147 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Jul 2021
    1. So long as the filters are only using GET requests to pull down links, there’s nothing fundamentally wrong with them. It’s a basic (though oft-ignored) tenet of web development that GET requests should be idempotent; that is, they shouldn’t somehow change anything important on the server. That’s what POST is for. A lot of people ignore this for convenience’s sake, but this is just one way that you can get bitten. Anyone remember the Google Web Accelerator that came out a while ago, then promptly disappeared? It’d pre-fetch links on a page to speed up things if you clicked them later on. And if one of those links happened to delete something from a blog, or log you out… well, then you begin to see why GET shouldn’t change things. So yes, the perfect solution to this is a 2-step unsubscribe link: the first step takes to you a page with a form on it, and that form then POSTs something back that finalizes the unsubscribe request.
    2. Idempotent just means that following a link twice has exactly the same effect on persistent state as clicking it once. It does not mean that following the link must not change state, just that after following it once, following it again must not change state further. There are good reasons to avoid GET requests for changing state, but that’s not what idempotent means.
    1. In the future, we recommend that toasters be sold in six-packs to accomodate important SPT research.

      Definitely an important finding! :)

  3. May 2021
    1. methods of purifying water

      As we all know that how pure water makes us healthy and how impure water makes us ill and causes many diseases like typhoid and cholera.

      Also read about typhoid in detail.

      So we will sum up some methods of purifying water that will help you to purify water.

      If it is said that nothing is possible in life without water, then it will not be wrong.

      Apart from quenching thirst, all the work like cooking is not possible without water.

      In the eyes of many people, purity of water is not necessary.

      But this thinking of yours can prove dangerous for you and your family.

      Accuracy from bath water to drinking water matters.

    1. The limitations associated with the analysis of class-evaluation surveys in Study 2 largely result from the difficulty of extracting precise information from large groups of subjective ratings.

      Such a study might be more profitably done first at the undergraduate level in a pre-med course and then followed up 1-3 years later at the graduate medicine level. In particular, there are many universities that are pre-admitting undergraduates to their graduate programs where these studies, though still possibly small, could be done with reasonable controls and better retention to cover the time differential cases. This is especially the case since many of these biological processes like the TCA cycle, etc are repeated at both levels of education.

    2. However, the degraded performance across all groups at 6 weeks suggests that continued engagement with memorised information is required for long-term retention of the information. Thus, students and instructors should exercise caution before employing any of the measured techniques in the hopes of obtaining a ‘silver bullet’ for quick acquisition and effortless recall of important data. Any system of memorization will likely require continued practice and revision in order to be effective.

      Abysmally sad that this is presented without the context of any of the work over the last century and a half of spaced repetition.

      I wonder that this point slipped past the reviewers and isn't at least discussed somewhat narratively here.

    3. here was a noticeable decrease in recall performance among the students trained in the Australian Aboriginal method after 6 weeks, with the participants in that group indistinguishable from the untrained recall group. However, this observation should be treated with caution, as the sample was too small for accurate quantification of performance.

      This is a bit surprising, though the (N=3) numbers were so small.

      It also makes me wonder if the Aboriginal method training included a spaced repetition component of any sort as traditionally it likely would, though it's highly likely that novices memorizing a random list of butterflies wouldn't have reviewed over their performance a week, a month, or other intervals later.

    4. Participation in the six week follow-up was markedly reduced, with a total of 8 participants (N = 3 memory palace; 3 Australian Aboriginal method; 2 untrained recall).

      Why was the number on the follow up so markedly small? Did they do it during mid-terms or finals? A small, contained group like this should have been easy to reach.

    5. It is worth noting that no instructions were provided to the participants with respect to sequence, yet this measure exhibited the largest effect size of any of the parameters measured

      They should have mentioned this before. Not knowing what the function does, I'm curious to see how abysmal the sequence numbers were for the control group.

    6. Thematic analysis was used to explore the qualitative data captured in the online survey. [22,23] describe thematic analysis as a method that seeks to find patterns, or categories, that emerge from the data, enabling the researcher to organise and provide detailed description.

      This seems like an interesting area to look into further.

