72 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2022
  2. Oct 2022
  3. Sep 2022
    1. No links! No links, other than sporadic internal links, is the default in the media, I know. Yet hyperlinks are the strands the Web is made of. It allows pointing to side paths of relevance, to the history and context of which the posting itself is a result, the conversation it is intended to be part of and situated in. Its absence, the pretense that the artefact is a stand alone and self contained thing, is a tell. It’s also a weakness in other online texts, or any text, as books and journals can be filled with links in the shape of footnotes, references and mentions in the text itself)

      Relevant links in a text are a sign of the context the text emerged from, and the conversation it is situated in. Lack of such links or references is a potential sign of inauthentic texts (generated or not)

  4. Jul 2022
    1. Finally, new notes should be connected with anexisting note when you add them to your system. I’lldescribe this in greater detail shortly; the point for now isthat linking a new thought to an existing train of thoughtseems to be a key to your note-making system workingfor you. Where does this new idea fit into your thoughtson an issue? Your questions about a topic? Your ideasabout a puzzle you’re working on understanding?Disciplining yourself to make this connection can be abit tough and time-consuming at first. It is worth theinvestment. Without understanding how these ideas thatinterest us fit together, all we have is a pile of unrelatedtrivia.

      Writing and refining one's note about an idea can be key to helping one's basic understanding of that idea, but this understanding is dramatically increased by linking it into the rest of one's framework of understanding of that idea. A useful side benefit of creating this basic understanding and extending it is that one can also reuse one's (better understood) ideas to create new papers for expanding other's reading and subsequent understanding.

  5. Jun 2022
    1. Connections that seemed self-evident whenenvisaged abstractly turned out to be weak or artificial when itcame to the task of setting down one sentence after another.

      It would seem that Barzun didn't create links between particular ideas as he made them given the fact that his outlines are abstract and his connections felt "weak and artificial".

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  6. May 2022
    1. To produce meaningful work, and then forget about it, so you can move on to another and hopefully greater act of linear will.

      This completely loses the fact that two different areas of work can be used fruitfully in combinatorically creative ways to expand insight and knowledge. While you can loosely forget what is in your notes, the fact that they exist and are interlinked helps you resurface and reuse them. If you're not reusing and constantly linking them, then you're failing.

  7. Apr 2022
    1. The connections will still make it easier to remember and understand.

      Linking one's ideas together is a means of contextualizing them as well as situating them in a particular location with respect to your other knowledge. This creation of structure and place (loci) helps to quicken one's memory of not on the new item, but the items to which it is attached.

    1. The filing cards or slipsthat Barthes inserted into his index-card system adhered to a ‘strictformat’: they had to be precisely one quarter the size of his usualsheet of writing paper. Barthes (1991: 180) records that this systemchanged when standards were readjusted as part of moves towardsEuropean unification. Within the collection there was considerable‘interior mobility’ (Hollier, 2005: 40), with cards constantlyreordered. There were also multiple layerings of text on each card,with original text frequently annotated and altered.

      Barthes kept his system to a 'strict format' of cards which were one quarter the size of his usual sheet of writing paper, though he did adjust the size over time as paper sizes standardized within Europe. Hollier indicates that the collection had considerable 'interior mobility' and the cards were constantly reordered with use. Barthes also apparently frequently annotated and altered his notes on cards, so they were also changing with use over time.


      Did he make his own cards or purchase them? The sizing of his paper with respect to his cards might indicate that he made his own as it would have been relatively easy to fold his own paper in half twice and cut it up.

      Were his cards numbered or marked so as to be able to put them into some sort of standard order? There's a mention of 'interior mobility' and if this was the case were they just floating around internally or were they somehow indexed and tethered (linked) together?

      The fact that they were regularly used, revise, and easily reordered means that they could definitely have been used to elicit creativity in the same manner as Raymond Llull's combinatorial art, though done externally rather than within one's own mind.

  8. Mar 2022
    1. 1. Multiple strong symbols are not allowed○ Each item can be defined only once2. Given a strong symbol and multiple weak symbols, choose the strong symbol○ References to the weak symbol resolve to the strong symbol3. If there are multiple weak symbols, pick an arbitrary one

      linker 如何解决重复符号定义的问题?

