348 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. In general, top-level errors should only be used for exceptional circumstances when a developer should be made aware that the system had some kind of problem. For example, the GraphQL specification says that when a non-null field returns nil, an error should be added to the "errors" key. This kind of error is not recoverable by the client. Instead, something on the server should be fixed to handle this case. When you want to notify a client some kind of recoverable issue, consider making error messages part of the schema, for example, as in mutation errors.
    1. Authorization is the process of verifying that the current user has permission to do something (or see something), for example, checking admin? status or looking up permission groups from the database.
    2. Authentication is the process of determining what user is making the current request, for example, accepting a username and password, or finding a User in the database from session[:current_user_id].
  2. Jun 2021
    1. Capybara.default_host only affects tests using the rack_test driver (and only if Capybara.app_host isn't set). It shouldn't have the trailing '/' on it, and it already defaults to 'http://www.example.com' so your setting of it should be unnecessary. If what you're trying to do is make all your tests (JS and non-JS) go to 'http://www.example.com' by default then you should be able to do either Capybara.server_host = 'www.example.com' or Capybara.app_host = 'http://www.example.com' Capybara.always_include_port = true
    1. app_host is used whenever you call visit to generate the url, server_host sets the ip the server should accept connections from to use (0.0.0.0 means all network interfaces) and finally server_port sets the server port (auto generated by default).You are correct in that both app and server host should be set. Could you try server_host = “0.0.0.0” and app_host = “http://rails:#{Capybara.server_port}”.

      app_host ~ server_host

    1. I see a 'virtual attribute' as something we're forced to implement when using frameworks, ORMs and the like. Something that lets us inject our code into the path of whatever metaprogramming has been put in place for us. In a simple PORO like this, I don't see how it has meaning; it's just a method. :)

      Hmm, good point. Maybe so. Though I think I'm fine with calling it a virtual property here too. :shrug:

    1. import { knex } from 'knex' // this is a function that you call to instantiate knex import { Knex } from 'knex' // this is a namespace, and a type of a knex object
    2. TypeScript type exports changed significantly. While `import Knex from 'knex';` used to import the knex instantiation function, the namespace and the interface for the knex instantiation function/object, there is now a clear distinction between them:
  3. May 2021
    1. Select a redirect type from the Type menu. Permanent (301) — This setting notifies the visitor’s browser to update its records. Temporary (302) — This setting does not update the visitor’s bookmarks.
    1. The difference is that this happens in the email client, not at the subscription step. Why is this a big deal? Because, even though they just subscribed to your email, there’s a chance your email won’t get a thumbs up.
  4. Apr 2021
    1. It should be defined inline. If you are using the img tag, that image should have semantic value to the content, which is why the alt attribute is required for validation. If the image is to be part of the layout or template, you should use a tag other than the img tag and assign the image as a CSS background to the element. In this case, the image has no semantic meaning and therefore doesn't require the alt attribute. I'm fairly certain that most screen readers would not even know that a CSS image exists.

      I believed this when I first read it, but changed my mind when I read this good rebuttal: https://hyp.is/f1ndKJ5eEeu_IBtubiLybA/stackoverflow.com/questions/640190/image-width-height-as-an-attribute-or-in-css

    2. Ah yes, excactly the right answer. Img tags are for information, css backgrounds are for layout.
    1. Socrates' dictum may be wise, but I think there's a world of difference between OP's acknowledgement that the amount of things one doesn't know is indeterminate, and Socrates' assertion that, for him, everything falls into that category.
    1. Dry humor is a delivery technique. As such, it shouldn't be confused with specific types of humor or with sarcasm. Sarcasm is delivered without humor because it's generally not funny but intended to mock or convey contempt. Dry humor pertains to something funny.
    1. How is a pseudoconsole different from a pseudoterminal ?

      I'm guessing that's just a Microsoftism to make it easier to search/find things that are specifically about Microsoft's flavor of pseudoterminal.

      I see they don't use the word "pseudoterminal" at all, but they do mention

      ConPTY, or the Windows PTY

      where PTY is another synonym/name for pseudoterminal. So I think we're safe in saying that this is talking about a pseudoterminal.

