1,239 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2019
    1. The Cramps

      From Wikipedia:

      The Cramps were an American punk rock band formed in 1976 and active until 2009. The band split after the death of lead singer Lux Interior. Their line-up rotated frequently during their existence, with the husband-and-wife duo of Interior and lead guitarist and occasional bass guitarist Poison Ivy comprising the only ever-present members. The addition of guitarist Bryan Gregory and drummer Pam Balam resulted in the first complete lineup in April 1976.

      They were part of the early CBGB punk rock movement that had emerged in New York. The Cramps were one of the first punk bands, and also widely recognized as one of the prime innovators of psychobilly.

    2. Jesus and Mary Chain

      From Wikipedia:

      The Jesus and Mary Chain are a Scottish alternative rock band formed in East Kilbride in 1983. The band revolves around the songwriting partnership of brothers Jim and William Reid. After signing to independent label Creation Records, they released their first single "Upside Down" in 1984. Their debut album Psychocandy was released to critical acclaim in 1985 on major label WEA. The band went on to release five more studio albums before disbanding in 1999. They reunited in 2007.

  2. Apr 2019
    1. Being a teenager is hard; there are constant social and emotional pressures that have just been introduced into the life of a middle or high schooler, which combines with puberty to create a ticking time bomb. By looking at the constant exposure to unreasonable expectations smartphones and social media create, we can see that smartphones are leading to an increased level of depression and anxiety in teenagers, an important issue because we need to find a safe way to use smartphones for the furture generations that are growing up with them. Social media is a large part of a majority of young adults life, whether it includes Instagram, Facebook, Snapchat, Twitter, or some combination of these platforms, most kids have some sort of presence online. Sites like Facebook and Instagram provide friends with a snapshot of an event that happened in your life, and people tend to share the positive events online, but this creates a dangerous impact on the person scrolling.​ When teens spend hours scrolling through excluisvely happy posts, it creates an unrealistic expectation for how real life should be. Without context, teenagers often feel as if their own life is not measuring up to all of their happy friends, but real-life will never measure up to the perfect ones expressed online. Picture Picture Furthermore, social media sites create a way for teenagers to seek external validation from likes and comments, but when the reactions online are not perceived as enough it dramatically alters a young adults self-confidence. This leads to the issue of cyberbullying. There are no restrictions on what you can say online, sometimes even annonimously, so often people choose to send negative messages online. Bullying is not a new concept, but with online bullying, there is little to no escape as a smartphone can be with a teenager everywhere, and wherever the smartphone goes the bullying follows.This makes cyberbullying a very effective way to decrease a youth's mental health, in fact, cyberbullying triples the risk of suicide in adolescents, which is already the third leading cause of death for this age group.

    2. ​Technology is in constant motion. If we try to ignore the advances being made the world will move forward without us. Instead of trying to escape change, there needs to be an effort to incorporate technology into every aspect of our lives in the most beneficial way possible. If we look at the ways technology can improve our lives, we can see that technology specifically smartphones, have brought more benefits than harm to the academic and social aspects of teenagers lives, which is important because there is a constant pressure to move away from smart devices from older generations. The first aspect people tend to focus on is the effect that technology has on the academic life of a teen. Smartphones and other smart devices are a crucial part of interactive learning in a classroom and can be used as a tool in increasing student interest in a topic. For example, a popular interactive website, Kahoot, is used in many classrooms because it forces students to participate in the online quiz, while teachers can gauge how their students are doing in the class. Furthermore, these interactive tools are crucial for students that thrive under visual learning, since they can directly interact with the material. This can be extended to students with learning disabilities, such as Down Syndrome and Autism,​ research has shown that using specialized and interactive apps on a smart device aids learning more effectively than technology free learning. Picture Picture Another fear regarding technology is the impact it has on the social lives of young adults, but the benefits technology has brought to socializing outweighs any possible consequences. The obvious advantage smartphones have brought to social lives is the ability to easily communicate with people; with social media, texting, and calling all in one portable box there is no longer a struggle to be in contact with family and friends even if they are not in your area. Social media can also be used for much more In recent years, social media has been a key platform in spreading platforms and movements for social change. Because social media websites lower the barrier for communicating to large groups of people, it has been much easier to spread ideas of change across states, countries, or the world. For example, after Hurricane Sandy tore apart the northeastern United States, a movement called "Occupy Sandy" in which people gathered to provide relief for the areas affected was promoted and organized through social media. Other movements that have been possible because of social media include #MeToo, March for Our Lives, #BlackLivesMatter, and the 2017 Women's March. ​

    3. The music we listen to highly impacts our decision making, especially as adolescents. Adolescents are extremely impressionable, and the music they listen to has a great impact on how they decide to live their day to day lives. Popular musicians are seen as role models by the people who idolize them, and adolescents may try to represents the songs in which they favor through their actions every day.

      Recent studies have found that adolescents who listen to music that supports substance abuse and violence have a greater chance to act upon what they listen to. What young adults and teenagers listen to through music and popular media will affect their decision making process. Specifically with substance abuse, and there is a direct uptake in use of illegal substances by adolescents who listen to music that promotes such activities. This can cause a whole societal problem considering most of todays popular music among adolescents touches upon substance abuse and violence. Adolescents are extremely impressionable and the music they listen can shape how a person tries to act, or represent themselves.

    4. Our culture is defined by the music we listen to, and the way it is portrayed in the media. Every culture around the world has a different style of song or dance that represents their traditions. Culture can not only be changed through popular songs, but is best represented through music. One of the best ways to understand a foreign culture is by listening to the music that is favorable among the people whose culture you are trying to understand. Music is one of the most powerful forms of art between cultures.

      Music has the power to redefine cultures. We can see this through generational differences between song preferences. For example, American country music back in the late 1900s has a much different feel and style compared to country music now in 2019. While keeping within the same genre, this style of music touches upon different subjects, and uses different instruments, sounds and lyrics. Even early hip-hop has evolved from its beginnings. Hip-hop music is considered the most popular music as of right now, but it has not always been that way. Each generation favors different types of genres of music, and it is clear which backgrounds over the years have favored certain genres of music. As much as music can differentiate cultures, and generations, music can bring people of completely different background together by its artistic flavor and general popularity throughout the mainstream media.

    1. “But beyond the pleasure of Dreyer’s prose and authorial tone, I think there is something else at play with the popularity of his book,” he explained. “To put it as simply as possible, the man cares, and we need people who care right now.”

      I believe that the main reason why Benjamin Dreyer's Dreyer's English: an Utterly Correct Guide to Clarity and Style is so well-read, is that he's funny.

      The humor is dry as a paper board, for example:

      The NSA may be reading your emails and texts, but I’m not. If you prefer “Hi John” to “Hi, John,” you go right ahead.

      and:

      For the sake of clarity, we use hyphens to helpfully link up a pair or passel of words preceding and modifying a noun, as in: first-rate movie fifth-floor apartment middle-class morality nasty-looking restaurant all-you-can-eat buffet However, convention (a.k.a. tradition, a.k.a. consensus, a.k.a. it’s simply how it’s done, so don’t argue with it) allows for exceptions in some cases in which a misreading is unlikely, as in, say: real estate agent high school students And though you may, now that you’re staring at these constructions, wonder worryingly about the reality of that estate agent or the sobriety of those school students, I’d urge you to stop staring and move on. (Staring at words is always a bad idea. Stare at the word “the” for more than ten seconds and reality begins to recede.)

      Another thing, Dreyer is both funny and witty. Here's a bonus example of this:

      As a lexicographer friend once confided over sushi, the dictionary takes its cues from use: If writers don’t change things, the dictionary doesn’t change things. If you want your best-seller to be a bestseller, you have to help make that happen. If you want to play videogames rather than video games, go for it. I hope that makes you feel powerful. It should.

    1. As I listen to this album again and again I find myself reaching for roundly-voweled, softly consonanted words. Words like ‘home’. It’s welcoming, there’s comfort here. But it's full of feelings that are not uncomplicated. This is also Freud’s home, and ETA Hoffmann’s. It has secrets. The great warmth of these songs, their strange aching languor, is always tinged with a seam of anxiety. Listen to the uncertain syncopation between drums and high plucked bass strings at 03:40 in on the album opener, like a murmur tinged with regret, the careful bottling of a rising panic. Listen to the way Dougall’s uniquely bruised voice swells forward and almost catches against itself a minute into ‘Simple Things’, the tiny pause just after that feels like a cliff edge you just stepped over unawares. Here is both the little luxury you reach for to take the edge off things. It is also the edge itself.

      This is a beautiful way of writing about this album. Kudos to both The Quietus and Rose Elinor Dougall.

  3. Mar 2019
    1. At The Economist, we take data visualisation seriously. Every week we publish around 40 charts across print, the website and our apps. With every single one, we try our best to visualise the numbers accurately and in a way that best supports the story. But sometimes we get it wrong. We can do better in future if we learn from our mistakes — and other people may be able to learn from them, too.

      This is, factually and literally speaking, laudable in the extreme.

      Anybody can make mistakes; the best one can do is to admit that one does, and publicly learn from them - if one is a magazine. This is beauteously done.

    1. Ridesharing platforms canhave several economic benefits.7These platformsincrease the transportation options available to consumers and businessesand are therefore likely to significantly increase consumer welfare. Lyft andUbergivethe consumer multiple different types of rides to choose from.For example, riderscantypicallyrequest a normal car and ride from a partner driver, carpooling at a cheaper price,a ride in a large car,ora luxury car.8These ridesharing platforms may alsoencourage higher utilization of the existing vehicle stock. One study,performed in five cities, found that Uber drivers had higher capacity utilization rates than taxis, likely due to Uber’s more efficient ordering and pricing methods, its larger scale, as well as inefficiencies of taxi regulation (Cramer and Krueger, 2016).Some cities have allocateddedicated parking spots throughout the city to such ridesharing under the assumption that they may generate social benefits (Shaheen, 2010).

