43 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2021
  2. May 2021
    1. Ethical feedback is a descriptive and explanatory response to the speaker.

      This is, of course, one obvious way of showing ethical listening. But let's remember there are other kinds of feedback too. Cheers and boos, for example.

    2. A listening posture enhances your ability to receive information and make sense of a message.

      Remember there are two kinds of listening postures being discussed here: the kind that helps you, and the kind that helps the speaker. I'm sure many people can lie down and be attentive listeners, but unless you show something to the alternative, it doesn't mean the speaker can tell.

    3. two other things you can do to prepare are to avoid prejudging the speaker and refrain from jumping to conclusions while the speaker is talking.

      It's natural to come into a listening situation with your mind already made up on particular ideas about the speaker, the topic, etc. How are you making sure you are opening yourself back up to critical thinking?

    4. One way you can prepare yourself to listen is to get rid of distractions.

      In other words, limit the noise on your end.

    5. An ethical listener is one who actively interprets shared material and analyzes the content and speaker’s effectiveness.

      Of course, second language listeners have an extra challenge of language processing to consider, yet still are expected to be ethical listeners. How do you adapt yourself to a second language listening situation?

    6. As we can see from the example above, communicating is not a one-way street.

      Of course, this message gets complicated in an asynchronous, digital context. How might a YouTube viewer be an unethical listener?

    7. Just as you hope others are attentive to your speech, it is important to know how to listen ethically—in effort to show respect to other speakers.

      Even in monolingual circumstances, communication takes place. Poor listeners - and obvious ones at that - should not complain at a speaker's presentation if their own biases or distractions interfere with receiving signal.

    1. However, that freedom of speech must be balanced with your responsibility as a speaker to respect your audience.

      Remember that as you are free to share your view and form of expression, others are as well.

    2. Speakers should consider it their ethical responsibility to educate listeners by introducing ideas of racial, gender, or cultural diversity, but also by raising social awareness, or the recognition of important issues that affect societies.

      One frequent assumption of most speeches is that someone out there doesn't know, or doesn't 'get it.'

    3. Hate language isolates a particular person or group in a derogatory manner.

      It's also hardly inclusive, isn't it?

    4. “One way for all of us to get involved in our local communities is by picking up trash on a regular basis.” This latter statement is an example of “we” language—pronouns and phrases that unite the speaker to the audience.

      Sort of like "we're all in this together."

    5. One important responsibility speakers have is fostering diversity, or an appreciation for differences among individuals and groups.

      Your ability to recognize other points of view, other stakeholders and other relevant persons goes a long way towards establishing your credibility.

    6. Speakers should also carefully select and correctly cite images displayed in their visual aid.

      Some students forget this one. ALL content that you borrow for a presentation must be cited.

    7. a paraphrase—a sentence or string of sentences that shares learned information in your own words. A direct quote is any sentence or string of sentences that conveys an author’s idea word-for-word.

      My rule of thumb: Paraphrase ideas and quote interesting language or expression. Anything you cite should be used for making your own rhetorical point.

    8. There are three distinct types of plagiarism—global, patchwork, and incremental plagiarism.

      All three types count as bad ideas.

    9. The first step of ethical speech preparation is to take notes as you research your speech topic. Careful notes will help you remember where you learned your information. Recalling your sources is important because it enables speaker honesty.

      Understand the difference between common knowledge and ideas. If it's something you and others have known, it may be common knowledge. If you learned that from someone, you might need to identify that source.

    10. Thus, responsible public speakers must actively avoid plagiarism and remain committed to honesty and integrity at all costs.

      The only important difference between spoken plagiarism and written plagiarism is the former is perhaps harder to distinguish. If you are caught copying, you still look bad.

    11. Honesty includes telling your audience why you’re speaking (thesis statement) and what you’ll address throughout your speech (preview).

      We're seldom interested in misleading or inconsiderate speeches, and we rarely need to sit and listen through it all.

    12. Ethical public speaking is a process.

      In other words, what you put into it becomes what we'll make of it. Poor preparations will make for a poorly received speech.

    1. Knowing the speaking setting, the audience, and our knowledge of the topic, we are able to confront ethical dilemmas with a strong moral compass.

      This entails that the speaker has a responsibility to not simply be considerate of delivery. It is quite possible to be considerably knowledgeable and yet an unethical speaker.

    2. Morality is the process of discerning between right and wrong. Ethics involves making decisions about right and wrong within a dilemma

      If morality is about standards, ethics is about considerations.

    3. Ethics and ethical communication are not only an important part of our lives and our decision-making but also are crucial to the public speaking process.

      We connect civic engagement to ethical engagement as a recognition of each other. If both members of a debate care for virtue, even in their disagreements, then how they treat each other's communication and ideas is of importance.

