194 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. www.macfound.org www.macfound.org
    untitled
    19
    1. every child deserves the chance to express him- or herselfthrough words, sounds, and images, even if most will never write, perform, or draw profession-ally. Having these experiences, we believe, changes the way youth think about themselves andalters the way they look at work created by others.

      Self-expression as a pathway to empathy & judgment.

      openlearning17
    2. Negotiation

      The Web greatly expands both the sphere and the need for this skill. Very interesting case study regarding Wikipedia and entry on Iran and Israel: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/08/05/AR2008080502169_pf.html

      openlearning17
    3. Transmedia Navigation

      Interesting. What does "follow" mean? How do we conceptualize "the flow"? Consumer (not participatory) platforms want the curated feed to follow us, the better to deliver the ads to our eyes.

      openlearning17
    4. Judgment

      A hearty and essential word. My students focus on opinion and subjectivity as if all things are up for grabs, though they do not wish my grading to be that way! The idea of judgment is crucial if we are to make progress on "digital literacy."

      openlearning17
    5. Collective Intelligence

      The desired outcome of distributed cognition. Concept leads to outcome, but both are conceptual (we cannot even recognize the outcome of the means without these concepts).

      openlearning17
    6. Distributed Cognition

      I heart this word, Heart heart heart it. What is the story of our species, if not the story of inventing tools for thought? Our global lightspeed telecommunications network has vastly expanded the distribution and the potential for tool using and tool making. We will be the victims of our own ingenuity unless we get smarter about distributed cognition. A very Engelbartian moment in Jenkins' paper.

      openlearning17 engelbart
    7. Multitasking

      We need a new word for rapid environmental scan & focus-shifting. "Multitasking" has been too roundly debunked (though I suspect we'll get better at it).

      openlearning17
    8. Simulation

      Such dynamic model-making is at the heart of Nelson's "Thinkertoys" as well as the media Kay and Goldberg imagine in "Personal Dynamic Media."

      openlearning17
    9. Performance

      Theatre, broadly understood, is radically empowered by the Web, for good and for ill. Indeed, the Web empowers a kind of "cinema of the self," and not just on YouTube, either.

      openlearning17
    10. Play

      Illich notes " for some children such games are a special form of liberating education, since they heighten their awareness of the fact that formal systems are built on changeable axioms and that conceptual operations have a gamelike nature," an interesting corollary to the idea of play as experimentation. See http://www.gardnercampbell.net/blog1/?p=435

      openlearning17
    11. could be considered media creators.

      The latest Pew focus seems to be on cybersecurity and social media use. I couldn't find any mention of 'creators', or critical thinking either. http://www.pewinternet.org/category/publications/

      #netnarr #openlearning17 #DHSI
    12. Ashley Richardson

      Like much online, it's difficult and time consuming to separate fact from fiction. A year after this study was published The Sims Online ($9.99/mo) was rebranded and another year later shut down according to Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Sims_Online

      Ashley Richardson is the avatar of Laura McKnight, a middle schooler from Palm Beach, FL. according to Jenkins' article in https://www.technologyreview.com/s/402737/playing-politics-in-alphaville/

      Heather Lawver still has a blog; http://www.heathershow.com

      Blake Ross found out he has no ability to visualize; http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/aphantasia-software-engineer-blake-ross-writes-mind-blowing-post-about-being-unable-to-imagine-a7000216.html

      Josh Meeter makes animations for sporting events and short films: https://vimeo.com/99398204

      #netnarr #openlearning17 #DHSI
    13. medi-ated experience may squeeze out time for other learning activities; that contemporary childrenoften lack access to real world play spaces, with adverse health consequences, that adults mayinadequately supervise and interact with children about the media they consume (and pro-duce); or concerns about the moral values and commercialization in much contemporaryentertainment.

      The students I meet lead completely mediated lives, are afraid of social spaces as potential places of conflict and uncritically consume vast amounts of commercial media.

      #netnarr #openlearning17 #DHSI
    14. We are using participation as a term that cuts across educational practices, creative processes,community life, and democratic citizenship. Our goals should be to encourage youth to devel-op the skills, knowledge, ethical frameworks, and self-confidence needed to be full participantsin contemporary culture.

      As a retired worker, adult learner and student representative after returning to a community college, I've been encouraging Administrators and Faculty to model the "skills, knowledge, ethical frameworks, and self-confidence needed to be full participants in contemporary culture." I've had little success and will be leaving schools just as mired in the past as they were when I arrived six years ago. Despite spending nearly $200M a year, my CC District is on the lower end of recent CC statistics. http://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2017/03/15/520192774/national-survey-shows-high-rates-of-hungry-and-homeless-community-college-studen

      #netnarr #openlearning17 #DHSI
    15. “If it were possible to define generally the mission of education, it could be said that its fundamental pur-pose is to ensure that all students benefit from learning in ways that allow them to participate fully in pub-lic, community, [Creative] and economic life.”

      Thoughtful definition of education. Recalls Bruner and Dewey in its emphasis on participation in all phases of life. Economic life is necessary, but not sufficient, especially in a democracy.

      openlearning17
    16. Networking— the ability to search for, synthesize, and disseminate information

      Crucial skill here, with three elements. The first two are typically all that are envisioned in discusssions of web or digital literacy. I'd argue that the third is just as important, and tragically neglected. The neglect may stem from persistent unacknowledged assumptions about learning--the kind of "banking concept of education" that Freire criticized.

      openlearning17
    17. Appropriation

      A new word may be needed here, as "appropriation" now suggests a kind of cultural imperialism, or worse.

      openlearning17
    18. Schools as institutionshave been slow to react to the emergence of this new participatory culture

      Still true, and a great loss in every direction. Even worse,higher education seems to have doubled down on the lockstep, limited pathway, drill-oriented approach to "graduating more students" and "producing more degrees." Even the title of @henryjenkins blog, "Confessions of an Aca-Fan," ruefully testifies to a great gap between the joys and challenges of participatory culture and the "critical gatekeeper" ethos of much higher education. Questions about personally meaningful accomplishment, expertise, intrinsic motivation, and the joy of learning are often put to one side.

      openlearning17
    19. A participatory culture isa culture with relatively low barriers to artistic expression and civic engagement, strong supportfor creating and sharing one’s creations, and some type of informal mentorship whereby whatis known by the most experienced is passed along to novices.

      Succinct definition. Interesting to think about how many of these factors obtain in formal educational settings.

      openlearning17
    www.newmedialiteracies.org www.newmedialiteracies.org
    untitled
    8
    1. Weareusingparticipationasatermthatcutsacrosseducationalpractices,creativeprocesses,communitylife,anddemocraticcitizenship.Ourgoalsshouldbetoencourageyouthtodevel-optheskills,knowledge,ethicalframeworks,andself-confidenceneededtobefullparticipantsincontemporaryculture.

      As a retired worker, adult learner and student representative after returning to a community college, I've been encouraging Administrators and Faculty to model the "skills, knowledge, ethical frameworks, and self-confidence needed to be full participants in contemporary culture." I've had little success and will be leaving my schools just as mired in the past as they were when I arrived six years ago. Despite spending nearly $200M a year my CC District is on the lower end of recent CC statistics, yet they continue to create new administration positions while the four college libraries close during evening classes and are only open a few hours on Saturdays. http://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2017/03/15/520192774/national-survey-shows-high-rates-of-hungry-and-homeless-community-college-studen

      #netnarr #openlearning17 #DHSI
    2. couldbeconsideredmediacreators

      The focus of the latest Pew reports seem to be on cybersecurity and social media use. I couldn't find any mention of 'creators', or critical thinking either. http://www.pewinternet.org/category/publications/

      #netnarr #openlearning17 #DHSI
    3. medi-atedexperiencemaysqueezeouttimeforotherlearningactivities;thatcontemporarychildrenoftenlackaccesstorealworldplayspaces,withadversehealthconsequences,thatadultsmayinadequatelysuperviseandinteractwithchildrenaboutthemediatheyconsume(andpro-duce);orconcernsaboutthemoralvaluesandcommercializationinmuchcontemporaryentertainment.

