9 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2023
    1. Harmonic substitution—Harmonic substitution consists of changing the qualityof a chord, that is to say altering one or several notes of the infrastructure. Themost common use of this rule produces secondary dominants: in sequencesbased on fifth relations expressed by functional degrees (I-IV-vii-iii-vi-ii-V-I),this consists of transforming any of the chords preceding V (except IV), that isto say either vii, iii, vi, or ii (all chords with minor thirds) into a seventh chord:
    1. Jazz musicians often use different harmonic substitutions to modify the content of diatonicprogressions. The most common harmonic modifications of the Imaj 7 –vi 7 –ii 7 –V 7progression involve the use of secondary dominant chords (V7/X), and tritone substitutions(TR/X 7). Figure 13.5 demonstrates these substitutions using Model III of harmonicrealization.The secondary dominant 7ths A7 and D7 are analyzed with two different Roman numerallabels VI7 and V 7/ii, and II 7 and V 7/V, which can be used interchangeably. The tritonesubstitutions, E≤7 and D≤7, also use two Roman numerals, ≤III7 and TR/VI7, and ≤II7and TR/V7, respectively
    2. The ii7–V7–Imaj7 progression constitutes the perfect vehicle to introduce one of the mostimportant features of jazz harmony: the tritone substitution, notated as TR/X 7. Thetritone substitution has its theoretical origins in the equal or symmetrical division of theoctave. This substitution is associated with the dominant 7th chord and capitalizes oninversional invariance of the tritone inherent to the dominant 7th formation.
  2. Jun 2020
  3. Nov 2019
    1. The first indication of a change in weather was the sudden collapse of the market for specialized AI hardware in 1987. Desktop computers from Apple and IBM had been steadily gaining speed and power and in 1987 they became more powerful than the more expensive Lisp machines made by Symbolics and others. There was no longer a good reason to buy them. An entire industry worth half a billion dollars was demolished overnight.
  4. Mar 2018