      Advantages for ride sharing platforms for the economy with case studies and primary research.

    1. 'You can always tell a person by their shopping,' was one of her mother's favourite maxims. She looked into her shopping basket: individual fruit pies, small salad cream, yoghurt, tomatoes, cat food and a chicken quarter.The cashier suddenly said, 'Make it out to J. Sainsbury PLC.' She was addressing a man who had been poised and waiting to write out a cheque for a few moments. His wife was loading what looked like a gross offish fingers into a cardboard box marked "Whiskas". It was called a division of labour.Jean looked again at her basket and began to feel the familiar feeling of regret that visited her from time to time. Hemmed in be­tween family-size cartons of cornflakes and giant packets of wash­ing-powder, her individual yoghurt seemed to say it all. She looked up towards a plastic bookstand which stood beside the till. A slim glossy hardback caught her eye. The words Cooking for One screamed out from the front cover. Think of all the oriental foods you can get into, her friend had said. He was so traditional after all. Nodding in agreement with her thoughts Jean found herself eye to eye with the blonde woman, who gave her a blank, hard look and handed her what looked like a black plastic ruler with the words "Next customer please" printed on it in bold letters. She turned back to her friend. Jean put the ruler down on the conveyor belt.
    1. John Mowitt’s remarkable book Percussion: Drumming, Beating, Striking

      think about this with finnegans wake - rythm and body

  4. Feb 2019
    1. student union group kind of took it over

      See the February 11, 2019 article in The Caravan about the Student Union (SU's) lunch presentation which preceded the AUC Board of Trustees (BoT) letter of support for the AUC president.

    2. the vote of no confidence

      See the February 10, 2019 article in The Caravan about the AUC University Senate's 80% vote of no confidence in the AUC president and his administration.

    1. This (‘it is really a little book in itself’) is an important statement in that it makes explicit how Joyce saw the double status of his works: on the one hand as preliminary sections of a work in progress; and, on the other hand, at times as autonomous books. In the particular case of Anna Livia Plurabelle, Joyce’s reading of the newest version of this piece around 17 November 1927 seems to have convinced him that the episode had now reached a form of completion.

      Joyce also saw each chapter as metonymous fort he greater novel—particularly as he reached completion of the ALP chapter

    2. ‘The extract in “Transition” No.8 is the ANNA LIVIA episode forming the end of Part I; it is really a little book in itself.’45

      Sylvia Beach says this

    3. Joyce sent her more emendations.

      Joyce's history of emendations to Beach, and her accomodation. Gives a metatestual reading of the feminine crossed with fluidity.

    4. The Fluid Text,

      So the fluid text is a principal invoked in the instability of every text as only a physical approximation of thought. Diverges from Genetic criticism because that is instead centralized around writing process, whereas fluidity addresses slippery meanings beyonf authorial intent/control.

    1. Writers who continue to support an outmoded concept of the lone writer dissociated from the various niche communities at their disposal will eventually lose touch with the nanosecond speed at which the movement-chemistry wanders and will find their own work and its individually-isolated movement decelerating into turtle-like oblivion
    2. Soon the Data Superhighway will finally once and for all do away with the high-priced middlemen, and artists will reap the benefits of their own hard-earned labor. The distribution formula will radically change from Author - Agent - Publisher - Printer - Distributor - Retailer - Consumer to a more simplified and direct Author (Sender) - Interactive Participant (Receiver)
    1. this

      I thought the point that the father made about why he put his son in the art of boxing to teach him about being a man at 7 years old. I mean i agree with the lady about him getting hurt in boxing at the age of 7 years old.

    1. great man

      lol. This guy really loves locke.

    2. the learned think they know, or have it in their power to know every thing that it is possible for the human mind to be acquainted with.

      I think we feel this way now with the internet. But its really just a certain kind of knowing and a certain kind of knowledge. It also depends on how you choose to approach that knowledge.

    3. docs the calf regard the bleating of the shee

      Well Mr. Sheridan, what would you say about a big crazy dogbear thing that screams like a woman?

      Seriously, Annihilation (the movie more than the book, but the book, too) is interested in the blending of species and how the human responds when the nice, neat categories of existence are muddied.

    1. hey've perhaps almost lost thm,c excellent Capacities which probably were afforded them by nature for the highest things.

      A sort of reverse tabula rasa. While this could be a sort of flourish, I don't read it as one.

      If we take her at her word, Astell is suggesting that those (rational) capacities which are originally inherit to humans, can, through disuse, gradually recede into nothing.

      I have lots of questions about how the hell it got there in the first place and how it goes away etc., but I suspect it has something to do with the imago Dei and the Fall.

    1. Shunning the law

      If only I had been so wise...

    2. t must be allowed, that there are certain qualities in objects, which arc fitted by nature to produce those particular feelings.

      The companion piece to the idea that beauty is in the mind of the observer (above): "Beauty is no quality in things themselves: It exists merely in the mind which contemplates them; and each mind perceives a different beauty" (832). Beauty has roots in the object that then evokes the feeling of beauty in the mind.

    3. pardons twenty absurdities and defects for one elevated or pathetic stroke.

      I feel like this is where I live -- thank you for noticing me Hume

    4. each mind perceives a differentbeauty.

  5. Jan 2019
    1. Seneca stresses the point: the practice of the self involves reading, for one could not draw everything from ones own stock or arm oneself by oneself with the principles of reason that are indispensable for self-conduct: guide or example, the help of others is necessary

      This made me think of David Bartholomae's piece, "Inventing the University." One cannot just know things and be able to write about them unless they are introduced to by some outside force. And, one cannot attempt to find new meaning unless you have prior meaning you can debunk or build upon. https://wac.colostate.edu/jbw/v5n1/bartholomae.pdf

    2. CORRESPONDENCE

      Throughout this section, Foucault characterizes correspondence as a way to reveal the self: "a certain way of manifesting oneself to oneself and to others," to "show oneself," "a decipherment of the self by the self as an opening one gives the other onto oneself."

      This sort of 'opening' is to make oneself vulnerable, to be seen by others. (cf. Marback's "A Meditation on Vulnerability in Rhetoric")

      This is characteristic particularly of writing that is intended for others (correspondence), but in what ways are other forms of writing equally--if not more--revealing of the self?

      (That also makes me question whether any writing is truly for the self and not intended in some way for others. Even diaries/journals are written with the possible eventuality that someone other than the writer will read it.)

    1. “There are only three places that have a ‘the’ in the front of their name: the Vatican, The Hague, and the Bronx.” —Mary Higgins Clark
    1. Some readers will also be surprised to find that The Bell Curve is not as controversial as its reputation would lead one to believe (and most of the book is not about race at all).

      I wrote this sentence. Two coauthors, three peer reviewers, and an editor all read it multiple times. No one ever asked for it to be changed.

    1. It is widely accepted that creative design is not a matter of first fixing the problem and then searching for a satisfactory solution concept; instead it seems more to be a matter of developing and refining together both the formulation of the problem and ideas for its solution
  6. Dec 2018
    1. my proceedings in my days

      The Egyptian Book of the Dead as it is most commonly called today was and is also known as the Book of Breathings or the Book of Coming Forth by Day. In this last title it is strongly implied that, besides being a funerary text the book should be understood and read as a type of dreaming journal too. This very aptly applies to what we are reading here with regards Lehi's writings of the "many things" which he saw in "visions and dreams" and which he "prophesied and spake" (breathings) unto his children.

      The combination of "learning of the Jews" with "language of the Egyptians" should be kept in mind throughout a reading of the BOM and will be especially plain at certain parts.

    1. Our under-standing of the gap is driven by technological exploration through artifact cre-ation and deployment, but HCI and CSCW systems need to have at their corea fundamental understanding of how people really work and live in groups, or-ganizations, communities, and other forms of collective life. Otherwise, wewill produce unusable systems, badly mechanizing and distorting collabora-tion and other social activity.

      The risk of CSCW not driving toward a more scientific pursuit of social theory, understanding, and ethnomethodology and instead simply building "cool toys"

    2. The gap is also CSCW’s unique contribution. CSCW exists intellectually atthe boundary and interaction of technology and social settings. Its unique intel-lectual importance is at the confluence of technology and the social, and its

      CSCW's potential to become a science of the artificial resides in the study of interactions between society and technology

    3. Nonetheless, several guiding questions are required based on thesocial–technical gap and its role in any CSCW science of the artificial:• When can a computational system successfully ignore the need fornuance and context?• When can a computational system augment human activity withcomputer technologies suitably to make up for the loss in nuance andcontext, as argued in the approximation section earlier?• Can these benefits be systematized so that we know when we are add-ing benefit rather than creating loss?• What types of future research will solve some of the gaps betweentechnical capabilities and what people expect in their full range of so-cial and collaborative activities?

      Questions to consider in moving CSCW toward a science of the artificial

    4. The final first-order approximation is the creation of technical architecturesthat do not invoke the social–technical gap; these architectures neither requireaction nor delegate it. Instead, these architectures provide supportive oraugmentative facilities, such as advice, to users.

      Support infrastructures provide a different type of approximation to augment the user experience.

    5. Another approximation incorporates new computational mechanisms tosubstitute adequately for social mechanisms or to provide for new social issues(Hollan & Stornetta, 1992).

