28 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2019
    1. It is rather unclear what the purpose of the paper is as the author continues to discuss or mention other sources' viewpoints about the problem and not his own. There is basically no argument whatsoever in the article.

    2. Looking at the side effect of anxiety on poor academic performance, people might wonder factors behind this problematic mood disorder.

      I find the term "mood disorder" confusing because it was not introduced beforehand and it is unclear if the author is just using it as some kind of synonym to anxiety

    3. mood disorde

      mood disorder is only being mentioned now without any kind of definition beforehand which may disrupt the viewers' reading and make them assume that anxiety disorder and mood disorder are one and the same, so it is better to briefly define the term before talking about any aspects of it so that the sentence and evidence used could be more effective

    4. n short, anxiety disorderis one of the most crucial mental illnesses with a persistent worries and constant fears throughout an individual life

      This sentence along with a few others contains many grammar mistakes which makes smooth reading a difficult task and comprehending the text as well

    5. In addition, people as well as students with anxiety disorders have a change in the structure of the brain that controls memory associated with strong emotions

      No citation that indicates the source of this piece of information

  2. Jan 2019
    1. In the world of planning and wicked problems no such immunity is tolerated. Here the aim is not to find the truth, but to improve some characteristics of the world where people live. Planners are liable for the consequences of the actions they generate; the effects can matter a great deal to those people that are touched by those actions.

      "Proposition 10: The planner has no right to be wrong"

    2. In dealing with wicked problems, the modes of reasoning used in the argument are much richer than those permissible in the scientific discourse. Because of the essential uniqueness of the problem (see Proposition 7) and lacking opportunity for rigorous experimentation (see Proposition 5), it is not possible to put H to a crucial test.

      "Proposition 9: The existence of a discrepancy representing a wicked problem can be explained in numerous ways. The choice of explanation determines the nature of the problem resolution."

    3. Here lies a difficulty with incrementalism, as well. This doctrine advertises a policy of small steps, in the hope of contributing systematically to overall improvement. If, however, the problem is attacked on too low a level (an increment), then success of resolution may result in making things worse, because it may become more difficult to deal with the higher problems. Marginal improvement does not guarantee overall improvement.

      "Proposition 8: Every wicked problem can be considered to be a symptom of another problem"

    4. Of course, for any two problems at least one distinguishing property can be found (just as any number of properties can be found which they share in common), and each of them is therefore unique in a trivial sense. But by "'essentially unique" we mean that, despite long lists of similarities between a current problem and a previous one, there always might be an additional distinguishing property that is of overriding importance. Part of the art of dealing with wicked problems is the art of not knowing too early which type of solution to apply.

      "Proposition 7: Every wicked problem is essentially unique"

    5. In such fields of ill-defined problems and hence ill-definable solutions, the set of feasible plans of action relies on realistic judgment, the capability to appraise "exotic" ideas and on the amount of trust and credibility between planner and clientele that wilt lead to the conclusion, "OK let's try that."

      "Proposition 5: Wicked problems do not have enumerable (or an exhaustively describable) set of potential solutions, nor is there a well-described set of permissible operations that may be incorporated into the plan"

    6. Whenever actions are effectively irreversible and whenever the half-lives of the consequences are long, every trial counts. And every attempt to reverse a decision or to correct for the undesired consequences poses another set of wicked problems, which are in turn subject to the same dilemmas.

      "Proposition 5: Every solution to a wicked problem is a 'one-shot operation'; because there is no opportunity to learn by trial-and-error, every attempt counts significantly"

    7. With wicked problems, on the other hand, any solution, after being implemented, will generate waves of consequences over an extended--virtually an unbounded-- period of time.

      "Proposition 4: There is no immediate and no ultimate test of a solution to a wicked problem"

    8. The planner terminates work on a wicked problem, not for reasons inherent in the "logic" of the problem. He stops for considerations that are external to the problem: he runs out of time, or money, or patience.

