) ("\r") U+2028 LINE SEPARATOR U+2029 PARAGRAPH SEPARATOR This effectively means the dot will match any character on the Unicode Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP). To allow it to match astral characters, the "u" (unicode) flag should be used. Using both flags in conjunction allows the dot to match any Unicode character, without exceptions.
    1. Web developers are well aware of the mess you can get into with global CSS, and the action of writing <Child class="foo"/> and <div class={_class}>` (or similar) in the child component is an explicit indication that, while taking advantage of all the greatness of style encapsulation by default, in this case you have decided that you want a very specific and controlled "leak", of one class, from one component instance to one component instance.
  8. Aug 2020
    1. The trick is to work at 85% capacity rather than 100%. It can be surprisingly challenging to take your effort down a notch and keep it there — especially right now when so many livelihoods feel precarious. But going full-throttle all the time actually works against you. When your mind is relaxed, you’re able to produce better, more thoughtful results.

      Rather than working 100% of the time most of the time, work 85%. This decreases stress and helps you last longer

    1. As a web designer, I hate that "log in" creates a visual space between the words. If you line up "Log In Register" - is that three links or two? This creates a Gestalt problem, meaning you have to really fiddle with spacing to get the word groupings right, without using pipe characters.

      Sure, you can try to solve that problem by using a one-word alternative for any multi-word phrase, but that's not always possible: there isn't always a single word that can be used for every possible phrase you may have.

      Adjusting the letter-spacing and margin between items in your list isn't that hard and would be better in the long run since it gives you a scalable, general solution.

      "Log in" is the only correct way to spell the verb, and the only way to be consistent with 1000s of other phrasal verbs that are spelled with a space in them.

      We don't need nor want an exception to the general rule just for "login" just because so many people have made that mistake.

    1. I will have to look at code to be sure but the rule that */* trumps all is applied only when the request is not an ajax request. So if you are making ajax request then you should be good.
  9. Jul 2020
    1. Lastly, in order for a statement to be defamatory, it must be unprivileged. You cannot sue for defamation in certain instances when a statement is considered privileged. For example, when a witness testifies at trial and makes a statement that is both false and injurious, the witness will be immune to a lawsuit for defamation because the act of testifying at trial is privileged.
    1. If you have worked with emails before, the idea of placing a script into an email may set off alarm bells in your head! Rest assured, email providers who support AMP emails enforce fierce security checks that only allow vetted AMP scripts to run in their clients. This enables dynamic and interactive features to run directly in the recipients mailboxes with no security vulnerabilities! Read more about the required markup for AMP Emails here.
  10. Jun 2020
  11. May 2020
    1. Explicit Form (where the purpose of the sign-up mechanism is unequivocal). So for example, in a scenario where your site has a pop-up window that invites users to sign up to your newsletter using a clear phrase such as: “Subscribe to our newsletter for access to discount vouchers and product updates!“, the affirmative action that the user performs by typing in their email address would be considered valid consent.
  12. Apr 2020
  13. Feb 2020
    1. But, let’s be pragmatic for a second, the 80/20 rule states that you get 80% of the value from 20% of the work and a couple of simple tests are vastly better than no tests at all. Start small and simple, make sure you get something out of the testing first, then expand the test suite and add more complexity until you feel that you’ve reached the point where more effort spent on realism will not give enough return on your invested time.
  14. Jan 2020
    1. Most copyright experts recommend this rule of thumb -- when in doubt, assume a work is copyrighted and ask permission to use it.

      expert advice.

  15. Nov 2019
    1. we present an overview of our current understanding of these rules for the genetic manipulation of prokaryotic microbes and the available genetic tools to expand our ability to genetically engineer nonmodel systems
  16. Aug 2019
    1. Although such encapsulation is desirable for application-level components like FeedStory or Comment, it can be inconvenient for highly reusable “leaf” components like FancyButton or MyTextInput. These components tend to be used throughout the application in a similar manner as a regular DOM button and input, and accessing their DOM nodes may be unavoidable for managing focus, selection, or animations.
  17. Jul 2019
    1. Implication means co-occurrence, not causality!
    2. Given a set of transactions, find rules that will predict the occurrence of an item based on the occurrences of other itemsin the transaction
  18. Oct 2018
  19. Sep 2018
  20. Jun 2018
    1. officer appointed or designated under Rule 28

      What are the rules?