      Approximate a social need with a technical cue. Example in Google Docs of anonymous user icons on page indicates presence but not identity.

    6. First-order approximations, to adopt a metaphor from fluid dynamics, aretractable solutions that partially solve specific problems with knowntrade-offs.

      Definition of first-order approximations.

      Ackerman argues that CSCW needs a set of approximations that drive the development of initial work-arounds for the socio-technical gaps.

      Essentially, how to satisfy some social requirements and then approximate the trade-offs. Doesn't consider the product a solution in full but something to iterate and improve

      This may have been new/radical thinking 20 years ago but seems to have been largely adopted by the CSCW community

    7. Similarly, an educational perspective would argue that programmers andusers should understand the fundamental nature of the social requirements.

      Ackerman argues that CS education should include understanding how to design/build for social needs but also to appreciate the social impacts of technology.

    8. CSCW’s science, however, must centralize the necessary gap between whatwe would prefer to construct and what we can construct. To do this as a practi-cal program of action requires several steps—palliatives to ameliorate the cur-rent social conditions, first-order approximations to explore the design space,and fundamental lines of inquiry to create the science. These steps should de-velop into a new science of the artificial. In any case, the steps are necessary tomove forward intellectually within CSCW, given the nature of the social–tech-nical gap.

      Ackerman sets up the steps necessary for CSCW to become a science of the artificial and to try to resolve the socio-technical gap:

      Palliatives to ameliorate social conditions

      Approximations to explore the design space

      Lines of scientific inquiry

    9. Ideological initiatives include those that prioritize the needs of the peopleusing the systems.

      Approaches to address social conditions and "block troublesome impacts":

      Stakeholder analysis

      Participatory design

      Scandinavian approach to info system design requires trade union involvement

    10. Simon’s (1969/1981) book does not address the inevitable gaps betweenthe desired outcome and the means of producing that outcome for anylarge-scale design process, but CSCW researchers see these gaps as unavoid-able. The social–technical gap should not have been ignored by Simon.Yet, CSCW is exactly the type of science Simon envisioned, and CSCW couldserve as a reconstruction and renewal of Simon’s viewpoint, suitably revised. Asmuch as was AI, CSCW is inherently a science of the artificial,

      How Ackerman sees CSCW as a science of the artificial:

      "CSCW is at once an engineering discipline attempting to construct suitable systems for groups, organizations, and other collectivities, and at the same time, CSCW is a social science attempting to understand the basis for that construction in the social world (or everyday experience)."

    11. At a simple level,CSCW’s intellectual context is framed by social constructionism andethnomethodology (e.g., Berger & Luckmann, 1966; Garfinkel, 1967), systemstheories (e.g., Hutchins, 1995a), and many large-scale system experiences (e.g.,American urban renewal, nuclear power, and Vietnam). All of these pointed tothe complexities underlying any social activity, even those felt to be straightfor-ward.

      Succinct description of CSCW as social constructionism, ethnomethodlogy, system theory and large-scale system implementation.

    12. Yet,The Sciences of the Artificialbecame an an-them call for artificial intelligence and computer science. In the book he ar-gued for a path between the idea for a new science (such as economics orartificial intelligence) and the construction of that new science (perhaps withsome backtracking in the creation process). This argument was both charac-teristically logical and psychologically appealing for the time.

      Simon defines "Sciences of the Artificial" as new sciences/disciplines that synthesize knowledge that is technically or socially constructed or "created and maintained through human design and agency" as opposed to the natural sciences

    13. The HCI and CSCW research communitiesneed to ask what one might do to ameliorate the effects of the gap and to fur-ther understand the gap. I believe an answer—and a future HCI challenge—is toreconceptualize CSCW as a science of the artificial. This echoes Simon (1981)but properly updates his work for CSCW’s time and intellectual task.2

      Ackerman describes "CSCW as a science of the artificial" as a potential approach to reduce the socio-technical gap

  7. Nov 2018
    1. One of the most striking features of the quantitative and qualitative data from first- and second-semester German students is that the students interact directly with each other, as opposed to interacting mainly with the teacher. The changed role of teacher and students

    1. Hospitalists need to continue to take C-suite positions at hospitals and policy roles at think tanks and governmental agencies. They need to continue to master technology, clinical care, and the ever-growing importance of where those two intersect. Most of all, the field can’t get lazy. Otherwise, the “better mousetrap” of HM might one day be replaced by the next group of physicians willing to work harder to implement their great idea. “If we continue to be the vanguard of innovation, the vanguard of making the system work better than it ever has before,” Dr. Wachter says, “the field that creates new models of care, that integrates technology in new ways, and that has this can-do attitude and optimism, then the sky is the limit.”
    2. At a time of once-in-a-generation reform to healthcare in this country, the leaders of HM can’t afford to rest on their laurels, says Dr. Goldman. Three years ago, he wrote a paper for the Journal of Hospital Medicine titled “An Intellectual Agenda for Hospitalists.” In short, Dr. Goldman would like to see hospitalists move more into advancing science themselves rather than implementing the scientific discoveries of others. He cautions anyone against taking that as criticism of the field. “If hospitalists are going to be the people who implement what other people have found, they run the risk of being the ones who make sure everybody gets perioperative beta-blockers even if they don’t really work,” he says. “If you want to take it to the illogical extreme, you could have people who were experts in how most efficiently to do bloodletting. “The future for hospitalists, if they’re going to get to the next level—I think they can and will—is that they have to be in the discovery zone as well as the implementation zone.” Dr. Wachter says it’s about staying ahead of the curve. For 20 years, the field has been on the cutting edge of how hospitals treat patients. To grow even more, it will be crucial to keep that focus.

      Hospitalists can learn these skills through residency and fellowship training. In addition, through mentorship models that create evergrowing

    3. And while hospitalists have already moved into post-acute-care settings, Dr. Bessler says that will become an even bigger focus in the next 20 years of the specialty. “It’s not generally been the psyche of the hospitalist in the past to feel accountable beyond the walls of the hospital,” he says. “But between episodic care [and] bundled payments … you can’t just wash your hands of it. You have to understand your next site-of-care decision. You need to make sure care happens at the right location.”
    4. Dr. Gandhi, who was finishing her second year of residency at Duke Medical Center in Raleigh, N.C., when the NEJM paper was published, sees the acuity of patients getting worse in the coming years as America rapidly ages. Baby boomers will start turning 80 in the next decade, and longer life spans translate to increasing medical problems that will often require hospitalization.
    5. So what now? For all the talk of SHM’s success, HM’s positive impacts, and the specialty’s rocket growth trajectory, the work isn’t done, industry leaders say. Hospitalists are not just working toward a more valuable delivery of care, they’re also increasingly viewed as leaders of projects all around the hospital because, well, they are always there, according to Dr. Gandhi. “Hospitalists really are a leader in the hospital around quality and safety issues because they are there on the wards all the time,” she says. “They really have an interest in being the physician champions around various initiatives, so [in my hospital tenures] I partnered with many of my hospitalist colleagues on ways to improve care, such as test-result management, medication reconciliation, and similar efforts. We often would establish multidisciplinary committees to work on things, and almost always there was a hospitalist who was chairing or co-chairing or participating very actively in that group.”
    6. “This has all been an economic move,” she says. “People sort of forget that, I think. It was discovered by some of the HMOs on the West Coast, and it was really not the HMOs, it was the medical groups that were taking risks—economic risks for their group of patients—that figured out if they sent … primary-care people to the hospital and they assigned them on a rotation of a week at a time, that they can bring down the LOS in the hospital. “That meant more money in their own pockets because the medical group was taking the risk.” Once hospitalists set up practice in a hospital, C-suite administrators quickly saw them gaining patient share and began realizing that they could be partners. “They woke up one day, and just like that, they pay attention to how many cases the orthopedist does,” she says. “[They said], ‘Oh, Dr. Smith did 10 cases last week, he did 10 cases this week, then he did no cases or he did two cases. … They started to come to the hospitalists and say, ‘Look, you’re controlling X% of my patients a day. We’re having a length of stay problem; we’re having an early-discharge problem.’ Whatever it was, they were looking for partners to try to solve these issues.” And when hospitalists grew in number again as the model continued to take hold and blossom as an effective care-delivery method, hospitalists again were turned to as partners. “Once you get to that point, that you’re seeing enough patients and you’re enough of a movement,” Dr. Gorman says, “you get asked to be on the pharmacy committee and this committee, and chairman of the medical staff, and all those sort of things, and those evolve over time.”
    7. 2003 amid the push for quality and safety. And while the specialty’s early adoption of those initiatives clearly was a major reason for the exponential growth of hospitalists, Dr. Gorman doesn’t want people to forget that the cost of care was what motivated community facilities.
    8. Two years later, IOM followed up its safety push with “Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century.” The sequel study laid out focus areas and guidelines to start reducing the spate of medical mistakes that “To Err Is Human” lay bare.
    9. Dr. Wachter and other early leaders also worried that patients, used to continuity of care with their primary-care doctors, would not take well to hospitalists. Would patients revolt against the idea of a new doctor seeing them every day?
    10. Some “specialists worried that if hospitalists were more knowledgeable than once-a-month-a-year attendings, and knew more about what was going on, they would be less likely to consult a specialist,” Dr. Goldman explains, adding he and Dr. Wachter thought that would be an unintended consequence of HM. “If there was a reduction in requested consults, that expertise would somehow be lost.”
    11. Perhaps the biggest concerns to hospital medicine in the beginning came from the residents at UCSF. Initially, residents worried—some aloud—that hospitalists would become too controlling and “take away their delegated and graduated autonomy,” Dr. Goldman recalls
    12. “My first exposure to hospital medicine was through Drs. Chris Landrigan and Vinny Chiang as an intern in Boston. I was impressed by their clinical mastery and teaching. I then did my first research project with Chris, which led to a publication in Pediatrics. I had previously thought about intensive care or emergency medicine for fellowship, but I was excited about the general nature, growth opportunity, and ability to drive health system change in hospital medicine. I think that growth and ability to drive health system change in hospital medicine has grown exponentially since I finished residency, so the field has more than lived up to its potential and has more room to grow in terms of impact.”

