62 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2019
    1. A given variable can sornetimes be measured at different levels. When in doubt, researchers should use the highest leve! of rneasurement ap-propriate to that variable so they can capture the greatest amount of information.

      Variable

    2. The Importance of Variable Names

      Variables

    3. Conceptions, Concepts, and Reality

      Defining concepts

    1. Checklist: Theoretical Framework

      Use this checklist with your theoretical framework.

    2. Concepts often have multiple definitions, so the theoretical framework involves clearly defining what you mean by each term

      It's to know exactly what we mean using a specific concept.

    3. In your thesis or dissertation, the theoretical framework is where you define, discuss and evaluate theories relevant to your research problem.

      It's a place for definitions, right?

  2. Oct 2019
    1. Conceptualization is the process of specifying observations and measurements that give concepts definite meaning for the purposes of a research study.

      What is conceptualization? The way to give meaning to a concept for the ressearch.

    2. Concepts are constructs; they represent the agreed-on meanings we assign to terms

      Concepts represent agreements

    3. Concepts are mental irnages we use as sumrnary devices for bringing together observations and experiences that seem to have something in corn-mon. We use terms or labels to reference these concepts

      What is a concept? Mental images.

    4. Conceptualization, Operationalization, and Measurement

      Conceptualization, Operationalization, and Measurement: an essencial part of this process involves transforming the relatively vague terms of ordinary language into precise objects of study with wel-defined and measurable meanings

    1. Liberal and Conservative Representations of the Good Society: A (Social) Structural Topic Modeling Approach

      I chose this article, because it is timely, relevant, easy-to-follow (because it is intuitive), and innovative (using data sources, Twitter, and an innovative method, textual analysis). I hope you enjoy the reading. Please follow my annotations (comments + questions) and respond to the questions I pose. Try to answer them in your own words.

    1. It is generally agreed that literature surveys and descriptive compilations do not meet the contribution-to-knowledge re-quirement for the dissertation

      What is not accepted.

    2. Positivist versus postpositivist.

      My research is postpositivist

    3. Experimental versus descriptive.

      My research is going to be descriptive.

    4. Quantitative versus qualitative.

      My research is qualitative.

    5. NEW OR IMPROVED ANALYSIS Analysis may be based on existing evidence or include new data.

      Maybe my research leads in this way, but I think is more the previous one.

    6. The evidence may be collected by an experiment, simulation, observations, questionnaire, interviews, or measurements.

      Maybe my research goes in this way: new or improved evidence.

    7. The additive contribution of a dissertation may arise from 1. new or improved evidence; 2. new or improved methodology; 3. new or improved analysis; 4. new or improved concepts or theories.

      Four kind of contributions

    8. The dissertation should be based on a significant question, problem, or hypothesis.

      The power of a good question. That's why we need to learn how and what to ask.

    9. Different approaches to testing of important results. If a researcher has reported interesting results with one research technique and a given research population, a doctoral student may consider replicating the experiment, altering either the research technique or the research population.

      Open science and reproductible science is key here.

    10. Writers of disserta-tions commonly describe further research that needs to be done.

      Work on the results of others.

    11. If there is likely to be a continuing interest, either academically or otherwise on the topic, then a student can continué to maintin scholarly capability in the área and continué to be a significant authority on the subject.

      This is like Bret Victor's Inventing on principle and the question is: what is your principle?

    12. A research project will typicaliy have more than one potential outcome. For example, a research experiment may fail to dis-prove the nuil hypothesis, it may disprove it, or it may be incon-clusive.

      A database of unsuccessful cases is a good thing to have too.

    13. The exploratory investigation, definition of problem, and writing normally take about half of the total time.

      I can use this to measure my time.

    14. If no theory base can be identified, the topic should be rejected

      Theory is mandatory

    15. Observations lead to theory to classify, explain, and predict the observations.

      Sounds like grounded theory, or at least the prediction is something very useful.

    16. Research needed and interesting

      Why my research is needed and interesting?

    17. In reading dissertations, the student should begin to formúlate a general understanding of the structure and scope of a disserta-tion, and the meaning of contribution to knowledge as applied to doctoral dissertations.

      Structure and scope.