      "Proposition 2: Wicked problems have no stopping rule"

      Evokes the notion of a last-mile form of satisficing.

    9. For wicked planning problems, there are no true or false answers. Normally, many parties are equally equipped, interested, and/or entitled to judge the solutions, although none has the power to set formal decision rules to determine correctness. Their judgments are likely to differ widely to accord with their group or personal interests, their special value-sets, and their ideological predilections. Their assess- ments of proposed solutions are expressed as "good" or "bad" or, more likely, as "better or worse" or "satisfying" or "good enough."

      "Proposition 3: Solutions to wicked problems are not true-or-false, but bad-or-good"

      Yep, "good enough" is the satisficing threshold.

    10. The information needed to understand the problem depends upon one's idea for solving it. That is to say: in order to describe a wicked-problem in sufficient detail, one has to develop an exhaustive inventory of all conceivable solutions ahead of time. The reason is that every question asking for additional information depends upon the understanding of the problem--and its resolution--at that time. Problem understanding and problem resolution are con- comitant to each other. Therefore, in order to anticipate all questions (in order to anticipate all information required for resolution ahead of time), knowledge of all conceivable solutions is required.

      "Proposition 1: There is no definitive formulation of a wicked problem"

    11. The formulation of a wicked problem is the problem! The process of formulating the problem and of conceiving a solution (or re-solution) are identical, since every specification of the problem is a specification of the direction in which a treatment is considered.

      Context of the problem space and of potential soultions is also important here. Understanding the context also points the way toward participatory design and critical reflective thinking.

    12. By now we are all beginning to realize that one of the most intractable problems is that of defining problems (of knowing what distinguishes an observed condition from a desired condition) and of locating problems (finding where in the complex causal networks the trouble really lies). In turn, and equally intractable, is the problem of identifying the actions that might effectively narrow the gap between what-is and what-ought-to-be.

      Defining problems to solve and gaps to narrow remains a challenge in public policy, as well as science,

  3. Dec 2018
    1. It’s treating someone else’s wellbeing, someone’s lost job, someone’s public dressing-down, someone’s stolen idea as somehow not your problem, not your shoes.
  4. Sep 2018
  5. Aug 2018
  6. Apr 2018
  7. Jan 2018
    1. Pero la pregunta de la relación entre el diseño y la creación de órdenes sociales profundamente desiguales, insensibles y destructivos parece seguir siendo el ‘problema perverso’ del diseño.
  8. Jun 2017
    1. For the task is not one of calculating the effi-ciency of different possible means toward an already determined end. It often involves,rather, deliberation about the end itself – about what would count as a satisfactory,or at least not entirely unacceptable, outcome to a particular “case.” And it may onlybe by action – and not, in the end, by any purely analytic process – that thisdeliberation can really be followed through.

      Deeply insightful,

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  9. Mar 2017
    1. Check out

      Some other problems can be found in the quoted works section, for this paper/web page. For example, have a look here.

  10. Jan 2017
    1. Boolean satisfiability problem

      This is just one specific type of the classes of satisfiability problems (a.k.a. search problems).

      Other related problems include: Linear equation satisfiability, Linear inequality satisfiability, 0-1 integer linear equation satisfiability.

      Given the current context (of search problems), all the above are known as NP problems in general (with the observation, that the classic definition of NP limited the scope to only YES-NO problems).

      One can think of search problems as "one of many ways of characterizing the set of problems that form the basis of the study of intractability". Other ways include viewing such problems through the lenses of decision problems or optimization problems. In other words, problems in any of the aforementioned types can be translated between (or more formally, reduced to) each other with relative ease.

      Source(s): http://algs4.cs.princeton.edu/66intractability/

    2. efficiently solves

      a.k.a. guarantees a poly-time solution for any SAT problem instance.

  11. Jul 2015
    1. from which dogs derive

      This entire sentence should be selected, but when I try, I don't pop up an annotation box. It seems to be the first four words (gray wolf (Canis lupus) that is the problem. Encountered something similar below.

  12. Jan 2015