    2. Copies of the Transcript or Recording. Unless the parties agree or the court orders otherwise, the officer must retain the record of a deposition according to the applicable records retention and disposition schedules adopted by the Supreme Court. Upon payment of a reasonable charge, the officer must provide a copy of the transcript or recording to any party or to the deponent.
    3. and any party may inspect and copy them
    4. Review by the Deponent; Changes.(1) Review; Statement of Changes. If requested by the deponent or a party before the deposition is completed, the deponent must be allowed 30 days after being notified by the officer that the transcript or recording is available in which:(A) to review the transcript or recording; and(B) if there are changes in form or substance, to sign and deliver to the officer a statement listing the changes and the reasons for making them.(2) Officer's Certificate to Attach Changes. The officer must note in the certificate prescribed by Rule 30(f)(1) whether a review was requested and, if so, must attach any changes the deponent made during the 30-day period.
    5. Objections. The officer must note on the record any objection made during the deposition--whether to evidence, to a party's, deponent's, or counsel's conduct, to the officer's qualifications, to the manner of taking the deposition, or to any other aspect of the deposition
    6. Certification and Delivery. The officer must certify in writing that the deponent was duly sworn by the officer and that the deposition accurately records the deponent's testimony. The certificate must accompany the record of the deposition. Unless the court orders otherwise, the officer must seal the deposition in an envelope or package bearing the title of the action and marked “Deposition of [witness's name]” and must promptly deliver it to the attorney who arranged for the transcript or recording. The attorney must store it under conditions that will protect it against loss, destruction, tampering, or deterioration.
  21. Feb 2018
  22. Nov 2017
    1. BBSRC's policy on data management

      A link would be useful here, ideally to a persistent version of the policy.

    2. Keywords

      These keywords should be linked to persistent identifiers (rule number 5).

    3. machine learning

      method

    4. Laurent Gatto

      Researcher - author

    5. University of Cambridge

      University ID

    6. Gene Ontology Annotation database

      Repository service

    7. Swiss-Prot

      Repository service

    8. PRoteomics IDEntifications (PRIDE)

      Repository

    9. ProteomeXchange

      Repository

    10. MSnbase

      Standard

    11. (BB/N023129/1)

      Grant number - use of this can link actions back to requirements and support monitoring / compliance checks