      Two cited sources here:

    7. All statistical comparisons were therefore performed using non-parametric methods, to avoid introducing errors based on assumptions of normality in the data. Repeated measures comparisons were performed using the Friedman test, except where specified, with post-hoc pairwise comparisons made using the Friedman-Nemenyi test. Although no direct measure of effect size for the Friedman test is generally recognized, an indirect measure of effect size was obtained using the Kendall’s W-statistic (KW), computed from the Friedman Q value [19,20]. Effect sizes were interpreted as follows: weak: KW< 0.19; moderate 0.20< KW< 0.39; strong 0.4< KW.

      Delve into these techniques.

    8. The numbers of correctly recalled items were not normally distributed, due to a ceiling effect. This was likely attributable to the fact that the incoming medical student population were pre-selected as high academic achievers, and many may have already had personal systems for memorising information.

      Nice that they note this potential effect and skewing of the data.

    9. Participants were instructed to associate items to be remembered with specific objects and locations in the imagined space, with as much detail as possible (e.g. a red lamp with an adjustable shade and a power switch in the center of the lamp base sitting on a desk to the left hand side of the entrance to the room. As items were added to the memory list, each new item was associated with an object and position in the imagined room. To recall items, participants were instructed to imagine themselves walking into the room, approaching each object and location which had a list item associated with it, and to attempt to recall the list item in conjunction with the imagined object.

      No instruction about the five senses, exaggeration, hyperbole, etc?

      Given how much I see missing here in the Western method which I'm more versed, I wonder what I'm missing with the Australian method which I'm well aware of, but not as versed?

    10. Following the 20-minute rest, a final recall test was performed, this time without the opportunity for students to review the list prior to recall testing.

      It would be highly useful to do another test at a larger interval, say a week or a month later as well, both with and without the suggestion of spaced repetition with all three groups.

    11. After 10 minutes, the word lists were collected and students were asked to write down as many of the list items as they could recall within five minutes.

      Were students asked or told if they'd be tested with this on long-term memory?

      Personally, I'd have used a simple major system method to memorize such a list for short term memory, but would have used other techniques for long term memory.

    12. They were also instructed not to mark or write on the word list, and not to use their mobile phones or any other electronic devices or aids to assist in the activity.

      Doing this specifically prevents the non-mnemotechniques group from adding their own visual loci in the form of annotations, drolleries, etc.

    13. Group 1 participants received particular instruction in Western memory techniques. Group 2 students received instruction in the Australian Aboriginal technique.

      What was the instruction? How long did it last? Was it reviewed at a later interval?

    14. Each student was assigned randomly to one of three study groups and assigned an individual study ID number.

      Were students queried as to their knowledge or experience with any of the techniques prior to the study?

  4. Apr 2021
    1. To resolve this, radiocarbon dating of these samples fromWaun Mawn was conducted in conjunction with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL)dating of sediment from within the packing deposits that were contemporaneous with themonoliths’erection, and fromfilled-in sockets (from after the monoliths’removal). OSL dat-ing determines the burial age of sediments, with the dating signals being reset by light expos-ure immediately prior to deposition (Smedley2018).

      Look up this process and evaluate the mechanism for how it works.

  5. Mar 2021
  6. Feb 2021
  7. Jan 2021
  8. Dec 2020
  9. Nov 2020
    1. The Object.getPrototypeOf() method returns the prototype (i.e. the value of the internal [[Prototype]] property) of the specified object.

      internal: [[Prototype]]

      Other times we see something used to indicate it is internal. In fact, this even supersedes proto__. So why did they use a different naming convention? Did they decide [[ ]] is a better naming convention?

  10. Oct 2020
    1. This article introduces a special issue of Qualitative Inquiry that focuses on using "concept" as method in the education and social sciences. They describe this exploratory approach where the method emerges during the process of research.

    1. DEVELOPMENT ARTICLEA systems-based approach to technology integrationusing mentoring and communities of practice

      This article presents a model of technology integration at the system level formed around mentoring. It focuses on effective methods of teacher professional development in the area of technology integration and discusses overcoming various obstacle teachers face during adult learning/ education. 6/10, very narrow focus of adult learners.

