48 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2019
    1. Laboratory activities and constructivism are two notions that have been playing significant roles in science education. Despite common beliefs about the importance of laboratory activities, reviews reported inconsistent results about the effectiveness of laboratory activities. Since laboratory activities can be expensive and take more time, there is an effort to introduce virtual laboratory activities. This study aims at exploring the learning environment created by a virtual laboratory and a real laboratory. A quasi experimental study was conducted at two grade ten classes at a state high school in Bandung, Indonesia. Data were collected using a questionnaire called Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES) before and after the laboratory activities. The results show that both types of laboratories can create constructivist learning environments. Each type of laboratory activity, however, may be stronger in improving certain aspects compared to the other. While a virtual laboratory is stronger in improving critical voice and personal relevance, real laboratory activities promote aspects of personal relevance, uncertainty and student negotiation. This study suggests that instead of setting one type of laboratory against the other, lessons and follow up studies should focus on how to combine both types of laboratories to support better learning.

      In this peer-reviewed study, two tenth-grade classes were analyzed as they used either a virtual or a real laboratory to accomplish learning tasks. The question raised was whether a real or a virtual laboratory was more conducive to constructivist learning. The study concluded that a real lab is better than a virtual one to trigger constructivist learning. This is of importance to me because I teach adults about software in both virtual and real laboratories, and when I develop content, I try to use the constructivist theory as much as possible as I find it works best for my audience, in addition to making novel content more relatable. Please note: I could not put the annotation on the text because the paper opened in a popup page that does not work with Hypothes.is. 7/10

    1. Teaching Adults:What Every Trainer Needs to Know About Adult Learning Styles

      This paper, a project o the PACER Center, discusses learning styles specifically as they pertain to adult learners. From the nitty-gritty podagogy vs. andragogy to the best ways to train for adults, this is a good tool for those who don't know much or need a refresher on adult learning theory and training adults. I love that it is set up in a textbook style, so it's friendly but has a considerable amount of information in a variety of formats. The section, "Tips for Teaching Adults" is helpful to me as it's a series of quick reminders about how to present my information best. 8/10

    1. How to Design Education for Adults

      This wonderful how-to by Southern New Hampshire University provided several well explained tips about what adults need in their learning environments, including their own learning theory, goals, relevant instruction, treatment by the teacher, and participation. These are important things to keep in mind when training working adults because it may have an impact on what information is offered and how it is presented. I will use the information in this article later to help me present content in a meaningful way for my working adult learners. I want the content to be as relevant and inviting to them as possible. 9/10

    1. 6 Effective Strategies for Teaching Adults

      This article from Point Park University provides several methods one can use to help educate adults. Ideas presented include ensuring content is relevant, knowing the audience, igniting emotion in the audience, ensuring assignments are attainable, and providing constructive feedback. I find these especially helpful because of my work, which often involves teaching adults who are busy and sometimes uninterested in my content. The section that will help me most is "Encourage Exploration." Because I'm training on a software tool, I want learners to go into the software and make mistakes and learn from them. I want them to poke around! It can be difficult to convince a class of disgruntled 60-year-old men who are mad that things are changing to go play with a complex software tool like children. 7/10

    1. Adults & Learning: How to Provide for Working Professionals

      The Digital Marketing Institute published this article to help those who provide training for professional adults. It echoes a lot of what I've read in other articles about teaching adults: The goals are different, and they have different needs from the instructor than children do. I liked that this article mentioned that many professional adults find technology to be a barrier, but I wish there were more information about it. The article discussed several of the biggest challenges for adult learners, which was a nice change from the quintessential adult learner article that focuses on what learners need. I also want to know what they don't need. Some of the barriers to learning include a lack of time, responsibilities, financial stressors, fear of technology, and trouble identifying the ideal learning path. 8/10

    1. Training Older Adults To Use New Technology

      This article, published in the Journals of Gerontology, discusses a study that focused on teaching older adults to use technology. This is often discussed in a practical sense, with many how-to's. This article, however, discusses the theory behind gerontological learning. Older adults don't generally learn the same way younger adults do. Therefore, it is important to provide them with practice that shows tasks have continuity, to ensure the important task components are focused on strongly, and to consider whether the learning goals are appropriate for the learner. Representative design is addressed here. This is the first time I've heard of representative design. I teach many people over the age of 60 to use technology, so it is important for me to know the theory that will help them learn best. Interestingly,this article mentioned that performance should be assessed based on a comparison of the older adult's environment. I wish I could use that more in my work, but it's a young person's world now. 9/10