      Most of the students I meet lead completely mediated lives, are afraid of social spaces as potential places of conflict and uncritically consume vast amounts of commercial media.

      #netnarr #openlearning17 #DHSI
    4. “Ifitwerepossibletodefinegenerallythemissionofeducation,itcouldbesaidthatitsfundamentalpur-poseistoensurethatallstudentsbenefitfromlearninginwaysthatallowthemtoparticipatefullyinpub-lic,community,[Creative]andeconomiclife.”

      Thoughtful definition of education. Recalls Bruner and Dewey in its emphasis on participation in all phases of life. Economic life is necessary, but not sufficient, especially in a democracy.

      openlearning17
    5. Networking—theabilitytosearchfor,synthesize,anddisseminateinformation

      Crucial skill here, with three elements. The first two are typically all that are envisioned in discusssions of web or digital literacy. I'd argue that the third is just as important, and tragically neglected. The neglect may stem from persistent unacknowledged assumptions about learning--the kind of "banking concept of education" that Freire criticized.

      openlearning17
    6. Appropriation

      A new word may be needed here, as "appropriation" now suggests a kind of cultural imperialism, or worse.

      openlearning17
    7. Schoolsasinstitutionshavebeenslowtoreacttotheemergenceofthisnewparticipatoryculture

      Still true, and a great loss in every direction. Even worse,higher education seems to have doubled down on the lockstep, limited pathway, drill-oriented approach to "graduating more students" and "producing more degrees." Even the title of @henryjenkins blog, "Confessions of an Aca-Fan," ruefully testifies to a great gap between the joys and challenges of participatory culture and the "critical gatekeeper" ethos of much higher education. Questions about personally meaningful accomplishment, expertise, intrinsic motivation, and the joy of learning are often put to one side.

      openlearning17
    8. Aparticipatorycultureisaculturewithrelativelylowbarrierstoartisticexpressionandcivicengagement,strongsupportforcreatingandsharingone’screations,andsometypeofinformalmentorshipwherebywhatisknownbythemostexperiencedispassedalongtonovices.Aparticipatorycultureisalsooneinwhichmembersbelievetheircontributionsmatter,andfeelsomedegreeofsocialcon-nectionwithoneanother(attheleasttheycarewhatotherpeoplethinkaboutwhattheyhavecreated).

      Succinct definition. Interesting to think about how many of these factors obtain in formal educational settings.

      openlearning17
  3. Mar 2017
  4. er.educause.edu er.educause.edu
    Networked Learning as Experiential Learning
    4
    1. high-impact practices

      I was happy to see the AAC&U add eportfolios as the 11th high-impact practice (HIP). Perhaps that will accelerate students taking responsibility for their work and making it portable across multiple academies and communities. http://www.theijep.com/current.cfm

      #openlearning17
    2. numbers that do things

      From down here, ivory towers look to be built on layers of reification. (spellcheck suggests deification) There are no such things as numbers. There are no 2s in the world. Numbers are symbols created by mammals. Some mammals have evolved to the point where they can manipulate symbols to do things. Some would say it's just the universe playing with itself. ;-)

      #openlearning17
    3. utilization of active learning practices is unsystematic, to the detriment of student learning.

      "the ePortfolio experience enhances other high-impact practices (HIPs) by creating unique opportunities for connection and synthesis across courses, semesters, and cocurricular experiences, thus enabling students to reflect on and construct a cohesive signature learning experience." https://www.aacu.org/whats-new/high-impact-eportfolio-practice-catalyst-student-faculty-and-institutional-learning

      #openlearning17
    4. learning environment as designed by faculty and the learning environment as experienced by students

      Allowing student representatives multiple voting seats on curriculum and technology committees would be progressive. Having students co-create their classes syllabi is revolutionary. @krisshaffer

      #openlearning17
    hackeducation.com hackeducation.com
    Ed-Tech in a Time of Trump
    3
    1. the culture of school

      A retired worker and returning student at a Community College in Oakland, California, I'm amazed at the culture of my four college District. A hierarchical culture based on race and gender, they are still struggling to digitize basic support operations. I spent three years as a representative in shared governance and we accomplished very little. Meanwhile, the District spends $200M a year as enrollment goes down and the number of administrators goes up. I have seen four Chancellors, a dozen college Presidents and countless VPs and Deans come and go. While one more college recently opened its library on Saturdays, the majority of students are adults that work and they still don't have equal access to basic support services. I have a name for this majority of Community College students - taxpayers. It's no wonder that support for education is decreasing.

      #openlearning17
    2. We should be asking – always and again and again: just what sort of future is this technological future of education that we are told we must embrace?

      Yes, whether we see that future as necessarily positive, apocalyptic, or somewhere in between, the only way we control the shape of things to come is to ask good questions in the present.

      #openlearning17
    3. You can delete the data. You can limit its collection. You can restrict who sees it. You can inform students. You can encourage students to resist. Students have always resisted school surveillance.

      The first three of these can be tough for the individual faculty member to accomplish, but informing students and raising awareness around these issues can be done and is essential.

      privacy data surveillance #OpenLearning17
    siriusreflections.org siriusreflections.org
    Contemporary Pedagogy at VT: A Conversation with Shelli Fowler
    1
    robinderosa.net robinderosa.net
    Extreme Makeover: Pedagogy Edition
    1
    1. Students went home and read articles by Audrey Watters

      One of the most important things I've learned about the internets is that links always break. Less than two months after posting, the Audrey Watters link is broken. I don't have a solution, but perhaps including the title of the linked article will be enough to help people find it.

      #openlearning17
    webliteracy.pressbooks.com webliteracy.pressbooks.com
    Web Literacy for Student Fact-Checkers | Simple Book Production
    1
    www.commonsense.org www.commonsense.org
    Digital Redlining, Access, and Privacy
    1
    1. individual's interpretation of that policy

      AUP connections to individual / institutional variance in Fair Use / Copyright interpretations relevant here as well.

      #OpenLearning17 redlining fair use
    mitpress.mit.edu mitpress.mit.edu
    Open Access
    28
    1. If OA does even-tually harm toll-access publishers, it will be in the way that personal computers harmed typewriter manufactur-ers. The harm was not the goal, but a side effect of devel-oping something better.

      Very useful analogy.

      openlearning17
    2. vigilante OA, infringing OA, piratical OA, or OA without consent.

      These words have a strange ring after the Aaron Swartz tragedy, one in which MIT played a part of course. It would be interesting to watch "The Internet's Own Boy" and discuss OA in that context.

      openlearning17
    3. the planets have aligned for scholars

      Yes, but the planets are turning malign for the institutional strategies in which scholars work, especially at large public institutions that are struggling for money.

      openlearning17
    4. The Budapest Open Access Initiative said in February 2002: “An old tradition and a new technology have con-verged to make possible an unprecedented public good. The old tradition is the willingness of scientists and scholars to publish the fruits of their research in scholarly journals without payment. . . . The new technology is the internet.”9

      A nice formulation.

      openlearning17
    5. public and private charities

      Stands in stark contradiction to "higher ed is a business." Bravo.

      openlearning17
    6. But why do universities pay salaries and why do funding agencies award grants? They do it to advance research and the range of public interests served by research.