      Patrick Conway

    13. “I’ve been continually surprised at the growth of the field and SHM. My view has evolved from ‘Is this for real?’ to ‘How can hospital medicine make healthcare better for patients on a broad scale?’ The latter view has gone through iterations. We witnessed HM make hospitals more efficient, then we saw hospitalists drive safer, less harmful care. Most recently, hospitalists are embarking on deep change through alternative payment models like bundled payments. In terms of SHM, we endeavored to keep a ‘big tent’ since the many flavors of hospitalists all are united by a deep conviction to make hospitals safer, kinder, and higher-functioning places for the people inhabiting them—patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals. I’m humbled and gratified that we have been able to keep SHM a viable home for all hospitalists after 20 years.”

      Win Whitcomb

    14. “I think the future of hospitalists is actually outside of the hospital and helping to keep patients healthy. Hospitalists are really good at taking care of the most sick, complex patients who are at the highest risk of healthcare utilization. While hospitalists predominantly do this for patients in the hospital, hospitalists are starting to play a larger role in post-acute care and trying to target interventions to improve health for high-risk patients. Not surprisingly, we are starting to see extensivist models, including Comprehensive Care Physicians, grow out of existing hospitalist groups.”

      Vineet Arora

    15. “As I was finishing my residency in the mid 1990s, I told folks I wanted to find a job ‘only doing inpatient medicine.’ People laughed at me. Within five years, hospitalist medicine was developing on the East Coast, and people were no longer laughing. … Hospitalists will be at the center of this brave new world [of episodic care] since they assist in the liaising between patient, PCP, specialist, and acute-care provider. It is incumbent upon us to help explain things in a manner easily understood by the patient and to be committed to high-quality care with an eye for value and cost containment.”

      Jill Slater Waldman

    16. “The hospitalist movement has been a remarkable success. I heard of it from my friend Bob Wachter and since then have learned much from him and many others. … Hospitalists have and will continue to play a key role in improving patient safety, quality, patient experience, value, and healthcare equity. SHM has taken a leadership role to help ensure hospitalists have the skills and resources to do this.”

      Peter Pronovost

    17. “The emergence of the field of hospital medicine has been one of the most important developments for quality of care in hospitals over the past 20 years. Taking full advantage of this opportunity will require the field to broaden its focus from one that primarily emphasizes the care of patients while they are hospitalized to one that encompasses patients’ full trajectories through the continuum of care. To realize their full potential as quality improvement leaders, hospitalists will need to position themselves as experts in health system quality and safety. Specifically, they will need to take ownership of the vital processes of effectively communicating across transitions of care.”

      Mark Chassin

    1. The results of the paired-groups experimental study proves "are interpreted as being supportive for the interactionist perspective on SLA, especially the importance of attention". The study focuses on the acquisition of lexical meaning through negotiated interaction on NNS-NNS synchronous CMC. Check into Long's Interaction Hypothesis.

      The benefits of CMA in language learning: interactionist perspective.

    1. structured strategy & triggering event/ debate and role & exploration and integration/ scaffolding & resolution

    2. "Using mixed methods, we examined the contribution of four scenario-based online discussion strategies -structured, scaffolded, debate and role play – to the learners’ cognitive presence, the outcome of the discussion. "

    1. Kern 2006 Chapelle recommends the interactionist approach to SLA (see Pica, 1994) Egbert and Petrie (2005): expand the theory from the interactionist to sociocultural perspective.

      "Sociocultural theory, like interactionist SLA, emphasizes the importance of learner interaction, but it is interested less in negotiation evoked adjustments in input than in the social and cultural situatedness of learner activity, learners’ agency in co-constructing meanings (as well as their own roles), and the importance of mediation by tools and signs."

      Systemic-functional linguistics framework for CMC; Anthropology; Semiotic theory; Plass cognitive theory while inputting the language with multi-media;

    1. 2009 Chapelle C.A. Four general approaches: cognitive linguistic; psycholinguistic; human learning; social context Problems in the four categories.

    1. "Researchers have found that cognitive interactionist and sociocultural SLA theories offer a means of interpreting prior research on CALL and suggest a point of departure for designing future studies of CALL activities that are based on human–computer interaction and computer-mediated communication."

      Chapelle. C. A 2007. theories expand from interactionist to cognitive interactionist and sociocultural theory cognitive interactionist: Human-computer interaction. sociocultural: CMC (Computer-Mediated Communication)

    1. The Interaction Approach and CMC (Bryan Smith): The Interaction Approach(IA) in second language acquisition studies suggests that there is a link between interaction and learning. This approach focuses on three major components of interaction — exposure (input), production (output), and feedback. Many CALL researchers have adopted this theoretical perspective in exploring the relationship between CMC and instructed second language acquisition, exploiting many of the argued affordances offered by this medium in relation to the key tenets of the IA. This paper will provide a conceptual overview of the IA and explore specifically how CALL researchers have sought to study SLA from this theoretical perspective. We will discuss several methodological hurdles facing researchers engaged in this type of research and will offer some suggested strategies for conducting sound SLA/CALL research from an IA.

      the interaction approach overlaps with psycholinguistic approach under the cognitive theory