    1. If no file is detected (in case, it's being run as part of a script or the command is being piped)

      How does it detect that it's being run non-interactively as part of a script?

      Is that distinct/different from detecting whether the command is being piped?

    1. The virtual terminal process resides in kernel space (called the console).It reads from the "tty", say the output from the "ls" process and renders the text. It interacts with the VGA driver to do so.
    2. The (virtual) terminal (not the "tty") plays a central role here
    1. Although echo "$@" prints the arguments with spaces in between, that's due to echo: it prints its arguments with spaces as separators.

      due to echo adding the spaces, not due to the spaces already being present

      Tag: not so much:

      whose responsibility is it? but more: what handles this / where does it come from? (how exactly should I word it?)

    1. A modified timestamp signifies the last time the contents of a file were modified. A program or process either edited or manipulated the file. “Modified” means something inside the file was amended or deleted, or new data was added. Changed timestamps aren’t referring to changes made to the contents of a file. Rather, it’s the time at which the metadata related to the file was changed. File permission changes, for example, will update the changed timestamp.

      They shouldn't use synonyms for this (modified = changed).

      It would be clearer if the word that differed between the terms indicated what changed:

      • "content modified" time (cctime)?
      • "meta modified" time (cmtime)?
    1. It's simple really ... put tests into a shared example that you want multiple things to conform to. Put code into a shared context that you need to include in multiple tests.
    2. shared_contexts is any setup code that you can use to prepare a test case . This allows you to include test helper methods or prepare for the tests to run.
    1. It might be better to think of it this way: with the shape-outside property we’re changing the relationship of other elements around an element, not the geometry of the element itself.
    1. CSS-generated content is not included in the DOM. Because of this, it will not be represented in the accessibility tree and certain assistive technology/browser combinations will not announce it. If the content conveys information that is critical to understanding the page's purpose, it is better to include it in the main document.
    1. Requirement #2 contains an unwarranted assumption. The body needs to flow not around the sidebar, but around the sidebar's position. That may seem like splitting hairs, but it isn't -- because what if there were something floated where we want to put the sidebar? The body would flow around that space. If we could put the sidebar in that same location, we'd have a solution.
    1. In my opinion, the W3C definition is unnecessarily confusing and restrictive. The dictionary definition of aside is "a temporary departure from a main theme or topic", and the spec should just stick to that, rather than introducing subtle distinctions.
    2. I believe the accepted answer is not quite correct. According to the HTML5 working draft, the <aside> element can be used to mark up side notes in certain, but not all cases:
    1. a remark or passage that departs from the theme of a discourse : digression The speaker inserted some often amusing parentheses during his speech.
    2. an amplifying (see amplify sense 1) or explanatory word, phrase, or sentence inserted in a passage from which it is usually set off by punctuation explained further in a parenthesis
  5. Mar 2021
    1. Parking Attendant is a glorified app game that somehow landed into the Steam Store

      you mean mobile app game?

    1. I like this approach more because I can scan the code that renders the Box component and easily spot that it takes two children. If the Box took any props, they'd be within the opening <Box> tag, and they would be distinct from any children props.
    1. Lexical (semiotics) or content word, words referring to things, as opposed to having only grammatical meaning
    1. Not to be confused with tree (graph theory), a specific type of mathematical object.

      Confusing: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree_(data_structure) says

      Not to be confused with tree (graph theory) "Tree (graph theory)"), a specific type of mathematical object. but https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree_(graph_theory) redirects to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree_structure and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree_structure is in category Trees (data structures) So is one a subtype/hyponym of the other ... or what?? How are they related? Skimming the articles a bit, esp. the first paragraph which clearly states as much ( :) ), I believe the answer is: a tree (data structure) is an implementation (in a programming language) of / or a "type that simulates" a hierarchical tree structure. a tree (data structure) is the computer science analogue/dual to tree structure in mathematics