    1. METHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT IN ADULT LEARNING RESEARCHCOMBINING PHYSIOLOGICAL REACTIONS AND LEARNING EXPERIENCES IN SIMULATION-BASED LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

      This article details the methods and results of a research experiment done to determine whether/ how physiological measurement technologies can be used with educational research methods to investigate subjective learning experiences. Describes research methods and data collected. 8/10, very interesting article and a very interesting and well done study but very specific to this one topic. e

    1. Social Media and Networking Technologies: An Analysis of Collaborative Work and Team Communication

      Trends in Web 2.0 technologies and various networking modalities are briefly reviewed. Furthermore, advantages and barriers in the use of said technologies are discussed. Implementation of social media as a learning tool can be advantageous, however, it must supplement learning, not replace a structured environment. The educator should still remain present in the learning environment. And, he/she should provide appropriate support and training, as well as model, respective online tools to ensure efficacy. 6/10

    1. Online learning, blended learning, flipped learning, hybrid learning, flexible learning, open learning and distance education are all terms that are often used inter-changeably, but there are significant differences in meaning. More importantly, these forms of education, once considered somewhat esoteric and out of the mainstream of conventional education, are increasingly taking on greater significance and in some cases becoming mainstream themselves. As teachers and instructors become more familiar and confident with online learning and new technologies, there will be more innovative methods developing all the time.

      The author, Anthony Bates, holds a BA in Psychology and a Ph.D. in Educational Administration. He holds over 40 years of teaching experience. In this chapter he proposes online learning is a mode of delivery versus a teaching method. In this chapter Bates compares teaching delivery methods, defines which mode students need, and weighs in on the choice between face-to-face and online teaching.

      Rating: 10/10

  11. Sep 2020
    1. s of now, we have been discussing the model with one senior (i.e. professor) and one junior organizational scientistspecialized in firefighting proceduresby providing an animated version of our model. Thus, the terminology we used for describing concepts (e.g. activity) is in line with the terminology of organizational scientists. Out of our discussions, they have evaluated our model from an end user perspective.They confirmed that the model from an activity and dependency level can be useful for first responders

      Data? just discussion? Interesting, but no methodological rigor re: how they "demo'd" the model; why they talked with these particular folks (other than academic experts...?); how they interviewed and then analyzed the interview data....

  12. Aug 2020
    1. I devised and delivered the original Turing's sunflowers experiment with Jonathan Swinton for the museum and am co-author on the paper from the results. I also conceptualised Hookedonmusic with computational musicologists from Amsterdam for the same museum group. I describe in a book chapter a reflection on digital methods, and wider implications for communities and society in relation to ethics. Do have a look, in relation to ethics https://www.academia.edu/41439394/The_Dream_Life_of_Digital_in_search_of_lost_purpose

      Your paper mainly focuses on on a narrow form of what citizen science can be for museums - ie crowdsourcing, it could also consider the role of museums as a platform to engage audiences in thinking about topics of wider societal concern e.g. Turing's homosexuality and its relevance to museum visitors today.

    1. Participants completed the intrinsic motivation inventory (Ryan, Koestner,&Deci,1991), which contains 22 items such as“I felt like I wasdoing what I wanted to do while I was working on the task”and“I felt that it was my choice to do the task.”Items were measured on a 7-point Likert scale from 1 (strongly disagree)to7(strongly agree; Cronbacha¼.86).
  13. Jul 2020
    1. Make sure you have a good headset with a microphone as any background noise is distracting to others during the call. If there is excessive noise on your connection, you will be muted until you need to speak. Make sure you join the IRC channel as links and code examples are usually shared over the chat channel.
    1. TLA+ is a high-level language for modeling programs and systems--especially concurrent and distributed ones.

      Need to look more into TLA+ and formal verification with regards to software development.