      Again, a limited conclusion. What of teaching? And what of the unstated but enacted distinctions between "research" (almost always meaning STEM work) and "scholarship" (a term more appropriate to much humanities work)?

      openlearning17
    7. There’s no sense in which research would be more free, efficient, or effective if academics took a more “business-like” position, behaved more like musicians and movie-makers, abandoned their insulation from the market, and tied their income to the popularity of their ideas.

      A crucial point in a crucial paragraph, especially as the idea that "higher ed is a business" moves to strangle faculty and their work.

      openlearning17
    8. Even these authors, however, tend to trans-fer their copyrights to intermediaries—publishers—who want to sell their work.

      Important point. Copyright need not be a barrier, so long as the individual author, with the presumed motivation of sharing, can license uses. Creative Commons is, after all, not copyleft, but reformed copyright.

      openlearning17
    9. These lucky authors are scholars, and the works they customarily write and publish without payment are peer-reviewed articles in scholarly journals.

      I agree that this is the ideal situation, and I would go further and say we should strive toward this ideal because it is so conspicuously philanthropic and, as such, might remind our governments of the public good to which we seek to contribute. Against that, however, is the reality that scholars do not publish without payment, as their publications count as a kind of currency within their institutions, not only because of intellectual or institutional prestige, though that too, but because of the weight these publications acquire, in our current scholarly ecosystem, with regard to tenure and promotion.

      openlearning17
    10. I did not want to hide the fact that I was making use of my previous work, but nei-ther did I want to make any section into a stream of self-quotation and self-citation. I did not want to fail to benefit from my own previous work, but neither did I want to miss opportunities to clarify, update, or improve it.

      An interesting moment, as it points to emerging hybridities in scholarly communication: the article or monograph that is a fixed point in the discourse that can have a unique identifier, can be cited over time reliably, etc., and the blog or wiki, in which it can be difficult (sometimes impossible) to identify a single point made at a single time in a way that stands for the "state of thought" represented by a thinker. I am not advocating for one form over or instead of the other, but I am struck by the way in which Suber seems continually alive to the varied questions that can emerge from the occasion of his writing here.

      openlearning17
    11. essentially no cost

      I think that this is worthy of unpicking, without denying the amazing opportunities offered by digital access and sharing. The financial cost of digital is much less than print but there are still distribution costs and human costs of curation and communication by author and reader (of which this annotation activity could be seen as a example).

      #openlearning17
    12. academics have salaries from universities, freeing them to dive deeply into their research topics and publish special-ized articles without market appeal

      And in some cases, they have sabbaticals, allowing them to focus their time on research and writing projects.

      #openlearning17
    13. If authors like that exist, at least they should take ad-vantage of the access revolution.

      I love how he makes such a simple, logical conclusion from this hypothetical tribe that we know exists in reality.

      #openlearning17
    14. Not all plagiarists are smart, but the smart ones will not steal from OA sources indexed in every search en-gine. In this sense, OA deters plagiarism.1

      This is a big plus. I've also found that plagiarism declines when students work openly using OA materials. It doesn't take them long to realize that cut and paste will cause problems.

      #openlearning17
    15. Academic publishers are not monolithic. Some new ones were born OA and some older ones have completely converted to OA. Many provide OA to some of their work but not all of it.

      And keeping track of all of the permutations can be tough.

      #openlearning17
    16. There are many hypotheses to explain the correlation between OA and increased citations, but it’s likely that ongoing studies will show that much of the correlation is simply due to the larger audience and heightened visibility provided by OA itself.

      This could be the game changer.

      #openlearning17
    17. n fact, the idea that OA depends on author altruism slows down OA progress by hiding the role of au-thor self-interest.

      Definitely -- again, I think addressing the larger ecosystem of employers and the publishers is also important.

      #openlearning17
    18. Public and private funding agencies are essentially public and private charities, funding research they regard as useful or beneficial. Universities have a public purpose as well, even when they are private institutions. We sup-port the public institutions with public funds, and we support the private ones with tax exemptions for their property and tax deductions for their donors.

      Yes. So the shift to OA in scholarly publishing is more about making this piece explicit so the public can claim what is rightfully already ours. I would love to think that faculty can do this by themselves, but I don't think it's so.

      #openlearning17
    19. The academic custom to write research articles for im-pact rather than money

      I'm not sure it's this simple. If your university expects you to write for impact then doing so is a basic component of job security, and therefore not separate from the compensation / money issue.

      #openlearning17
    20. no legitimate scholarly purpose in suppressing attribution to the texts we use.

      And furthermore, attribution creates a chain of authenticity and evidence - essential foundations for credibility, legitimacy and integrity of the work.

      #openlearning17
    21. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited

      Of course this would be fabulous. But the obstacles are considerable: theoretical / legal vs. practical control and enforcement (for citation / attribution); and the publishers....what's in it for them?

      #openlearning17
    22. It’s hard to generalize about OA journals beyond saying that they have all the advantages of being OA and all the disadvantages of being new.3

      This seems obvious to those of us in the Open community but not so much for those who are unfamiliar with it - they make other generalizations that are unfair and unfounded

      #openlearning17
    23. The OA movement focuses on research articles precisely because they don’t pay royalties

      Yes but so why would I pay for gold OA (APCs) when it's your own copyright to begin with (as author). The argument that publishers gain from the free labor of authors, reviewers and editors is exacerbated by APCs! This way,the journal STILL charges libraries for the closed-access AND it charges the authors/institutions for the OPEN access. Win-win for the institution.

      #openlearning17
    24. Authors who make their work OA are always serving others but not always acting from altruism.

      That's a good point. So before reading this book, I had thought that OA that doesn't come from altrusim isn't a good thing. Now I feel that OA that's self-interested is more sustainable for more people.

      #openlearning17
    25. academics have salaries from universities, freeing them to dive deeply into their research topics and publish special-ized articles without market appeal.

      This is contestable, isn't it? Only full-timers have salaries and only tenure-track academics get rewarded for their research (in the US or US-like systems). And again, money for research comes from funders and is therefore value-laden.

      #openlearning17
    26. At the same time it frees them to microspecialize and defend ideas of immediate interest to just a handful people in the world, which are essential to pushing the frontiers of knowledge

      hmm but the option of "getting paid" for non-peer-reviewed publications, then, means that academics who write for public audiences ARE influenced by those things that free the peer-reviewed. Also, there is an assumption here that peer-reviewed journals are value-neutral, which is not really true; they are interested often in preserving conventional ways of doing research and such. This is not an OA vs non-OA thing, but just a point to make about the "liberty" of the researcher. Also, researchers at institutions are often influenced by funders - they may have to modify their research focus depending on what is more likely to get funding.

      #openlearning17
    27. focus on what is likely to be true rather than what is likely to sell

      Capitalism, like state socialism and Fascism, seeks to enclose our thinking into a manageable political system. Institutions like religion, the military and education have evolved to this end. Capitalists often impose rents to limit ideas. Liberty is the opposite of this history.

      #openlearning17 open access
    28. largest cause of misunderstanding is lack of familiarity

      This may well be, but there are numerous structural impediments built into educational institutions, their faculties and relationships with publishers. As Upton Sinclair famously said; "It is difficult to get a man to understand something, when his salary depends upon his not understanding it!"

      #openlearning17 open access
    mitpress.mit.edu mitpress.mit.edu
    Open Access
    1
    1. But for research articles we’re generally talking about authors from the special tribe who want to share their work as widely as possible. Even these authors, however, tend to transfer their copyrights to intermediaries—publishers—who want to sell their work.

      Yes, although many authors see this transfer as a necessary precondition -- not one they like. Publishers require that you assign the copyright to them as a condition of publishing.

      #openlearning17
    openlearninghub.net openlearninghub.net
    Week Seven: Open Access | Open Learning
    2
    1. We will be collectively annotating this chapter in Hypothes.is

      Hypothes.is link does not work in Chrome, Firefox or Opera.

