70 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2020
    1. Applying Knowles’ 5 Adult Learning Theory Assumptions to eLearning Assumption #1 (Self-Concept)

      I have read about these five assumptions in prior journal readings.

    1. TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION IN HIGHER EDUCATION: OVERCOMING ANXIETY THROUGH FACULTY BOOTCAMP

      This article uses educational theory to examine why educators feel anxiety in association with learning and using new technologies and how best to teach new technologies without triggering anxiety. 7/10, good discussion of theories and methods along with reasoning.

    1. TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATIONTHROUGH PROFESSIONAL LEARNING COMMUNITY

      This article examines the effectiveness of learning communities to support integration of technology into classrooms and effective teacher growth in the area of technology proficiencies. 5/10, learning community findings are useful but this source is very targeted towards a specific group of adult learners.

    1. Technology Andragogy Work Content Knowledge Model as a New Framework in Vocational Education: Revised Technology Pedagogy Content Knowledge Model

      This article focuses on using adult education theory to integrate technology into vocational education. This expands adult learning opportunities to community colleges and trade schools. 8/10 interesting and different from an equity and accessibility standpoint.

    1. Language Research Bulletin,32, ICU, TokyoAndragogy in the 21st century: Applying the Assumptions of Adult Learning Online

      This article emphasizes the importance of creating online programs that have learning objectives that correspond to learners' real-world needs. It examines Knowles' Andragogical Model to provide guidelines for incorporating adult learning principles into course design. 10/10, very good blend of strategy and theory.

    1. A Comprehensive Exploration of Technology's RoleIin Adult Learning

      This article examines and gives bit of information from a book covering the intersection of adult learning and technology innovation. 4/10, while there is information here it is certainly not the entire book and therefore incomplete. It does serve as a quick and accessible alternative for those seeking the books information but lacking the time/ access to read the book.

    1. The Impact of Social Media Technologies on Adult Learning

      This article takes on the challenge of investigating what role social media technologies have in adult learning/ their impact on learning outcomes for adult learners. The data showed that social media technologies follow similar patterns to other educational tools. Teaching method used in conjunction with the technology matters significantly. This being said, the article does make several recommendations for using social media in the classroom to boost adult learning outcomes. 10/10 interesting and relevant article with easy to find and utilize recommendations educators could implement.

    1. Adapting adult learning theory to support innovative, advanced, online learning - WVMD Model

      This article details how to build an innovative online learning environment using methods based on influential adult learning theories. These theories include Social Development Theory, Behaviorism, Critical Reflection and Nurturing the Soul. 10/10, many theories throughly discussed.

    1. Preservice Teacher Experience with Technology Integration: How the Preservice Teacher’s Effica-cy in Technology Integration is Impactedby the Context of the Preservice Teacher Education Pro-gram

      This article discusses the need for teacher education to focus just as much on technology knowledge (regardless of grade level taught) as on educational theory and methods. It argues that teachers cannot be effective if they are not trained in not only current technologies, but also taught to be familiar with navigating new technologies as the emerge. 5/10 Very specific to K-12 teacher education.

    1. The adult learning environment

      This article was written by three faculty members of the University of Zambia. The authors discuss the idea of "adult learning" with respect to child learning. The authors spend most of the article outlining the social, emotional, physical, and cognitive aspects of the adult learning environment.

      Rating: 5/10

    1. Adult Learning Theories

      This article provides a short, yet well rounded description of andragogy, SDL, and TL. The author proposes, and concludes, that effective adult education requires a mixture of theories or principles.

      Rating: 8/10

    1. Andragogy – Adult Learning Theory (Knowles)

      This article provides a brief overview of Knowles Five Assumptions of Adult Learners. These assumptions, and accompanying principles, help provide a baseline for online adult education.

      Rating: 5/10

    1. Andragogy and Self-Directed Learning:Pillars of Adult Learning Theory

      This chapter defines andragogy and reviews the early foundations of adult learning theory. Previous adult learning research performed with multiple constraints demonstrated that circumstance (education, training, health, speed of response) may have more of an impact in learning than age. Studies also revealed that age impacts the ability to perform some cognitive functions yet has little impact on others. While the characteristics of the adult learner have remained relatively consistent, perspectives in classifying the topic and its principles have varied. In discussion of self-directed learning, the authors address related objectives, ethos, self-directed attributes, and assessment methods. The authors report a decline in literature focused on self-directed learning within adult education and advocate for continued investigation and research. 8/10