    2. ● Static Linking○ Executable files and running memory images contain only the library code they actually use● Dynamic linking○ Executable files contain no library code○ During execution, single copy of library code can be shared across all executing processes

      static linking 和 dynamic linking 分别是什么?

    3. ● Global symbols○ Symbols defined by module m that can be referenced by other modules.■ e.g., non-static C functions and non-static global variables.● External symbols○ Global symbols that are referenced by module m but defined by some other module.● Local symbols○ Symbols that are defined and referenced exclusively by module m.■ e.g., C functions and global variables defined with the static attribute.○ Local linker symbols are not local program variables

      分别有哪些 linker symbol?

    4. ● Symbol resolution○ Programs define and reference symbols (global variables and functions)○ Linker associates each symbol reference with exactly 1 symbol definition● Relocation○ Merges separate code and data sections into single sections○ Relocates symbols from relative locations in .o files to final memory locations○ Updates all references to symbols to reflect new positions

      linker 到底做了什么?

    5. ● Aggregates multiple independently compiled files containing machine code● Fills in those unknown addresses● The goal is to create 1 file with all of the needed code to run the program

      linker 的流程是什么?

    6. Four steps for C: preprocessing, compiling, assembling, linking

      compile code 有哪 4 步?

  9. Feb 2022
    1. he best-researched and mostsuccessful learning method is elaboration. It is very similar to whatwe do when we take smart notes and combine them with others,which is the opposite of mere re-viewing (Stein et al. 1984)Elaboration means nothing other than really thinking about themeaning of what we read, how it could inform different questions andtopics and how it could be combined with other knowledge

      Elaboration is thinking deeply about the meaning of what we've read, how it could inform or answer different questions, and how it can be linked or combined with other knowledge. It is one of the best-researched and most successful learning methods. While it seems to have some subtle differences, it sounds broadly similar to the Feynman technique and is related to the idea of writing questions based on one's notes in the Cornell note taking method.

  10. Jan 2022
    1. Because the inner linking capability begets meaning associations that en-joy a certain informative value in the horizon of a scientific discipline or a theoretical concern, the updating of this structure requires substantial effort and focalized attention. This may be why Christoph Meiners recommended divorcing the time of excerpting from the time of reading.

      Christoph Meiners, Anweisungen für Jünglinge zum eigenen Arbeiten besonders zum Lesen, Excerpiren, und Schreiben (Hannover, 1791), 85: ‘Man excerpire nie beym Lesen selbst. [...] Lesen hat seine Zeit, und Excerpiren hat auch seine Zeit’

      Christoph Meiners recommended the separation of doing one's excerpting from one's reading perhaps in part because the creation of links between notes has different demands than the creation of the base note itself.


      I find this to be generally easier as well. Often I'll provide one or two links from my note to others I know I have, or perhaps scribble down some reminders of these notes. Otherwise I generally do some additional work of creating these links in a separate sitting.

      It's usually much easier to quickly add subject headings while reading and then use these as a basis of creating other more particular and direct links at a later time.


      Create a list of the types of links within note taking systems and their meta data:

      • taxonomies (tags, categories, subject headings, etc.)
      • note to note links
      • references to sources
  11. Dec 2021
    1. The possibility of arbitrary internal branching.

      Modern digital zettelkasten don't force the same sort of digital internal branching process that is described by Niklas Luhmann. Internal branching in these contexts is wholly reliant on the user to create it.

      Many digital systems will create a concrete identifier to fix the idea within the system, but this runs the risk of ending up with a useless scrap heap.

      Some modern systems provide the ability for one to add taxonomies like subject headings in a commonplace book tradition, which adds some level of linking. But if we take the fact that well interlinked cards are the most valuable in such a system then creating several links upfront may be a bit more work, but it provides more value in the long run.

      Upfront links also don't require quite as much work at the card's initial creation as the creator already has the broader context of the idea. Creating links at a future date requires the reloading into their working memory of the card's idea and broader context.