      #openlearning17
    2. What is Open Access?

      "A Very Brief Introduction to Open Access" by Peter Suber

      (www.lib.umd.edu/binaries/content/assets/public/drum/suber-oa-intro.pdf )

      #openlearning17
  5. Feb 2017
  6. mitpress.mit.edu mitpress.mit.edu
    Open Access
    1
    1. The best remedy to misunderstanding is a clear state-ment of the basics for busy people.

      I hope this conclusion is true, as the remedy proposed is straightforward and, in the hands of a gifted writer, has a reasonable chance of success. Given the complexity of contemporary higher education in the US, however, particularly with regard to business models that are sometimes at odds with statements of mission, I wonder.

      openlearning17
    helenbeetham.com helenbeetham.com
    Digital literacy and democracy
    3
    1. We need to involve them in producing their own curriculum, their own organisational context, their own networks and rules of engagement

      open ed

      openlearning17 information literacy
    2. Media literacy, data literacy, algorithmic awareness: these are not optional extras in a course of study now.

      The web a basic communication platform these days. Understanding how to use it is as important as understanding how to use a word processor, yet it seems to be outside the curriculum in most places.

      openlearning17 information literacy
    3. Legal protections, rights, and democratic responsibilities are provided to citizens of a nation state, not to users of privately-owned digital platforms.

      Which is why we need DoOO, which requires some digital literacy even as it builds it. I wonder what protections and rights are provided to the indie web though.

      openlearning17 information literacy
    dougbelshaw.com dougbelshaw.com
    ‘Information literacy’: its history and problems.
    1
    1. ‘information literacy’ suffers from a lack of descriptive power. It is too ambitious in scope, too wide-ranging in application and not precise enough in detail to be useful in an actionable way.

      Interesting point - information literacy is "too big to know." One response has been to define it down, others would fracture it into multiple literacies. While it may be necessary to break it down to make it manageable, the larger view is important too.

      openlearning17 information literacy info lit
    www.ala.org www.ala.org
    Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education | Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL)
    5
    1. Dispositions

      interesting that some of the criticisms of infolit re fake news are addressed here - questioning authority & personal biases

      openlearning17
    2. acknowledge they are developing their own authoritative voices
      openlearning17
    3. using information, data, and scholarship ethically

      Discussions of the ethical dimensions of info lit tend to revolve around intellectual property and plagiarism. They need to go far beyond this, to privacy, truth, freedom, etc.

      openlearning17
    4. Students have a greater role and responsibility in creating new knowledge

      I see this as connecting to both open ed and DoOO.

      openlearning17
    5. prescribe what local institutions

      Some of the criticism of the Framework come from people who want prescription. There is an advantage to having the weight of the ACRL backing up instruction librarians. Some want official standards and outcomes, rather than to have to define, write, and sell them on their own.

      openlearning17
    hyperland.com hyperland.com
    Untitled document
    1
    1. Kite-shaped Nothing #3, showing principle of rotary reading (right).  The author is still mortified at having misspelled "Weltschmerz" on the cover.
      openlearning17
    www.arvindguptatoys.com www.arvindguptatoys.com
    mindstormsnew.pmd
    1
    1. As I see it, a major factor that determined what mathematics wentinto school math was what could be done in the setting of school classrooms with the primitive technology of pencil andpaper.
      openlearning17
    www.newmediareader.com www.newmediareader.com
    21-nelson74-4web2
    4
    1. CAI: General Wrongfulness
      openlearning17
    2. Let the student control the sequence, put him in control ofinteresting and clear material, and make him feel good—comfortable, interested, and autonomous. Teach him toorient himself

      an open education approach, similar to what Resnick discussed

      openlearning17
    3. why notpermit the student to control the system,

      also echoed by Papert

      openlearning17
    4. most of the systems for computer-assisted instruction seemtome to be perpetuating and endorsing much that is wrong

      This makes me think of Papert in *Mindstorms *- Learning is unfortunately limited by the intersections of systems of schooling and technology, and the limitations of each amplify those of the other.

      openlearning17
    openlearninghub.net openlearninghub.net
    Excerpts from “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework” | Open Learning
    15
    1. diplomats, executives, social scientists, life scientists, physical scientists, attorneys, designers

      I was intrigued by the fairly broad list of professions here (all the more so because my late father was beginning what eventually became a diplomatic career in 1962). I'm thinking of who we might add today: computer programmers, for one, of course. Also, medical professionals, who aren't explicitly listed here, though their work draws on several of the disciplines listed.

      #openlearning17
    2. his “clerk”

      As with the "girls" in "As We May Think," this terminology starts me thinking about actual clerks, the work they did, how it compares to what is described here, and what happened to them when (and if) systems like this eventually eliminated their jobs.

      #openlearning17
    3. one specialist couldn’t really apply his experience, intuition, or conceptual feel very well unless the situation could be stated and framed in his accustomed manner, and yet the others couldn’t work with his terminology.

      This is an ongoing challenge, and opportunity, in/for interdisciplinary studies. First step is reminding scholars that they are working within a framework that others don't share; next is finding a way to understand each others' perspectives (I don't think translation back and forth is enough). Understanding how disciplinary frameworks shape understanding is also a goal for students, from intro core courses to the junior-level writing-in-and-about-the-disciplines course I teach to senior capstone courses. Ideally, they become familiar with and comfortable in their own disciplinary frameworks without forgetting that they are frameworks.

      #openlearning17
    4. Team Cooperation3b9

      I was glad to see this topic come up, since the initial description of the architect/computer-clerk pair didn't seem to represent how most architects work, today, or, I suspect, in 1962 (my grandfather was a working architect when this was written, and he did have a drafting table at home, but that was for personal projects. Most of the time, he worked as part of a large group, including for a time for the WPA, designing hospitals and schools. Today, I'm told by someone on the relevant committee that the architects designing the building that will replace our current office/classroom building have some difficulty understanding English professors' desire for quiet, private places to work and meet with their students, since they're accustomed to working in a very different environment)

      #openlearning17
    5. We do not speak of isolated clever tricks that help in particular situations.

      A few people have been arguing recently that information literacy is something along the lines of a "clever trick," but I think it is very much connected to the larger ideas framed out here. Information comes in many forms and flows through many channels. As we grow in our understandings of those forms and channels, we become better able to use information to deal with life's challenges. We augment our intellect.

      infolit openlearning17
    6. After all, we spend great sums for disciplines aimed at understanding and harnessing nuclear power. Why not consider developing a discipline aimed at understanding and harnessing “neural power?” In the long run, the power of the human intellect is really much the more important of the two

      A beautiful closing statement!

      #openlearning17
    7. work in parallel independence on the joint structure

      Nice phrase...captures the interplay of the individual and the collaborative

      #openlearning17
    8. they meet at their concept and terminology interface and work out little shifts in meaning and use which each can find digestible in his system, and which permit quite precise definitions in each system of the terms and concepts in the others

      A great description of how we learn and advance by getting an insight into the webs and trails of the brains of others,

      #openlearning17
    9. If any two want to work simultaneously on the same material, they simply duplicate and each starts reshaping his version–and later it is easy to merge their contributions.

      An early vision of GitHub?

      #openlearning17
    10. We feel that the effect of these augmentation developments upon group methods and group capability is actually going to be more pronounced than the effect upon individuals methods and capabilities, and we are very eager to increase our research effort in that direction

      And so the real amplification comes about because now a connected group of investigators can collaborate on their materials in a more immediate way ... the materials and processes are visible and shared,

      #openlearning17
    11. Many of the external composing and manipulating (modifying, rearranging) processes serve such characteristically “human” activities as playing with forms and relationships to ask what develops, cut-and-try multiple-pass development of an idea, or listing items to reflect on and then rearranging and extending them as thoughts develop

      "Playing with forms and relationships to ask what develops..." This is a great description of how emergent learning can take place ... the outcomes are not pre-ordained or predictable, but rather a matter of discovery and insight that comes about through "play."