    1. Self-Directed Learning:  A Key Component of Adult Learning Theory Geri Manning

      Article offers a discussion of SDL as component of adult learning theory. Useful discussion of conceptual framework and literature review. Characteristics of SD learners are explored. Concludes with some implications for the study of adult learning. Rating 7/10

    1. Insights 3 Adult Learning Theories Every E-Learning Designer Must Know

      Adult learning theories for Instructional Designers - Article names adult learning "theories" (andragogy, neuroscience, experiential learning, SDL, and transformational learning). Discusses why these "theories" are relevant to ID. Rating 3/10

    1. Description: Researchers asked students in a second language class to complete a research video assignment. Students reflected the research helped them gain key insights and a feeling of self-confidence. This self-confidence was tested as they attempted to incorporate the second language which pushed many students out of their comfort zone. Students found ways to simplify the content so they could explain their research in the second language. Due to the video presentation format, students were able to practice their language repeatedly which helped them grasp the vocabulary. As a whole, the student felt as if they learned more content and vocabulary with the video assignment.

      Rating: 8/10

      Reason for the Rating: The data received from the research was survey based therefore it included more opinions rather than facts. It would have been interesting to see student's final grades or test scores and compare them to previous semesters. The article is well supported with facts and quotes.

    1. Description: The purpose of this article is to explore the idea of using Wikis inside the classroom. Wikis are considered great tools because they are flexible and promote collaboration. The author discusses the different ways teachers can implement wikies from groups creating and presenting a single wiki to each student creating their own and commenting on their peers wikis. Furthermore, Wikis are familiar to students which helps promote engagement. The last section describes how to create Wikis and integrate them into a classroom setting.

      Rating: 10/10

      Reason for the rating: This topic fully engages the reader with easy to understand text and diagrams. There are plenty of citations to support the theories.

    1. Description: This article outlines three phases for collaborative teaching: Planning, implementing, and reflecting. It discusses the ways teachers can support student interactions through the implementation phase by creating well-thought out activities which engage the learner. These activities should focus on collaboration of peer ideas in order to be effective in building social and academic skills. It mentions a few examples such as discussion groups or large projects. The author gives multiple examples of the teacher's role in a collaborative setting as well as issues that may occur. The article encourages both the teacher and the students to reflect on the learning and collaboration afterwards.

      Rating: 9/10

      Reason for the rating: The author is very thorough in their research and explanation with the text. They have many citations to support their theories as well as diagrams to help illustrate their ideas. The biggest fault with the paper is that it is entirely idealistic without any reference to a case study.

    1. Description: This article explains Bloom's Taxonomy in the college environment. It begins with an overview of the theory before delving into the questions used in the research. By using Bloom's Taxonomy, the college course was able to have students tie higher thinking to concreate examples which helped the learners gain more understanding of the materials presented.

      Rating: 8/10

      Reason for the rating: This article reflects on one researchers attempt to place Bloom's taxonomy into a classroom setting. It shows the reader how to implement the theory with examples and data. There are plenty of citations provided throughout the text to help support the theories. Though it does not mention technology integration, it does discuss tailoring lessons to fit student ability. Technology could be used in conjunction to help promote an even deeper understanding.

    1. Description: This article describes online learning through the lens of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The author describes for a person to be successful in an online setting they need to have a safe home environment, consistent formatting, and collaboration opportunities. For students to really excel in a field, they must also have an inclusive environment, assistive tools to help with self efficacy, and positive feedback on assignments. Technology plays a key role in allowing students with disabilities or weaknesses in a class to feel confident.

      Rating: 10/10

      Reason for the rating: The article is supported with an abundance of citations. It is organized in a clear and logical format as it follows Maslow's pyramid in order. The writing is concise and easy to understand.

    1. Description: This article discusses English languages learners and their self-directed learning levels. The researchers took a wide sample to ESL learners and surveyed them about their demographics and their English media consumption outside of the classroom. They found that a majority of ESL students watch TV programs in English as well as have native English speakers as friends. These are considered strategies for ESLs to learn English outside of an ESL classroom.

      Rating: 7/10

      Reasoning for rating: The article is well supported through data and citations. It discusses the data with little bias and attempts to use learning theories to interpret their findings. Though it does not discuss the integration of technology inside of the classroom, it reflects on the use of technology in every day life to help support the learner.