    4. Aristotle is frequently cited as a central figure in the development of ethics as we discuss them today in the communication discipline. Aristotle claimed that a person who had ethos, or credibility, was not only able to convey good sense and good will, but also good morals.

      And what defines good sense, good will and good morals? Culture, for a start, and context for another. Understand that in a philosophical argument, all ethics are negotiated, yet built on human and societal influences.

    1. Making the topic relevant for your audience can also mean that you show them how to apply the information immediately.

      Relevant to your presentation, what are your enticing your audience to do after you have finished? Can they look up something on their phone, or contact you for more information?

    2. In addition to having relevance for you, it is crucial that you tie your topic directly to your listeners. Early in the speech, give listeners at least one reason why they should care about your topic and the ways in which the information will be beneficial or entertaining

      We understand class presentations are usually mandatory for audience members, and their interest in your topic will greatly vary. How can you get them to consider the WIIFM aspect?

    3. On the other hand, if you do not really care about your topic, your audience is not likely to care either.

      Realize that this always shows. The audience can always tell when you don't care.

    4. In our information age, people are fortunate to have unlimited and free access to information on virtually any topic they can imagine via the internet. Unfortunately, in addition to the credible information, the internet contains an abundance of garbage.

      Don't assume your audience will be satisfied with just any source. If I can tell your source came from someone's blog, I might use that in determining your credibility.

    5. To show that the information you present is accurate and complete, these sources should be up-to-date, reliable, unbiased, and directly relevant to your topic.

      Good presentations always show strong source usage. Good presenters are always prepared to discuss them in reasonable detail, especially during Q&A.

    6. Audience members have no motivation to listen to a speaker they perceive as lacking authority or credibility—except maybe to mock the speaker.

      Consider why an audience member heckles a comedian. One reason is that heckler is a jerk, but another possible reason is the comedian has messed up. The rest of the audience will side with whichever fact is more apparent.

    7. Peterson, Stephan, and White (1992) explain that there are two kinds of credibility; the reputation that precedes you before you give your speech (antecedent credibility) and the credibility you develop during the course of your speech (consequent credibility).

      Let's think about this in a class presentation contest. Your antecedent credibility will be the expectation we have that you've been developing an amateur yet academic understanding of your topic. Your consequent credibility will show us that understanding.

    8. Credibility, or ethos, refers to an audience’s perception that the speaker is well prepared and qualified to speak on a topic

      Trust your audience that a credible delivery will be informative and persuasive. Don't count on theatrics or gimmicks to highlight the urgency or interest of the topic

    9. When writing your speech, present all sides of the story and try to remove all unrelated facts, personal opinions, and emotions (Westerfield, 2002).

      Try adjusting your delivery to an imagined split audience. Assume some viewers will be skeptical and others approachable.

    10. The topic you choose is not as important as your approach to the material in determining whether your speech is informative or persuasive (Peterson, Stephan, & White, 1992).

      Do you want to focus on persuading while informing, or informing that leads to some persuasive arguments? Considering this early impacts your outlining and delivery.

    11. First, all informative speeches have a persuasive component by virtue of the fact that the speaker tries to convince the audience that the facts presented are accurate (Harlan, 1993).

      Reconcile this right away. The objectivity of your informative speech most often comes out of your tone and commitment to making audiences aware of the topic's complex nature.

    1. Extemporaneous Style

      This is closest to where you'd want to go with an interactive presentation. It's probably the most forgiving of mistakes, it encourages outline and goal focus, and most importantly, it's the easiest style for allowing you to communicate with your partner.

    2. Memorized Style

      Some adoption of the memorized style is a good idea, but you should reserve that for the denser material (like lists of information or heavy statistics and quotes). Going verbatim could lead to real stress, especially if you lose your spot.

    3. Impromptu Style

      Being impromptu does not mean lack of preparation. Impromptu is more about knowing what you will discuss rather than how you will go about it. In other words, you really need to nail your topic and be comfortable with your performance style.

    4. Manuscript Style

      This style is a poor idea for interactive presentations. The more you rely on a script, the more you limit opportunities for flexibility and responsiveness.

    1. Using a Microphone

      In testing your equipment, you're going to want to think about how you sound. Do not assume your audience will forgive you for bad sound, or watch more than once.

    2. The Equipment

      You absolutely need to test and re-test your equipment as you prep your presentation. Assume a mistake very much can happen.

    3. The Podium

      Obviously you don't have a real podium for this presentation, and yet you are still stationary, in a forced position.

    4. The Room

      In this presentation, your room is both physical and digital. Our view of you taking this space is distinctly informed by your camera and microphone.