177 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. A common good (CG) process begins with an initiator proposing the production of a common good. Then, during the predefined lifetime of the process, funders who care about this common good may pledge funds for its production, being reassured that their money will only be used retroactively, had the common good been eventually produced — no risk taken. Executors who wish to produce the common good may do so, being reassured that they will be compensated by the pledged funds had they been successful. And profit-seeking investors may buy a portion of the potential reward from executors (in the form of per-executor tokens that are made redeemable against the future reward had they been successful), and by that provide them with liquid funding for operation. Finally, if and when executors achieve the desired outcome, as decreed by a predefined judge, the pledged funds are released as a reward to the successful executors and the investors who bought their tokens. If no success has been reached after some predefined limit of time, the funds go back to the funders who provided them. Executors and investors only see profit, and funders only spend it, if and only when the common good is produced.

      A trustless conditional reward model for production of common goods.

    2. In the future envisioned here, decentralized networks play the role of governments, municipalities and intentional commons, fostering common goods. It is possible to produce common goods when a big-enough community cooperates to bear the cost of production and its implementation; but this, correspondingly, requires large-scale coordination, and large-scale coordination is generally a very hard problem. In this article we introduce Common Good, a blockchain-based application that solves this problem by enabling the coordination and motivation of different relevant actors for achieving a desired common good, by providing it with a “business model” just as in the profit-seeking sector. Our solution takes inspiration from the Social Impact Bonds (SIB) model.

      A proposal to use decentralized blockchain to make large scale coordination possible.

  2. Oct 2021
    1. The reality of the history of Canada’s mining industry makes #SquidGame look like child’s play.

      “The truth is that all of the gold that was mined out of the Klondike was under Indigenous land. There was no treaty with any of the Indigenous peoples in the Yukon.”

      “That land was stolen by the Canadian state and that gold was whisked away by private interests. The Federal Government only signed land claims with Indigenous peoples in the Yukon in the 1990s, but by that point, almost all the gold had been mined out of the ground.”

      “The Klondike gold rush was a rolling disaster that captured tens of thousands of people. When the first European explorers came to the Americas, they came here looking for gold. In the 1890s, that lust for precious metals eventually led men to the farthest reaches of this continent.”

      “Today, instead of 100,000 people descending on a small patch of land, you have large corporations digging treasures out of the ground. But the legacies these mining operations leave behind are just like what happened in the Klondike: workers with broken bodies, environmental destruction, the dispossession of Indigenous land, sexual violence. The gold rushes never stopped. They just morphed into something different.”

    1. When gold was discovered in the Yukon, 100,000 people desperately tried to make it to a small patch of land in one of the most remote environments on the continent. Few made it all the way. The Klondike Gold Rush was many things: a media conspiracy, a ponzi scheme, a land grab. But above all, it was a humanitarian disaster that stretched over much of the Pacific Northwest.

      “The truth is that all of the gold that was mined out of the Klondike was under Indigenous land. There was no treaty with any of the Indigenous peoples in the Yukon.”

      “That land was stolen by the Canadian state and that gold was whisked away by private interests. The Federal Government only signed land claims with Indigenous peoples in the Yukon in the 1990s, but by that point, almost all the gold had been mined out of the ground.”

      “The Klondike gold rush was a rolling disaster that captured tens of thousands of people. When the first European explorers came to the Americas, they came here looking for gold. In the 1890s, that lust for precious metals eventually led men to the farthest reaches of this continent.”

      “Today, instead of 100,000 people descending on a small patch of land, you have large corporations digging treasures out of the ground. But the legacies these mining operations leave behind are just like what happened in the Klondike: workers with broken bodies, environmental destruction, the dispossession of Indigenous land, sexual violence. The gold rushes never stopped. They just morphed into something different.”

      Canada is Fake

      “Canada is not an accident or a work in progress or a thought experiment. I mean that Canada is a scam — a pyramid scheme, a ruse, a heist. Canada is a front. And it’s a front for a massive network of resource extraction companies, oil barons, and mining magnates.”

  3. Sep 2021
    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qYsMtroVLeA

      Buzzwords for understanding the new internet

      Importance of words (neologisms) for helping us to communicate.

      retweets as a means of bringing new faces into your stream to expand your in-group.

      <small><cite class='h-cite via'> <span class='p-author h-card'>Kevin Marks </span> in Epeus' epigone: Publics, Flow, Phatic, Tummeling and Out-groups - New Words You Need to Know to Understand the Web (<time class='dt-published'>09/06/2021 15:15:38</time>)</cite></small>

  4. Aug 2021
    1. Creative Commons

      “Creative Commons es una organización que permite a la gente publicar sus obras creativas bajo una licencia que permite más flexibilidad que el <<todos los derechos reservados>> que viene por defecto en las leyes sobre derecho de autor". (Merritt, 2005)

    2. We start with a historical perspective, keeping in mind that history itself is a common even when it reveals the ways in which we have been divided, if it is narrated through a multiplicity of voices. History is our collective memory, our extended body connecting us to a vast world of struggles that give meaning and power to our political practice.

      Estoy de acuerdo con el compromiso que tiene un autor por compartir la información de sus contenidos en beneficio de una comunidad que se puede educar con base a las necesidades de su receptor, demostrando que, sin la necesidad de condicionar económicamente a los involucrados, se puede transformar favorablemente la organización social de las reproducciones.