  14. Jun 2020
    1. Kempfert, K., Martinez, K., Siraj, A., Conrad, J., Fairchild, G., Ziemann, A., Parikh, N., Osthus, D., Generous, N., Del Valle, S., & Manore, C. (2020). Time Series Methods and Ensemble Models to Nowcast Dengue at the State Level in Brazil. ArXiv:2006.02483 [q-Bio, Stat]. http://arxiv.org/abs/2006.02483

  15. May 2020
    1. To exercise the right of withdrawal, you must inform us (LEFAS Fashion GmbH, Heckmannufer 3, 10997 Berlin, Germany, hello@wayks.com) of your decision to withdraw from this contract by an unequivocal statement (e.g. a letter sent by post or e-mail). You may use the attached model withdrawal form, but it is not obligatory.
    2. To meet the withdrawal deadline, it is sufficient for you to send your communication concerning your exercise of the right of withdrawal before the withdrawal period has expired.
  16. Mar 2020
    1. Different GUI designers have different priorities. Some want something that looks pretty while others want something that will ensure a great experience on every platform. Qt gives you the ability to customize everything, and still has a pretty good experience with its components. But those components are not native, meaning they are drawn by Qt instead of using the components provided by the OS.
  17. Feb 2020
    1. At GitLab, "no ego" means that we foster and support an environment where results matter, and you're given agency to approach your work in the way that makes sense to you. Instead of judging people for not approaching work in an agreed-upon way, "no ego" encourages people to glean inspiration from watching others approach work in new and different ways.
    1. Social media research ethics faces a contradiction between big data positivism and research ethics fundamentalism. Big data positivists tend to say, ‘Most social media data is public data. It is like data in a newspaper. I can therefore gather big data without limits. Those talking about privacy want to limit the progress of social science’. This position disregards any engagement with ethics and has a bias towards quantification. The ethical framework Social Media Research: A Guide to Ethics (Townsend and Wallace, 2016) that emerged from an ESRC-funded project tries to avoid both extremes and to take a critical-realist position: It recommends that social scientists neither ignore nor fetishize research ethics when studying digital media.Research ethics fundamentalists in contrast tend to say,You have to get informed consent for every piece of social media data you gather because we cannot assume automatic consent, users tend not to read platform’s privacy policies, they may assume some of their data is private and they may not agree to their data being used in research. Even if you anonymize the users you quote, many can still be identified in the networked online environment.
    2. One important aspect of critical social media research is the study of not just ideolo-gies of the Internet but also ideologies on the Internet. Critical discourse analysis and ideology critique as research method have only been applied in a limited manner to social media data. Majid KhosraviNik (2013) argues in this context that ‘critical dis-course analysis appears to have shied away from new media research in the bulk of its research’ (p. 292). Critical social media discourse analysis is a critical digital method for the study of how ideologies are expressed on social media in light of society’s power structures and contradictions that form the texts’ contexts.
    3. Besides conducting qualitative social research with social media users in order to learn about their experiences, interpretations and perspectives, critical digital methods should not completely discard tools for digital data collection and analytics but take their use into a new direction. Critical digital methods should certainly engage in collecting and analys-ing samples of data from social media platforms with the help of tools and services, such as DiscoverText, Tweet Archivist, Netvizz, NodeXL, Gephi, NCapture/NVivo, Sodato, Import.io, InfoExtractor, Google Web Scraper, TAGS, SocioViz and so on.
    4. t has, for example, been common to study contemporary revolutions and protests (such as the 2011 Arab Spring) by collecting large amounts of tweets and analysing them. Such analyses can, however, tell us nothing about the degree to which activists use social and other media in protest communication, what their motivations are to use or not use social media, what their experiences have been, what problems they encounter in such uses and so on. If we only analyse big data, then the one-sided conclusion that con-temporary rebellions are Facebook and Twitter revolutions is often the logical conse-quence (see Aouragh, 2016; Gerbaudo, 2012). Digital methods do not outdate but require traditional methods in order to avoid the pitfall of digital positivism. Traditional socio-logical methods, such as semi-structured interviews, participant observation, surveys, content and critical discourse analysis, focus groups, experiments, creative methods, par-ticipatory action research, statistical analysis of secondary data and so on, have not lost importance. We do not just have to understand what people do on the Internet but also why they do it, what the broader implications are, and how power structures frame and shape online activities
    5. Studying digital and social media could take inspiration by the tradition going back to Karl Marx and other critical theorists

      A need to think about the context and broader social implications of the research being conducted.

