92 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. I had the same confusing experience here too!
    2. I'm just trying out the "Reply to comment" button here. Well, it seems like it doesn't quote the text... that's really the feature I'd like to exposed. When responding to a large message (email or otherwise), I like to quote various parts and respond in line.
  2. Jul 2020
  3. Jun 2020
    1. higher when Ericksen conflict was present (Figure 2A)

      Yeah, in single neurons you can show the detection of general conflict this way, and it was not partitionable into different responses...

    2. G)

      Very clear effect! suspicious? how exactly did they even select the pseudo-populations, its not clear exactly from the methods to me

    3. pseudotrial vector x

      one trial for all different neurons in the current pseudopopulation matrix?

    4. X is the trials by neurons pseudopopulation matrix of firing rates

      So these pseudopopulations were random agglomerates of single neurons that were recorded, so many fits for random groups, and the best were kept?

    5. Within each neuron, 719 we calculated the expected firing rate for each task condition, marginalizing over 720 distractors, and for each distractor, marginalizing over tasks.

      Distractor = specific stimulus / location (e.g. '1' or 'left')?

      Task = conflict condition (e.g. Simon or Ericksen)?

    6. condition-averaged within neurons (9 data points per 691 neuron, reflecting all combinations of the 3 correct response, 3 Ericksen distractors, and 3 692 Simon distractors)

      How do all combinations of 3 responses lead to only 9 data points per neuron? 3x2x2 = 12.

    1. In addition, if the option, An administrator must always approve the comment, is set in Administration > Settings > Discussion, this e-mail address will receive notification that the comment is being held for moderation. Please note this is different than the address you supplied for the admin user account; the admin account e-mail address is sent an e-mail only when someone submits a comment to a post by admin.

      They're trying to make a distinction between "administrator" address and "admin" (short for administrator) account. Hmm. Maybe they should have called them different words. Anyway, this could be made less confusing.

    1. transaction calls can be nested. By default, this makes all database statements in the nested transaction block become part of the parent transaction. For example, the following behavior may be surprising: User.transaction do User.create(username: 'Kotori') User.transaction do User.create(username: 'Nemu') raise ActiveRecord::Rollback end end creates both “Kotori” and “Nemu”. Reason is the ActiveRecord::Rollback exception in the nested block does not issue a ROLLBACK. Since these exceptions are captured in transaction blocks, the parent block does not see it and the real transaction is committed.

      How is this okay??

      When would it ever be the desired/intended behavior for a raise ActiveRecord::Rollback to have absolutely no effect? What good is the transaction then??

      What happened to the principle of least surprise?

      Is there any reason we shouldn't just always use requires_new: true?

      If, like they say, the inner transaction "become[s] part of the parent transaction", then if anything, it should roll back the parent transaction too — not roll back nothing.

  4. May 2020
    1. of, relating to, or being a grammatical case or form expressing means or agency

      I really need an example of this!

      It seems unusual that they specifically mention "a grammatical case or form". I've never seen a definition before that is anything like this one.

      How is this different from definition 1?

    1. Many also question how the average user with little knowledge of the GDPR will react to being asked so many questions regarding consent. Will they be confused? Probably at first. It will be up to each business to create a consent form that is easy to understand, while being at the same time comprehensive and informative
    1. These options have almost deceptively similar wordings, with only subtle difference that is too hard to spot at a glance (takes detailed comparison, which is fatiguing for a user):

      1. can use your browser’s information for providing advertising services for this website and for their own purposes.
      2. cannot use your browser’s information for purposes other than providing advertising services for this website.

      If you rewrite them to use consistent, easy-to-compare wording, then you can see the difference a little easier:

      1. can use your browser’s information for providing advertising services for this website and for their own purposes.
      2. can use your browser’s information for providing advertising services for this website <del>and for their own purposes</del>.

      Standard Advertising Settings

      This means our ad partners can use your browser’s information for providing advertising services for this website and for their own purposes.

      Do Not Share My Information other than for ads on this website

      This means that our ad partners cannot use your browser’s information for purposes other than providing advertising services for this website.

    1. to bypass work

      What does "work" mean here? I think maybe they mean to bypass profiling?

    1. This topic is not a support question

      This is hard to answer because I don't know what they classify as a "support question". For example, are bugs classified as a support question? So if it's a bug, should I check this or no?

      What is the purpose of this checkbox? If you could describe that, it would make it much easier to answer the question.

    1. Supports session-less consent policies which will become persistent once the user signs in or signs up

      Why does it need to be session-less? You can have sessions (using technical/necessary cookies) without the user needing to be signed in.