      #openlearning17
    12. We refer to a way of life in an integrated domain where hunches, cut-and-try, intangibles, and the human “feel for a situation” usefully co-exist with powerful concepts, streamlined terminology and notation, sophisticated methods, and high-powered electronic aids.

      This description of an "integrated domain," combining distinctively human capabilities such as intuition and a "feel for the situation" with "high-powered electronic aids" calls to mind the description of contemporary chess players as described by Clive Thompson in the chapter "The Rise of the Centaurs" in his book, Smarter Than You Think. How Technology is Changing Our Minds for the Better. The best players today are those who have augmented their intelligence with the most sophisticated chess engines and analysis tools. Generalizing this idea, Thompson says, "We're all playing advanced chess these days. We just haven't learned to appreciate it."

      #openlearning17
    13. many other capabilities for manipulating and displaying information

      And here is the clear articulation, revolutionary at the time, that computers could do more than "compute" in the narrow sense, i.e. number crunching. "Symbolized concepts" could be "manipulated and displayed" in "nonmathematical" ways.

      #openlearning17
    14. repertoire hierarchy

      I'm intrigued by this phrase and wonder what Engelbart is referring to

      #openlearning17
    15. rearranging

      The term "rearranging" keeps appearing in this essay...reminds me of Gardner's term "combinatorial disposition" .... the propensity to seek a more intelligible synthesis of discrete elements by continually recombining them in new shapes and patterns and forms, as in a bricolage.

      #openlearning17
    blog.jonudell.net blog.jonudell.net
    How annotation layers define “segments of interest” for new kinds of applications
    1
    www.dougengelbart.org www.dougengelbart.org
    Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework - 1962 (AUGMENT,3906,) - Doug Engelbart Institute
    2
    1. like most systems its performance can best be improved by considering the whole as a set of interacting components

      We have invested much in improving technology, but the whole set of interacting components includes people and their ideas as well. This is why we need to value humanities and social sciences - technology with humanity and ethics gives us Skynet.

      openlearning17
    2. We do not speak of isolated clever tricks that help in particular situations.

      A few people have been arguing recently that information literacy is something along the lines of a "clever trick," but I think it is very much connected to the larger ideas framed out here. Information comes in many forms and flows through many channels. As we grow in our understandings of those forms and channels, we become better able to use information to deal with life's challenges. We augment our intellect.

      openlearning17 infolit
    autumm.edtech.fm autumm.edtech.fm
    Associative Trails Around DigCiz, Fake News, and Microtargeting
    2
    1. Building critical literacies around information and digital technologies takes time.
      #openlearning17
    2. what happens when you get the technology part but you leave out the metacognitive part? Bush does not seem to consider this option but I think this is often the world that we live in today.

      It seems that our conversation about AWMT focused on using annotation to create a deliberate trail through well verified sources. But as you say, we all leave much larger and ambiguous trails through everything we do online. And I have no idea what an outfit like CA would make of my complete online record.

      #openlearning17
    www.gardnercampbell.net www.gardnercampbell.net
    Trails of wonder, rigorously explored.
    8
    1. revelatory juxtapositions
      #openlearning17
    2. the way familiar texts reveal new layers of meaning and implication
      #openlearning17
    3. the poem of the self that we draft each day, writing ourselves into being yet once more
      #openlearning17
    4. you start to understand at least a little about how an experimental physicist views the world

      This is an excellent example of the notion that achieving competence and, perhaps, mastery in a domain is a matter of "learning how to think like an x," when x may be a physicist, a mathematician, a historian, a psychologist, etc. Not just a detached grasp of a certain body of "content," but a level of conversational ability within a community of inquiry and practice.

      #openlearning17
    5. discipleship

      Intrigued by the way that terms with theological resonance to me ("revelatory" juxtaposition, discipleship) subtly working their way into the essay...

      #openlearning17
    6. affirmation at all

      Wow, this whole paragraph...and it's one sentence!

      #openlearning17
    7. divergent-convergent meta-education

      I am curious about this phrase!

      #openlearning17
    8. combinatorial disposition

      I love this phrase, which takes me back to days of teaching combinatorics, as part of a basic intro to probability. And indeed, the occurrence of these "revelatory juxtapositions" is a matter not of strict necessity but of probability, of the providential coincidence of elements both in the learning environment and in the learner, as you point out.

      #openlearning17
    blog.mahabali.me blog.mahabali.me
    Are We Spectators or Actors?
    1
    1. You don’t have to have access to the big stage to make a difference

      There are ways, Maha, in which the networking, connecting and thinking that we do in our classrooms, in our mentoring relationships, in our conversations, in symposia can and do have an impact, a significant one. However, like all learning, the impact of opening minds a little bit at a time or using carefully dosed sessions of critical thinking and exploration to instill resistance to intolerance or to BS à la Harry Frankfurt, is most effective when it is practiced often, when it is engaging, resonant, meaningful, reiterated and connected meaningfully to previous learning. In other words, we who guide and help learners rarely have a spectacular, glorious moment, replayed multiple times in slow motion, to show the genius of our shot or deflection leading to a goal. We make a difference, yes, but slowly, over time, organically. Still, if done with courage, conviction, care and discipline, our work fostering learning can lead to results that are far more consequential for human life as a whole than a single goal in a single match that few will remember clearly a year later. Good teaching and effective learning can be precious, meaningful and beneficial for a lifetime.

      Your analogy with sports, Maha, has brought me more convincingly to this realization.

      #openlearning17
    morrispelzel.com morrispelzel.com
    Notes and Trails
    7
    1. And that’s the difference between reading “As We May Think” on my own, and working through it in this community, this network of fellow learners

      An open and connected community of learners, making for richer, more resonant learning, in my view. It has certainly enriched my own understanding and appreciation of the text by Vannaver Bush!

      #openlearning17
    2. A well chosen tag prompts us to think about our own thinking, to reflect upon how it is that one idea is connected to another in our own minds

      Indeed! Thinking about thinking and learning about learning is what Open Learning 17 is about, is it not? To what extent do open web technologies, tagging and collaborative processing of ideas invite us to break open new ways of pursuing and managing learning using tools like Hypothes.is?

      #openlearning17
    3. So it’s not just the annotation itself, but this “annotation infrastructure,” the way that the associated link and tags can be combined and recombined, that is so powerful.

      Yup. This tagging and annotating infrastructure has the potential to help use make individual associate trails more evident and to weave them into something more like collaborative neural networking or setting up a kind of learning that is greater than the learning of any single person.

      #openlearning17
    4. My thinking is not primarily a matter of linking texts and documents as such, but of connecting ideas and concepts and discrete pieces of data.

      Agreed. It's a matter of pulling ideas or bits of data together and tagging them as "analogous" or "resonant" or meaningfully connected in some way. In this way, the organic and cognitive connections forged by human brains have a kind of objective trace in the open web "infosphere."

      #openlearning17
    5. I hadn’t really thought previously about Hypothes.is as an “infrastructure” that goes beyond just creating marginalia on a single digital text
      OpenLearning17
    6. My thinking is not primarily a matter of linking texts and documents as such, but of connecting ideas and concepts and discrete pieces of data.
      OpenLearning17
    7. With annotation, you have a resource that is more granular than the document as a whole, a resource that has its own URL (like a document or an entire webpage). Not only does this nugget have its own URL, but it can be tagged to become part of a larger path or group of related items.
      OpenLearning17
    www.johnastewart.org www.johnastewart.org
    Open Note Databases & the Promise of the Memex
    3
    1. But while the stylus-touch interfaces of modern tablets and the proliferation of online media do fulfill much of Bush’s technological vision, the key underlying epistemic concept put forth by Bush has been largely neglected.