      Of course there may also be side benefits (including to memory) brought by the spaced repetition of the card's ideas as well as potential new contexts gained in the interim which may help add previously unconsidered links.

      It can certainly be possible that at some level of linking, there is a law of diminishing returns the decreases the value of a card and its idea.

      One of the benefits of physical card systems like Luhmann's is that the user is forced to add the card somewhere, thus making the first link of the idea into the system. Luhmann's system in particular creates a parent/sibling relation to other cards or starts a brand new branch.

  12. Oct 2021
    1. A new idea acts retrospectively; a torch throws its light behind as well as before. Materials that were laid aside take on a new aspect when they are classified by means of an idea. Then everything within us is reborn and animated with a new life. But for that to happen, the paths of light must be open, our thoughts must be in order and linked consecutively one with another.
    2. Fifty data are no better than one, if they all stand only in the same relation to the fundamental idea; un- coordinated they remain fruitless,

      The style is dramatically different, but this easily could appear in pieces on zettelkasten today.

    3. Look always for what connects this thing with that, what condi- tions are necessary for this and for that; let this co- ordination, and not scattered fragments, fix itself in your memory. A

      A surprising number of references to connecting ideas and knowledge...

    1. We will also show you how to de-link your Chrome profile from your Google account(s) by stopping Chrome from syncing with Google in the first place. This will help keep your Chrome profile separate from your Google account and enhance your online privacy.
    1. The point of the system is this: Ideas do not do their best work independently of each other. They work best in tandem. So each index card (or Zettel or slipnote) should link to something else.

      Ideas work best when linked to related ideas.

  13. Sep 2021
    1. Active reading helps you make connections within your latticework of mental models. Connections help retention.

      Connections ARE retention. They are memory.

    2. can help you retain more and make deeper connections.

      Often forgotten in the reading and learning processes is creating connections between our new content and what we already know. This is some of the power behind the basic idea in zettelkasten of creating links between knowledge.

  14. Aug 2021
  15. Jul 2021
    1. Feature Idea: Chaos Monkey for PKM

      This idea is a bit on the extreme side, but it does suggest that having a multi-card comparison view in a PKM system would be useful.

      Drawing on Raymond Llull's combitorial memory system from the 12th century and a bit of Herman Ebbinghaus' spaced repetition (though this is also seen in earlier non-literate cultures), one could present two (or more) random atomic notes together as a way of juxtaposing disparate ideas from one's notes.

      The spaced repetition of the cards would be helpful for one's long term memory of the ideas, but it could also have the secondary effect of nudging one to potentially find links or connections between the two ideas and help to spur creativity for the generation of new hybrid ideas or connection to other current ideas based on a person's changed context.

      I've thought about this in the past (most likely while reading Frances Yates' Art of Memory), but don't think I've bothered to write it down (or it's hiding in untranscribed marginalia).

  16. Jun 2021
    1. npm install <folder>: Install the package in the directory as a symlink in the current project. Its dependencies will be installed before it's linked. If <folder> sits inside the root of your project, its dependencies may be hoisted to the top-level node_modules as they would for other types of dependencies.
    1. For example, the Wikipedia article on Martin Luther King, Jr cites the book To Redeem the Soul of America, by Adam Fairclough. That citation now links directly to page 299 inside the digital version of the book provided by the Internet Archive. There are 66 cited and linked books on that article alone. 

      I'd love to have a commonplace book robot that would do this sort of linking process within it for me. In the meanwhile, I continue to plod along.

      This article was referenced today at [[I Annotate 2021]] by [[Mark Graham]].

    1. linking from preprints to their journal version 

      We developed a preprint-publication linker that is available on github. Details here:

      Cabanac, G., Oikonomidi, T., Boutron, I. (2021). Day-to-day discovery of preprint–publication links. Scientometrics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-021-03900-7

      We daily track 572 preprints of COVID19 randomized controlled trials for the COVID-NMA project. The results of the linking and validation of preprint-publication pairs by epidemiologists are available here:

      https://www.irit.fr/~Guillaume.Cabanac/covid19-preprint-tracker

  17. Apr 2021
    1. TTY is right there in the name, but this article makes no attempt to clarify what exactly the relationship between a pseudoterminal and a TTY. I feel like a whole paragraph about the relation to TTY would be warranted, including a link to TTY article, of course, which does link [back] to and explain some of the relation to pseudoterminal:

      In many computing contexts, "TTY" has become the name for any text terminal, such as an external console device, a user dialing into the system on a modem on a serial port device, a printing or graphical computer terminal on a computer's serial port or the RS-232 port on a USB-to-RS-232 converter attached to a computer's USB port, or even a terminal emulator application in the window system using a pseudoterminal device.