    2. Not to be confused with trie, a specific type of tree data structure. Not to be confused with tree (graph theory), a specific type of mathematical object.
    1. Some types exist as descriptions of objects, but not as tangible physical objects. One can show someone a particular bicycle, but cannot show someone, explicitly, the type "bicycle", as in "the bicycle is popular."
    2. Property types (e.g. "height in metres" or "thorny") are often understood ontologically as concepts. Property instances (e.g. height = 1.74) are sometimes understood as measured values, and sometimes understood as sensations or observations of reality.
    3. The words type, concept, property, quality, feature and attribute (all used in describing things) tend to be used with different verbs. E.g. Suppose a rose bush is defined as a plant that is "thorny", "flowering" and "bushy". You might say a rose bush instantiates these three types, or embodies these three concepts, or exhibits these three properties, or possesses these three qualities, features or attributes.
    4. The distinction in computer programming between classes and objects is related, though in this context, "class" sometimes refers to a set of objects (with class-level attribute or operations) rather than a description of an object in the set, as "type" would.
    5. The distinction is important in disciplines such as logic, linguistics, metalogic, typography, and computer programming.
    6. The sentence "they drive the same car" is ambiguous. Do they drive the same type of car (the same model) or the same instance of a car type (a single vehicle)?
    1. In the simple biology example, dog is a hypernym and Fido is one of its hyponyms. A word can be both a hyponym and a hypernym. For example, dog is a hyponym of mammal and also a hypernym of Fido.

      I wish they hadn't used tokens/objects in this example. Wouldn't it be just as clear or clearer if they had stuck to only comparing types/classes?

      It may be okay to mix them like that in some contexts, but in other cases it seems like this would be suffering from ignoring/conflating/[better word?] the Type–token distinction.

      Does linguistics just not make the https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type%E2%80%93token_distinction ?

      This statement seems to reinforce that idea:

      words that are examples of categories are hyponyms

      because an example of a category/class/type could be either a sub-class or an instance of that category/class/type, right?

    2. words that are examples of categories are hyponyms
    3. Two of the predominant types of relationships in knowledge-representation systems are predication and the universally quantified conditional.
    4. Taxonomy is different from meronomy, which is dealing with the categorisation of parts of a whole.
    1. A predicate whose quantifiers all apply to individual elements, and not to sets or predicates, is called a first-order predicate.
    1. Categorization is grounded in the features that distinguish the category's members from nonmembers.

      distinguish = make a distinction between

    1. semantic domain or semantic field

      What, then, is the difference between a semantic domain and a semantic field? The way they are used here, it's almost as if they are listing them in order to emphasis that they are synonyms ... but I'm not sure.

      From the later examples of basketball (https://hyp.is/ynKbXI1BEeuEheME3sLYrQ/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_domain) and coffee shop, however, I am pretty certain that semantic domain is quite different from (broader than) semantic field.

    1. (Not answered on this stub article)

      What, precisely, is the distinction/difference between a semantic class and a semantic field? At the very least, you would say that they are themselves both very much within the same semantic field.

      So, is a semantic class distinct from a semantic field in that semantic class is a more well-defined/clear-cut semantic field? And a semantic field is a more fluid, nebulous, not well-defined field (in the same sense as a magnetic field, which has no distinct boundary whatsoever, only a decay as you move further away from its source) ("semantic fields are constantly flowing into each other")?

      If so, could you even say that a semantic class is a kind of (hyponym) of semantic field?

      Maybe I should pose this question on a semantics forum.

    1. Sometimes lexicography is considered to be a part or a branch of lexicology, but properly speaking, only lexicologists who write dictionaries are lexicographers.
    2. Some consider this a distinction of theory vs. practice.
    3. An allied science to lexicology is lexicography, which also studies words, but primarily in relation with dictionaries – it is concerned with the inclusion of words in dictionaries and from that perspective with the whole lexicon
    4. Not to be confused with lexicography.
    1. A hyponym refers to a type. A meronym refers to a part. For example, a hyponym of tree is pine tree or oak tree (a type of tree), but a meronym of tree is bark or leaf (a part of tree).
    1. Synonymy requires the sharing of a sememe or seme, but the semantic field is a larger area surrounding those.
    2. A general and intuitive description is that words in a semantic field are not necessarily synonymous, but are all used to talk about the same general phenomenon.
    1. Semantics: deals with the formal properties and interrelation of signs and symbols, without regard to meaning.