      Or engaged obliquely -- How to map, preserve and make accessible (in a "filter forward" kind of way) the "cognitive scaffolding" of our associative trails? Lots of potential for Hypothes.is here ;-)

      #OpenLearning17
    2. History and humanities more generally are dominated by the single-author article and monograph, so a system built to pool research notes may seem counterintuitive.

      Yes! In general these disciplines have long been structured around the perception that scholarship is pursued largely in solitude. It isn't really so, of course, but I love the potential of projects like this one to foreground and support collaboration and networking.

      #OpenLearning17 digital history
    3. The goal for the project was not to publish a completed set of sites or records, but rather to facilitate active research.

      So much potential here for transforming (overcoming) the distinctions between a repository, a tool, and an ongoing project.

      #OpenLearning17 digital history
    www.theatlantic.com www.theatlantic.com
    As We May Think
    21
    1. Presumably man's spirit should be elevated if he can better review his shady past and analyze more completely and objectively his present problems

      I like the multiple meanings one can find in "spirit should be elevated." Not just happier, but better as people.

      openlearning17
    2. if the scholar can get at only one a week by diligent search, his syntheses are not likely to keep up with the current scene

      Here, directional velocity gives way to processing speed, scholarly productivity and currency (in the dual sense of "nowness" and relevance/pertinency).

      #openlearning17
    3. A new symbolism, probably positional, must apparently precede the reduction of mathematical transformations to machine processes
      1. Mathematics can be used to describe and calculate quantity/scale, position or probability; it makes sense to map this "new symbolism" onto one of those dimensions.
      2. This reminds one of a passage from Richard Powers The Gold Bug Variations (1991) where he reminds us that a sufficiently precise placement and measurement of a notch on a rod would be able to encode and decode the Encyclopedia Britannica, indeed, the full holdings of the Library of Congress.
      3. Let us remember that the nearly instantaneous calculations of the computers we use today have limits in terms of the numbers of digits that may be processed at any one time; for that reason, the kind of highly compressed mathematical encoding that Powers envisioned is virtually impossible for us in the early 21st century.
      #openlearning17
    4. The world has arrived at an age of cheap complex devices of great reliability; and something is bound to come of it.

      Part of what we now know is that the large-scale manufacture of such "cheap and complex devices of great reliability" is linked to our destruction of, depletion of natural resources in, or pollution of, the environment -- and our large and ever-increasing impact on the atmosphere, provoking long-term climate change across the planet. In the 21st century, we are at a tipping point where the negative impacts are likely to exceed, increasingly, those positive effects that Bush evokes. How do we proceed from here? That's the question.

      Are there ways of harnessing tagging, linking and associative tools like Hypothes.is to help pull together the disparate webs of evidence and arguments on climate change that will help us as a species understand the dangers and the risks? Are there ways in which such tools might increase the democratic and ecological effectiveness of knowledge and learning? Do they have the potential to shift cultures and mindsets? Can technology prove helpful here?

      #climatechange # #openlearning17 #democracy
    5. The Encyclopoedia Britannica could be reduced to the volume of a matchbox

      ... a matchbox or a USB thumb drive or a flat smart media card or a minuscule microchip or even a non-substantial set of information on a server on the cloud somewhere that can be streamed almost instantly anywhere in the world. In one sense, 21st-century digital "compression" leads not to density, but to dispersion and to widespread, easy access through ubiquitous devices and software tools.

      #openlearning17
    6. His hands are free, and he is not anchored

      Again: Google Glass?

      #openlearning17
    7. Books of all sorts, pictures, current periodicals, newspapers, are thus obtained and dropped into place

      Kindle? IBooks? a connected tablet? These are the desk, the future device in a different guise.

      #openlearning17
    8. Man cannot hope fully to duplicate this mental process artificially, but he certainly ought to be able to learn from it

      Tagging mechanisms and other such tools bridge the gap between organic neuro-processed association as a kind of index and "mechanical" indexing. Basically, human brains imprint the digital archive with some traces of their own organic associations. Not exactly a reproduction of the organic process, but creating a bridge between the organic "pulling together" of disparate elements and mechanical indexing.

      #openlearning17
    9. Such machines will have enormous appetites

      Interesting image -- the machine is portrayed as actually desiring/needing data, rather than simply being capable of processing it. This feels somewhat true to the growth of Big Data today: once the system/capabilities are in place, the desire to collect data -- perhaps more data than we can really use, at least responsibly/ethically -- seems to grow.

      #openlearning17
    10. talk directly to the record?

      In this case, what happens to the "process of digestion and correction" which follows "the first stage"? In some ways, we do now have something like this: many more records of the early stages of thinking (including these annotations), in addition to or instead of records of the later stages, after an author has done more "digesting" of his/her thoughts, and published them in a more orderly way. There's a lot to be said for this sort of "thinking in the open," but it also adds exponentially to the "record," which Bush is already finding overwhelming in size.

      #openlearning17
    11. But there are signs of a change as new and powerful instrumentalities come into use.

      On first reading, this seemed like a very odd transition, from talking about new ways to navigate the ever-proliferating piles/sea of data, to talking about instruments that seem more likely to add to the piles than to organize it. It takes some time for him to come back to how photography can help solve the problem. If this were a student paper, I'd probably be telling him to move his thesis/solution closer to the beginning, so readers don't lose it in the mass of his own accumulated examples of technological progress.

      #openlearning17
    12. remember

      The limits of memory are/is a key theme throughout. As I write below, I'm not sure he always distinguishes as well as he might between "memory" as in retrieving information that one remembers exists, but of which one can't remember the details and "memory" as in remembering that the information exists in the first place.

      #openlearning17
    13. healthily

      This is an interesting choice of words, and echoes, though it does not directly repeat, some of his optimism at the beginning. I found myself thinking about Rachel Carson and others who exposed the results of the "better living through chemistry" (and other forms of science) optimism of the post-WWII era.

      #openlearning17
    14. with some assurance that he can find them again if they prove important

      I found myself checking Bush's age at time of writing when I read this: c. 55. As a fellow middle-aged person, I can sympathize with his desire, but am inclined to point out that the problem is not just finding something that might be useful, but remembering that it exists in the first place (I guess the "trails" might help with that, assuming one remembers one made a trail, or has a way of stumbling across it).

      #openlearning17
    15. The inheritance from the master becomes, not only his additions to the world's record, but for his disciples the entire scaffolding by which they were erected.

      I've been noticing throughout that his attitude toward the existing "record" is essentially conservative/trusting. There's little suggestion that the role of the present generation of researchers might be to question or even overturn it, and no attention to social/cultural forces that might have shaped what it does and doesn't contain.

      #openlearning17
    16. sets a reproducer in action, photographs the whole trail out, and passes it to his friend for insertion in his own memex

      One major difference between the memex as envisioned here and most web-based systems is that each individual who has a memex (which presumably isn't everyone; they sound expensive) has his (or her?) own memex. To use the trail metaphor, everyone has his own network of trails on his own island, and while it's possible to reproduce a network of trails from someone else's island on one's own island, the two sets of trails don't really connect (nor does there seem to be a chance for serendipitous connections made by people who don't know each other already).

      #openlearning17
    17. On deflecting one of these levers to the right he runs through the book before him, each page in turn being projected at a speed which just allows a recognizing glance at each.

      I'm having flashbacks to using microfilm readers (and to the headaches induced by trying to read while scrolling just slowly enough to scan headlines). No question that it was amazing technology in many ways, but the thought of spending most of one's day working in that environment; ugh.