    1. P ⇒ Q

      It may be confusing for a newcomer (or on first read-through) that the variable/predicate/condition that represents the "necessary condition" in this statement P ⇒ Q is the Q.

      One might be forgiven for incorrectly assuming that the P represents the necessary condition. That is because most of the time when one states a statement/relation/implication/etc. about a subject, the sentence/statement begins with the subject. For example, if we're explaining about a "less than" relationship, and we give x < y as an example, one would correctly assume that x is the subject here and x is the thing that is less than.

      So it may be a bit surprising to a newcomer (on first read-through) that the subject of this section — the necessary condition — is represented by the Q and not be the P.

      (Made even more confusing by the fact that the very same implication P ⇒ Q is also used to express the opposite sufficiency relationship in the very next section. I would argue that Q ⇒ P should have been used instead in exactly one of these sections to make it clearer that the subject is different and/or the relation is different, depending how you look at it.)

      Is there any reason we couldn't rewrite this to express the logical relation between P and Q with the subject first? If we let P be the subject (that is, "necessary condition" that we're illustrating/explaining), could we not rewrite this as P ⇐ Q?

      In fact, that is exactly how this relation was expressed below, in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Necessity_and_sufficiency#Simultaneous_necessity_and_sufficiency !:

      that P is necessary for Q, P ⇐ Q, and that P is sufficient for Q, P ⇒ Q

    2. The logical relation is, as before, expressed as "if P, then Q" or "P ⇒ Q"

      It is confusing on first read-through that the exact same logical relation between P and Q is stated for both necessity and sufficiency. Since they are dual of each other, it seems like, in order to allow the same P and Q to be used in both examples (in other words, in order to allow their variable scope to be the entire article instead of just the "Necessity" and "Sufficiency" section's local scope), that P and Q should be reversed in this section.

    3. In algebra, for some set S together with an operation ⋆ {\displaystyle \star } to form a group, it is necessary that ⋆ {\displaystyle \star } be associative.

      Seems like a simpler example (of individually necessary and jointly sufficient) that is easier to follow could be found.

    1. If you’re a controller based outside of the EU, you’re transferring personal data outside of the EU each time you collect data of users based within the EU. Please make sure you do so according to one of the legal bases for transfer.

      Here they equate collection of personal data with transfer of personal data. But this is not very intuitive: I usually think of collection of data and transfer of data as rather different activities. It would be if we collected the data on a server in EU and then transferred all that data (via some internal process) to a server in US.

      But I guess when you collect the data over the Internet from a user in a different country, the data is technically being transferred directly to your server in the US. But who is doing the transfer? I would argue that it is not me who is transferring it; it is the user who transmitted/sent the data to my app. I'm collecting it from them, but not transferring it. Collecting seems like more of a passive activity, while transfer seems like a more active activity (maybe not if it's all automated).

      So if these terms are equivalent, then they should replace all instances of "transfer" with "collect". That would make it much clearer and harder to mistakenly assume this doesn't apply to oneself. Or if there is a nuanced difference between the two activities, then the differences should be explained, such as examples of when collection may occur without transfer occurring.

    1. Records must be kept in writing. Most organisations will benefit from maintaining their records electronically.

      Isn't "kept in writing" different from "maintaining their records electronically"? How can digital data be kept in writing? Is that meant figuratively then? Why would they use figurative language here? What do they mean by "kept in writing"??

  5. Apr 2020
    1. The common law—so named because it was "common" to all the king's courts across England—originated in the practices of the courts of the English kings in the centuries following the Norman Conquest in 1066.[10] The British Empire spread the English legal system to its colonies, many of which retain the common law system today. These "common law systems" are legal systems that give great weight to judicial precedent, and to the style of reasoning inherited from the English legal system.
    2. the body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.[1][2][3][4][5][6] The defining characteristic of “common law” is that it arises as precedent.

      The way "common law" sounds and is used, I would have thought it meant law that is common (in common between) many countries, laws that can be found on the books in all of these many places. (Kind of like commonwealth.)

      But, although it is common to many countries, that is not its defining characteristic. Its defining characteristic is actually something quite different.

      Since the term is so far removed from what it actually means, I would even go so far as to say it is a mild euphemism.

      Much better names for this exist: judicial precedent or judge-made law are the clearest options. But even "case law" is a better term.