    18. The Selection of a Dissertation Topic

      The selection of a dissertation topic

    1. . To summarize: Your aim is to explain 1. what you are writing about —I am working on the topic of... 2. what you don't know about it—because / want tofind out... 3. why you want your reader to know and care about it—m order to help my reader understand better...

      Short and sweet.

    2. add a second indirect question that explains why you asked your first question.

      Here is the so what? in the sentence you are building.

    3. When you add that because I want tofind out how/why/whether clause, you state why you are pursuing your topic: to answer a question important to you.

      Back to the beginning: a question important to you.

    4. because I want to find out who/what/when/where/whether/ why/how .

      This is the flavour: the indirect question.

    5. start by naming your project:

      Put a name to that baby.

    6. SO WHAT?

      Miles Davis was right.

    7. If you are an experienced researcher, look for questions that other researchers ask but don't answer.

      Remember: the idea is to make it interesting. It can lead you where nobody else knows.

    8. How does your topic fit into the context of a larger structure or function as part of a larger system?

      Structure and composition.

    9. Ask about the History of Your Topic

      History of the topic

    10. So the best way to begin working on your focused topic is not to find all the information you can on it, but to formúlate questions that direct you to just that information you need to answer them

      What is my question to find information?

    11. If a writer asks no specific question worth asking, he can offer no specific answer worth supporting.

      The power of the questions.

    12. Caution: Don't narrow your topic so much that you can't find information on it

      Where to stop while you are narrowing.

    13. We narrowed those topics by adding words and phrases, but of a special kind: conflict, description, contribution, and developing. Those nouns are derived from verbs expressing actions or relation-ships: to conflict, to describe, to contribute, and to develop. Lacking such "action" words, your topic is a .static thing.

      Be careful: you need words that describes actions.

    14. A topic is probably too broad if you can state it in four or five words

      How to narrow a topic.

    15. Few experi-enced researchers trust Wikipedia, so under no circumstances cite it as a source of evidence (unless your topic is Wikipedia itself).

      Lucky me! I can cite Wikipedia.

    16. Google your topic,

      Or use DuckDuckGo if you care about your privacy.

    17. Once you have a list of topics, choose the one or two that inter-est you most and explore their research potential. Do this:

      Choose one or two topics.

    18. Start by listing as many interests as you can that you'd like to explore.

      Make a list

    19. But also ask yourself: What interests me about this tapie? What would interest others?

      I should answer this questions.

    20. Some questions raise problems; others do not.

      Question and problems are not the same.

    21. But other questions may intrigue only the researcher:

      Write an interesting question is key.

    22. A subject is a broad área of knowledge (e.g., climate change), while a topic is a specific interest within that área (e.g., the effect of climate change on migratory birds).

      The hierarchy is:

      • Subject
        • Topic
    23. As you begin a research project, you will want to distinguish a topic from a sub-ject.

      There is a difference between topic and subject.

    24. From Topics to Questions

      Lectura de Research Design in Social Sciences (GH)

  3. Apr 2017
  4. Oct 2016
    1. ValuesIn striving to achieve our mission, we place high value on:Providing client-oriented services characterized by personal, professional, and organizational integrity. Producing quality work products anchored in science.Creating a nurturing environment responsive to individual needs for growth and professional development.Maintaining a spirit of openness, constructive communication, collegiality, and teamwork in all our work.Striking an appropriate balance between the demands of work and the private lives of our staff.Diversity of ideas, opinions, backgrounds, life styles, and experiences of our staff.Individual initiative and entrepreneurship on the part of our staff.Making a better world while enjoying work.

      Example of values articulated by the American Institutes for Research

  5. Jul 2016
    1. Page 204

      Borgman on the different types of data in the social sciences:

      Data in the social sciences fall into two general categories. The first is data collected by researchers through experiments, interviews, surveys, observations, or similar names, analogous to scientific methods. … the second category is data collected by other people or institutions, usually for purposes other than research.

    2. Page 202

      Borgman on information artifacts in the social sciences

      like the sciences, the social sciences create and use minimal information. Yet they differ in the sources of the data. While almost all scientific data are created by for scientific purposes, a significant portion of social scientific data consists of records credit for other purposes, by other parties.