    3. So far Maine lobster fishers have been considered a harmless exception confirming the neoliberal rule that a commons can survive only in special and limited circumstances. Viewed through the lens of class struggle, however, the Maine lobster common has elements of an anti-capitalist common in that it involves workers' control of some of the important decisions concerning the work process and its outcomes. This experience then constitutes an invaluable training, providing examples of how large-scale commons can operate. At the same time, the fate of the lobster commons is still determined by the international seafood market in which they are embedded. If the US market collapses or the state allows off-shore oil drilling in the Gulf of Maine, they will be dissolved. The Maine lobster commons, then, cannot be a model for us.

      Mientras que Caffentzis y Federici plantean Creative Commons “anticapitalistas”, el teórico investigador belga, especializado en la tecnología, cultura e innovación en los negocios Michel Bauwens afirma que “la propiedad entre iguales es una forma postcapitalista porque no es excluyente y crea un patrimonio común con costes marginales de reproducción” (Sonvilla, 2012, p. 28), dando a entender que el intercambio individual de la expresión creativa determina el nivel en que se comparte y, en cambio, se puede optar por una ‘General Public License’ (Licencia Pública General), la cual exige que todo aporte que genere un cambio en lo común, también pertenece a todos. Referencia

    4. What do we mean by ‘anti-capitalist commons’?How can we create, out of the commons that our struggles bring into existence, a new mode of production not built on the exploitation of labour?How do we prevent commons from being co-opted and becoming platforms on which a sinking capitalist class can reconstruct its fortunes?

      El artículo escrito por George Caffentzis, profesor de filosofía y escritor sobre el pensamiento social y político, y Silvia Federici, activista feminista, maestra y escritora; manifiesta como la información en la era digital elabora una base de datos sobre la propiedad intelectual, influyendo en los factores económicos, sociales y culturales de los internautas. Con esto, los modos de producción informática se vuelven masivos y generan dependencias lucrativas por adquirir una experiencia de aprendizaje mientras se genera un intercambio comunitario, el cual incrementa los intereses capitalistas y la desigualdad comercial de la reproducción de contenidos.

  5. Jun 2021
    1. reflecting on the year after george floyd for me is that the different responses that we all have right are valid and true and authentic and they create

      reflecting on the year after george floyd for me is that the different responses that we all have right are valid and true and authentic and they create possibilities when they're read in you know its full context um but some of what is happening or some of what the role of the the classroom or the the person is to do is to try to say this is the range of the acceptable response and i feel like as a teacher our role is to kind of say you get to choose how you want to show up but base it in something that's real that's authentic that's not just about you this but it's about the collective so how do we cultivate that connection to collectivity how do we cultivate that ethical uh commitment and conviction to one another but at the end of the day how do we allow young people and everyone really the agency um to decide how they want to like show up—Christopher R. Rogers (autogenerated transcript)

      This is a powerful teaching philosophy. Return to reflect on this.

    1. Hard disagree - they weren't nobodies, Naspers was already a media juggernaut by 2001 (print and TV).

      ultra sad imminent spiritual demise of #StackOverflow incoming. one of the world's most treasured, vital common resources. i hope there are scrapes.

  6. May 2021
    1. “Monetising what we see as sacred knowledge, our way of being – driving, walking – is sacred knowledge and the only people who should have any purview over that is our community. … What if we look at what the data could do for our community and how to achieve that? … We are gathering our data because we love our people, we want a better future for the next generations. What if all data was gathered for those reasons? What would it look like?”

      A great quote and framing from Abigail Echo-Hawk.

      This reliance on going to community elders (primarily because they have more knowledge and wisdom) is similar to designing for the commons and working backward. Elders in many indigenous cultures represent the the commons.

      This isn't to say that we shouldn't continue to innovate and explore the evolutionary space for better answers, but going slow and fixing things is far more likely to be helpful than moving fast and breaking things as has been the mode for the last fifteen years. Who's watching the long horizon in these scenarios?

      This quote and set up deserves some additional thought into the ideas and power structures described by Lynne Kelly in Knowledge and Power in Prehistoric Societies Orality, Memory and the Transmission of Culture

    2. I worked on a recent project to sketch out for a centre-right German think-tank how a European data commons might work. I tried to steer it away from property rights and towards what you’d get if you started with the commons and then worked back to what data could be harnessed, and to which collective purposes. This is eminently do-able, and pushes you towards two distinct areas; groups of people who are served poorly or not at all by current data regimes, and existing cooperatives, unions and mutual societies who could collect and process their members’ data to improve collective bargaining, or licence access to it to generate revenue and boost affiliate membership. Viewing personal data as a collective asset points towards all sorts of currently under-provided public goods (I briefly describe several, on p. 74 here – yes, oddly enough, this stuff got shoved into an annex).

      Apparently lots of reading to catch up on here.

      I definitely like the idea of starting with the commons and working backwards, not only with respect to data, but with respect to most natural resources. This should be the primary goal of governments and the goal should be to prevent private individuals and corporations from privatizing profits and socializing the losses.

