22 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2020
    1. One thing that using this tool has highlighted for me is that there are a lot of things happening in our community every day, between news, announcements, events and other stuff. If you only rely on what your social media service of choice has decided is worth knowing because it’s generating clicks or discussion, you’re likely to miss something important. Also, do you really want to get your news crammed in between cat videos and political rants from distant acquaintances?
    1. 1/4 cup (60 mL) ground flax3/4 cup (175 mL) warm water1/2 tsp (2 mL) salt2 tsp (10 mL) canola or flax oil1 3/4 cups (425 mL) all-purpose flour (approx)

      I calculate that that's a flax content of about 18 baker's percentage.

    1. The unique Umami characteristic of Dried Shiitake is Guanylate. This Umami component is created during the drying and rehydrating process, and not available in Fresh Shiitake.

      Interesting. This makes it likely that shiitake extract is the type of mushroom used in mushroom seasoning or takii. Most products just say "mushroom powder" and "mushroom extract". Some products list "shiitake powder" and "mushroom extract". I can find no product listing the type of extract used.

      Edit: The linked table shows dried shiitake has the highest guanylate and glutamate of the listed mushrooms. Given that the website is about umami generally, this dramatically increases the odds that it is shiitake extract used in said products. It implies that dried shiitake may be the most umami mushroom (though no other dried mushroom is listed).

  2. Apr 2020
    1. Although it has been proposed that NNS do not affect glycemia (3), data from several recent studies suggest that NNS are not physiologically inert. First, it has been demonstrated that the gastrointestinal tract (4,5) and the pancreas (6,7) can detect sugars through taste receptors and transduction mechanisms that are similar to those indentified in taste cells in the mouth. Second, NNS-induced activation of gut sweet taste receptors in isolated duodenal L cells and pancreatic β-cells triggers the secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) (4,5) and insulin (6–9), respectively. Third, data from studies conducted in animal models demonstrate that NNS interact with sweet taste receptors expressed in enteroendocrine cells to increase both active and passive intestinal glucose absorption by upregulating the expression of sodium-dependent glucose transporter isoform 1 (5,10,11) and increasing the translocation of GLUT2 to the apical membrane of intestinal epithelia (12).

      This supports my previous assertion that the effects of artificial sweeteners on the microbiome are taste-mediated. However, I did not predict the intestinal taste receptors. That means that my previous way to falsify the claim, such as delivery by oral gavage, is no longer adequate. Nonetheless, interesting things could be learned from such tests.

    1. These variations were related to inflammation in the host

      In which direction? This statement makes me wonder if inflammation caused the changes in the microbiome.

      It seems possible that the sweetness itself is the ultimate cause. To test this, a study using oral gavage. It's easily plausible that the flavor alerts dietary patterns (I believe humans eat more calories in response to sweeteners, will need to check on source). Alternatively, direct effects on the brain, and downstream effects on the body, is also not out of the question.

      The reason I suspect taste-mediated effects is that it seems unlikely that so many completely unrelated sweeteners would have such similar effects. However, one might might expect more similar results than those found if it were the case (or the dose is so high that the taste changes for some, e.g. saccharin).

    1. In the first of two enzymatic steps that produce high-glucose syrup as an intermediate to high-fructose syrup and other products, bacterial α-amylase is employed at pH 6–7 and about 105°C to hydrolyze starch purified by wet milling to roughly DE (dextrose equivalent) 10, DE being the percent of reducing end-groups in the aqueous sugar mixture relative to those in pure glucose of the same concentration. This indicates that the average maltooligosaccharide produced has a DP (degree of polymerization) of 10, although the mixture has a very wide DP range. DE 30 or more can be attained if the reaction proceeds to completion, but DE 10 is chosen to minimize the probability of pseudo-crystallization at lower DEs and the extent of alkaline-catalyzed isomerization of the reducing-end glucosyl residue at higher DEs.In the second step, at pH 4.3–4.5 and roughly 60°C, fungal glucoamylase and a small amount of pullulanase (pullulan 6-glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.41), the latter used to rapidly hydrolyze the α-1,6 bonds from the original starch feed, convert the maltooligosaccharide mixture to approximately 96% glucose (dry basis). The remainder is composed of byproducts from α-amylase hydrolysis plus mainly isomaltose [α-glucopyranosyl-(1,6)-glucose] and isomaltotriose from the glucoamylase-catalyzed condensation of glucose.

      If I'm understanding this correctly, all I need is alpha amylase (easily obtainable) and beta amylase (AKA glucoamylase, also obtainable). When buying these, I've found that alpha amylase is advertised as simply amylase, whereas beta amylaze is advertised as glucoamylase

      This mentions both pH and temperature, but fails to mention time. I'd expect it only takes a matter of hours (or less).

  3. Mar 2020
    1. Extremely easy to follow, the GM Diet Plan for 7 Days offers amazing results. By following this diet plan, one can lose up to 17 pounds of weight within a week.
  4. Jan 2020
    1. 22.3 per cent (−10.7; 95% CI, −15.6 to −5.7) in the diet group

      Interesting that the diet group worked better. I'd like to see if it's statistically significantly better than the drug group. It's also worth asking whether sodium was the only important dietary change, or if avoiding sodium caused many other dietary improvements.

    2. Sleepiness and neck circumference were significantly reduced only in the diet group (p = .007 and p < .001 for the time × group interactions, respectively).

      Fascinating. Neck circumference suggests that sodium intake may indeed be the significant dietary factor. The recommended diet wasn't even very restricted in sodium.