    1. ಅಯ್ಯಾ ನಿನ್ನ ಸಂಗದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂಗಿಯಾದೆಅಯ್ಯಾ, ನಿನ್ನ ಸಂಗದಿಂದ ಕಾಕುತನವ ಬಿಟ್ಟುಬೇಕಾದ ಹಾಂಗೆಯಾದೆ.ಅಯ್ಯಾ, ನಿನ್ನ ಒಲವು ಅನೇಕ ಪ್ರಕಾರದಲ್ಲಿಪಸರಿ ಪರ್ಬಿತ್ತು ಎನ್ನ ಸರ್ವಾಂಗದಲ್ಲಿ.ನಿನ್ನವರೊಲುಮೆಯ ಆನಂದವನು ಎನಗೆ ಕರುಣಿಸುಕಪಿಲಸಿದ್ಧಮಲ್ಲಿಕಾರ್ಜುನಯ್ಯಾ ನಿಮ್ಮ ಧರ್ಮ.
    2. ಅಷ್ಟದಳಕಮಲವ ಮೆಟ್ಟಿ ಚರಿಸುವಹಂಸನ ಭೇದವ ಹೇಳಿಹೆನು:ಪೂರ್ವದಳಕೇರಲು ಗುಣಿಯಾಗಿಹನು.ಅಗ್ನಿದಳಕೇರಲು ಕ್ಷುಧೆಯಾಗಿಹನು.ದಕ್ಷಿಣದಳಕೇರಲು ಕ್ರೋದ್ಥಿಯಾಗಿಹನು.ನೈಋತ್ಯದಳಕೇರಲು ಅಸತ್ಯನಾಗಿಹನು.ವರುಣದಳಕೇರಲು ನಿದ್ರೆಗೆಯ್ವುತಿಹನು.ವಾಯುದಳಕೇರಲು ಸಂಚಲನಾಗಿಹನು.ಉತ್ತರದಳಕೇರಲು ಧರ್ಮಿಯಾಗಿಹನು.ಈಶಾನ್ಯದಳಕೇರಲು ಕಾಮಾತುರನಾಗಿಹನು.ಈ ಅಷ್ಟದಳಮಂಟಪದ ಮೇಲೆ ಹರಿದಾಡುವ ಹಂಸನಕುಳನ ತೊಲಗಿಸುವ ಕ್ರಮವೆಂತುಟಯ್ಯಾಯೆಂದೊಡೆ:ಅಷ್ಟದಳಮಂಟಪದ ಅಷ್ಟಕೋಣೆಗಳೊಳಗೆಅಷ್ಟ ಲಿಂಗಕಳೆಯ ಪ್ರತಿಷ್ಠಿಸಿಹಂಸನ ನಟ್ಟ ನಡುಮಧ್ಯದಲ್ಲಿ ತಂದು ನಿಲಿಸಲುಮುಕ್ತಿಮೋಕ್ಷವನೆಯ್ದಿ ಪರವಶನಾಗಿಪ್ಪನಯ್ಯಾ,ಮಹಾಲಿಂಗಗುರು ಶಿವಸಿದ್ಧೇಶ್ವರ ಪ್ರಭುವೇ.
    3. ಅಯ್ಯಾ, ಕಾಲತೊಳೆದುಕೊಂಡು ಬಂದರೆ ಕಣ್ಣಮುಂದೆ ನಿಂದೆ.ಕೈಯ ತೊಳೆದುಕೊಂಡು ಬಂದರೆ ಮನದ ಮುಂದೆ ನಿಂದೆ.ತಲೆಯ ತೊಳೆದುಕೊಂಡು ಬಂದರೆ ಭಾವದ ಮುಂದೆ ನಿಂದೆ.ಸಂದು ಸಂಶಯ ಕುಂದು ಕಲೆಯ ಕಳೆದುಳಿದು ಬಂದರೆಸರ್ವಾಂಗಸನ್ನಿಹಿತನಾಗಿ ನಿಂದೆ.ಬಂದ ಬರವು ಚಂದವಾಗಿ ನಿಂದರೆ ಅಂದಂದಿಗೆ ಅವಧರಿಸುಮುಂದುವರಿವೆನು ಮುದದಿಂದೆ ಗುರುನಿರಂಜನ ಚನ್ನಬಸವಲಿಂಗಾ.
    4. ಅಸಂಖ್ಯಾತ ಆದಿಬ್ರಹ್ಮರುತ್ಪತ್ಯವಾಗದಂದು,ಅಸಂಖ್ಯಾತ ಆದಿನಾರಾಯಣರುತ್ಪತ್ಯವಾಗದಂದು,ಅಸಂಖ್ಯಾತ ಸುರೇಂದ್ರಾದಿಗಳು ಉತ್ಪತ್ಯವಾಗದಂದು,ಅಸಂಖ್ಯಾತ ಮನುಮುನಿ ದೈತ್ಯರು ಉತ್ಪತ್ಯ ಲಯವಾಗದಂದು,ಓಂಕಾರವೆಂಬ ಆದಿಪ್ರಣವವಾಗಿದ್ದನು ನೋಡಾನಮ್ಮ ಅಪ್ರಮಾಣಕೂಡಲಸಂಗಮದೇವ.
    5. ಅಂಗದ ಮೇಲೊಂದು ಲಿಂಗವು, ಲಿಂಗದ ಮೇಲೊಂದು ಅಂಗವು.ಆವುದು ಘನವೆಂಬೆ ? ಆವುದು ಕಿರಿದೆಂಬೆ ?ತಾಳೋಷ್ಠಸಂಪುಟಕ್ಕೆ ಬಾರದ ಘನ, ಉಭಯಲಿಂಗವಿರಹಿತವಾದ ಶರಣ.ಕೂಡಲಚೆನ್ನಸಂಗಾ ಲಿಂಗೈಕ್ಯವು.
    6. ಅಯ್ಯಾ ಆರೂ ಇಲ್ಲದ ಅರಣ್ಯದಲ್ಲಿ, ನಾನಡಿಯಿಟ್ಟು ನಡವುತ್ತಿರ್ದೆನಯ್ಯಾ.ಮುಂದೆ ಬರೆಬರೆ ಮಹಾಸರೋವರವ ಕಂಡೆ.ಸರೋವರದೊಳಗೊಂದು ಹಿರಿಯ ಮೃಗವ ಕಂಡೆ.ಆ ಮೃಗಕ್ಕೆ ಕೊಂಬುಂಟು ತಲೆಯಿಲ್ಲ,ಬಾಯುಂಟು ಕಣ್ಣಿಲ್ಲ, ಕೈಯುಂಟು ಹಸ್ತವಿಲ್ಲ,ಕಾಲುಂಟು ಹೆಜ್ಜೆಯಿಲ್ಲ, ಒಡಲುಂಟು ಪ್ರಾಣವಿಲ್ಲ.ಇದ ಕಂಡು ನಾ ಹೆದರಿ, ಹವ್ವನೆ ಹಾರಿ, ಬೆದರಿ ಬಿದ್ದೆನಯ್ಯಾ.ಆಗೆನ್ನ ಹೆತ್ತತಾಯಿ ಬಂದು ಎತ್ತಿ ಕುಳ್ಳಿರಿಸಿ,ಚಿತ್ತಮೂಲಾಗ್ನಿಯ ಒತ್ತಿ ಉರುಹಿದರೆ, ಇವೆಲ್ಲವು ಸುಟ್ಟು ಬಟ್ಟಬಯಲಾದವು.ಆ ಬಟ್ಟಬಯಲೊಳಗೆ ಅಡಿಯಿಟ್ಟು ನಡೆವಾಗ,ಮುಂದೆ ಇಟ್ಟಡಿಯ ಬಾಗಿಲೊಳಗೆ ಮತ್ತೊಂದು ಮೃಗವ ಕಂಡೆ.ಆ ಮೃಗಕ್ಕೆ ತಲೆಯುಂಟು ಕೊಂಬಿಲ್ಲ, ಕಣ್ಣುಂಟು ಬಾಯಿಲ್ಲ,ಹಸ್ತವುಂಟು ಕೈಯಿಲ್ಲ, ಹೆಜ್ಜೆಯುಂಟು ಕಾಲಿಲ್ಲ, ಪ್ರಾಣವುಂಟು ಒಡಲಿಲ್ಲ.ಇದ ಕಂಡು ನಾ ಅಪ್ಪಿಕೊಳಹೋದಡೆ, ಮುಟ್ಟದ ಮುನ್ನವೆ ಎನ್ನನೆ ನುಂಗಿತ್ತು.ನುಂಗಿದ ಮೃಗ ಮಹಾಲಿಂಗದಲ್ಲಿಯೆ ಅಡಗಿತ್ತು,ಬಸವಪ್ರಿಯ ಕೂಡಲಚೆನ್ನಬಸವಣ್ಣಾ.
    7. ಅಂಗೈಯೊಳಗಣ ಲಿಂಗಮ್ರ್ಕೂಯ ಕಂಗಳಲ್ಲಿಂಗಗೊಟ್ಟಡೆ,ತಿಂಗಳ ಸೂಡನಾದೆ ನೋಡಾ ಅಯ್ಯಾ.ಮಂಗಳಮೂರ್ತಿ ಗಂಗಾಜೂಟಾಂಗಮಯಕಪಿಲಸಿದ್ಧ ಮಲ್ಲಿಕಾರ್ಜುನಂಗ ಬೇರೆಂದರಿಯಲ್ಲ ನೋಡಾ,ನಿಜದ ನಿರ್ವಯಲಲ್ಲಯ್ಯನೆ.
    8. ಅಂಥ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮಾಂಡವ ಎಪ್ಪತ್ತೈದುಲಕ್ಷದ ಮೇಲೆಸಾವಿರದೇಳುನೂರಾ ನಲವತ್ತೆಂಟುಬ್ರಹ್ಮಾಂಡವನೊಳಕೊಂಡುದೊಂದು ಭದ್ರವೆಂಬ ಭುವನ.ಆ ಭುವನದೊಳು ಭದ್ರಕರ್ಣನೆಂಬ ಮಹಾರುದ್ರಮೂರ್ತಿ ಇಹನು.ಆ ರುದ್ರಮೂರ್ತಿಯ ಓಲಗದಲ್ಲಿಎಂಟುನೂರಾ ಎಪ್ಪತ್ತುಕೋಟಿ ಚಂದ್ರಾದಿತ್ಯರು ವೇದಪುರುಷರುಮುನೀಂದ್ರರು ದೇವರ್ಕಳಿಹರು ನೋಡಾ.ಎಂಟುನೂರಾ ಎಪ್ಪತ್ತುಕೋಟಿ ರುದ್ರ-ಬ್ರಹ್ಮ-ನಾರಾಯಣಇಂದ್ರಾದಿ ದೇವರ್ಕಳಿಹರು ನೋಡಾಅಪ್ರಮಾಣಕೂಡಲಸಂಗಮದೇವಾ.
    9. ಅಗ್ಘವಣಿ ಸುಯಿದಾನವಾದ ಶರಣಂಗೆ,ತನು ಸುಯಿದಾನವಾಗಬೇಕು.ತನು ಸುಯಿದಾನವಾದ ಶರಣಂಗೆಮನ ಸುಯಿದಾನವಾಗಬೇಕು.ಮನ ಸುಯಿದಾನವಾದ ಶರಣಂಗೆಪ್ರಾಣದ ಮೇಲೆ ಲಿಂಗ ಸಯವಾಗಬೇಕು.ಪ್ರಾಣದ ಮೇಲೆ ಲಿಂಗ ಸಯವಾಗದಿರ್ದಡೆಇದೆಲ್ಲ ವೃಥಾ ಎಂದಿತ್ತು ಕೂಡಲಚೆನ್ನಸಂಗಯ್ಯನ ವಚನ
    10. ಅಯ್ಯಾ ಆರೂ ಇಲ್ಲದ ಅರಣ್ಯದಲ್ಲಿ, ನಾನಡಿಯಿಟ್ಟು ನಡವುತ್ತಿರ್ದೆನಯ್ಯಾ.ಮುಂದೆ ಬರೆಬರೆ ಮಹಾಸರೋವರವ ಕಂಡೆ.ಸರೋವರದೊಳಗೊಂದು ಹಿರಿಯ ಮೃಗವ ಕಂಡೆ.ಆ ಮೃಗಕ್ಕೆ ಕೊಂಬುಂಟು ತಲೆಯಿಲ್ಲ,ಬಾಯುಂಟು ಕಣ್ಣಿಲ್ಲ, ಕೈಯುಂಟು ಹಸ್ತವಿಲ್ಲ,ಕಾಲುಂಟು ಹೆಜ್ಜೆಯಿಲ್ಲ, ಒಡಲುಂಟು ಪ್ರಾಣವಿಲ್ಲ.ಇದ ಕಂಡು ನಾ ಹೆದರಿ, ಹವ್ವನೆ ಹಾರಿ, ಬೆದರಿ ಬಿದ್ದೆನಯ್ಯಾ.ಆಗೆನ್ನ ಹೆತ್ತತಾಯಿ ಬಂದು ಎತ್ತಿ ಕುಳ್ಳಿರಿಸಿ,ಚಿತ್ತಮೂಲಾಗ್ನಿಯ ಒತ್ತಿ ಉರುಹಿದರೆ, ಇವೆಲ್ಲವು ಸುಟ್ಟು ಬಟ್ಟಬಯಲಾದವು.ಆ ಬಟ್ಟಬಯಲೊಳಗೆ ಅಡಿಯಿಟ್ಟು ನಡೆವಾಗ,ಮುಂದೆ ಇಟ್ಟಡಿಯ ಬಾಗಿಲೊಳಗೆ ಮತ್ತೊಂದು ಮೃಗವ ಕಂಡೆ.ಆ ಮೃಗಕ್ಕೆ ತಲೆಯುಂಟು ಕೊಂಬಿಲ್ಲ, ಕಣ್ಣುಂಟು ಬಾಯಿಲ್ಲ,ಹಸ್ತವುಂಟು ಕೈಯಿಲ್ಲ, ಹೆಜ್ಜೆಯುಂಟು ಕಾಲಿಲ್ಲ, ಪ್ರಾಣವುಂಟು ಒಡಲಿಲ್ಲ.ಇದ ಕಂಡು ನಾ ಅಪ್ಪಿಕೊಳಹೋದಡೆ, ಮುಟ್ಟದ ಮುನ್ನವೆ ಎನ್ನನೆ ನುಂಗಿತ್ತು.ನುಂಗಿದ ಮೃಗ ಮಹಾಲಿಂಗದಲ್ಲಿಯೆ ಅಡಗಿತ್ತು,ಬಸವಪ್ರಿಯ ಕೂಡಲಚೆನ್ನಬಸವಣ್ಣಾ.
    1. ಆಕಾರ ನಿರಾಕಾರವೆಂಬೆರಡೂ ಸ್ವರೂಪಂಗಳು ;ಒಂದು ಆಹ್ವಾನ, ಒಂದು ವಿಸರ್ಜನ,ಒಂದು ವ್ಯಾಕುಳ, ಒಂದು ನಿರಾಕುಳ.ಉಭಯಕುಳರಹಿತ ಗುಹೇಶ್ವರಾ_ನಿಮ್ಮ ಶರಣ ನಿಶ್ವಿಂತನು.
    1. ರಾಕಾರವೆಂಬೆರಡೂ ಸ್ವರೂಪಂಗಳು ;ಒಂದು ಆಹ್ವಾನ, ಒಂದು ವಿಸರ್ಜನ,ಒಂದು ವ್ಯಾಕುಳ, ಒಂದು ನಿರಾಕುಳ.ಉಭಯಕುಳರಹಿತ ಗುಹೇಶ್ವರಾ_ನಿಮ್ಮ ಶರಣ ನಿಶ್ವಿಂತನು.
    1. the fact that bodies like the Wellcome Trust exist is an indication of the power games can have