  18. Mar 2021
  19. Feb 2021
    1. a MD notebook like Athens Research (another open collab project that makes a bi-directional linking markdown notebook, they even call it a Memex but their focus is more on the notebook and research side than on the data collection and annotation end that WorldBrain is focused on See here for AthensResearch/Athens vision: https://github.com/athensresearch/athens/blob/master/VISION.md 6 roadmap/mindmap: https://whimsical.com/TCeXP1dpRkdT8rpMvYci2P 4 notion: https://www.notion.so/Athens-67e1c6068cb449ff935d10e882fd9b05 1 they use clojurescript and datascript (which I have worked with professionally in the past, it is ideal for the backlinking notes graph problem they solve and is the same tech behind Roam which is closed-source software they are aiming to provide and opensource alternative for)

      I've heard one or two mentions of Athens before, but don't think I've actively bookmarked it. Here are some of the primary references.

  20. Dec 2020
    1. The only piece of note taking software on the market that currently supports this feature (that I’m aware of) is Microsoft OneNote.

      OneNote supported on-the-fly interlinking with Double Square Bracket Linking

    2. Cunningham first developed the ability to automatically create internal links (read: new notes) when typing text in CamelCase. This meant you could easily be typing a sentence while describing a piece of information and simply type a word (or series of words) in CamelCase which would create a link to another piece of information (even if its page hadn’t already been created).This was quickly superseded by the double square bracket links most wiki’s use today to achieve the same results, and its the staple creation method in both wiki’s and other premier information systems today.

      History of the Wiki-style linking or [[Double Square Bracket Linking]]

    3. Evernote had long been the gold standard of note taking, flexible, functional and best of all affordable. While its user interface was a little odd at times, the features were excellent, but they made the simple mistake of not enabling wiki style internal links. Instead, they required a user to copy a note link from one note and paste it into another.

      Evernote made the mistake of not allowing on-the-fly wiki-style internal linking.

    4. It needs wiki-like superpowersIf there is one feature that excels above all others in information software of the past two decades that deserves its place in the note taking pantheon, its the humble double bracketed internal link.We all recognise power to store and retrieve information at will, but when you combine this power with the ability to successfully create new knowledge trees from existing documents, to follow thoughts in a ‘stream of consciousness’ non-linear fashion then individual notes transform from multiple static word-silos into a living information system system.Sadly, this is the one major feature that is always neglected, or is piecemeal at best… and one time note taking king Evernote is to blame.

      Tim Kling posits that one of the most important features for a note taking app to have (which most lack at the time of writing) is the ability to link to other notes with the wiki-standard double bracket command.

    1. The only piece of note taking software on the market that currently supports this feature (that I’m aware of) is Microsoft OneNote.

      OneNote supported on-the-fly interlinking with Double Square Bracket Linking

  21. Nov 2020
    1. In such cases it is important to capture the connections radially, as it were, but at the same time also by right away recording back links in the slips that are being linked to. In this working procedure, the content that we take note of is usually also enriched

      By adding a backlink for every link we make, we are also enriching the content we are linking to.

  22. Oct 2020
  23. Sep 2020
  24. May 2020
  25. Feb 2019
    1. It’s simply better to link directly to your related content in a meaningful context, than to use a generic related posts box somewhere else on your page.
  26. Jul 2018
    1. The “connected” in connected learning is about human connection as well as tapping the power of connected technologies. Rather than see technology as a means toward more efficient and automated forms of education, connected learning puts progressive, experiential, and learner-centered approaches at the center of technology-enhanced learning.