    12. open access

      access mode

    13. Bioconductor

      software repository / service

    14. BBSRC

      Research funder - link to funder ID

    1. This is the indirect pursuit of the golden rule that focuses on ideally good means to ideally good ends. “Love the good with your whole mind, your whole heart and your whole strength,” then you will love your neighbor as yourself, and also treat her as you’d wish to be treated by her. The differential diagnosis here identifies devotion that leads to embodiment as the cause of golden rule effect. And this devotion need not include any following or practicing rules of thumb like the golden rule, purposely fulfilling duties, or practicing those conventional activities associated with being morally upright. It can be as spiritual and abstract an activity as concentrated rational intuition ever-intent on an imagined Platonic form of good, which presumably would direct one’s perception of every reflection of the Form, in every ethical matter one dealt with in life.
    2. A behavioral route can be taken instead to these simulations, side-stepping direct reference to the rule. In some ways it is more revealing of our simulation. Here we engage in repetitive behaviors that conform to a reciprocity convention that conforms to the rule. We do not act out of adherence to the rule, but only out or imitation of its applications or illustrations. This again was the Aristotelian approach to learning virtues and also the Confucian approach for starting out. In Japan, this sort of approach extended from the Samurai tea ceremony to the Suzuki method of learning the violin (See Gardner 1993). Such programming is akin to behavioral shaping in behaviorist psychology though it rests primarily on principles of competence motivation, not positive and negative reinforcement. Social psychology has discovered that the single best way to create or change inner attitudes and motivations is to act as if one already possessed them. Over time, through the psychology of cognitive dissonance reduction, aided by an apparent consistency process in the brain, the mind supplies the motivation needed (Festinger 1957, Van Veen, and others, 2009).  These processes contradict common opinion on how motivations are developed, or at least it does so long as our resolve does. Unless one keeps the behavior going, by whatever means, our psychology will extinguish the behavior for its lack of a motivational correlate. Here, as elsewhere, the golden rule can act as a conceptual test of whether the group reciprocity conventions of a society are ethically up to snuff. As a means to more morally direct simulation, those interested in the golden rule can try alternative psychological regimens—role-taking is one, empathy might be another. And these can be combined. Those who assume that exemplars must have taken these routes in their socialization may prefer such practices to conventional repetition. However, each is discretionary and but one practical means to it. Each has pros and cons: some routes serve certain personality types or learning styles, others not so well.  In certain cultures, mentoring, mimicking and emulating exemplars will be the way to go.
    3. The golden rule displays one algorithm for programming exemplary fair behavior, which can be habituated by repetition and even raised to an art by practice. Virtue ethics (habits) and deliberation ethics (normative ethics) fall here. What we are simulating are side-effects of a moral condition. We are trying to be good, by imitating symptoms of being good.
    4. The fourth way, is more a simulation than a “way.” It is not a form of embodiment at all, and therefore does not generate golden rule effect as a spontaneous offshoot. We learn to act, in some respects, as a master or exemplar would, but without embodying the character being expressed, or being truly self-expressive in our actions. What we call ethics as a whole—the ethics of duties, fulfilling obligations, adhering to responsibilities, and respecting rights can be seen as this sort of partial simulation. We develop moral habits, of course, some of which link together in patterns and proclivities. And we can  “engage” these. But we would not continue to carry around a sense of ethical assembly instructions or recipes needing sometimes to refer to them directly—if we were ethics, if we embodied ethics. We don’t retain rules and instructions when we are friends or parents. (Those who read parenting books are either looking for improvements or fearing that they aren’t true parents yet.)
    5. Getting some perspective, the second and third avenues or “ways of embodiment” above are analogous to the two main schools of Zen Buddhism—Rinzai and Soto. In the first, one experiences satori or enlightened awakening in a sudden flash. It is not known how, even a non-devotee may be blessed by this occurrence. One smiles, or laughs as a result, at the contrast in consciousness, then goes back to one’s daily life with no self-awareness of the whole new sense of reality and living it creates. Those around cannot help but notice the whole new range of behaviors that come out, filled with the compassion of a bodhisattva. To the master, it is daily life and interaction: “I eat when I am hungry, I sleep when I am tired.” The third way is that of gradual enlightenment. One meditates for its own sake, with no special aim in mind—no awaited lightning strike from the blue. “Over time, as one constantly “polishes one’s mirror,” Zen consciousness continually grows until normal consciousness and ego fade out, akin to the Hindu version of enlightenment or moksha. Compassion grows beside it, imperceptibly, until one is bodhisattva. To the recipient, Zen-mind seems ordinary mind.
    6. the secular spiritual transformation that comes from single-mindedness. When someone’s striving for a cherished goal becomes a life-mission, be it mastering a musical instrument or fine art, or putting heart and soul into building a business, or putting a public policy in place (a new drunk-driving ban or universal health care) they often come to embody their goal. “He is his company.” “She has become her music” (“and she writes the songs”).  Certainly in religion this is what is meant by terming someone holy or a living saint. This is also the secular goal of Confucian practice, to make li (behavioral ritual) yi (character). One accomplishes this transformation by complete and intense concentration of thoughts and behavior, and by “letting go” of one’s self-awareness or ego in the task. The work takes over and one becomes “possessed” by it, either in an uplifting way, or as in the need for exorcism, rehab, or at least “intervention” by friends and family. When morality sets the goal and means here, we term their culmination “moral exemplarism.”
  23. Oct 2017
    1. Unlike every other ethic, agape provides no basis for according ourselves special first-person discretion or privacy.  The self-other gap is transcended. It’s not even clear how the typical moral division of labor is justified in agapeistic terms. In principle, when we raise our spoon filled with breakfast cereal at the morning table, the matter of whose mouth it goes into is in question
    2. for those who use its ethic to rise above good and evil in a mundane sense, the golden rule is a wisdom principle. It marks the transcendence of interested and egoistic perspectives. It points toward its sibling of loving thy neighbor as thyself because thy neighbor is us in some deeper sense, accessible by deeper, less egoistic love
  24. Jan 2017
    1. If the rule is relaxed to embrace pattern alone, as explicitly advocated by Rensch and Mayr, exceptions can still be found both intra- and interspecifically. Within species, Rensch (1938) reported that 10–30% of the warm-blooded species examined by him were exceptions to Bergmann's rule. Ray (1960) reviewed the literature on body size variation in relation to climate for poikilotherms, and concluded that the rule was supported by 75% of species studied. Nevertheless, these percentages (see also James, 1970; Yom-Tov & Nix, 1986) support Mayr's (1956) contention that the rule would be proved if upheld by the majority of species, although his subsequent definition of a majority as more than 50%(Mayr, 1963) is rather generous in respect of a ‘rule’. Some studies, however, do find that the percentage of species in agreement with the intraspecific rule fails even this criterion (McNab, 1971).