    1. Engaging  Adult  Learners

      This article discusses some attributes that are unique to adult learners, such as that their learning is selective, self-directed, and often focused on solving problems. Therefore, it is important that instructors enable students to be autonomous and show them why it is important. Often in my instructional design, I start with the WIIFM (What's In It For Me?). This article supports my idea that my adult learners will choose to learn when it can solve a problem for them. This article also discusses active learning from an adult perspective, such as Socratic teaching. 9/10

    1. What the Research Says About Teaching Adults

      Colorado Community Colleges published this article to discuss research about teaching adults, focusing strongly on Knowles's six principles of andragogy. The main idea behind Knowles's principles is that adults learn because they decided to--because the information is relevant to them and they can benefit from attaining that knowledge. Therefore, the article states, activities that ask adult learners to discuss problems with each other will help them learn. This can be useful as I design instruction. 7/10

    1. Behaviorism

      Learning-Theories.com published a very handy few pages that describe various learning theories. This is a quick, straightforward, simple way to access information on the different theories. This article, Behaviorism, explains that the theory assumes learners learn by responding to external stimuli in their environment. Learning under behaviorism is characterized by a change in the learner's behavior. I use this in my horse training as I use both positive reinforcement (clicker training) and negative reinforcement (pressure-release) to structure my horse's behaviors. Behaviorism can be translated to human work, too. I've used TAG teaching (clicker training for humans) to teach people to get on and off horses with ease and also to trim horses' hooves. I also use it to clicker train my cats! 6/10

    1. Cognitivism

      Cognitivism challenge behaviorism by positing that humans are more complex than simple lumps that respond to external stimuli. Cognitivism claims that people must involve themselves in their learning and take an active role. In short, when information enters the mind, it must be processed before it becomes a change in behavior. 6/10

    1. Constructivism

      Constructivism is my favorite learning theory. It states that in order to learn, learners must experience something, then reconcile that experience with their previous experiences. The learner will create and test hypotheses based on all experiences, and prove those hypotheses right or wrong based on future experiences. They will then use what they learned from those hypotheses to create new ones. I frequently use this in my instructional design. 6/10

    1. Design-Based Research Methods (DBR)

      Design-based research (DBR) tries to connect learning theory and practice. It puts theories to the test and is an important part of siting through which parts of theories work well, contradict each other, or contradict themselves. This page provides several of the characteristics of design-based studies, as well as the needs and issues important to studying learning. 7/10

    1. Adult Learning Theory

      This article by the University of Utah discusses Lindeman's and Knowles's theories on adult learning. Andragogy uses the teacher differently from pedagogy: the teacher in an adult learning environment becomes a facilitator instead of the knower. I think this is an important distinction to make for people who go from teaching children to teaching adults. There are two of these people on my team at work. One taught third grade and one taught sixth grade, and both of them tend to try to put the instructor in the knower's position instead of the facilitator's position. They have to catch themselves often and rework some instruction to be more student-focused instead of content-focused. 8/10

    1. Overview of Learning Theories

      The Berkeley Graduate Division published an interesting and straightforward table of learning theories. The table compares behaviorism, cognitive constructivism, and social constructivism in four ways: the view of knowledge, view of learning, view of motivation, and implications for teaching. This is an easy-to-read, quick resource for those who would like a side-by-side comparison of common theories. 9/10

    1. This website is a free website that allows for users to access summaries of learning theories, educational guides and much more!

    2. This site includes links to brief discussions of more than 100 learning theories, some of which relate to technology enhanced learning. Those include gamification and online collaborative learning among others. Usability is adequate and this is sufficient for an introduction to the theories though not necessarily a nuanced understanding. rating 4/5

    1. Gagne's nine events of instruction I am including this page for myself because it is a nice reference back to Gagne's nine events and it gives both an example of each of the events as well as a list of four essential principles. It also includes some of his book titles. rating 4/5

    1. Edward Thorndike's three laws of learning. The page does not explain this, but his theories came out in about 1900. His three laws of learning appear to be relevant to our course work. This simple page features black text on a white page. It is brief and it simply describes the three laws of learning. rating 5/5

    1. This page is a simply presented list of many learning theories, both popular and less well known. The layout is clean. The pages to which the listed items link are somewhat minimal in nature so this would give a basic tour or overview of the models and would allow viewers to review the names of some of the learning theories. This page does not prioritize learning theories or identify and establish those theories that are the most prominent.