      Think of an individual organism in analogy to a country or even personkind. What do we call a group of cells that grows without check and consumes all the resources? (A cancer). The organism needs each cell and group of cells to work together for the common good. We can't have a group of cis-gender white men aggregating all the power and resources for themselves at the cost of the rest otherwise they're just a cancer on humanity.

    3. I particularly enjoyed the California water commons, with its quiet nod to Elinor Ostrom’s original post-graduate research on emergent cooperation between county water-boards.

      A quiet nod here in it's own right. Now I want to dig into Elinor Ostrom's research and work.

    1. banning DDT also seemed ludicrous until it wasn’t.

      And even with the ban, we can find dumped barrels nearly 60 years later which become problematic: https://www.nytimes.com/2021/04/28/us/ddt-barrels-california.html

    2. There’s many examples around the world of communities banding together to collectively govern a shared resource, like forestry, grazing grounds, and wells.

      If we all take action to do these things collectively, then it isn't a "tax" on any individual or corporation.

    1. If instead of commenting, you write a response on your blog, you are standing behind your words, and associating them with the rest of your writing. The social dynamics are very different; you think more before responding instead of posting a quick flame. You can't really spam, as you are only soiling your own garden.
  7. Apr 2021
    1. Rajiv reminded us that: “Openness can be leveraged for justice, but it can also do harm. Closed practices can also do harm, but there are times when closed is the empowered choice. Choice is key. We must serve justice, rather than merely being open.”
    2. Rajiv cited an example highlighted by tara robertson of an instance where openness raised troubling ethical issues.  When the lesbian porn magazine On Our Backs was digitised and released under CC BY licence, women who had modelled for the magazine felt that work they had created for their own community had been appropriated for uses they had never intended and did not consent to. 

      It can be important when opening content up, especially at higher corporate levels, to take into account future uses of material that might not have been forseen when they were created. This may be especially important with the use of algorithms.

    1. We are are continuing our commitment to creating our games that are free and widely accessible anyone that is curious by making our game files available under Creative Commons license BY–NC–SA 4.0. That means we will continue offering a full, free print-and-play kit for Pax Pamir, and later this campaign, John Company! Anyone can use, remix, and share the game, so long as they do not use it for commercial purposes. 
  8. Mar 2021
    1. There's a reasonably good overview of some ideas about fixing the harms social media is doing to democracy here and it's well framed by history.

      Much of it appears to be a synopsis from the perspective of one who's only managed to attend Pariser and Stround's recent Civic Signals/New_Public Festival.

      There could have been some touches of other research in the social space including those in the Activity Streams and IndieWeb spaces to provide some alternate viewpoints.

    1. I decided I'd make my content available with a CC BY-NC-SA (Attribution, Non-commercial, Share Alike) license, so that people could freely use and adapt my stuff, but would need to cite me as its source, make their content that was based on my work available for free, and slap a similar license on it. This is important, I think, to prevent the materials that educators make and contribute freely to the community STAY FREE. Without these stipulations (NC and SA), it would be possible for a commercial textbook company, for example, to grab the content I've created and add it to their "walled garden" of content which is technically free, but requires an expensive subscription to GET TO. This is a subversion of the Open idea which a lot of commercial publishers have tried, to reduce their cost of content and make themselves seem hip and up to date. The community calls it Openwashing.

      A good description of openwashing. I've seen some examples of the practice in the wild, but should make a note to document some.

    2. Creative Commons certification course

      Creative Commons Certificate

      The Certificate is an in-depth course about CC licenses, open practices and the ethos of the Commons. The course is composed of readings, quizzes, discussions, and practical exercises to develop learners’ open skills. We provide personalized engagement with expert facilitators and copyright lawyers in the field, and offer a 1:25 (max) ratio of facilitators to course participants.

  9. Feb 2021
    1. Emerald

      https://www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com/products/open-research-emerald/our-open-research-policies

      Emerald already has progressive green open access / self archiving policies which allow immediate open access for the authors accepted manuscript (AAM) under a creative commons attribution non-commercial license (CC BY-NC). This demonstrates that Emerald cannot agree with much of the statement they are signing. Note, Plan S ask for CC BY or CC BY-ND is permissible under Plan S by exception. The funders' request for a more permissive CC BY license is all I can identify as a potential problem, but there are no specific concerns raised in the statement.

    2. However, we are unable to support one route to compliance offered by Plan S,

      The publishers below will not support the Plan S rights retention strategy (RRS). In its simplest form the RRS re-asserts the authors' rights as the rights holder to assign a copyright license of their choice (CC BY informed by their funding agency) to all versions of their research/intellectual output. In the case of the RRS states that the author should apply a CC BY license to their accepted manuscript (AAM) if they cannot afford to pay article processing charges or choose not to apply a CC BY license to the Version of Record (VoR), which they are free to do. Therefore, this statement is either saying the undersigned will not carry publications forward to publication (most appropriate approach), or they will not support the same copyright laws which fundamentally protects their rights and revenue after a copyright transfer agreement is signed by the rightsholder.