      Is a branch (of a field/discipline) considered a hyponym?? 

    1. However, if the distinctions between the two concepts appear to be superficial, intentional conflation may be desirable for the sake of conciseness and recall
    1. Dictionary writers list polysemes under the same entry; homonyms are defined separately.

      This describes how you can tell which one it is by looking at the dictionary entry.

    2. Polysemy is thus distinct from homonymy—or homophony—which is an accidental similarity between two words (such as bear the animal, and the verb to bear); while homonymy is often a mere linguistic coincidence, polysemy is not.
    1. Does running nsgcepa by itself not then run the .desktop which in turn runs that command? Probably not. Desktop launchers are used by e.g. application menus. Executables are the binaries or scripts that can be run by desktop launchers. You can also run executables directly from a command line.
    1. Why separate out red tests from green tests? Because my green tests serve a fundamentally different purpose. They are there to act as a living specification, validating that the behaviors work as expected. Regardless of whether they are implemented in a unit testing framework or an acceptance testing framework, they are in essence acceptance tests because they’re based upon validating behaviors or acceptance criteria rather than implementation details.
    2. When I refactor my code, I expect that none of my green tests will break. If red tests break then that’s okay because remember, my red tests can be implementation dependent and when I change an implementation it may cause some red tests to break. But it shouldn’t break any green tests. I find that this is a valuable distinction.
    3. I am a big advocate of having a complete test base and even erring on the side of caution when it comes to quality engineering and software validation but that is not what we’re talking about here. What we’re talking about here are the tests that we write when we’re doing test-first development and I’m proposing that writing those tests from the perspective of specifying the behaviors that we want to create is a highly valuable way of writing tests because it drives us to think at the right level of abstraction for creating behavioral tests and that allow us the freedom to refactor our code without breaking it.
    1. this only applies to end products which are actually deployed. For my modules, I try to keep dependency version ranges at defaults, and recommend others do the same. All this pinning and packing is really the responsibility of the last user in the chain, and from experience, you will make their life significantly more difficult if you pin your own module dependencies.
    1. The "Pluridisciplinary" or "multidisciplinarity" level The genuine cross-disciplinary level: "interdisciplinarity" The discipline-forming level "transdisciplinarity"
    1. ECMAScript is a programming language itself, specified in the document ECMA-262. In other words, ECMA-262 is the specification of the programming language ECMAScript. JavaScript is an implementation of ECMAScript which conforms to the ECMAScript specification. JavaScript implementations can also provide additional features not described in the specification.
    1. The ECMAScript standard does not include any input/output (I/O), such as networking, storage, or graphics facilities. In practice, the web browser or other runtime system provides JavaScript APIs for I/O.
    1. I think that over time the distinction is lost. My math teacher, 35 years ago stated "formulas are used in chemistry, in math we have equations". To this day, the word 'formula' in math seems wrong, but I'd accept it's used commonly.
    2. An equation is meant to be solved, that is, there are some unknowns. A formula is meant to be evaluated, that is, you replace all variables in it with values and get the value of the formula.
    3. The key idea is that the equation captures not just the ingredients of the formula, but also the relationship between the different ingredients.
    4. An equation is any expression with an equals sign, so your example is by definition an equation. Equations appear frequently in mathematics because mathematicians love to use equal signs. A formula is a set of instructions for creating a desired result. Non-mathematical examples include such things as chemical formulas (two H and one O make H2O), or the formula for Coca-Cola (which is just a list of ingredients). You can argue that these examples are not equations, in the sense that hydrogen and oxygen are not "equal" to water, yet you can use them to make water.
    1. The :empty selector refers only to child nodes, not input values. [value=""] does work; but only for the initial state. This is because a node's value attribute (that CSS sees), is not the same as the node's value property (Changed by the user or DOM javascript, and submitted as form data).
    2. Generally, CSS selectors refer to markup or, in some cases, to element properties as set with scripting (client-side JavaScript), rather than user actions. For example, :empty matches element with empty content in markup; all input elements are unavoidably empty in this sense. The selector [value=""] tests whether the element has the value attribute in markup and has the empty string as its value. And :checked and :indeterminate are similar things. They are not affected by actual user input.
    3. The selector [value=""] tests whether the element has the value attribute in markup and has the empty string as its value.
    1. You’d think :empty would be it, but it’s not. That’s for matching things like <p></p>… container elements with nothing inside them. Inputs are no-content elements already.
    1. Does there exist a Unicode new-line, which I could copy-paste? (PLEASE NOTE, I DON'T ASK ABOUT THE CODE, like U+000D or whatever is considered as new line. I want the "copyable" output, like the above space (which I have put above in brackets and can be copied). So, if there is, please paste it in your answer, so I could copy it, like you copy the unicode space above from brackets.
    1. One way the restaurant achieves this is by refusing to do delivery. You can order breakfast and lunch at the window; dinner has to be arranged in advance, by email. Either way, your first encounter is with one of Winner’s employees or Mr. Eddy himself, not a third-party app. Apps may be convenient, but I’ve never used an app that remembered that a member of my household has a life-threatening food allergy, as a Winner employee did the second time I placed a dinner order. Nor have I had one offer to set aside a few loaves of bread, which typically sell out by late afternoon.