    1. Edutech wiki This page has a somewhat messy design and does not look very modern but it does offer overviews of many topics related to technologies. Just like wikipedia, it offers a good jumping off point on many topics. Navigation can occur by clicking through categories and drilling down to topics, which is easier for those who already know the topic they are looking for and how it is likely to be characterized. Rating 3/5

    1. teachthought This particular page is entitled '20 simple assessment strategies you can use every day' but the reason it is listed here is because the page itself serves as a jumping off point for reviewing or learning about many educational theories and principles. This site may have been designed for K-12 teachers - I am not sure, but it is quite usable for those who teach adults. This is a place to come if you are interested in browsing - not if you have a specific thing you need at the moment. Rating 3/5

  2. Jan 2019
    1. Investigating cultural beliefs about intelligence may be mildly interesting from an anthropological perspective, but it sheds little light on the nature of intelligence. One undiscussed methodological problem in many studies of cultural perspectives on intelligence is the reliance on surveys of laymen to determine what people in a given culture believe about intelligence. This methodology says little about the actual nature of intelligence.

      After the manuscript was accepted for publication and the proofs turned in, I re-discovered the following from Gottfredson (2003, p. 362): ". . . lay beliefs are interesting but their value for scientific theories of intelligence is limited to hypothesis generation. Even if the claim were true, then, it would provide no evidence for the truth of any intelligence theory . . ."

      Gottfredson, L. S. (2003). Dissecting practical intelligence theory: Its claims and evidence. Intelligence, 31, 343-397. doi:10.1016/S0160-2896(02)00085-5

  3. Nov 2018
    1. Kern 2006 Chapelle recommends the interactionist approach to SLA (see Pica, 1994) Egbert and Petrie (2005): expand the theory from the interactionist to sociocultural perspective.

      "Sociocultural theory, like interactionist SLA, emphasizes the importance of learner interaction, but it is interested less in negotiation evoked adjustments in input than in the social and cultural situatedness of learner activity, learners’ agency in co-constructing meanings (as well as their own roles), and the importance of mediation by tools and signs."

      Systemic-functional linguistics framework for CMC; Anthropology; Semiotic theory; Plass cognitive theory while inputting the language with multi-media;

    1. 2009 Chapelle C.A. Four general approaches: cognitive linguistic; psycholinguistic; human learning; social context Problems in the four categories.

    1. In addition to discussing Knowles Andragogy learning theory this article also looks into two other adult learning theories: experiential and transformational. For learning to be successful in adults instructional designers need to "tap into prior experiences," "create a-ha moments," and "create meaning" by connecting to reality. Rating: 5/5

    1. This article documents how Ohio State University trains new elementary and middle school teachers to incorporate technology into their lessons. It highlights that technology integration is a tool not a theory or education. It also states that technology integration should be used to enhance the students' learning instead of forcing it into the curriculum. Rating: 5/5

    1. This article gives us seven tips on how to create a successful learning environment for adults. The takeaway from this article is that adults understand who they are. They are intrinsically motivated and want their learning to be purposeful. Ratings: 4/5

    1. This article discusses the main points of Malcolm Knowles main ideas of adult learning. It also mentions the different styles of learning. Additionally. the ADDIE instructional model is described. I properly constructed the ADDIE model helps merge and implement the different learning styles and needs of the adult learner. Ratings: 3/5

  4. Jul 2018
    1. Kahneman concluded his aforementioned presentation to academics by arguing that computers or robots are better than humans on three essential dimensions: they are better at statistical reasoning and less enamoured with stories; they have higher emotional intelligence; and they exhibit far more wisdom than humans.

      A little over-the-top?

    2. ‘omniscience in the observer’
    3. To illustrate, consider Isaac Newton.