    1. This way, personal data is more effectively protected allowing individuals to focus on the risk involved in granting authorization for the use of their personal data and to take appropriate decisions based on the risk assessment. Consequently, the burden and confusion generated by systematic consent forms is constrained.

      Speaking of confusing, this paragraph is confusing and unclear.

      I think what they're basically saying is, don't ask for consent for every single little thing; only ask for consent when there is a real risk involved, so that people don't get desensitized to you asking for consent for every little thing, even things that they probably don't care about.

      Key word:

      systematic consents

    1. When two different phenomena acquire the same label, as in the case of hackers in the classic sense on one hand and malicious security crackers on the other, either something has to give or discussion is bound to suffer from confusion that could easily have been avoided.
    2. When you simply accept that "hacker" means "malicious security cracker", you give up the ability to use the term to refer to anything else without potential confusion.
    1. it isn't actually -prune itself that causes this, by the way. The issue is that the or operator "short-circuits", and or has lower precedence than and. The end result is that if a file called .snapshot is encountered it will match the first -name, -prune will then do nothing (but return true), and then the or returns true since its left-argument was true. The action (eg: -print) is part of its second argument, so it never has a chance to execute.
    2. The thing I'd found confusing about -prune is that it's an action (like -print), not a test (like -name). It alters the "to-do" list, but always returns true.
    1. Did you expect the temp directory to get printed? In the last example, we saw the directories ./temp and ./C/temp got printed, but not now. This is the effect of the -print option. By default, the find command prints all the files matching the criteria. However, once the -print option is specified, it will print files only on explicit print instructions. In this find command, -print is associated in the other side of the OR condition, and hence nothing will get printed from the 1st part of the condition.
  6. Mar 2020
    1. Such a corporate structure helps contain the otherwise massive potential fines which are derived from the company's worldwide revenue.  However, the worldwide part would in practice be limited to the EU as that is the only market such a subsidiary would operate in.

      How does this structure helps contain the fines which are derived from the company's worldwide revenue?

      If fines are based on worldwide revenue anyway, then what good does having a EU subsidiary even do in that respect? None, it seems.

      This seems to even confirm that, but it is unclear/confusing how this is worded:

      However, the worldwide part would in practice be limited to the EU as that is the only market such a subsidiary would operate in.

    1. the flow page checkbox (right above the code snippet) turns off prior consent server side for the entire site, whilethe prior blocking toggle within the configurator turns off prior consent only on the pages where the Cookie Solution snippet contains "priorConsent":false. This is useful for testing purposes, or if, for example, you’re working on your site/app locally and don’t want to affect your cookie solution analytics or to have your pageviews counted. Please note that if the prior blocking setting has been disabled server side (see above), this (local) configurator-based parameter will be ineffective.

      They could have made this less confusing:

      • Don't even show / allow checking the toggle in the configurator if it is disabled server side.
      • Give them different/better names in the UI that makes their differences more apparent: like "Enabled for your account (required if you want to use this feature at all, even on a page-by-page basis)" and "Enabled for pages containing this code snippet".

      I don't even really see the point of turning it off server side. Just disable it in the code snippet and that should be enough.

    1. Are cookies governed by the GDPR? Cookie usage and it’s related consent acquisition are not governed by the GDPR, they are instead governed by the ePrivacy Directive (Cookie Law) which in future will be repealed by the up-coming ePrivacy Regulation.
    1. analytics.js and gtag.js

      missed opportunity: provide links explaining the difference between "ga.js" and "analytics.js and gtag.js". They're used as headings here like we ought to already know what they're talking about.

    2. An event gets credit for session with event only if that event was the first event of a session.

      That seems kind of strange. But maybe I'm just not understanding this point.

    1. The <meta name="robots" content="noindex" /> tag or directive applies to search engine crawlers. To block non-search crawlers, such as AdsBot-Google, you might need to add directives targeted to the specific crawler
    1. For the noindex directive to be effective, the page must not be blocked by a robots.txt file. If the page is blocked by a robots.txt file, the crawler will never see the noindex directive, and the page can still appear in search results, for example if other pages link to it.
  7. Feb 2020
    1. create a new Slack app

      When I saw this in the "Slack API changelog: February 2019" newsletter episode:

      New Slack apps are the default

      New Slack apps, with subtler permissions and more intuitive behavior, are now the default when you create an app. Get started by building or migrating.

      I didn't really understand what they meant. I assumed they were talking about their Slack app -- the Slack app.