      Games are the only entertainment medium right now that aren't showing any sign of an expiration date. Most people don't pay for music and movies anymore, and most social media sites go in and out of popularity. Games, however, have never lost popularity, there's always going to be another kid turning 10 that'll want a play-station for Christmas. Therefore, it is games that are the best method for education or to highlight political issues.

    1. That makes this challenge a lot harder to resolve than if we had tried a century ago

      But even if we had tried a century ago, would it have mattered? The article just stated that "we'd have gotten segregated cities anyways because of behavior that's beyond the reach of regulation."

    2. racial preferences still shape where people choose to live today.

      Fear of what is different?

    3. behavior that's beyond the reach of regulation

      Good way of explaining why we still see segregation in our communities

    4. restrictive covenants

      What is a restrictive covenant?

    5. Fair Housing Act

      What does this act say? When was it passed?

    6. "we would still have very segregated cities, because a certain number whites were unwilling to live with blacks."

      Segregation is still present today. A great example of this is the segregation and disparities we see in inner city public schools.

    7. Shertzer and Walsh are pointing to another set of factors — not the policies of institutions, but the behavior of individuals.

      Racist behaviors. But I do not see how this is novel information? This time period is teeming with examples of racist behavior not motivated by institutional policies.

    8. That makes this earlier form of white flight even more striking; their new homes didn't necessarily have lower taxes or better school districts, factors that complicated the motivations of later generations of whites.

      OK... so this era of White flight is striking because they were leaving for purely racist motivations. Not because there were also better reasons to move out of the city (lower taxes, better schools).

    9. "Whites left the neighborhood as a result of blacks arriving," Shertzer says, "not for other reasons."

      So... racism? Is that what they are considering a "casual" reason for leaving?

    10. As blacks arrived in northern neighborhoods, more whites left.

      I can understand why White people were able to move from neighborhoods. However, how were cities legally able to keep African Americans from moving in to certain neighborhoods?

    11. relevant to American cities that are still racially divided today

      Which cities? I think the cities that are racially divided today would be similar to the ones that were segregated in the past (Chicago, New York, Detroit).

    12. "White flight" is usually described as a post-World War II phenomenon

      I wonder why "White flight" is typically associated with this time period? I think I remember learning about a GI Bill that encouraged this once the soldiers returned home from war.

    1. Create opportunities to apply knowledge immediately after a video.

      I really liked this idea and I have already applied it to my upcoming online lesson plan for an online course.

    1. Study: Most Teaching and Learning Uses Technology Nowadays

      This article reviews the impact of technology in the classroom. Today over 73% of teachers stated students are using tablets or laptops in the classroom. According to David Nagel, technology not only dominates education but also make students more productive and stimulates them intellectually.

      There is a link on the site to the complete study.

      RATING: 4/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

  8. Oct 2018
    1. Workingmothers,becausetheyhavefamiliestosupport,havemoretoloseandmaybelesswillingtojeopardizetheircurrentjobsorprofessionalstatusbyspeakingout.Mothersarestillregularlyjudgednegativelybyouremployersandsocietyforchargingaheadprofessionallyafterwehavechildren.Itdoesn’ttakemuchtointernalizethatsexismtoconvinceourselvesthatourkidsarebetteroffwithamotherwhodoesn’thaveademandingjob,whichcanleadustobeingmoreresignedthanfieryaboutbeingpassedoverforapromotionornotcalledbackforajobinterview.Ormaybeworkingmothersarejustplaintired.Butit’salsonoteworthytomethatwe’veneverhadahigh-pr

      covering?

    2. “Shewaswaytoofocusedonherpregnancy.Itwasdistractingher.Ididn’tthinkshewasgoingtobecommittedenoughtothejob,soIhadtolethergo.”Ilookedather,stunned.Thiswoman—amotherherself—whoworkedonarangeoninitiativestosupportwomenwasopenlyandcasuallyadmittingtoillegaldiscrimination,againstanothermother.

      If you look in the EEOC link, you'll see that this is pregnancy discrimination and is illegal. And yet it happens.

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. entropic

      This is what Edgar Orrin Klapp meant when he wrote in his 1986 Overload and Boredom: Essays on the Quality of Life in the Information Society that “meaning and interest are found mostly in the mid-range between extremes of redundancy and variety-these extremes being called, respectively, banality and noise” (). Redundancy is repetition of the same, which creates a condition of insufficient difference, while noise is the chaos of non-referentiality, or entropy. In a way, these extremes collapse into each other, in that both can be viewed “as a loss of potential … for a certain line of action at least” ().

      There is perhaps something of "the real" here, as well. Volker Woltersdorff (2012, 134) writes that: The law of increasing entropy is a concept of energy in the natural sciences that assumes the tendency of all systems to eventually reach their lowest level of energy. Organic systems therefore tend toward inertia … Freud identifies the death drive with entropy … within his theory, the economy of the death drive is to release tension."

      Adam Phillips clarifies the death drive: “People are not, Freud seems to be saying, the saboteurs of their own lives, acting against their own best interests; they are simply dying in their own fashion (to describe someone as self-destructive is to assume a knowledge of what is good for them, an omniscient knowledge of the ‘real’ logic of their lives)” (2000, 81, cf. 77).

    2. The real

      In Return of the Real the critic Hal Foster considers "the real" to be art and theory grounded in the materiality of actual bodies and social sites. (As opposed to the "art-as-text" model of the 70s and the "art-as-simulacrum" model of the 80s).

      In Rewiring the Real, Mark Taylor describes the thought of "god" and "the real" as synonymous. One vision of theism he is concerned with is that of Schleirmacher, Schiller, Schlegel, Hölderlin, and Novalis, through to Coleridge, Wordsworth, Emerson, Thoreau, and Stevens, where god becomes identified as the creative impulse immanent in the world. He is also concerned with the ontological thought of Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard, Freud, Poe, Melville, Blanchot, Jabès, and Derrida for whom the real is "wholly other, or, in Kierkegaard's words that continue to echo, 'infinitely and qualitatively different'" (4). In the latter tradition, Lacan, following most closely on Freud, is especially associated with the concept of the real. For him, the real is the state of nature from which we have been severed by our entrance into language. It erupts, however, whenever we are forced to confront the materiality of our existence, as with needs and drives, such as for hunger, sex, and sleep.

    1. While entertainment production information may not be high on many people’s lists of important information, the Internet Movie Database is a vital instrument in keeping track of television, movie, and video game history.

      Someday, when facial recognition rules the day, we'll all be able to log into IMDB and see ourselves in other peoples' home videos/movies.

    1. audiences want the new work to offer new insights into the characters and new experiences of the fictional world.

      A case in point is the spin-off series "Fear the Walking Dead" which looks at the "Walking Dead" universe form a different perspective and has recently had a character crossover (Morgan)- see here for more details: http://walkingdead.wikia.com/wiki/Morgan_Jones_(Fear_The_Walking_Dead)

      The "Walking Dead" franchise began with graphic novels. "Harry Potter" much surely mark one of the most successful transmedia franchises, books, films, computer games, lego characters, costumes, and extended fanclubs (UCC Harry Potter Society uses a sorting hat, and the quasi-gothic architecture of UCC as a backdrop).

