11 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2023
    1. Foreign companies selling into the U.S. are subject to sales tax regimes to the extent there is nexus with the state, which can be established, among other ways, through a physical contact with the state (payroll, property, agents, and inventory held under the Fulfillment by Amazon arrangement) or substantial sales exceeding economic thresholds enacted in light of the Wayfair decision.
  2. Mar 2023
    1. Title: Unintended Consequences: Unknowable and Unavoidable, or Knowable and Unforgivable?

      Abstract - Paraphrase - there are multiple environmental limits within which humanity can safely operate, - potential negative outcomes of seemingly positive actions need to accounted for. - “nexus” research is consistent with the above - it recognizes the integrated and interactive nature of water, energy and food systems, - and aims to understand the broader implications of developments in any one of these systems. - This article presents a novel framework for categorizing such detrimental unintended consequences, based upon: - how much is known about the system in question - and the scope for avoiding any such unintended consequences. - The framework comprises four categories: - Knowable and Avoidable - Knowable and Unavoidable - Unknowable and Avoidable - Unknowable and Unavoidable - The categories are explored with reference to examples in both: - the water-energy-food nexus and - planetary boundary frameworks. - The examples: - highlight the potential for the unexpected to happen and - explore dynamic nature of the situations that give rise to the unexpected. - The article concludes with guidance on how the framework can be used - to increase confidence that best efforts have been made to navigate our way toward - secure and sustainable water, energy and food systems, - avoiding and/or managing unintended consequences along the way.

      // - This paper is principally about - progress traps, - how they emerge, - their characteristics - as they morph through the knowability / avoidability matrix - and how we might predict and mitigate them in the future

  3. Feb 2023
    1. Water-Food-Energy Nexus in Global Cities: Addressing Complex Urban Interdependencies
      • Title = Water-Food-Energy Nexus i
      • n Global Cities:
      • Addressing Complex Urban Interdependencies

      • Abstract

        • Understanding how water, food, and energy interact in the form of the water-food-energy (WFE) nexus is essential for sustainable development which advocates enhancing human well-being and poverty reduction.

        • The application of the WFE nexus has seen diverse approaches to its implementation in cities across the globe.

        • There is a need to share knowledge in order to improve urban information exchange which focuses on the WFE nexus’ application and impacts on the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals.
        • In this study,
          • Natural Language Processing (NLP) and
          • Affinity Propagation Algorithm (APA)
        • are employed to explore and assess the application of the WFE nexus:
          • first on a regional basis
          • second on the city level
        • The results show that after the exhaustive search of a database containing:
          • 32,736 case studies focusing on
          • 2,233 cities,
        • African and Latin American cities:
        • have the most potential to encounter resource shortages (i.e., WFE limitation)
          • are systematically underrepresented in literature
          • Southern hemisphere cities can benefit from knowledge transfer because of their limited urban intelligence programmes.
        • Hence, with regional and topic bias,
        • there is a potential for more mutual learning links
        • between cities that can increase WFE nexus policy exchange
        • between the Northern and Southern hemispheres
        • through the bottom-up case-study knowledge.
  4. Aug 2022
  5. Jul 2022
  6. bafybeiapea6l2v2aio6hvjs6vywy6nuhiicvmljt43jtjvu3me2v3ghgmi.ipfs.dweb.link bafybeiapea6l2v2aio6hvjs6vywy6nuhiicvmljt43jtjvu3me2v3ghgmi.ipfs.dweb.link
    1. Our analysis suggests that it is possible toachieve many of the global biodiversity targetsand sustainability goals related to food, energy,climate, and water at local and global scales.The complexity of the challenges calls for anintegrative (nexus) approach (89) that simulta-neously examines interactions among multiplesectors along with synergies and tradeoffsamong goals. An example of a key nexus arethe simultaneous needs to mitigate climatechange, arrest biodiversity loss, and ensurethat all people have adequate nutrition onone hand, and the potentially negative con-sequences of large-scale land-based climatechange mitigation on the other. Even moder-ate warming will likely be detrimental forbiodiversity (90) and associated benefits topeople (91). However, most scenarios projectedto limit warming to 1.5°C or 2°C by the end ofthe 21st century rely on large-scale mitigationmeasures on land, in the form of bioenergycrops, reforestation, and/or afforestation, neg-atively affecting biodiversity and also foodproduction and water demand (19, 92). At thesame time, expanding the amount of landdevoted to agriculture to ensure that all peoplehave adequate nutrition would negatively af-fect biodiversity as well (93) and would furtherexacerbate climate change (19, 92). Both land-based climate change mitigation and agricul-tural expansion, when deployed at the largescale, can undermine local livelihoods, createaccess problems, and intensify social conflict(94). A suite of possible actions could be ef-fective in navigating these tradeoffs (19, 95)—for example, focusing on regeneration andrestoration of high-carbon ecosystems (aswell as reducing waste and overconsump-tion) rather than massive bioenergy mono-culture plantations—to achieve climate changemitigation (19, 96, 97).

      An integrated nexus approach is recommended, examining interactions between multiple sectors.

      MuSIASEM approach is a good candidate for this: https://magic-nexus.eu/tags/musiasem

  7. Jun 2022
    1. (a) What are the key levers and leverage points in social systems that might drive transformative change towards sustainability? (b) How are these derived from and perceived within and across academic literatures and in practice? (c) How might the levers and leverage points work together?

      Key questions are asked and the nexus approach of looking at the entire gestalt, consisting of many moving parts and their feedbacks is critical for avoiding and mitigating unintended consequences, also known as progress traps.

      Bringing this to a global public space to create engagement is critical to create a groundswell. The public must understand that leverage points offer us our greatest hope. Once they understand them, everyone can help to identify and participate in leverage points.

      Collectively mapping them and their many feedbacks in a global, open source map - an open knowledge commons (OKC) or open wisdom commons (OWC) for system change will drive global participation.

    2. pathways examined here addressed a nexus with six foci of analysis, which were chosen to represent important nature-related challenges to sustainable development and to reflect the underlying bodies of literature (e.g. food production is split between the land and the oceans). These six were considered separately while attending to interdependencies: ● Feeding humanity without deteriorating nature on land; ● Meeting climate goals while maintaining nature and nature's contributions to people; ● Conserving and restoring nature on land while contributing positively to human well-being; ● Maintaining freshwater for nature and humanity; ● Balancing food provision from oceans and coasts with nature protection; and ● Resourcing growing cities while maintaining the nature that underpins them.

      six focus areas of nexus analysis

    3. nexus analysis

      trans-disciplinary approach.

    4. hese levers and leverage points emerged from consideration of six linked focal issues, including producing food, protecting biodiversity (both on land and in the water), maintaining freshwater supplies and mitigating climate change, all while providing for our growing cities (Aguiar et al., in review; Chan et al., 2019). It thus draws upon a comprehensive ‘nexus’ analysis

      Nexus approach used.

  8. Jul 2020