    1. Description: The article begins by defining social learning theory and reviewing Bandura's contributions to the field. Then, it discusses technologies influence on social interactions in the modern era and student engagement levels when utilizing technology inside the classroom. Games especially help students with following directions and creating critical thinking strategies which they can bring into the classroom setting.

      Rating: 5/10

      Reason for rating: The website for the article is minimal at best. The article itself is well written with plenty of citations to support it, but the formatting is not consistent throughout.

    1. Description: As the title suggests, this article dictates the necessities for a curriculum or class dedicated to teaching adult learners. Not only does it describe the environment where they flourish, but delves into twelve principles of effective teaching for adult learners. There are also examples of engaging teaching strategies which range from basic and general ideas-- for example, modeling, teamwork, and transitions-- to complex and specific tasks such as SNOW cards, gallery walks, and bumper stickers.

      Rating: 8/10

      Reason for rating: This article cites many different researchers and includes facts to support their theories and ideas. It defines important principles with simple and easy to understand text for novice teachers. Though it does not address technology integration, many of the ideas can be altered to include technology to enrich the learning and increase engagement levels.

    1. Description: This text describes adult learning theories best used in a workforce training. It describes the environmental factors which lead to success in an adult student (such as a positive atmosphere) as well as techniques like heterogeneous learning groups. It attempts to persuade the reader to address the personal needs of each student while still moving the class towards the trainings goal. As a whole, this article covers the basics of what trainers need to know when teaching adults in a workface setting.

      Rating: 6/10

      Reason for rating: This article is very quick and direct. It discusses each technique, skill, or factor with examples and reasoning for the suggestions. Each suggestion is well-thought out and logical. Yet, the article cites few other texts which discredits it a little. The article was found through JSTOR which only sources peer-reviewed texts.

  2. Jun 2020
  3. May 2020
  4. Apr 2020
  5. Mar 2020
    1. Emerging Theories of Learning and the Role of Technology

      This article discusses the social changes introduced by new technologies and how educational environments are trying to prepare students to enter a technologically advanced workforce through integration of technology with curriculum. The author challenges traditional theories of learning by discussing how cognition is situated in the digital, 21st-century learner, and that technology integration should focus on the importance of community within learning environments. Although the article challenges the traditional ideas of technology integration, it fails to provide actionable ways in which educators could infuse technology into their own curriculum. Rating: 6/10

    1. Theories and Frameworks for Online Education: Seeking an Integrated Model

      This article, written by Anthony G. Picciano of City University of New York Graduate Center and Hunter College, seeks to create a theoretical framework by which to posit online education according to learning theories and their specific application. Beginning with a brief outline of the primary learning theories, the author then tries to position each theory within the online learning environment and the practical implications that follow before suggesting an integrated model that combines features of each theory. One of the primary benefits of this article is the way in which the authors show how the theories of learning might be mutated for individual, educational environmental needs. Rating: 7/10

    1. Research in Educational Technology

      This textbook, published by the Oklahoma State University Library ePress, contains a chapter which summarizes the main views of knowledge in educational technology research, including postpositivism, constructivism, advocacy, and pragmatism, as well as each view's research traditions. The chapter suggests an approach to evaluating research articles through the lenses of a consistent learning theory coupled, methodologies that support that learning theory, and the conclusions that are drawn by the researchers supported through their methodologies. This chapter would help educators evaluate how and why they might include technology into their course curriculum. Rating: 7/10

  6. Nov 2019
    1. Training and Development Policy Wiki

      This webpage, under the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) .gov site, provides an extensive list of technology resources that can be and have been implemented into a variety of employee deveolpment programs. These tools allow for more personalized learning, active participation, collaboration, and communication.In the first section of the site, examples of Web 2.0 tools are listed that can promote collaboration and constructive learning. You can also find technologies that are used in specific sectors, such as the Federal Government and the Private Sector. Clicking on the links redirects you to additional resources on the tech tools, including how to use them effectively and professionally for employee training. Rating 10/10

    1. 1Engaging Adults Learners with TechnologyThrough

      Instruction Librarians from the Twin Cities Campus Library created this instructional gudie as a workshop for implementing technology for adult learning. First, the authors describe key characteristics of adult learners as identified in the theory of andragogy. Examples of these characteristics include the need to know, learner responsibility, past experiences, and motivation to learn. The authors then suggest instructional practices and activities to meet the needs of adult learners, Finally, they provide examples of technology tools for effectively engaging adult learners. Rating 10/10