      Historical evaluations of the validity of the intra-specific Bergman's Rule as a pattern.

    2. It is the definition of Bergmann's rule, and specifically the taxonomic level at which the rule is considered to act, that has done most to cloud the degree of generality of the effect it describes. Bergmann himself (quoted in James, 1970) stated that ‘(i)f we could find two species of [homeothermic] animals which would only differ from each other with respect to size, . . . (t)he geographical distribution of the two species would have to be determined by their size . . . if there are genera in which the species differ only in size, the smaller species would demand a warmer climate, to the exact extent of the size difference.’ Also: ‘(a)lthough it is not as clear as we would like, it is obvious that on the whole the larger species live farther north and the smaller ones farther south.’Bergmann's formulation was later altered by Rensch (1938), whose revised definition was that ‘within a Rassenkreis [complex of races] of warm-blooded animals the races living in colder climates are generally larger than the races living in warmer regions.’ Rensch considered that the new definition better fitted the rule as then understood, but was quite clear that the revision was his own (‘I myself reduced it to the geographical races of a species’; Rensch, 1938). It was this revision that subsequently became the accepted formulation of Bergmann's rule; later definitions included ‘Races of warm blooded vertebrates from cooler climates tend to be larger than races of the same species from warmer climates’(Mayr, 1956), and ‘The smaller-sized geographic races of a species are found in the warmer parts of the range, the larger-sized races in the cooler districts’(Ray, 1960; see also definitions in Gittleman, 1985; Goudie & Ankney, 1986; Paterson, 1990; McDowall, 1994; Steudel, Porter & Sher, 1994; Smith, Betancourt & Brown, 1995; Atkinson & Sibly, 1997).The notion that the application of Bergmann's rule at the intraspecific level is a derived state was emphasized by James (1970), who noted that it was a considerable modification of Bergmann's original message, although one that fitted well with knowledge of intraspecific body size variation. Quotations from Bergmann (1847; given in translation by James, 1970) imply that he considered the effect to be interspecific, but between closely related species. Whether he intended the example he gave of ‘species within a genus’ to be literal is unclear. Whichever, it is clear that his formulation was not intraspecific, as he thought it ‘paradoxical that the effects of the same rule in races of animals are not very apparent’(Bergmann, 1847, quoted in James, 1970). In this context, it is interesting that Mayr (1956; see also Rensch, 1938) noted that many of the species considered by Bergmann were, when Mayr was writing, afforded only sub-specific status! Nevertheless, since James's paper, Bergmann's rule has been examined at a variety of taxonomic levels, for example within species (Barnett, 1977; Ralls & Harvey, 1985; Yom-Tov & Nix, 1986; Geist, 1987; Graves, 1991; Smith et al., 1995, 1998; Van Voorhies, 1996, 1997; Mousseau, 1997; Partridge & Coyne, 1997), between species within genera (Gittleman, 1985; Taylor & Gotelli, 1994), between functionally related species (Geist, 1987; Cotgreave & Stockley, 1994), and between species within a range of higher taxa (Zeveloff & Boyce, 1988; Cushman et al., 1993; Barlow, 1994; McDowall, 1994; Hawkins, 1995; Hawkins & Lawton, 1995; Poulin, 1995; Poulin & Hamilton, 1995; Blackburn & Gaston, 1996a).