      #openlearning17
    18. Thus far we seem to be worse off than before—for we can enormously extend the record; yet even in its present bulk we can hardly consult it.

      Back the central question/problem (from which we seem to have strayed for quite some time, mostly as the result of his enthusiasm for all the new ways of gathering/manipulating/processing data he sees on the horizon)

      #openlearning17
    19. Much needs to occur, however, between the collection of data and observations, the extraction of parallel material from the existing record, and the final insertion of new material into the general body of the common record. For mature thought there is no mechanical substitute. But creative thought

      And here I think he's going to address the importance of selection (and he does, a bit), but instead he's mostly focusing on the process of bringing in yet more "material," this time from "the existing record."

      #openlearning17
    20. As he ponders over his notes in the evening, he again talks his comments into the record.

      There's a very important element that I think is assumed here, and that requires considerable mental labor (and some practice with using the tools described): selection. If the notes and photographs are to be useful, they can't be a stream-of-consciousness recording of everything encountered, observed, or thought that day. Otherwise, the "pondering" would take as long as the day itself.

      And presumably the process of "talk[ing] comments into the record" involves yet more selection. That's a natural part of the process of research and writing, but one thing I think we've learned as tools of this sort become widely available is that the temptation to record everything is strong (scholars are not immune to the same impulses experienced by students with highlighters), and the result is a postponement of the difficult task of selecting what's important to a later date (or sometimes never).

      #openlearning17
    21. is retyped

      Another obfuscation-of-labor moment in the passive here? Who does the retyping, and just how much correction, interpretation, etc. is required (cf. what happens when you run OCR: the result is not usually a text clean enough for markup without some fixing by well-educated humans, often located in low(er)-wage countries such as India).

      #openlearning17
    www.ibm.com www.ibm.com
    developerWorks Interviews: Tim Berners-Lee
    1
    1. then that is people to people. But that was what the Web was supposed to be all along.

      It was meant to be about humanity and empowering people, rather than technology putting people out of work.

      openlearning17
    netnarr.arganee.world netnarr.arganee.world
    Leonardo Flores (Jan 31 @ 1PM EST)
    2
    1. What about bookstores?

      Authors are still authoring and booksellers are still bookselling. The surviving bookstores are better for the competition. Just like the remaining 'record' stores. IMHO

      #netnarr #openlearning17
    2. transmedia storytelling

      Here's a recent paper that unravels all the threads of 'transmedia.' Digital storytelling: New opportunities for humanities scholarship and pedagogy John F. Barber | Ray Siemens (Reviewing Editor) http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23311983.2016.1181037

      #netnarr #openlearning17
  7. Jan 2017
  8. www.theatlantic.com www.theatlantic.com
    As We May Think
    15
    1. wisdom of race experience

      I find it interesting that though Bush opens and closes his article with a comment about race, no one has annotated them. Is the ideology of race just as normal today as it was seventy years ago? I guess UNESCO's Statements on Race have had no lasting effect in the US.

      #openlearning17
    2. the life of a race rather than that of an individual.

      I find it interesting that though Bush opens and closes his article with a comment about race, no one has annotated them. Is the ideology of race just as normal today as it was seventy years ago? I guess UNESCO's Statements on Race have had no lasting effect in the US.

      #openlearning17
    3. the application of science to the needs and desires of man

      An interesting follow up is 'The Hut Where the Internet Began." "When Douglas Engelbart read a Vannevar Bush essay on a Philippine island in the aftermath of World War II, he found the conceptual space to imagine what would become our Internet." http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/07/the-hut-where-the-internet-began/277551/

      #openlearning17
    4. They have enabled him to throw masses of people against one another with cruel weapons.

      Interesting sentiment coming from the founder of Raytheon, one of the largest producers of weapons of mass destruction in the world.

      #openlearning17
    5. The inheritance from the master

      GIGO

      #openlearning17
    6. tying two items together is the important thing

      A semantic web?

      #openlearning17
    7. the most fastidious connoisseur of the present artifacts of civilization.

      We fastidious connoisseurs can join the geek and nerds at the Computer Museum in Menlo Park California. They have an IBM 360 just like the one on which I learned to program. See Hollerith punched-card machine above. http://www.computerhistory.org/visit/

      #openlearning17
    8. The world has arrived at an age of cheap complex devices of great reliability; and something is bound to come of it.

      We now know that who decides what gets produced is the most important factor of what we can buy cheaply. That's a political question.

      #openlearning17
    9. facsimile transmission

      The only institution I deal with that requires facsimile transmissions is my college.

      #openlearning17
    10. punched-card machine long ago produced by Hollorith for the purposes of the census

      Raise your hand if you've used punch cards to program a computer!

      #openlearning17
    11. physicists promptly constructed thermionic-tube equipment

      hahahahaha Physicists don't construct vacuum tubes (valves in the UK) for research, glassblowers do! Just another case of workers being edited out of the academic record. We even have our own revisionist label: Invisible Assistant. Patronizing much?

      #openlearning17
    12. produces in a short time a list of all employees who live in Trenton and know Spanish

      Or a list of Muslims that have traveled to Iran, Iraq, Sudan, Syria, Libya, Somalia and Yemen.

      #openlearning17
    13. The lawyer has at his touch the associated opinions and decisions of his whole experience

      Now we have link rot. 49 percent of the hyperlinks in Supreme Court decisions no longer work.http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/24/us/politics/in-supreme-court-opinions-clicks-that-lead-nowhere.html?_r=0

      #openlearning17
    14. For mature thought there is no mechanical substitute

      Yes! Let's highlight this...no technology can substitute for the cognitional acts that produce understanding and insight. Technological affordances may contribute to the conditions for the possibility of insight, but they never replace the intelligence that grasps a unifying idea in a set of particular and otherwise randomly associated data.

      #openlearning17
    15. Britannica

      I wonder if Bush could have foreseen, not just that the traditional stores of records would become astoundingly more accessible, but that technologies would enable new forms of building such records based on opening the processes of knowledge production and editing...here I am thinking of the comparison of the Britannica with Wikipedia, and those analyses that regard them as comparably authoritative sources of knowledge

      #openlearning17
    firstmonday.org firstmonday.org
    Digital reading spaces: How expert readers handle books, the Web and electronic paper
    29
    1. enabling openness is therefore itself socially beneficial

      this feels like a really dangerous assertion that's repeated here and not qualified AT ALL. imho. Openness enabling innovation does not automatically lead to social good

      #OpenLearning17
    2. “it will be reviewed by the Administration and we will issue a response.”

      The level of "openness" implied here might be calibrated differently now than when the article was written.

      #OpenLearning17
    3. idea of open science dates back to the very origin of modern science,

      Yes, although don't we need to be careful not to conflate scholarship and science? The methodologies of the humanities approach this process very differently.

      #OpenLearning17
    4. The Public Library of Science (PLOS), for example, has a policy that requires authors “to make all data underlying the findings described in their manuscript fully available without restriction,” with refusal to do so being grounds for rejection of a manuscript (PLOS, n.d.a). Importantly, PLOS positions this Data Availability policy as being a natural extension of OA publishing.

      This seems especially crucial. Transparency and openness work in tandem to establish credibility and accountability.

      #OpenLearning17
    5. not only must it be online, but it must be public, it cannot be behind a paywall or login or have other barriers to use.

      How do we think about free (no fee) public (available on the open web) resources where you need to create an account to get access? I'm thinking more of databases, repositories, etc. than the underlying software.

      #OpenLearning17
    6. Openness creates a virtuous cycle

      But, if "open" is used to indicate that "a resource may be used in any way imaginable," then the cycle is by no means necessarily "virtuous." Again, the need for an ethical framework to this discussion is obvious.