  5. Dec 2019
    1. The sodium-restricted diet group received a regimen aiming a maximum intake of 3 g of sodium per day (equivalent to 7.5 g of sodium chloride).

      That sounds incredibly high to me. 3000 mg is the absolute maximum intake that could ever be considered 'low' sodium. Under 1500 is usually considered ideal. Would, then, a diet aiming for half the sodium be twice as effective?

  6. Dec 2018
    1. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not normally diagnosed until later in life, although evidence suggests that the disease starts at a much earlier age. Risk factors for AD, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, are known to have their affects during mid-life, though events very early in life, including maternal over-nutrition, can predispose offspring to develop these conditions. This study tested whether over-nutrition during pregnancy and lactation affected the development of AD in offspring, using a transgenic AD mouse model. Female triple-transgenic AD dam mice (3xTgAD) were exposed to a high-fat (60% energy from fat) or control diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning (at 3 weeks of age), female offspring were placed on a control diet and monitored up until 12 months of age during which time behavioural tests were performed. A transient increase in body weight was observed in 4-week-old offspring 3xTgAD mice from dams fed a high-fat diet. However, by 5 weeks of age the body weight of 3xTgAD mice from the maternal high-fat fed group was no different when compared to control-fed mice. A maternal high-fat diet led to a significant impairment in memory in 2- and 12-month-old 3xTgAD offspring mice when compared to offspring from control fed dams. These effects of a maternal high-fat diet on memory were accompanied by a significant increase (50%) in the number of tau positive neurones in the hippocampus. These data demonstrate that a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation increases memory impairments in female 3xTgAD mice and suggest that early life events during development might influence the onset and progression of AD later in life.
  7. Nov 2018
    1. Objective To determine the effects of diets varying in carbohydrate to fat ratio on total energy expenditure.Design Randomized trial.Setting Multicenter collaboration at US two sites, August 2014 to May 2017.Participants 164 adults aged 18-65 years with a body mass index of 25 or more.Interventions After 12% (within 2%) weight loss on a run-in diet, participants were randomly assigned to one of three test diets according to carbohydrate content (high, 60%, n=54; moderate, 40%, n=53; or low, 20%, n=57) for 20 weeks. Test diets were controlled for protein and were energy adjusted to maintain weight loss within 2 kg. To test for effect modification predicted by the carbohydrate-insulin model, the sample was divided into thirds of pre-weight loss insulin secretion (insulin concentration 30 minutes after oral glucose).Main outcome measures The primary outcome was total energy expenditure, measured with doubly labeled water, by intention-to-treat analysis. Per protocol analysis included participants who maintained target weight loss, potentially providing a more precise effect estimate. Secondary outcomes were resting energy expenditure, measures of physical activity, and levels of the metabolic hormones leptin and ghrelin.Results Total energy expenditure differed by diet in the intention-to-treat analysis (n=162, P=0.002), with a linear trend of 52 kcal/d (95% confidence interval 23 to 82) for every 10% decrease in the contribution of carbohydrate to total energy intake (1 kcal=4.18 kJ=0.00418 MJ). Change in total energy expenditure was 91 kcal/d (95% confidence interval −29 to 210) greater in participants assigned to the moderate carbohydrate diet and 209 kcal/d (91 to 326) greater in those assigned to the low carbohydrate diet compared with the high carbohydrate diet. In the per protocol analysis (n=120, P<0.001), the respective differences were 131 kcal/d (−6 to 267) and 278 kcal/d (144 to 411). Among participants in the highest third of pre-weight loss insulin secretion, the difference between the low and high carbohydrate diet was 308 kcal/d in the intention-to-treat analysis and 478 kcal/d in the per protocol analysis (P<0.004). Ghrelin was significantly lower in participants assigned to the low carbohydrate diet compared with those assigned to the high carbohydrate diet (both analyses). Leptin was also significantly lower in participants assigned to the low carbohydrate diet (per protocol).Conclusions Consistent with the carbohydrate-insulin model, lowering dietary carbohydrate increased energy expenditure during weight loss maintenance. This metabolic effect may improve the success of obesity treatment, especially among those with high insulin secretion
  8. Jun 2018
    1. It was supposed to treat severe epilepsy. And as a medical treatment, it was only intended to be administered under the supervision of trained nutritionists and physicians.

      Yes, in the 1920s. But who restricted it to that use?

      Doesn't the success of ketogenic diet in this clinical field show that too much carbohydrates cause health problems?

  9. Apr 2018
    1. Information we receive without consciously asking a question

      Information diet & filter bubbles are related concepts. I wonder if there is such a thing as "Information Affective Disorder"?

  10. Dec 2017
  11. May 2017
    1. Though current medical and surgical treatments manage coronary artery disease, they do little to prevent or stop it. Nutritional intervention, as shown in our study and others, has halted and even reversed CAD
  12. Dec 2016
    1. We need to have our crap detectors on high alert, and double-check everything we can, especially if you find it popping back into your mind later.

      To be critical, we have to read, think, and process over time. I'm definitely guilty of casual scrolling, but I'm also much more careful about the quick retweet.

    2. That means they make it easy to get the “gist” of a “news” story without going to the actual article, and they attract attention away from the name of the source in their news story previews.

      This is huge. Pew's report this year said that 57% of American adults still watch TV for news (which includes cable), but in the 18-50 year old bracket, 50% are online. There is a significant shift toward news skimming over news reading.

    3. Be wary of casual scrolling. This is hard work

      That's an understatement. I wonder if information diet is an issue here - i.e. avoid the sites that serve us crap.