      Students pursue their interests in the classroom with the support of friends and caring adults while linking this learning and interests to academic achievement.

  27. Jun 2018
    1. 1- 13 A13 --- Planet Planet 15- 15 I1 --- robust Robust flag (1) 17- 23 F7.3 d Per Orbital period 25- 28 F4.1 Rgeo Rad Planet radius 30- 33 F4.2 Rgeo E_Rad 1{sigma} upper error bound on Rad 35- 38 F4.2 Rgeo e_Rad 1{sigma} lower error bound on Rad 40- 40 A1 --- r_Rad Source of planet-star radius ratio (2) 42- 44 F3.1 solMass Mstar Mass of host star 46- 49 F4.2 solMass E_Mstar 1{sigma} upper error bound on Mstar 51- 54 F4.2 solMass e_Mstar 1{sigma} lower error bound on Mstar 56- 56 I1 --- l_Md Md upper limit flag (3) 58- 63 F6.2 Mgeo Md Planet mass from default prior 65- 69 F5.2 Mgeo E_Md ?="" 1{sigma} upper error bound on Md 71- 74 F4.2 Mgeo e_Md ?="" 1{sigma} lower error bound on Md 76- 81 F6.2 g/cm3 rhod Planet density from default prior 83- 87 F5.2 g/cm3 E_rhod ?="" 1{sigma} upper error bound on rhod 89- 92 F4.2 g/cm3 e_rhod ?="" 1{sigma} lower error bound on rhod 94- 94 I1 --- l_Mh Mh upper limit flag (3) 96-100 F5.1 Mgeo Mh Planet mass from high mass prior 102-107 F6.2 Mgeo E_Mh ?="" 1{sigma} upper error bound on Md 109-112 F4.2 Mgeo e_Mh ?="" 1{sigma} lower error bound on Md 114-119 F6.2 g/cm3 rhoh Planet density from high mass prior 121-126 F6.2 g/cm3 E_rhoh ?="" 1{sigma} upper error bound on rhod 128-131 F4.2 g/cm3 e_rhoh ?="" 1{sigma} lower error bound on rhod 133-155 A23 --- Ref References (4)

      This is the main header block of the AAS Journal's "Machine Readable Format" for structured tables. It is based on the CDS table format, and follows their structuring rules. There are columns for the numerical format, units, labels, and explanations for each column.

    1. Our posterior samples are available online (10.5281/zenodo.162965).

      This is an example of our current data linking markup. Data links are inline to the text through a parenthetical anchored link to the DOI resource.

      There is a bug in the current version of the article. Our formal practice is to include this in the "Article Data" tab, which didn't happen this time. We will have to do some more work standardizing our production practices. We are also still thinking about how best to markup the anchored text.

      We have not yet adopted a formal XML schema for including data links. We are working on this, which may be made easier when we adopt the most recent JATS schema.

  28. Aug 2017
  29. Jun 2017
  30. May 2016
  31. Feb 2016
  32. Dec 2015
    1. let you share a URL that navigates directly to the selection you shared.

      An important form of deep linking.

  33. Feb 2014
    1. "We should have some ways of connecting programs like garden hose--screw in another segment when it becomes necessary to massage data in another way. This is the way of IO also."

      And here we are with a web of hoses (nee tubes) and we still only have simplistic linking mechanisms with no way to link directly to the content we are referring to: https://hypothes.is/a/G3usyxJQRFyvOS-bzyXaVQ

    1. Point 3 is almost certainly the one that still bugs Doug. All sorts of mechanisms and utilities are around and used (source code control, registries, WWW search engines, and on and on), but the problem of indexing and finding relevant information is tougher today than ever before, even on one's own hard disk, let alone the WWW.

      I would agree that "the problem of indexing and finding relevant information is tougher today than ever before" ... and especially "on one's own hard disk".

      Vannevar Bush recognized the problem of artificial systems of indexing long before McIlroy pulled this page from his typewriter in 1964, and here we are 50 years later using the same kind of filesystem indexing systems and wondering why it's harder than ever to find information on our own hard drives.

    2. 3. Our library filing scheme should allow for rather general indexing, responsibility, generations, data path switching.