    2. A good character can sustain multiple narratives and thus lead to a successful movie franchise. A good “world” can sustain multiple characters (and their stories) and thus successfully launch a transmedia franchise.

      Tolkien's "Lord of the Rings" and "The Hobbit" and their film adaptations are possibly the ultimate exemplar of the power of world-building. To a lesser extent (and aimed at a younger age group) would be C.S. Lewis's "Chronicles of Narnia" with various stage,T.V. film, animated and radio adaptations

    1. The Eden Club - Exclusive Golf Club Membership | International Private Members Club

      The Eden Club is an international private members' club providing three very special dimensions: the most luxurious private members club in St Andrews, Scotland – the home of golf; an outstanding schedule of annual events and a unique Secretariat service.

    1. A Legislative union of the British North American Provinces is not liable to all the objections which, as I believe, apply. to a Federal or Federative union; but it is liable to the objection that great discontent in the Lower Provinces would follow the centralization in one Government, and in one Legislature, at Quebec or Montreal, of the powers and authority now vested in the Governments and Legislatures of the several provinces; and, moreover, I believe that no single Government or single Legislature could, in present circumstances, satisfactorily govern and legislate for a territory extending over an area so immense, and so sparsely populated as many portions of that territory are.

      Preamble, §§. 91 and 92 of the Constitution Act, 1867.

    2. Again, the establishment of a Federal or Federative union would, as l believe, be immediately followed by an agitation in favour of the election or the Local Governors, instead of their being nominated by the Crown. And it would be the more difficult to resist this application on account of the purely local or municipal character of the powers with which the Governors would he intrusted ; but the compliance with the request would he in my opinion-highly dangerous, not only because it would at once be fatal to British influence in the Local Governments and Local Legislatures, but also because it would, I believe, be followed quickly by a similar application from the United ‘Provinces, with regard to the Gov,ernor-Generalship, still more difficult to resist from the force With which it would be pressed, but the compliance with which would at once practically sever the connexion between the Crown and British North America.

      Preamble, §§.58, 91 and 92 of the Constitution Act, 1867.

    3. union which they contemplate is not to be necessarily of the same character as that which binds together the several States of the neighbouring Republic. But upon whatever basis a Federative union might be formed, it must, I think, be liable -to one of two objections, either of which ought, as it appears to me, to be fatal to such a scheme. For if the Local Governments and Local Legislatures are still to- continue to exercise the same authority in local legislation and local matters which now appertains to them (and there is comparatively little business of any other description which they are now called upon to discuss), then the result of such a union will be still further to degrade the Local Governments and Legislatures without diminishing their authority while the ‘Central Government and Central Legislature, nominally endorsed with high powers, and proud of their position, but with little or no business of a purely Colonial character to occupy their attention, would, I fear, claim an authority on subjects not purely Colonial, but also of Imperial importance (such as questions of foreign trade, &c.), and shortly be brought into collision with Her Majesty’s Government and with the Imperial Parliament. If, on the other hand, the Local Governments and Local Legislatures were shorn of a large portion or their present powers (to which proposal 1 do not believe that the Lower Provinces would agree), the inhabitants of the Lower Provinces would, in my opinion, very soon, if not immediately, become discontented with an arrangement which would deprive them of -the power they now possess over the management of their own affairs, and render New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward’s Island, Provinces of Canada, instead of being, as they now are, Provinces of the British Empire.

      Preamble, §§. 91 and 92 of the Constitution Act, 1867.

    4. I presume that the word ‘”Federative” has been used ‘in the Memorandum of the Executive Council of Canada to imply that the

      Preamble, §§. 91 and 92 of the Constitution Act, 1867.

    5. should embrace the question of a Legislative, as well as that of a Federal or Federative union, and the expediency of uniting some, as well as that of uniting all the provinces

      Preamble, §§. 91 and 92 of the Constitution Act, 1867.

    6. It is possible that a Federative union of the British North American Provinces would afford to the Canadian Government the – readiest mode of escape from the difficulties and embarrassments which now surround the settlement of the “seat of Government ” question, and I presume that I am right in supposing that, although the ostensible object of the proposed inquiry is the union by Federative bonds with Canada of the other British North American Provinces, the Canadian Government have no less in view the, severance of the bond which now joins the two Canadas in a Legislative Union, and the substitution for that bond of a more elastic tie of a Federal or a Federative character.

      §.16 of the Constitution Act, 1867.

    7. ment to this may be added that, by the proposed distribution of the revenue, each province would have a direct pecuniary interest in the preservation of the authority of the Federal Government. In these respects’ it is conceived that the proposed Confederation would possess greater inherent strength than that of the United States, and would combine the advantages of the unity for general purposes of a Legislative union, with so much of the Federative principle as -would give all the benefits of local government and legislation upon questions of provincial interest.

      Preamble, §§. 91 and 92 of the Constitution Act, 1867.

    8. The Local Legislatures would not be in a position to claim the exercise of the same sovereign power-, which have frequently been the cause of difference between the American States and their General Govern-

      Preamble, §§. 91 and 92 of the Constitution Act, 1867.

    9. It will be observed that the basis of confederation now proposed differs from that of-the-United States in several important particulars. It does not profess to be derived from the people, but would be the Constitution provided by the Imperial Parliament; thus affording the means of remedying any defect, which is now practically impossible under the American Constitution.

      §§.91, 91(1), and 92(1) of the Constitution Act, 1867.

      Part V of the Constitution Act, 1982.

    10. The Confederation might include the constitution of a Federal Court of Appeal.

      §.101 of the Constitution Act, 1867.

    11. It will form. a subject for mature deliberation whether the powers of the Federal Government should be confined to the points named, or should be extended to all matters not specially entrusted to the Local Legislatures.

      §.91(29) of the Constitution Act, 1867.

    12. That the powers of the Federal Legislature and Government should comprehend the Customs, Excise, and all trade questions; postal service, militia, banking, currency, weights and measures, and bankruptcy; public works of a national character; harbours and lighthouses; fisheries, and their protection; criminal justice; public lands, public debt, and government of unincorporated and Indian territories.

      §§.91 and 92 of the Constitution Act, 1867.

    13. When Mr. Galt, therefore, came into office; it was natural that the question of an union of the Colonies should at once be discussed-. I found him and several of the gentlemen about to assume office deeply impressed with the idea that, in some such union alone could be found the ultimate solution of the great question which had been made a ground of agitation by Mr. Brown, and his friends, at the general election, viz., the existing equality of representation -of Upper and Lower Canada, and the alleged injustice inflicted on the former by such equality. This question is one, I need not say, which threatened to touch the root of the present union of the two sections of Canada -as by law established, and might imperil its existence by reviving all the old antagonism of race and religion.

      §.51 of the Constitution Act, 1867.

    14. The union of Lower with Upper Canada was based upon perfect equality being preserved between these Provinces-a condition the more necessary from the differences in their respective language, law, and. religion; and although there is now a large English population in Lower Canada, still these differences exist to an extent, which prevents any perfect and complete assimilation of the views of the two sections.

      §.51 of the Constitution Act, 1867.

    15. The population, trade, and resources of all these Colonies have so rapidly increased of late years, and the removal f trade-restrictions has made them, in so great a degree, self-sustaining, that it appears to the Government of Canada exceedingly important to bind still more closely the ties of their common allegiance to the British Crown, and to obtain for general purposes, such an identity in legislation as may seem to consolidate their growing power, thus raising, under, the protection of the Empire, an important Confederation on the North American Continent. At present, each Colony is totally distinct in its government, its customs and trade, and its general legislation. To each other no greater facilities are extended than to any foreign State; and the only common tie is that which binds all to the British Crown. This state of things is considered to be neither promotive of the physical prosperity of all, nor of that moral union which ought to be preserved in the presence of the powerful Confederation of the United States.

      §.121 of the Constitution Act, 1867.

    16. That the Federal, Government should be composed of a Governor General, or Viceroy, to be appointed by the Queen; of an Upper House, or Senate, elected upon a territorial basis of representation and of a House of Assembly, elected on the basis of population., The Executive to be composed of Ministers, responsible to the Legislature:

      Preamble, §§.22, 91, and 92 of the Constitution Act, 1867.

    1. more.

      The speaker regrets her past relationships and realizes they were so meaningless that she does not even remember them. She wishes she could have stayed with the one person she truly did love

    1. As the power is unleashed, computers on the Semantic Web achieve at first the ability to describe, then to infer, and then to reason. The schema is a huge step, and one that will enable a vast amount of interoperability and extra functionality. However, it still only categorizes data. It says nothing about meaning or understanding.

      The author presents an interesting progression for the Web to eventually learn to reason. The picture he paints of more accessible content on the internet hinges on the internet learning to reason, which is a human characteristic. It seems we need to apply human characteristics to all of our mechanics for them to progress in their usefulness.

    1. having children is a privilege that has been historically denied to many nonwhite and nonafflu-ent people.

      The idea of "no future"/ "declining to reproduce the Child" doesn't do anything to help indigenous people because having children is an act that has been regulated for indigenous people. Settler colonialism/white supremacy does not want indigenous people to create future generations so having a child could be seen as a radical act for indigenous people.

  9. Sep 2018
    1. But in the past year alone, teens have demonstrated that they have the power to change the national conversation and mood.