    6. There is a tendency in Internet Studies to engage with theory only on the micro- and middle-range levels that theorize single online phenomena but neglect the larger picture of society as a totality (Rice and Fuller, 2013). Such theories tend to be atomized. They just focus on single phenomena and miss soci-ety’s big picture
    1. You can contact me via anything listed in the Contact section - preferably E-Mail or Matrix. Other places to give feedback are GitHub (Issues, Stars, Following) and Google Play.
  18. Jan 2020
    1. Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Katie Bouman

      El caso de Katie Bouman en la categoría de Articles for Deletion y mi análisis de los comentarios bajo la categoría inicial de not relevant

    2. Any relevant material can be mentioned there

      Relevant

    3. of WP:1E

      Wikipedia: Notability (people). Notable

    4. Someone who isn't even an assistant professor is certainly not notable as a scientist.

      Notable as a scientist

    5. Wikipedia:Notability is not inherited.

      Notability

    6. The Event Horizon Telescope project is notable in itself, and has its own article, but anyone who are in some way (remotely) associated with it are not inherently notable.

      Notable

  19. Dec 2019
    1. While there are so many tools to backup your systems, I find this method super easy and convenient, at least to me. Also, this method is way better than disk cloning with dd command. Because It doesn’t matter if your hard drive is different size, or use different filesystem.
  20. Nov 2019
    1. To optimize learners' experience and the efficacy of learning outcomes, instructors need to consider how technology can offer approaches better suited to adult learning.

      This website from University of Arizona provides a list of trends and issues in learning technologies

      Rating 9/10

    1. In this text, authors Kit Kacirek and Michael Miller explore adult learning for mature adults, or those identified as senior citizens. Research into mature adult learning programs centered around leisure activities, reveals situational pedagogy in which some traditional adult learning theory may need to be adapted to suit the cognitive changes in adults with advanced age. A brief description of the research methods reveals that adults in advanced age prefer lecture, use of media, and field trips. The implications for such a study are useful as the population of mature adults grows due to advancements in medicine and thus the demand for learning opportunities increases as well.

    1. As online learning matures, it is important for both theorists and practitioners to understand how to apply new and emerging educational practices and technologies that foster a sense of community and optimize the online learning environment.

      The article expresses the design theory elements (goals, values, methods) and how it can assist with defining new tools for online learning. Rating 5/5

  21. Oct 2019
    1. BrainHQ, is an online brain-training software also developed by Posit Science. It is the only software available in Greek being used to any portable computing device (tablet, smartphone, etc.) as an application either on Android or on IOS provided in different languages. Undoubtedly, improvement of brain performance can bring multiple benefits to everyday life. Both research studies and the testimonials of users themselves show that BrainHQ offers benefits in improving thinking, memory and hearing, attention and vision, improving reaction speed, safer driving, self-confidence, quality discussion and good mood. BrainHQ includes 29 exercises divided into 6 categories: Attention, Speed, Memory, Skills, Intelligence and Navigation.

      In this conference paper the author is discussing about the different methods to interactively help learn people with disability, how their concentration and enthusiasm/motivation increases, if the right tool is used to teach them

  22. Sep 2019
  23. Aug 2019
    1. this article advances an approach that grasps the mul-tiplicity of online racism while locating its specificities in relation to the YouTube platform.

      a new approach is needed

    2. we innovate a methodology that reveals YouTube comments as operating in a networked environment. Th

      the unique ecosystem of youtube requires a unique approach

    3. lack of understanding about how antagonistic racial-ized discourses operate on the Web,

      still insufficient attention

    4. the Web has become a trenchant site of public conver-sations and expressions about race. And that the medium itself needs to be taken seri-ously for spawning neoteric forms of racism. Moreover, there is a paucity of academic studies exploring YouTube’s comment space. While this space is represented negatively, users actively posting comments remain a key mode of engagement on YouTub

      the trolls need to be taken seriously, 'neoteric' racism is abundant and insufficiently defined, much is observed but little is measured

    1. To help understand howsuch groups might differ from one another, we collected data frommany different types of communities discussing some of the sameinformation and ideas

      diversify data to avoid bias or misrepresentation. list of potentially relevant subreddits