      There is a key distinction between the rise of many Apps to order food through and Winner's restaurant. Pete points out the personal aspect this restaurant is embracing and how it is doing wonders for them. These experiences add emotion, pathos, to the article and allow the reader to feel heart warmed or interested in visiting this restaurant themselves to experience the same comfort Pete does when going these himself.

  6. Feb 2021
    1. Operations are often confused as god objects that do “everything”. However, operations are nothing but orchestrators.
    1. A distinction may also be made between standard (peer-to-peer) content and premium-charged content.
    1. The LGPL allows users to use and integrate LGPL software components into their own software without being required to release the source code of their own software components. However, if users modify LGPL software components (“derivative work”), they are required to make the modified software component available under the same LGPL license. To avoid the latter with TRB, users have to comply with para. 5 LGPLv2.1: A program that contains no derivative of any portion of the Library, but is designed to work with the Library by being compiled or linked with it, is called a “work that uses the Library”. Such a work, in isolation, is not a derivative work of the Library, and therefore falls outside the scope of this License. In other words: if you use the TRB libraries in your commercial applications or Open-Source projects, you’re not creating a derivative work of Trailblazer. Your software can be distributed under any terms.
    1. When you run this interaction, two things will happen. First ActiveInteraction will type check your inputs. Then ActiveModel will validate them. If both of those are happy, it will be executed.

      Failed type checks generate run-time errors. So it's up to the develop to fix these, permanently, since the user can't (99% of time) do anything to fix these.

      Failed validations add errors to interaction.errors object. These are for the user to fix.

    1. The problem is that you what you want is actually not de-structuring at all. You’re trying to go from 'arg1', { hash2: 'bar', hash3: 'baz' }, { hash1: 'foo' } (remember that 'arg1', foo: 'bar' is just shorthand for 'arg1', { foo: 'bar' }) to 'arg1', { hash1: 'foo', hash2: 'bar', hash3: 'baz' } which is, by definition, merging (note how the surrounding structure—the hash—is still there). Whereas de-structuring goes from 'arg1', [1, 2, 3] to 'arg1', 1, 2, 3
    1. The term encapsulation is often used interchangeably with information hiding. Not all agree on the distinctions between the two though; one may think of information hiding as being the principle and encapsulation being the technique. A software module hides information by encapsulating the information into a module or other construct which presents an interface.
    1. Remix occurs when the original meme is altered in some way, while mimicry occurs when the meme is recreated in a different fashion to the original.

      I don't even understand the difference (yet)

    1. The word home, for instance, has a denotation of “the place (such as a house or apartment) where a person lives,” but it may additionally have many connotations (such as “warmth,” “security,” or “childhood”) for some people.
    2. While each of these two words has several possible meanings, they are notably distinct from each other in all senses. Denotation is concerned with explicit meaning, and connotation tends to be concerned with implicit meaning.