      Academy of Dental Materials

      Acoustical Society of America

      AIP Publishing

      American Academy of Ophthalmology

      American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

      American Chemical Society

      American Gastroenterological Association American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

      American Medical Association

      American Physical Society

      American Society for Investigative Pathology

      American Society for Radiation Oncology

      American Society of Civil Engineers

      American Society of Hematology

      American Society of Clinical Oncology

      American Association of Physicists in Medicine

      American Association of Physics Teachers

      AVS – The Society for Science and Technology of Materials, Interfaces, and Processing

      Brill

      British Journal of Anaesthesia

      Budrich Academic Press

      Cambridge Media

      Cambridge University Press

      Canadian Cardiovascular Society

      De Gruyter

      Duncker & Humblot

      Elsevier

      Emerald

      Erich Schmidt Verlag

      French Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

      Frommann-Holzboog Verlag

      Future Science Group 

      Hogrefe

      International Association for Gondwana Research

      IOP Publishing

      Journal of Nursing Regulation

      Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy (JOSPT).

      Julius Klinkhardt KG

      La Découverte

      Laser Institute America

      Materials Research Forum LLC

      The Optical Society (OSA)

      Pearson Benelux

      SAGE Publishing

      Society of Rheology

      Springer Nature

      Taylor & Francis Group

      The Geological Society of America

      Thieme Group

      Uitgeverij Verloren

      Verlag Barbara Budrich

      Vittorio Klostermann

      wbv Media

      Wiley

      Wolters Kluwer

  10. Jan 2021
    1. Scale, inevitably leads to power-law distributed outcomes, leading to the inevitable concentration of talent and resources among a few investigators pursuing a few lines of inquiry, and their pale second-rate imitators. Through this mechanism science at scale reinforces (and in fact, under sufficient political capture imposes) consensus, further annihilating the possibility of the necessary revolutionary synthesis of ideas.

      The solution to any sort of global leaderboard thing - like Mendeley most read or most cited - is to break it up into local communities - most read among your friends or most cited within only the outer leaves of the topic tree.

    2. Communities break down with scale, losing the vitality they had when small and ultimately becoming an undifferentiated mass with an enormous diffusion of focus, to the point that any given group of sufficient scale is not really differentiable from any other.

      Going local, again. Need a solution for scaling the commons.

    1. Ostrom also specified that commons came with boundaries. A commoning process, to include some, had to exclude others. What is needed, who needs it, and how to claim it are hotly contested political questions in our moment—particularly in the midst of a global pandemic. Who will ensure that the answers to these questions are found fairly?

      tragedy of the commons prevention?

  11. Nov 2020
    1. And because we know many different types of audiences—including those we don’t know about!—will be interested in our work, we encourage you to freely republish our work under the terms of our Creative Commons license. 

      Cool to see a journalistic enterprise publishing under a Creative Commons license.

      Also sort of fun to see a tiny bit of a Kicks Condor design ethic baked into their website. Naturally it's a tad bit more buttoned up, but that's to be expected I suppose.

  12. Oct 2020
    1. Meanwhile, politicians from the two major political parties have been hammering these companies, albeit for completely different reasons. Some have been complaining about how these platforms have potentially allowed for foreign interference in our elections.3 3. A Conversation with Mark Warner: Russia, Facebook and the Trump Campaign, Radio IQ|WVTF Music (Apr. 6, 2018), https://www.wvtf.org/post/conversation-mark-warner-russia-facebook-and-trump-campaign#stream/0 (statement of Sen. Mark Warner (D-Va.): “I first called out Facebook and some of the social media platforms in December of 2016. For the first six months, the companies just kind of blew off these allegations, but these proved to be true; that Russia used their social media platforms with fake accounts to spread false information, they paid for political advertising on their platforms. Facebook says those tactics are no longer allowed—that they've kicked this firm off their site, but I think they've got a lot of explaining to do.”). Others have complained about how they’ve been used to spread disinformation and propaganda.4 4. Nicholas Confessore & Matthew Rosenberg, Facebook Fallout Ruptures Democrats’ Longtime Alliance with Silicon Valley, N.Y. Times (Nov. 17, 2018), https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/17/technology/facebook-democrats-congress.html (referencing statement by Sen. Jon Tester (D-Mont.): “Mr. Tester, the departing chief of the Senate Democrats’ campaign arm, looked at social media companies like Facebook and saw propaganda platforms that could cost his party the 2018 elections, according to two congressional aides. If Russian agents mounted a disinformation campaign like the one that had just helped elect Mr. Trump, he told Mr. Schumer, ‘we will lose every seat.’”). Some have charged that the platforms are just too powerful.5 5. Julia Carrie Wong, #Breaking Up Big Tech: Elizabeth Warren Says Facebook Just Proved Her Point, The Guardian (Mar. 11, 2019), https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/mar/11/elizabeth-warren-facebook-ads-break-up-big-tech (statement of Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D-Mass.)) (“Curious why I think FB has too much power? Let's start with their ability to shut down a debate over whether FB has too much power. Thanks for restoring my posts. But I want a social media marketplace that isn't dominated by a single censor. #BreakUpBigTech.”). Others have called attention to inappropriate account and content takedowns,6 6. Jessica Guynn, Ted Cruz Threatens to Regulate Facebook, Google and Twitter Over Charges of Anti-Conservative Bias, USA Today (Apr. 10, 2019), https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2019/04/10/ted-cruz-threatens-regulate-facebook-twitter-over-alleged-bias/3423095002/ (statement of Sen. Ted Cruz (R-Tex.)) (“What makes the threat of political censorship so problematic is the lack of transparency, the invisibility, the ability for a handful of giant tech companies to decide if a particular speaker is disfavored.”). while some have argued that the attempts to moderate discriminate against certain political viewpoints.