    1. This article, developed by faculty members at NAU, provides research behind and practices for technology-infused professional development (PD) programs. The authors first emphasize the importance of designing professional development for teachers around how they and their students learn best. Many approaches to PD have taken a one-size-fits-all approach in which learners take a more passive role in absorbing standardized information. The authors in this article suggest the need for a more effective model, one in which teachers play an active role in learning in ways that they find most effective for them and their students. Technology can support this PD through interactive and learner-centered instruction. Rating: 9/10

    1. Advantages of Online Professional Development

      This chapter, "Advantages of Online Professional Development" describes the benefits of online teacher professional development (OTPD), which implements technology to deliver training and learning in an online environment. OTPD allows teachers to participate in a flexible, self-directed, and collaborative learning community. They can interact with other teachers synchronously and asynchronously, or take professional development courses at their own schedule.

    1. E-Learning Theory (Mayer, Sweller, Moreno)

      This website outlines key principles of the E-Learning Theory developed by Mayer, Sweller, and Moreno. E-Learning Theory describes how the implementation of educational technology can be combined with key principles of how we learn for better outcomes. This site describes those principles as a guide of more effective instructional design. Users can also find other learning theories under the "Categories" link at the top of the page. Examples include Constructivist theories, Media & Technology theories, and Social Learning theories. Rating: 8/10

    1. Learning Domains

      This website provides several examples of domains adults may learn in or engage with. By clicking on each type, you are redirected to a detailed description of the domain. Descriptions include, but are not limited to, definitions, theories and research behind the topic, and real-world examples. You can also find references used in the description, which can be helpful for further exploration. This InstructionalDesign.org website also provides extensive lists of learning concepts (i.e. motivation, personalized learning, storyboard, etc.) and theories (i.e. Adult Learning Theory, Social Learning, Constructivism, etc.). Each learning theory link provides a theoretical definition, applications, examples, key principles, references, and related websites. Rating 10/10.

    1. Tech Literacy Resources

      This website is the "Resources" archive for the IgniteED Labs at Arizona State University's Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College. The IgniteED Labs allow students, staff, and faculty to explore innovative and emerging learning technology such as virtual reality (VR), artifical intelligence (AI), 3-D printing, and robotics. The left side of this site provides several resources on understanding and effectively using various technologies available in the IgniteED labs. Each resources directs you to external websites, such as product tutorials on Youtube, setup guides, and the products' websites. The right column, "Tech Literacy Resources," contains a variety of guides on how students can effectively and strategically use different technologies. Resources include "how-to" user guides, online academic integrity policies, and technology support services. Rating: 9/10

    1. The three major prominent learning theories are known as behaviourist, cognitivist and constructivist, though Siemens later developed the connectivism theory as a learning theory for the digital age.

      The e-learning learning websites is a collection of peer articles with from around the world. It is a collection of high quality articles, blogs, journals.

      Rating: 7/10

    1. The article, "Keys to success: Self-directed learning,' authors Fellows, Culver, and Beston discuss the components of Grow's self-directed learning (SDL) model. Learners and instructors fit into a matrix which can be used to determine optimal instructional strategies to meet the readiness of the learner. The authors discuss how SDL is implemented in multiple institutions for higher education. Instructional methods are shared to address foundational SDL skills as well as issues that arose when learners were having difficulty transitioning from one stage of readiness to another. Overall, holistic learner skills were enhanced with SDL. Rating: 9/10

    1. The text documents a year-long research project into experiential learning in teacher professional development. Teachers participated in experiential learning themselves to then begin to implement it into their own classrooms to serve their students. By and large, teachers were receptive, had misconceptions addressed, changed their practices with their colleagues and students to develop more engaging and active classrooms. Essentially, a shift from teacher-centered learning to student-centered learning was achieved in small increments by using experiential learning and reflection to facilitate teacher growth thereby creating new pathways for student learning. Given the nature of the traditional methods predominantly used, this study seems to reflect some elements of transformative learning in which teacher conventions and ideas were challenged and adjusted through heterogenous groups and personal reflection. Rating: 9/10

    1. The Northwest Center of Public Health Practice's toolkit title "Effective Adult Learning: A toolkit for teaching adults," is . a highly comprehensive resource for instructional design for adult learning instructors. Sections include course or training design, objectives of adult learning, various tools to help in the process of course design, and brief overviews of adult learning methods and theory. The embedded section review charts make it easier for quick references. Rating: 10/10

    1. Transformative learning theory and methods to support it are discussed in this text. Andragogy is initially reviewed in order for the reader to become acclimated to basic principles of adult learning. Transformative learning segments emphasize the methods and environments needed to achieve such deep and challenging learning. Due to the intensive personal nature of transformative learning, one must understand the readiness of the learner. The text notes that learners in transition are more apt to engage in transformative learning if given an opportunity to develop self-awareness, and a willingness to be in discomfort in open, non-hierarchical environments.