      It was smart of Snap to add this to their app because teens do use Snapchat a lot and as shown in the quote above teens do have power to change the world how they see fit. So getting more teens to register to vote is very smart of Snap.

    2. Snapchat says it reaches 28.5 to 30 million 18-24 year old users in the U.S. According to a recent survey of Instagram users, approximately 32 percent of its 1 billion-strong user base is 18-24.

      Snapchat reaches around 30 million 18-24 year old users; important ages that are more recently able to vote and take political action. Instagram and snapchat are most popular amongst younger users.

    1. BOOK 12 THE ARGUMENT The Angel Michael continues from the Flood to relate what shall succeed; then, in the mention of Abraham, comes by degrees to explain, who that Seed of the Woman shall be, which was promised Adam and Eve in the Fall; his Incarnation, Death, Resurrection, and Ascention; the state of the Church till his second Coming. Adam greatly satisfied and recomforted by these Relations and Promises descends the Hill with Michael; wakens Eve, who all this while had slept, but with gentle dreams compos'd to quietness of mind and submission. Michael in either hand leads them out of Paradise, the fiery Sword waving behind them, and the Cherubim taking thir Stations to guard the Place. AS one who in his journey bates at Noone, Though bent on speed, so heer the Archangel paus'd Betwixt the world destroy'd and world restor'd, If Adam aught perhaps might interpose; Then with transition sweet new Speech resumes. [ 5 ] Thus thou hast seen one World begin and end; And Man as from a second stock proceed. Much thou hast yet to see, but I perceave Thy mortal sight to faile; objects divine Must needs impaire and wearie human sense: [ 10 ] Henceforth what is to com I will relate, Thou therefore give due audience, and attend. This second sours of Men, while yet but few; And while the dread of judgement past remains Fresh in thir mindes, fearing the Deitie, [ 15 ] With some regard to what is just and right Shall lead thir lives and multiplie apace, Labouring the soile, and reaping plenteous crop, Corn wine and oyle; and from the herd or flock, Oft sacrificing Bullock, Lamb, or Kid, [ 20 ] With large Wine-offerings pour'd, and sacred Feast, Shal spend thir dayes in joy unblam'd, and dwell Long time in peace by Families and Tribes Under paternal rule; till one shall rise Of proud ambitious heart, who not content [ 25 ] With fair equalitie, fraternal state, Will arrogate Dominion undeserv'd Over his brethren, and quite dispossess Concord and law of Nature from the Earth, Hunting (and Men not Beasts shall be his game) [ 30 ] With Warr and hostile snare such as refuse Subjection to his Empire tyrannous: A mightie Hunter thence he shall be styl'd Before the Lord, as in despite of Heav'n, Or from Heav'n claming second Sovrantie; [ 35 ] And from Rebellion shall derive his name, Though of Rebellion others he accuse. Hee with a crew, whom like Ambition joyns With him or under him to tyrannize, Marching from Eden towards the West, shall finde [ 40 ] The Plain, wherein a black bituminous gurge Boiles out from under ground, the mouth of Hell; Of Brick, and of that stuff they cast to build A Citie and Towre, whose top may reach to Heav'n; And get themselves a name, least far disperst [ 45 ] In foraign Lands thir memorie be lost, Regardless whether good or evil fame. But God who oft descends to visit men Unseen, and through thir habitations walks To mark thir doings, them beholding soon, [ 50 ] Comes down to see thir Citie, ere the Tower Obstruct Heav'n Towrs, and in derision sets Upon thir Tongues a various Spirit to rase Quite out thir Native Language, and instead To sow a jangling noise of words unknown: [ 55 ] Forthwith a hideous gabble rises loud Among the Builders; each to other calls Not understood, till hoarse, and all in rage, As mockt they storm; great laughter was in Heav'n And looking down, to see the hubbub strange [ 60 ] And hear the din; thus was the building left Ridiculous, and the work Confusion nam'd. Whereto thus Adam fatherly displeas'd. O execrable Son so to aspire Above his Brethren, to himself assuming [ 65 ] Authoritie usurpt, from God not giv'n: He gave us onely over Beast, Fish, Fowl Dominion absolute; that right we hold By his donation; but Man over men He made not Lord; such title to himself [ 70 ] Reserving, human left from human free. But this Usurper his encroachment proud Stayes not on Man; to God his Tower intends Siege and defiance: Wretched man! what food Will he convey up thither to sustain [ 75 ] Himself and his rash Armie, where thin Aire Above the Clouds will pine his entrails gross, And famish him of Breath, if not of Bread? To whom thus Michael. Justly thou abhorr'st That Son, who on the quiet state of men [ 80 ] Such trouble brought, affecting to subdue Rational Libertie; yet know withall, Since thy original lapse, true Libertie Is lost, which alwayes with right Reason dwells Twinn'd, and from her hath no dividual being: [ 85 ] Reason in man obscur'd, or not obeyd, Immediately inordinate desires And upstart Passions catch the Government From Reason, and to servitude reduce Man till then free. Therefore since hee permits [ 90 ] Within himself unworthie Powers to reign Over free Reason, God in Judgement just Subjects him from without to violent Lords; Who oft as undeservedly enthrall

      Book XII: continues Michael's vision. Adam and Eve are comforted by hearing of the future redemption of their race. The poem ends as they wander forth out of Paradise and the door closes behind them.

    1. The whole of the clauses which refer to the latter are as complete as the most ardent supporters of union could desire, tempered by the lew exceptions by means of which the provinces have wished to shelter their local institutions from attack.

      §§.92(14) and 101 of the Constitution Act, 1867. of the Constitution Act, 1867.

    2. The 34th paragraph of the 29th clause of the scheme reads thus: ” The establishment of a General Court of Appeal for the Federated Provinces.” What is the object—what will be the character of the tribunal?

      §§.92(14) and 101 of the Constitution Act, 1867. of the Constitution Act, 1867.

    3. We ought to look at the question apart from party considerations, and on its own merits: that is to say, we ought to place in the Constitution a counterpoise to prevent any party legislation, and to moderate the precipitancy of any government which might be disposed to move too fast and go too far,—I mean a legislative body able to protect the people against itself and against the encroachments of power. (Hear, hear.) In England, the Crown has never attempted to degrade the House of Peers by submerging it, because it knows well that the nobility are a bulwark against the aggressions of the democratic element. The House of Lords, by their power, their territorial possessions, and their enormous wealth, are a great defence against democratic invasion, greater than anything we can oppose to it in America. In Canada, as in the rest of North America, we have not the castes—classes of society—which are found in Europe, and the Federal Legislative Council, although immutable in respect of number, inasmuch as all the members belonging to it will come from the ranks of the people, without leaving them, as do the members of the House of Commons, will not be selected from a privileged class which have no existence. Here all men are alike, and are all equal; if a difference is to be found, it arises exclusively from the industry, the intelligence, and the superior education of those who have labored the most strenuously, or whom Providence has gifted with the highest faculties. (Hear, hear.) Long ago the privileges of caste disappeared in this country. Most of our ancient nobility left the country at the conquest, and the greater number of those who remained have sunk out of sight by inaction. Accordingly, whom do we see in the highest offices of state? The sons of the poor who have felt the necessity of study, and who have risen by the aid of their intellect and hard work. (Hear, hear.) Everything is democratic with us, because everyone can attain to everything by the efforts of a noble ambition. The legislative councillors appointed by the Crown will not be, therefore, socially speaking, persons superior to the members of the House of Commons; they will owe their elevation only to their own merit.

      §.22 of the Constitution Act, 1867. of the Constitution Act, 1867.

    4. He said that even if the Lower House were altogether liberal, the Upper House would remain composed of conservatives; this was his fear. He has been a long while trying to gain predominance for his democratic notions, but it is evident he will not succeed.

      §.22 of the Constitution Act, 1867. of the Constitution Act, 1867.

    5. relative to the constitution of the Legislative Council, and said that he had not looked at the question, while speaking the other evening, in the same light as the honorable member for the county of Quebec. He spoke of the conservatives as a party, and his fear was, not that the Upper House would not be conservative enough, but that it would be too much so.

      §.22 of the Constitution Act, 1867. of the Constitution Act, 1867.

    6. MR. GEOFFRION—YOU have equality between the two provinces. HON. ATTY. GEN. CARTIER—Yes, we have equality, but not as a race, nor in respect of religion. When the leader for Lower Canada shall have sixty-five members belonging to his section to support him, and command a majority of the French-Canadians and of the British from Lower Canada, will he not be able to upset the Government if his colleagues interfere with his recommendations to office? That is our security. At present, if I found unreasonable opposition to my views, my remedy would be to break up the Government by retiring, and the same thing will happen in the Federal Government.

      §.22 of the Constitution Act, 1867. of the Constitution Act, 1867.

    7. HON. ATTY. GEN. CARTIER—Am I not in a minority at present in appointing judges? And yet when I propose the appointment of a judge for Lower Canada, is he not appointed?

      §.22 of the Constitution Act, 1867. of the Constitution Act, 1867.

    8. the objection of the honorable member for the county of Quebec is well founded, because the Federal Government may appoint all English or all French-Canadians as legislative councillors for Lower Canada. If the honorable member had read the resolutions, he would have found that the appointments of legislative councillors are to be made so as to accord with the electoral divisions now existing in the province. Well, I ask whether it is probable that the Executive of the Federal Government, which will have a chief or leader as it is nowVI ask whether it is very probable that he will recommend the appointment of a French-Canadian to represent divisions like Bedford or Wellington for instance?

      §.22 of the Constitution Act, 1867. of the Constitution Act, 1867.