      Most of these problems can all fall under the subheading of the problems that result when social media platforms algorithmically push or accelerate content on their platforms. An individual with an extreme view can publish a piece of vile or disruptive content and because it's inflammatory the silos promote it which provides even more eyeballs and the acceleration becomes a positive feedback loop. As a result the social silo benefits from engagement for advertising purposes, but the community and the commons are irreparably harmed.

      If this one piece were removed, then the commons would be much healthier, fringe ideas and abuse that are abhorrent to most would be removed, and the broader democratic views of the "masses" (good or bad) would prevail. Without the algorithmic push of fringe ideas, that sort of content would be marginalized in the same way we want our inane content like this morning's coffee or today's lunch marginalized.

      To analogize it, we've provided social media machine guns to the most vile and fringe members of our society and the social platforms are helping them drag the rest of us down.

      If all ideas and content were provided the same linear, non-promotion we would all be much better off, and we wouldn't have the need for as much human curation.

    1. Capitalists and market-thinkers inevitably seek to enclose the commons, privatizing benefits and externalizing costs onto society.
    1. Put another way, many tools for thought are public goods. They often cost a lot to develop initially, but it’s easy for others to duplicate and improve on them, free riding on the initial investment. While such duplication and improvement is good for our society as a whole, it’s bad for the companies that make that initial investment. And so such tools for thought suffer the fate of many public goods: our society collectively underinvests in them, relative to the benefits they provide
  13. Sep 2020
    1. Lawrence Lessig, Hal Abelson, and Eric Eldred received funding to establish a new non-profit called Creative Commons

      CC Creative Commons

  14. Aug 2020
    1. Additional Resources

      I suggest an additional section titled tools. These tools really helped me in gaining a better understanding of structuring attributions etc.

      The Attribution Builder is really helpful when there is uncertainty as to how to proceed with citing sources, especially as citing CC Licenses seems different from scholarly practices.

      1. Open Attribution Builder, by WA SBCTC, [n.d.]. The Open Attribution Builder is licensed under CC BY 4.0.
      2. CC “Select your License” tool logic - Beta version, by Wyblib40, 2020. Licensed under CC BY 4.0. (Please note that this workflow logic diagram I created myself in order to get a feel for the new License Chooser tool (2020)

      CC “Select your License” tool logic - Beta version

    1. More information about CC and open licensing

      Add: "Creative Commons: A Basic Presentation" by Catherine Zoerb, 2017, licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike license. This presentation allows one easy to understand the basics of, and application of Creative Commons, without legal jargon, allowing for good introduction in overview format.

    2. More information about CC and open licensing

      Additional Resource: I would like to recommend adding Uploading Godzone https://www.tohatoha.org.nz/2018/11/uploading-godzone/

      A non-North American view of how community members view and use CC licenses to contribute to the Commons.

    3. Elinor Ostrom’s 8 Principles for Managing a Commons by On the Commons

      I found this article to be a succinct description of the 8 key principles for managing The Commons. It made me curious to explore more about the range of research that Elinor Ostrom undertook about the Commons. (June 2020 cohort CC Cert)

  15. Jun 2020
    1. More information about the Commons

      Additional Resource: I would like to recommend adding State of the Commons https://stateof.creativecommons.org/

      I found it really helpful to have visualisations, and to also spend time digging into the data, playing with different tools and exploring links for the Global Network chapters.

  16. May 2020
    1. The goal of the W3C Semantic Web Education and Outreach group's Linking Open Data community project is to extend the Web with a data commons by publishing various open datasets as RDF on the Web and by setting RDF links between data items from different data sources.
  17. Apr 2020
    1. To read all of the license deeds, or legal codes, visit this site and explore the different licenses. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/

      An excellent resource directly from the Creative Commons site describing the rationale of use, "three-layer" design, license types, and their specific permissions/restrictions. This is a go-to resource before and after completing this course. There is no better documentation for this topic on the internet.

  18. Mar 2020
    1. Do Creative Commons licenses affect exceptions and limitations to copyright, such as fair dealing and fair use?

      This question is such a common one. I don't think most people understand that Creative Commons doesn't replace copyright. At my institution most people seem to think that it's either one or the other and if it is licensed under creative commons, that it is always free to use with no copyright restrictions. This does a nice job of clarifying that.

  19. Feb 2020
    1. In 1968, Garrett Hardin, a biologist, published an article about social dilemmas in the journal Science, called ‘The Tragedy of the Commons’.
  20. Dec 2019
  21. Nov 2019
  22. Aug 2019
    1. Wikipedia is a good example of a commons-based community around CC-licensed content.

      Another resource: https://www.forbes.com/sites/investopedia/2013/01/22/5-nobel-prize-winning-economic-theories-you-should-know-about/#1762e36e458e

      "In 2009, Indiana University political science professor Elinor Ostrom became the first woman to win the (Nobel) prize. She received it "for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons." Ostrom's research showed how groups work together to manage common resources such as water supplies, fish and lobster stocks, and pastures through collective property rights. She showed that ecologist Garrett Hardin's prevailing theory of the "tragedy of the commons" is not the only possible outcome, or even the most likely outcome, when people share a common resource...." "Learn more about Ostrom's prize-winning research in her 1990 book, "Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action," and in her 1999 Science Journal article, "Revisiting the Commons: Local Lessons, Global Challenges."..."