      Excellent history of the use of different taxonomic levels for Bergman's Rule.

  25. Feb 2016
    1. 44-45 Ingelfinger rule: won't publish articles that have been presented, discussed with reporters, or published in any form elsewhere--including data. Once a paper is under consideration and production, it can't be discussed with reporters.

      This clearly harms science in the interest of journals.

  26. Feb 2014
    1. The breakthrough patent that produces a Polaroid company is more the exception than the rule. The rule is the modestly successful novelist, the minor [*292] poet, and the university researcher -- all of whom may profit by licensing or selling their creations.

      Breakthrough patent of Polaroid (the exception) vs modestly successful novelist (the more common case)

    1. Rule of Law: In some cases this will be clearer than others, but basically you want to identify the principle of law on which the judge or justice is basing the resolution of the case. This is what you’ll often hear called “black letter law.”
    1. The cases on the subject are collected in a footnote to Somerset Bank v. Edmund, 10 Am. & Eng. Ann. Cas. 726; 76 Ohio St. Rep. 396, the head-note to which reads: "Public policy and sound morals alike forbid that a public officer should demand or receive for services performed by him in the discharge of official duty any other or further remuneration or reward than that prescribed or allowed by law." This rule of public policy has been relaxed only in those instances where the legislature for sufficient public reason has seen fit by statute to extend the stimulus of a reward to the public without distinction, as in the case of United States v. Matthews, 173 U.S. 381, where the attorney-general, under an act for "the detection and prosecution of crimes against the United States," made a public offer of reward sufficiently liberal and generic to comprehend the services of a federal deputy marshal. Exceptions of that character upon familiar principles serve to emphasize the correctness of the rule, as one based upon sound public policy.

      1) A public officer cannot demand or receive remuneration or a reward for carrying out the duty of his job as a matter of public policy and morality

      2) However, it is not against public policy for a police officer to receive a reward in performance of his legal duty if the legislature passes a statute giving the reward to the public at large in furtherance of some public policy - such as preventing treason against the US.

  27. Jan 2014
    1. An effective data management program would enable a user 20 years or longer in the future to discover , access , understand, and use particular data [ 3 ]. This primer summarizes the elements of a data management program that would satisfy this 20-year rule and are necessary to prevent data entropy .

      Who cares most about the 20-year rule? This is an ideal that appeals to some, but in practice even the most zealous adherents can't picture what this looks like in some concrete way-- except in the most traditional ways: physical paper journals in libraries are tangible examples of the 20-year rule.

      Until we have a digital equivalent for data I don't blame people looking for tenure or jobs for not caring about this ideal if we can't provide a clear picture of how to achieve this widely at an institutional level. For digital materials I think the picture people have in their minds is of tape backup. Maybe this is generational? New generations not exposed widely to cassette tapes, DVDs, and other physical media that "old people" remember, only then will it be possible to have a new ideal that people can see in their minds-eye.