    1. In this text, instructional designers are given brief synopses of three adult learning theories including andragogy, transformational learning, and experiential learning in order to understand how adults best learn and apply learning. The structure of the text is brief paragraphs with numerated descriptors and/or bullet points for reader convenience. Suggestions for learning activities are also provided for the instructional designer to consider in their course design. In the segment for transformative learning, a link is provided to provide the instructional designer more specific methods to incorporate. At the end of the text, diagrams are provided to visual core aspects and flow of each learning theories process. Rating: 7/10

    1. As online learning matures, it is important for both theorists and practitioners to understand how to apply new and emerging educational practices and technologies that foster a sense of community and optimize the online learning environment.

      The article expresses the design theory elements (goals, values, methods) and how it can assist with defining new tools for online learning. Rating 5/5

  7. Mar 2019
    1. Designing Technology for Adult Learners: Applying Adult Learning Theory

      Discusses how adult learning theory can be applied for digital learning for adults. It suggests making sure interactions are built on real world and relevant situations, that learners and go at their own pace, they are allowed to reflect on their learning, and interact with each other and different points of view. Rating 10/10

    1. This article discusses that technology rich classroom research is lacking in the research world. This paper created a scale in which it could evaluate classroom environments. The authors tested this scale and determined it was a good starting framework for how to improve classroom environments. This scale could be useful later in class when evaluating technologies.Rating 9/10 for help assessment techniques

    1. What Makes for Effective Adult Learning

      This article provides a short overview or strategies and techniques to make adult learning effective. This article quotes adult learning researches like Knowles to provide information about meaningful learning experiences. This article provides idea for activities that fit in the category of affective adult learning.

    1. This fact sheet provides an overview of adult learning theories in a digestible format with citations throughout the sheet. The citations are from various experts on adult learning theory and examples are provided as well. Rating: 8/10 Clear and concise overview of adult learning theories.

    1. As one understands professional development in educational technology as potential transformational learning experiences, one can begin to reconceptualize its outcomes.

      This article provides an in-depth view from the teachers perspective about how to prepare for technology in their learning environments. Through professional development training, teachers and instructors can gain new knowledge about how to incorporate new technologies into their practice. This article focuses on one study and concludes that new technology needs to be introduced slowly for best practices.

    1. one main goal: they help you create effective learning experiences for the adult corporate learner.

      This article takes on Adult Learning from an Instructional Design perspective. This article reviews 3 adult learning theories and why it's important for Instructional Designers to keep these theories in mind the facilitate the learning process. Rating: 9/10 for easy reading, overview of learning theories and emphasis on instructional design

    1. This webpage discusses different learning styles for adults, the principles of adult learning theory and different instructional design models for the the present and future. This webpage reviews andragogy and adult learning theory from the works of Malcolm Knowles. This article comes from Rutgers University and provides additional resources for adult learners. Ratings: 7/10 for helpful, short overview

    1. This link is to a three-page PDF that describes Gagne's nine events of instruction, largely in in the form of a graphic. Text is minimized and descriptive text is color coded so it is easy to find underneath the graphic at the top. The layout is simple and easy to follow. A general description of Gagne's work is not part of this page. While this particular presentation does not have personal appeal to me, it is included here due to the quality of the page and because the presentation is more user friendly than most. Rating 4/5

    1. Edutech wiki This page has a somewhat messy design and does not look very modern but it does offer overviews of many topics related to technologies. Just like wikipedia, it offers a good jumping off point on many topics. Navigation can occur by clicking through categories and drilling down to topics, which is easier for those who already know the topic they are looking for and how it is likely to be characterized. Rating 3/5

  8. Feb 2019
    1. Mezirow,2006/2018p. 119

      Absolutely thrilled to see Mezirow and transformative learning theory in the spotlight. Transformative learning theory happens to be my favorite educational theory.