  23. Jul 2019
    1. e-purpose.

      Creative Commons covers 4 areas of practice: -re-use: right to verbatim reuse content

      • revise: right to change/ modify the content -remix: right to combine original or revised with new content -redistribute: right to make and share copies of content

      great for expanding, exploring, sharing and remixing content in the educational world.

  24. Jun 2019
    1. The value of organic imports during Jan.-Aug. was up 25 percent compared to the same period in 2016, the trade data showed, while the value of organic exports during the first eight months was up 14 percent. Last year, the U.S. organic products trade deficit hit nearly $1.2 billion, its highest level ever, with U.S. organic imports reaching $1.7 billion, while U.S. organic exports came in at $547.6 million. Check out the Top 10 U.S. organic imported and exported commodities for 2016.
    1. , demand for organic food is growing so fast that consumer demand is outstripping some domestic supplies. Once a net exporter of organic products, the United States now spends more than $1 billion a year to import organic food, according to the USDA, and the ratio of imported to exported products is now about 8-to-1.
    1. what are the institutional features that made it possible to launch such a project?

      It's hard to understand even in the audio, but the question was basically about incentives. How did you manage to build this and make it work? His answer is basically that they had everybody together under one roof initially, which kinda points away from decentralization and towards a knowledge commons in the Ostrom sense - one with barriers and sanctions for participants which break rules.

  25. May 2019
    1. Filippo Argenti

      Filippo is based on a Black Guelph, Charles of Valoi, Dante’s political enemy. Charles of Valoi entered Florence with the other Black Guelphs and destroyed much of the city within a few days. The harsh treatment that Filippo sufferers in The Inferno is payback for an earlier offense that the real life Charles of Valoi had done. In The Inferno Filippo’s violent temper is highlighted in the story as a man who had crossed Dante.

    2. Phlegyas

      Phlegyas is the son of Mars (god of war) who became outraged after the god Apollo raped his daughter. Out of rage, he set fire to the temple of Apollo. Phlegyas is in The Inferno because Virgil uses him to represent the sins of wrathful and sullen. In The Inferno, Phlegyas is responsible for Dante and Virgil across the Styx in his boat.

  26. Mar 2019
  27. Feb 2019
  28. Jan 2019
  29. Dec 2018
    1. New rules always create confusion but that is not a strong argument against them. The legal complexities of CC reflect the complexity of copyright. That the CC licenses are being used suggests that they are useful. The question is how? Claiming they are not useful is unlikely to be correct. Perhaps the usefulness is social not individual, so people are using them to do good. I take no position on this.

      This opinion/ editorial and the resulting dialogue adds some dimension to some of the pro and con arguments for adapting Creative Commons practices.

    1. Why, when we are so worried about preserving freedoms, do we prohibit choice on the part of downstream users as to how they can license derivatives works they make? Why don’t we want to protect that user’s freedom to choose how to license his derivative work, into which he put substantial effort? The copyleft approach of both the Free Software Foundation and Creative Commons makes creators of derivative works second-class citizens. And these are the people we claim to be primarily interested in empowering. I can’t stress this point enough: the ShareAlike clause of the CC licenses and the CopyLeft tack of the GFDL rob derivers of the basic freedom to choose which license they will apply to their derived work. ShareAlike and CopyLeft privilege creators while directing derivers to the back of the bus.

      I think that license compatibility is one of the least user friendly areas in the Creative Commons process. Opening resources while being attributed sounds appealing to educators who are dipping their toes in these concepts. Then we pull out Compatibility Charts and people want to run for the hills! I think that the democracy and openness that Creative Commons embodies should be inclusive and I think it's hard for people to decipher these equations which are so crucial to responsible use.

    1. Today, I had the privilege of speaking on a panel at the Comparative and International Education Society’s Annual Conference with representatives of two open education projects that depend on Creative Commons licenses to do their work. One is the OER publisher Siyavula, based in Cape Town, South Africa. Among other things, they publish textbooks for use in primary and secondary school in math and science. After high school students in the country protested about the conditions of their education – singling out textbook prices as a barrier to their learning – the South African government relied on the Creative Commons license used by Siyavula to print and distribute 10 million Siyavula textbooks to school children, some of whom had never had their own textbook before. The other are the related teacher education projects, TESSA, and TESS-India, which use the Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike license on teacher training materials. Created first in English, the projects and their teachers rely on the reuse rights granted by the Creative Commons license to translate and localize these training materials to make them authentic for teachers in the linguistically and culturally diverse settings of sub-Saharan Africa and India. (Both projects are linked to and supported by the Open University in the UK, http://www.open.ac.uk/, which uses Creative Commons-licensed materials as well.) If one wakes up hoping to feel that one’s work in the world is useful, then an experience like this makes it a good day.

      I think contextualizing Creative Commons material as a component in global justice and thinking of fair distribution of resources and knowledge as an antidote to imperialism is a provocative concept.This blog, infojusticeorg offers perspectives on social justice and Creative Commons by many authors.