      (Of course if I had read the intro to the newsletter for some context, I probably would have understood. The intro said:

      Welcome to the Slack changelog newsletter. You’re receiving this because you built a Slack app, and we want to keep you informed about changes to the Slack APIs. … )

      How does one distinguish between the Slack app (created by Slack) and a Slack app (created by non-Slack)?

    1. which provides consistent results across languages, although not consistent with the rules for any given language.

      Elaborate?

  8. Jan 2020
    1. It is difficult to recall a commit that is not pointed at by any ref. The further the user goes from a ref, the harder it will be for them to construct the meaning of a commit. But the further back they go, the less likely it is that someone will have changed history since they last looked5.

      ??

    2. Push a branch to a bare repository

      ????

    3. Git goes to HEAD to get the parent of the a3 commit

      ??

  9. Dec 2019
    1. According to man bash, however, non-interactive shells don't even read these files:
    2. This has the consequence that if the .bashrc contains any commands that print to standard output, file transfers will fail, e.g, scp fails without error.
    3. Confusingly, all the distributions I use (Ubuntu, RHEL and Cygwin) had some type of check (testing $- or $PS1) to ensure the current shell is interactive. I don’t like cargo cult programming so I set about understanding the purpose of this code in my .bashrc.
    1. It's confusing whether one should put things in gemspec development_dependencies or in Gemfile or in both.

      Duplication is bad since the lists could get out of sync. And the gemspec's development_dependencies should be a complete list. Therefore, my opinion is that that should be the canonical list and therefore the only list.

      Actually, what good is gemspec's development_dependencies? A contributor should clone the repo, run bundle, and get the dev dependencies that way. Therefore development_dependencies is unneeded and you should only list them in Gemfile.

      It is simpler to just use Gemfile, since it is a more familiar format. You can copy and paste content into it. For example, if you extract a gem out of an app, you may wan to copy/move some gems from app's Gemfile into new gem's Gemfile. It also generates a Gemfile.lock (which you shouldn't add to git).

    1. Arguably, the rails-team's choice of raising ArgumentError instead of validation error is correct in the sense that we have full control over what options a user can select from a radio buttons group, or can select over a select field, so if a programmer happens to add a new radio button that has a typo for its value, then it is good to raise an error as it is an application error, and not a user error. However, for APIs, this will not work because we do not have any control anymore on what values get sent to the server.
  10. Nov 2019
    1. I'm considering this, although I'm still leaning towards not including it and I'd love to just get rid of first if it wouldn't break so many peoples tests. Newcomers to Capybara don't understand (or aren't willing to learn) the issues that all/first (and last if added) have and massively overuse them. Yes the fact that all and first now wait by default will prevent some of the new user issues/confusion, but it won't fix the non-reloadability issue.
  11. Oct 2019
    1. I don't have anything to add other than "extract_css" in webpacker.yml has been a source of confusion for me as well. When it is "extract_css: false" in development and production, a stylesheet IS included in the document head (shouldn't this be "extract_css: true"?). And when I use "extract_css: true", styles are not included in the document.
  12. Aug 2019
    1. especially funders, that, while sometimes present in research, are especially salient for program evaluation given its origins.

      This last half of the sentence tripped me up a bit. Perhaps consider rewording, or restructuring into multiple sentences, so that the author's main point is more clearly articulated.

    1. As you might have guessed, this approach likely is studying a topic with the most existing research, when compared to the other two.[4]

      Though I think I do understand the author's intended point here, I think the wording is perhaps a bit tricky and potentially confusing for some readers. To make links explicit and content easier to understand, consider revising to something like:

      "As you might have guessed, this approach is more likely to be used if you're studying a topic which already has some existing research in the literature base."

      (I think this section will be clearer, and can stand on its own, without the last "...when compared to the other two" part of the sentence.)

    1. researcher’s focus’s

      I do understand (I think) what the author was saying here. The sheer number of apostrophes in the parenthetical part of this sentence, however, threw me off a bit. Perhaps reword for clarity/simplicity.

    2. perceivgeneralizable findingsed

      Not sure how the linked term "generalizable findings" fits into this particular sentence - a typo, perhaps? If this term was intended to be included in this paragraph, we may want to add an extra/separate sentence to clarify and contextualize.

    3. case study examining the experiences of youth who is transgender and their family in a rural mid-western community

      As I was reading this idiographic study example, I wasn't sure whether the example pertained to a single youth/family or multiple youth and family groups. Perhaps we can revise the wording a bit to clarify here.

      Suggested revision: "For example, an idiographic study might be a good approach for a case study examining the experiences of a transgender youth and her family living in a rural Midwestern state. Data for this idiographic study would be collected from a range of sources, including (*provide examples of appropriate sources), to gain a very holistic picture of this family's experiences."