    2. Computational methods have been eitherused toobserveand study the phenomenon of online misogyny[6,20–22], to generate automatic misogynisticcontent detectionmethods [4,12,13], or to use the appearance of misogyny relatedwords in online content as apredictorof criminal behaviour

      applications of computational research

    3. computational techniques can improve upon and enhance existingapproaches, providing more efficient ways of identifying some typesof anomalies and providing a historical picture of the evolution oflanguage and activity over time

      mixed methods are necessary in the digital age

    4. deeply entrenched or networkedmisogyny, as we see online

      online habits need to be viewed differently for research purposes

    5. However, feminist studies on the nature of misogyny online aretypically conducted by a small number of authors looking at a smallamount of data intensively.

      slow and inefficient but sometimes necessary

  24. Jul 2019
  25. May 2019
    1. sociology as the scientific study of a reality sui generis

      Yeah, Durkheim just got harder on social reality!

  26. Apr 2019
    1. This journal article, written by Amaury Nora, who is currently the Dean for Research at the University of Texas San Antonio and Blanca Plazas Snyder who was pursuing a degree in educational psychology at the time this article as written. The author's bring an honest review of technology and include the benefits, the downfalls and they identify areas where more research needs to be conducted (especially around student persistence).

      Rating: 9/10. The article is informative and takes many perspectives. The only flaw is that when discussing technology in Higher Education, this article is from 2008, but it was also helpful to get the perspective from 10 years ago.

  27. Mar 2019
    1. remove aset.remove(item) Removes item from the set

      There's also .discard(item) which does the same as .remove(item) except for one thing. It does not raise an error if the item is nonexistent.

    2. Removes an arbitrary element from the set

      And returns that value

    1. 25 examples of mobile teaching This is a brief page that is cluttered with some irrelevant content that occurs in the form of rather large graphics. It is oriented toward higher education environments though the ideas would be quite easy to implement in other contexts, such as for training adult learners. The text is not in depth enough to be tremendously helpful but this resource does nonetheless make a contribution not made by other resources in that it shows actual teaching techniques. rating 4/5

    1. personalize learning infographic

      This is not quite what it sounds like. It is a Pinterest style page with links to assorted articles that relate to personalized learning, most of which are presented in an infographic. It is sufficiently useful if one has the patience to click through to the infographics. Usability is satisfactory although the top half of the page is taken up with graphics that are not directly related to the content. rating 3/5

    1. just in time teaching This article provides practice strategies by which one can use just in time teaching. This was authored for use in higher education environments but can easily be used in other settings. It appears to have practical use. rating 5/5

    1. mobile learning technologies for 21st century classrooms This undated article discusses mobile learning in classrooms in a nonspecific way. One of the sources is Marc Prensky, whose work has been called into question by multiple authors. The type of information provided by this article seems rather basic and a function of common sense. A few apps are discussed. rating 1/5

    1. Edutech wiki This page has a somewhat messy design and does not look very modern but it does offer overviews of many topics related to technologies. Just like wikipedia, it offers a good jumping off point on many topics. Navigation can occur by clicking through categories and drilling down to topics, which is easier for those who already know the topic they are looking for and how it is likely to be characterized. Rating 3/5

    1. This page offers general guidelines for facilitating class discussions. It is written for college environments and in usable in adult learning and training settings also. The presentation is straightforward but the content is not in depth. Part of the value of the page is links on the left side that address other teaching topics related to course design and course management. Rating 2/2

  28. www.pblworks.org www.pblworks.org
    1. project based learning While project based learning is more frequently used with children than adults, it can be useful for limited-time instruction for adults. This is a user friendly page that provides a decent description of project based learning and also discusses the design elements and teaching practices that should be used. rating 4/5

    1. problem based learning This gives a brief overview of problem based learning. This is a teaching method in which learners receive an ill structured problem that they continue to define and then solve. This web page serves as an overview but if one were teaching with this approach, more information would be needed than is contained on the typical introductory web page. Rating 3/5

    1. This is better than the problem-based learning page I already posted so I will post this one too. it is easy to read and gives the instructional designer or teacher a quick and better-than-average explanation about problem based learning, which is a method of teaching in which learners form teams and learn through solving real problems. rating 4/5

    1. Nine alternatives to lecturing This page briefly describes nine ways to teach other than lecture. Some of these are common, such as case study; others, such as a pro and con grid, are explained less often. This page, like the others I have bookmarked, is oriented toward teaching college students and adults.