    1. User rights Every CC licence allows you to: Copy the work (eg. download, upload, photocopy and scan the work); Distribute the work (eg. provide copies of the work to teachers, students, parents and the community); Display or perform the work (eg. play a sound recording or film in class, or stage a play to parents); Communicate the work (eg. make the work available online on the school intranet, learning management system or on a class blog); and Format shift verbatim copies of the work (eg copy a MP3 version of music onto a CD or an MP4 version of a film onto a DVD to play in class). Source: Adapted from 'Baseline Rights'  http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Baseline_Rights   Some CC licences also let you make other uses, however these are the base user rights provided for all CC material. User obligations When you use any CC material, you must: always attribute the creator of the work (for information on how to attribute a work, see information guide, ‘How to Attribute Creative Commons Material’); get permission from the creator to do anything that goes beyond the terms of the licence (e.g. making a commercial use of the work or creating a derivative work where the licence does not permit this); keep any copyright notice attached to the work intact on all copies of the work; indicate and link to the licence from any copies of the work; and where you make changes to the work, acknowledge the original work and indicate that changes have been made (eg by stating ‘This is a French translation of the original work, X’).   In addition, when you use any CC material, you must not:  alter the terms of the licence; use the work in any way that is prejudicial to the reputation of the creator of the work; imply that the creator is endorsing or sponsoring you or your work; or add any technologies (such as digital rights management) to the work that restrict other people from using it under the terms of the licence. Source:  Adapted from 'Baseline Rights'  http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Baseline_Rights 

      This clear description of the rights conferred by every Creative Commons license and the limitations written into every Creative Commons license provides a clear overview for educators who may be new to Creative Commons licenses. This guide was developed for Australian educators specifically.

    1. That said, for a thoughtful survey of how the commons, cultural and otherwise, might thrive inside of, or along with, with current conditions I recommend Peter Barnes’s book, Capitalism 3.0: A Guide to Reclaiming the Commons. One of Barnes’s points is that our debates about the future often imagine only two actors: the government and private business. Barnes suggests a third set, common property trusts (as, for example, the kind of land trusts devised by the Nature Conservancy). There is much to say about common property trusts but for now the point is simply that we already have a mix of cultural modes and should continue to have them going forward with, I hope, the commons recognized and strengthened.

      One of the areas I find challenging in addressing Creative Commons culture is how Creative Commons relates to capitalistic culture (or rejects it). Creative Commons can be compatible with open market, but it can also challenge some of the fundamental tenants of it. Throughout the units, as I tried to imagine applications of Creative Commons, or making licensing decisions as a creative and academic, I found that I had questions about artists and how they can earn a living in this model, and how this model supported and challenged my role as a librarian in academe.

  30. Nov 2018
    1. The author has made an online version of this work available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License. It can be accessed through the author’s website at http://www.twitterandteargas.com.

      A great example of academic samizdat on Zeynep Tufekci's part.

      The free creative commons version is available in the footer link at https://www.twitterandteargas.org/

  31. Oct 2018
  32. cloud.degrowth.net cloud.degrowth.net
    1. To document this confluence, and in which way we are building this knowledge—not only logical, but emotional and relational. Putting much more the tools of knowledge building.
    1. Um die Frage, ob es sich bei den dominanten Technikfirmen, die auf eine feudale Art und Weise die Infrastrukturen unseres Lebens bestimmen, nicht um öffentliche Güter handelt. Sind die sozialen Netzwerke nicht genauso ein Gemeingut?
    2. Leider herrscht in der politischen Linken – polemisch zugespitzt – so etwas wie ein technischer Analphabetismus. Da heißt es dann oft, Technik sei etwas, das uns entfremdet. Das ist ein sehr, sehr bürgerlicher Gedanke.
  33. Aug 2018
    1. 3 Steps for Licensing Your 3d Printed Stuff by Michael Weinberg. CC BY-SA 3.0 A set of instructions for how to license 3d printed materials https://www.publicknowledge.org/assets/uploads/documents/3_Steps_for_Licensing_Your_3D_Printed_Stuff.pdf

      Relevant content in the unit: Unit 3.2, Acquiring Essential Knowledge, What types of content can be CC-licensed, suggested additional content (related to both paragraphs in current content).

      While the primary purpose of this paper is about 3-D printing, this resource is a great overview of copyright law related to electronic files, whether they be photographs or the files for a 3-D printing project.

      This is an especially good resource for those interested in specific examples of the delineation of the functional, non-copyrightable aspect of a work and the artistic expression, copyrightable aspects of a work.

    2. What happens if I offer my material under a Creative Commons license and someone misuses them? https://creativecommons.org/faq/#what-happens-if-i-offer-my-material-under-a-creative-commons-license-and-someone-misuses-them

      I'm not sure this FAQ response actually addresses the question.

      Most of the questions I get from faculty and OER advocates who work with faculty are fear-based about their reputation. I get questions like (put more bluntly than I usually get, these are the ultimate questions after a lot of back and forth):

      What if someone takes the history content I wrote and manipulates it a political position I don’t agree with? Won’t that reflect poorly on me?

      What if someone takes my math book and modifies it and makes mistakes? Won’t that reflect poorly on me if someone finds the modified version with mistakes and my name is attached to it?

      I think things like the above examples are what people are mostly asking when they ask about "misuse."