      #OpenLearning17
    7. “phraseological neologisms

      This is so meta...I think "phraseological neologism" is itself an example of a "phraseological neologism."

      #OpenLearning17
    8. In other words, “open” is being used here not to indicate the resource itself, but rather to indicate the nature of the tools used to build the resource, or by which resources are provided.

      This use of open reminds me of the theme of "observable work," "working out loud," and "thinking out loud" that Jon Udell and others have spoken about. These are practices that perhaps, at least at first, benefit the original workers and thinkers, in that they open themselves to constructive feedback and thus improvement. Then, however, others benefit from access and use of both the product and the process that has been created and refined.

      #OpenLearning17
    9. Jenkins, et al. (2009) argue that much of what we consider received culture is the product of appropriation and remixing, from the Iliad to Lewis Carroll

      I love these historical examples of "remixing." Reminds me of older forms of scholarship which promoted commentary and exegesis before the production of "original" work.

      #OpenLearning17
    10. “open skies” policy enables a nation to allow other nations’ commercial aviation to fly through its airspace — though, importantly, without giving up control of its airspace.

      This may be the contemporary meaning, but in the fifties the US proposed an "open skies" policy that would allow for aerial monitoring of military installations in the Soviet Union by the US (and visa versa). I'm not sure I see surveillance agreements as examples of openness.

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    11. Creative Commons has very effectively lowered the bar to participation in the open source community

      Not really. It's still quite confusing and even people deep into the community get confused

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    12. But chief among these is the fact that there is a finite number of developers in the world with the skillset to contribute to such projects. Open source may mean the freedom to change the software, but this is only true in theory; in practice, the bar to participating in the open source community is high, as one needs a high level of programming skill to meaningfully contribute.

      exactly... as is the case with much openness

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    13. Open source democracy

      so maybe the term open source gets reappropriated when what we really mean is that we need "open process" or "open design"

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    14. information about what the government is doing is meaningless without the ability for citizens to then act on that information to exert influence on the government. This, of course, is almost a definition of participatory democracy.

      nice

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    15. aking his cue from Popper, George Soros in 1993 founded the Open Society Institute

      wait if Popper is in 2013, how could Soros take his cue and do something 1993???

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    16. As the OU’s mission statement makes clear, the underlying philosophy of open education equates access to educational opportunity with social justice.

      I'm assuming here they mean that even though it equates access with social justice, access does not automatically create social justice and equity, right?

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    17. Education, however, is not just about artifacts, not just about access to books and articles, not just about reuse of lesson plans. Education is also about advising and support, the sorts of services that are used at some point by every student affiliated with an institution of higher education. First generation college students, in particular, have a need for these kinds of support services, as they might not have access to that expertise elsewhere in their lives; use of these services at an institution dramatically increases first-generation and at-risk students’ graduation rates (

      Exactly. And more of the social capital that comes from a university education is not at all possible to offer via MOOCs... not happening at the moment anyway, and may not be possible for people who don't have any of it to begin with

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    18. ense that the courses offered are accessible to all

      yes, the knowledge is open & free, but not the certification, right?

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    19. This is perhaps the purest form of open education, in which the instructor is a facilitator, and the students collaborate to create a shared understanding

      I think the word "purest" here is an exaggeration and that statements about cMOOCs should have come AFTER the "open means participatory" was described. I say this because there is nothing inherently "pure" about cMOOCs. They are open as in anyone can sign up, but they are not accessible to everyone equally... so no purity there, as far as I can see.. and in many instances, the authority of the course facilitators is pretty evident.

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    20. makes it clear that if a work is open, then any and all of the things that it may be possible to do with it are allowed, unless explicitly disallowed.

      right... as opposed to copyright

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    21. legal scholar Lessig documents the expansion of copyright under U.S. law over the past 40 years. Lessig (2005b) argues that this expansion, far from promoting “the Progress of Science and useful Arts” (as specified in the U.S. Constitution, Article I, Section 8), actively inhibits it

      is there evidence for that? I hope so!

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    22. Suber suggests that OA removes two types of barriers: price and permission. This is an important point, because these are far from the only barriers to access. Suber lists four types of barriers that may remain in place even if price and permission barriers have been removed: censorship, language, handicap access, and connectivity [2]. Open Access does not directly address any of these barriers. However, having resources available online for free (gratis) is certainly closer to the ideal of universal access than not. Open does not mean friction-free, it just means with as little friction as possible.

      as little friction as possible, I like that. I like the outlining of barriers though there may be others... hmm

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    23. Open Source Hardware

      I still remember when I first heard of this concept and at first had no idea what it was. It's genius though!

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    24. here are four rights articulated by Creative Commons licenses: Attribution: All distributions of a work, and derivative works based upon it, must be credited to the creator of the work. Non-commercial: Derivative work cannot be for commercial use. Share-alike: Derivative work must be licensed under terms identical to those of the original work. No Derivatives: A work may be redistributed, but only “unchanged and in whole;” no derivative works may be made based on it.

      This is introduced here in a very strange way, as if CC means ALL 4 of these are necessary... I assume at some point they will clarify that you can use them in combination...

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    25. “free as in beer.”

      as a Muslim, I always disliked the use of beer specifically in this example. Does anyone know why beer? Is there nothing else that's given out for free in Western countries, like stickers of happy meals or something?

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    26. Riffing on Stallman’s quote, some suggest that there is a third “free”: free as in puppies. This amusingly captures both the price meaning of free, as well as implying the costs of ongoing maintenance for the liberty meaning of free.

      I actually love this and it's important, actually, because there is a privilege in the capacity to keep free puppies!!! And maintain/sustain open stuff obviously

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    27. so you can help your neighbor.

      does the "so you can help your neighbor" mean it has to be done with the purpose of helping another, or is this just a way of saying "non commercial redistribution"?

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    28. . The interpretation of the word “open” to mean a shared resource to which all had access, fit neatly into the philosophy of the modern library movement of the nineteenth century. The phrases “open shelves” and “open stacks” emerged at this time, referring to resources that were directly available to library users, without necessarily requiring intervention by a librarian.

      that is so interesting...wondering how it worked

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    29. Opening the door on open

      I always liked the door metaphor for open, because it suggests decrees of openness, from open just a crack to wide open. And a wide open door can still be an obstacle to people in certain circumstances. So it can be a boon or it can be a tease. It is not as simple as it might seem.

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    cognitivemedium.com cognitivemedium.com
    Thought as a Technology
    2
    1. the interface to Microsoft Word contains few deep principles about writing, and as a result it is possible to master Word's interface without becoming a passable writer. This isn't so much a criticism of Word, as it is a reflection of the fact that we have relatively few really strong and precise ideas about how to write well.

      "Write well" is complex, like "personality" (although OCEAN, haha, oops). I think especially of Karla's lament so beautifully expressed in Oceanic Mind. https://rampages.us/karlaimpala/2015/12/04/oceanic-mind/. Perhaps "strong" and "precise" are not mutually compatible here--the pairing may be misleading.

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    2. Experts often possess many such minimal canonical examples, together with heuristics they can use to reason rapidly about the examples. Those heuristics are often quick-fire rules of thumb, full of exceptions and special clauses, not rigorous proof techniques. They let experts sketch out arguments, and figure out what is likely true, and what is likely false. In short, they're a powerful way of exploring and obtaining insight.

      Key moment. There's a complex relationship between expertise and heuristics, almost a chicken-and-egg problem. But this idea of hidden representations maps well onto what Nielsen has noted in "Reinventing Discovery" about the transformational moment he experienced when he first heard a scientist speak informally. And informal maps onto "narrating work" openly. And of course, INSIGHT.

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