    1. This is one of many pages that describes team based learning. The layout and typeface make this page easy enough to read. The content is rather brief and would suffice for someone who is trying to understand this approach and decide whether it is workable for their own adult learning and training context.

  29. Feb 2019
    1. g likelihood or Bayesian probabilistic phylogene

      If you have a molecular data partition, you can just use total evidence approach and the standard 1-parameter Markov model.

      Potential synapomorphies will be compatible with the molecular tree and considered not likely to change. Potential homoiologies and symplesiomorphies are partly ("semi-")compatible with the molecular tree and, hence, considered less likely to change than highly homoplastic traits with (random) convergence.

      Just try out a couple of datasets, and infer the (Bio)NJ and ML trees and then compare the result with the strict consensus network (not tree) of all equally parsimonious trees and the Bayesian tree sample.

      Note that if you apply TNT's iterative character weighting procedure, what you effectively do is sorting the random convergences from parallelisms/ characters that are more compatible with the preferred tree.

    2. In principle, I do sympathize with the general idea, but the laid out approach will have little use.

      The main drawback is that you can only define homoiologies using an external data set (e.g. the molecular "gold" tree). But when you have a reliable molecular tree, you can just go for total evidence approaches to select a more likely, in a mathematical and general sense, alternative without the need to make any prior destinction between your characters. Homoiologies will be inferred, like synapmorphies or symplesiomorphies or shared apomorphies (non-stochastically distributed convergences) on the fly.

      If you define the homoiologies on a inferred (e.g. parsimony) tree only based on a morphological data matrix (e.g. for an extinct group of organisms), you will inevitably misinterpret some characters, because your clades are not necessarily monophyletic. Homoiologies like symplesiomorphies may appear as (pseudo-)synapomorphies.

      The only application left would be that the molecular tree cannot resolve certain relationships, and we use more tree-compatible morphological characters to discern between alternatives. However, the first choice would then be to maximise the number of synapomorphies. Only if that would be the same for all alternatives, one could count the number of symplesiomorphies and homoiologies (as the distinction between both via a tree-inference is very tricky; and their are often just two side of the same evolutionary process).

      However, one could also just directly change to a network-analysis framework, which will pretty much solve all these problems at once.

      For further details see my (upcoming, March 4th) post at Genealogical World of Phylogenetic Networks

    1. but unless deliberate attempts to share findings are established, the products of teacher research often remain within individual classrooms

      Does this mean we should focus more on longitudinal AR for PD?

  30. Jan 2019
    1. Teaching classes

      This article gives several good tips to teaching for the first time, but each teacher will need to find their own teaching persona, and through trial and error they will learn what works best for them.

    1. grading final papers

      Grading final papers isn't the best time to provide a lot of qualitative feedback because student's aren't likely to read or use it. Formative feedback should be given early in the term.

    1. check in with your students; extend availabilities to meet; offer feedback, and follow up

      These four actions can do a lot to make students feel seen and connected.

    1. Thoughts on bringing current events into your classroom.

      A conversation between a PhD student and a professor of African American studies about how to discuss current events in difficult times.

    1. creating a “humanities lab”,

      I like this idea of creating a lab for problem-based learning in humanities classes. What other STEM-related practices could humanities borrow?

    1. But these tools require we think about their purpose, method, and audience just as carefully as when we design an essay prompt, a problem set, or any other assessment exercise.

      This is an example of when meta-teaching is helpful.

    1. Our discussion made the classroom feel like it was not the professor’s class to run alone, but ours as well.

      What a great example of setting the tone on the first day of class!

    1. Inevitably, what I find reaffirms aspects of writing pedagogy I’m familiar with while giving me fresh ways to express it to the new audiences with whom I’m working.

      Teaching writing in STEM disciplines is beneficial for the students and the teacher.