    1. I am not, and will never be, a simple writer. I have sought to convict, accuse, comfort, and plead with my readers. I’m leaving the majority of my flaws online: Go for it, you can find them if you want. It’s a choice I made long ago.
  34. Jul 2018
    1. I also think as educators we should own what we make, or at least have it released to the Commons. Copyright on teacher created materials in the public school makes little sense. Nobody wants to steal your stuff and no municipality will ever profit on sales. Give it an open license.
    1. http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ01.pdf

      I prefer sources that are short and to the point, with links allowing me to explore various topics if  I need to.  This piece goes over all of the basics of creating and maintaining a copyright license. While that is not the objective, typically, of someone taking a Creative Commons course, it helps to see this information from a pro-copyright perspective to understand all sides of the issue.

      It's also a primary source, meaning that the department issuing the copyrights in the United States also wrote this piece, which means it should be as accurate as possible.

    1. The Commons Short and Sweet

      This resource is very helpful in explaining, in simple and short word paragraphs (short and sweet, it is), the full context of the commons:

      "The commons is not a resource. It is a resource plus a defined community and the protocols, values and norms devised by the community to manage its resources. Many resources urgently need to be managed as commons, such as the atmosphere, oceans, genetic knowledge and biodiversity."

      Emphasizing the social norms and community accountability aspects of the commons are key to truly understanding the commons, it's role in society, and how it can be sustained. 

  35. May 2018
    1. he commons and enclosure are archaic, unfamiliar terms. But this strangeness is appropriate
  36. Apr 2018
    1. For creative professionals, however, particularly those burdened by economic hardship, the risks associated with transitioning to a non-proprietary business model can feel (rightly or wrongly) prohibitive.

      Opposition from these groups killed the Eldred Act. Failure of what became Eldred v. Ashcroft gave rise both to the attempt to have this act passed and to the formation of Creative Commons.

    1. This page

      This page is the main page through which the other pages are accessed, and to which they redirect when finished. Some pages have directions to the PubMed Commons pages that in 2013 began facilitating the annotation of articles in the bioscience literature. Sadly, this was stopped in 2018, but comments can be retrieved through the Hypothesis site as detailed on my Laboratory Page.

  37. Nov 2017
    1. Arguingthatthedebate(orbattle)overcopyrightinthe1990swasbeingincreasinglypolarizedinto‘allrightsreserved’versus‘norightsreserved’extremes,LessigandhiscolleaguesfoundedtheCreativeCommonsconventionin2002toenabledigitalcreatorstomaintaincertainrightsfortheirintellectuallabourwhileprovidingitsdisseminationandcirculation.[75]Whileithasitscritics(whoarguethatitreproducestheflawsofcopyrightlaws),CreativeCommonsisaningeniousconventionthatruptures(resignifiesradically)acopyrightconventionandprovidesvariousactionsbywhichacreatorisabletospecifyrightsthatshewantstoretain

      [...] But the real interest in this convention, whether it is Bitcoin or any other digital currency, is what, once again, it demonstrates: that in the digital commons there is an inexhaustible ingenuity, and people are willing to contribute to its expansion and maintenance as a public domain.

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  38. Oct 2017
    1. Influencing unfolding realities may be less about electing different leaders and policies than about learning how to change ourselves

      Change centered in the individual/human rather than the social/political. Wondering if this is too tethered by the USA's very unfortunate tendency to recast all wider social movements as self-improvement (eg, Buddhism, environmentalism > self-health, etc).

    2. The commons has also provided a language and ethic for thinking and acting like a commoner—collaborative, socially minded, embedded in nature, concerned with stewardship and long-term, respectful of the pluriverse that makes up our planet.

      Thinking like a commoner.

    3. the commons is at once a paradigm, a discourse, a set of social practices, and an ethic

      defining the commons as paradigm, discourse, practices and ethic

    1. Principle 3. If publicly accessible repositories for data have been agreed on by a community of researchers and are in general use, the relevant data should be deposited in one of the repositories by the time of publication.

      Map to the Repositories principle for the Scholarly Commons

  39. Sep 2017
  40. Jul 2017
    1. BMI

      Test if this shows up in another list.

    2. Finally found its BMI distribution... turns out to be in demographic category. So most samples from this study have BMI > 24. Good for us.

    1. Partial loss-of-func- tion alleles cause the preferential loss of ventral structures and the expansion of remaining lateral and dorsal struc- tures (Figure 1 c) (Anderson and Niisslein-Volhard, 1988). These loss-of-function mutations in spz produce the same phenotypes as maternal effect mutations in the 10 other genes of the dorsal group.

      This paper has been curated by Flybase.

    1. Obesity rs8043757 intron FTO 16 : 53,779,538 5.000 x 10-110 NHGRI 23563607

      The top match SNP with key words: Obesity, T2D and CVD is on gene FTO.

    1. Obesity was highly prevalent among the study sample; 64.6% of females and 41.2% of males were obese according to Polynesian cutoffs (BMI ≥ 32 kg/m2). Females were less likely than males to have hypertension (31.7% vs. 36.7%) but equally likely to have diabetes (17.8% vs. 16.4%).

      Those with obesity but not hypertension or diabetes can be our candidates.

      The data set can be found here: dbGaP Study Accession: phs000972.v2.p1 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/gap/cgi-bin/study.cgi?study_id=phs000972.v2.p1