  9. Nov 2018
    1. This article suggests that perhaps keeping updated and informed on technology can prevent the shut-down and closure of specific degrees and the departments they come from. Technology is constantly changing, and it is expected that institutions will change with it. Rating: 7/10

    1. This is scholarly article that shares research findings in questions such as, to what extent is there a relationship between faculty's comfortableness with technology and perception of technology integration and student success? The data is very interesting, including the fact that students in the sample reported being most proficient with a printer and least proficient with a smarboard. This definitely indicates a shift in what technological knowledge a professor will need verses their students.

      Rating: 9/10

    1. Instructional Design Strategies for Intensive Online Courses: An Objectivist-Constructivist Blended Approach

      This was an excellent article Chen (2007) in defining and laying out how a blended learning approach of objectivist and constructivist instructional strategies work well in online instruction and the use of an actual online course as a study example.

      RATING: 4/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

    1. Transformation for adults in an Internet-based learningenvironment—is it necessary to be self-directed?

      REDIRECT to this URL Tranformation for adults

      This study explores transformative learning theory (TLT) for adults in the Internet-base learning environment and questions the need for students to be self-directed. The study also includes the Constructivist Internet-based Learning Environment Scale (CILES). The Self-directed Learning Readiness Scale(SDLRS) as modified by Chang (2006) was used to meet the cultural needs of the participants. In conclusion, the results have a high reliability factor and add quantitative research to previous qualitative studies.<br> Further discussion is suggested regarding the technical and emancipatory learning interests on adult online learners.

      RATING: 8/10

    1. there appears to be a theoretical shift more often than not from Behaviorist learning practices to Constructivist learning practices because of the increased use of educational technologies, and stemming from the fact that many available technologies support Constructivist learning platforms.  However, there are still many learning practices that focus on more Behaviorist learning techniques, and there are arguments in support of their validity as well.  That with the most support currently is more of a blending of the two theories, for they can be used in conjunction as well while utilizing educational technology.

      Two educational theories that form the basis of many of today's educational technology: behaviorism, and constructivism. This article explores the foundations of behaviorism and constructivism in education, and brings the current trends and future implications for these two theories in the educational technology.

      Rating: 7/10

  10. Jul 2017
    1. Reciprocity now becomes a matter of at once mutually preserving the other’s distinctness while interdependently fashioning a bigger context in which these separate identities interpenetrate…are co-regulated, and to which persons invest an affection supervening their separate identities. Reciprocity now becomes a matter of both holding and being held, a mutual protection of each partner’s opportunity to experience and exercise both sides of life’s fundamental tension.”

      Lv5 reciprocity: Maintaining individual's distinctness while together create a bigger context so that these separate identities interpenetrate.

    2. As the institutional balance breaks, the person becomes more available to and interested in a kind of sharing and intimacy with others. But intimacy in the next balance is the self’s aim, rather than its source. It involves a self that travels between systems, or exists in the dynamism between them, not in the dynamism between individuals.

      The self exists in the dynamism between systems, not between individuals

    1. Postmodernism (or “poststructuralism”), in its denial of the possibility of judgement and rejection of all “metanarratives” (grounded systems), corresponds to the stage 4.5 nihilistic gap.

      Post-modernism: stage 4.5 nihilistic gaps aka the "sadness" after seeing the truth in Plan B by Charles Inouye

    2. All ideologies are relativized as tools rather than truths. Fluidity treats rationality as a valuable tool that is not always applicable; non-rational ambiguity and paradox become non-problematic. Stage 5 can, therefore, conjure with systems, as animated characters in a magical shadow-play drama.

      All ideologies are relativized as tools rather than truths. "Conjuring" with systems, shadow-play drama.

    3. To stage 3, that sounds cold and distant, but for stage 4, it means seeing the other person for who they really are. Emotions are just something people have, from time to time. Those need to be dealt with, but should not be taken too seriously. Relating to the other person’s principles, projects, and commitments means supporting what they most care about in the longer run. A romantic relationship between systematic people not only tolerates, but respects, and actively supports, their differing values and projects. That is what it means (for stage 4) to be actually in a relationship with another person, rather than losing both your selves in a warm bath of shared feelings.

      Being in relationship for Stage 4: dealing with but not taking emotions seriously. Must support differing values & projects.

    1. Legitimate peripheral participation is a more powerful motivation for accurate feedback than money. If a student’s labor contributes to the success or failure of your project, you want to be sure they are doing it right—and so you will scrutinize their work carefully, and give detailed corrective advice.

      Why does boss care about giving feedback in Legitimate Peripheral Participation? Coz it's success or failure! (FAIL = For All I Learn)