    4. video captures

      Video "captures" - to what is this referring, specifically? Does this mean video recordings? May want to provide a brief explanation or alternative word choice here.

  13. Jul 2019
    1. Who after Archimagoes fowle defeat,   Led her away into a forrest wilde,   And turning wrathfull fire to lustfull heat,   With beastly sin thought her to haue defilde,   And made the vassall of his pleasures vilde.   Yet first he cast by treatie, and by traynes,   Her to perswade, that stubborne fort to yilde:   For greater conquest of hard loue he gaynes, That workes it to his will, then he that it constraines.

      Is this a longer period of time than it is? it seems that they are doing a montage of the girl trying to find something? This story is so long and confusing, I have lost all points in the story line by now.

  14. Jun 2019
    1. and sheer above of true Toulouse

      The phrase "And sheer above of true Toulouse" sticks out to me. I can't get the translation quite down yet.

      Maybe it means that her clothing is Sheer -transparently thin; diaphanous, as some fabrics. And that it is is pink, because the city of Toulouse is known as the "Pink City."

      This is something I would like some help on.

    1. hypothesisR

      this seems incomplete. one could assume that the bullet point in front is missing but the title of the list above is "other files" and this is the name of a package, not a file. Maybe there was going to be some more information here?

  15. May 2019
  16. Jul 2018
    1. I have the option to link the main link for the bookmark to the Hypothesis link for “all annotations” on the source, but I’m thinking most readers will want to go directly to the source to read more.

      Again, when I click what I think is a link to take me to "all annotations available in the source" or even to the source, all I get is a black framed version of this block quote. Really confusing...

  17. Dec 2017
    1. For example, Schnall and her colleagues were interested in how feeling disgusted affects the harshness of people’s moral judgments, but they were also curious about how disgust affects other variables, such as people’s willingness to eat in a restaurant.
    1. This matching is a matter of controlling these extraneous participant variables across conditions so that they do not become confounding variables.
    2. 2 level designs and t-tests

      generally a confusing topic, you couldn't overexplain this enough

    3. A good rule of thumb, then, is that if it is possible to conduct a within-subjects experiment (with proper counterbalancing) in the time that is available per participant—and you have no serious concerns about carryover effects—this design is probably the best option. If a within-subjects design would be difficult or impossible to carry out, then you should consider a between-subjects design instead.

      Even if experimenters start with no serious concerns over carryover effects, it seems this can change over time. This to me feels like the hardest choice, because both have significant limitations. Finding the "best" design is difficult and sometimes hard to understand.

    1. Inevitably, and not too different from our world today, there would be large segments of the population who believe false claims about how things work, and large segments of the population using therapies, tools, or other technologies that simply do not work (even if they believe they do).
    2. They found that people’s ability to detect road hazards, reaction time, and control of the vehicle were all impaired by cell phone use.

      The sentence is confusing and incorrectly structured

    1. A biological theory of sexual orientation and a sociocultural theory of sexual orientation might accurately describe different aspects of the same complex phenomenon.

      confuse

    1. In physics, for example, one might measure the potential energy of an object in Earth’s gravitational field by finding its mass and height (which of course requires measuring those variables) and then multiplying them together along with the gravitational acceleration of Earth (9.8 m/s2).

      confusing

    1. Remember, that an issue with within-subjects designs is that subjects usually contribute data to each condition at different times or orders in the experiment. As a result, the order of the manipulation, rather than the manipulation itself, can sometimes cause differences. Counterbalancing is a technique used to systematically control the order in which subjects receive the manipulation.

      A bit confusing!

  18. Oct 2017
    1. Maybe a different example would make this part less confusing...I had a hard time understanding the example itself...

  19. Mar 2017
  20. Nov 2016
    1. My Tips

      After I did the symptom tracker, it took me right back to this page and the "Get Started". It seems like a prompt or direction of clicking on My Tips would be helpful to aid the user experience. I knew I should look at My Tips, but had momentarily forgotten as a pretend user.

    2. Get started Use the link below to begin.

      This seems misleading. I've just finished tracking my symptoms. Why is it prompting me to "get started". I see it says you can use it "as often as you'd like", but it seems that information would be helpful to bold or highlight or have closer to the top of paragraph.

  21. Sep 2013
    1. Does this comment exist at article level? If so, the interface of this tool is rather confusing...

      Yeah, that device at the bottom is not that clear...