      But there are examples of where our theory has led us astray, the heliocentric vision of the universe being an example. If not for that attachment to previous thinking, we might have learned more quickly about the heliocentric truth.

      'Even as He hath revealed: "As oft as an Apostle cometh unto you with that which your souls desire not, ye swell with pride, accusing some of being impostors and slaying others."' - Kitab-i-Iqan

    4. However, computers and algorithms – even the most sophisticated ones – cannot address the fallacy of obviousness. Put differently, they can never know what might be relevant.

      One goal of systems science and modelling, to explore what might be relevant and give us better heuristics.

    5. At the other extreme we have behavioural economics, which focuses on human bias and blindness by pointing out biases or obvious things that humans miss.
    6. So, given the problem of too much evidence – again, think of all the things that are evident in the gorilla clip – humans try to hone in on what might be relevant for answering particular questions. We attend to what might be meaningful and useful

      Consumat, heuristics - actually, this does work with thinking fast and slow. But maybe the divide isn't so clear - a spectrum?

    7. ‘blind to the obvious, and that we also are blind to our blindness’
    8. building on Herbert Simon’s 1950s work on bounded rationality
  5. Apr 2018
    1. music and art were important in helping those early modern humans forge a sense of group identity and mutual trust that enabled them to become so successful.

      Forging those group identities helped set up a strong base for creating different cultures.and also set up future pathways for ideas and theories among these groups.

  6. Mar 2018
    1. Neither the “Jews cause all my problems” claim nor the “racial/gender oppression is everywhere” claim is a literal conspiracy theory. Most people who buy into them don’t think Jews or white men (respectively) secretly meet in smoke-filled rooms and devise sophisticated strategies for dominating the world. Instead, these theories resemble traditional conspiracy theories in sealing themselves off from any possible counterevidence.

      Audacious...

  7. May 2017
  8. Mar 2017
    1. Star Legacy by the Vanderbilt LearningTechnology Center, 4-Mat by McCarthy,instructional episodes by Andre, multipleapproaches to understanding by Gardner,collaborative problem solving by Nelson,constructivist learning environments byJonassen, and learning by doing by Schank.

      Something to investigate...

      especially "multiple approaches to understanding by Gardner"

  9. Nov 2016
    1. This is a modern update to a classic confidence game—find a risky scenario with limited possibilities, bet on every single combination, and then hide your failures.

      Today, all possible outcomes can be posted to any website that allows accounts to be set to private, or that isn't likely to be noticed. After the fact, the incorrect results can be deleted before making the account public.

      This post points out that this trick could be used to "predict" election results, making it appear that they were fixed ahead of time. So it's potentially very dangerous.

  10. Oct 2016
  11. Sep 2015
    1. Fundamental to Wenger's theory is the idea that identity is constructed at theintersection of the individual and the social world. By and large, both sociological andpsychological approaches have acknowledged that identity is simultaneously anindividual, social, and cultural phenomenon.

      Being of psychology background, these are the theories I learn and choose to explore more about and focus my research on

  12. Aug 2015
  13. Jun 2015
    1. Steven Wheeler’s presentation below reviews related ideas contextualizing the modern learning climate. The gist? Rapid technology change has produced critical new pathways for both formal and informal learning.
  14. Feb 2015
    1. The researchers examined social media patterns for 1.2 million Facebook users and found that nearly 92 percent of those who engage with Italian conspiracy theory pages interact almost exclusively with conspiracy theory pages.

      Oh, no. No. Noooooo.

  15. Feb 2014
    1. The fourth of the theories is as yet the least influential but seems to be gaining strength. Its key ideas are that human nature causes people to flourish more under some conditions than under others, and that social and political institutions should be organized to facilitate that flourishing. What, more specifically, are the conditions or “functionings” that enable people to flourish?
      • Life
      • Health
      • Bodily integrity – protection against physical hazards and against physical and sexual assault
      • Autonomy – in the sense of the ability to choose freely one’s vocations and avocations
      • Competence – the ability to confront and solve problems
      • Engagement – active involvement in professional and leisure activity, as opposed to passive consumption of goods and services
      • Self-expression – the ability to speak one’s mind and express one’s creative impulses
      • Relationships – participation in freely chosen communities
      • Privacy – access to zones of intimacy in which relationships can be nurtured and identity developed