560 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2019
    1. Doing this too often, however, steals valuable time away from the teacher that may reduce the quality of instruction for all the other students.

      The teacher's mental and physical health is important, yes. But arguing that allowing retakes is a detriment to your own health, even though it is a benefit to the student, is a hard sell.

      Case in point: my wife's family weathered two deaths in the same week. I left school on bereavement for one and had to extend my absence in the wake of the second death. We were in the middle of budgeting and my requests were not finalized.

      My principal could certainly have disallowed an extension because I wasn't "proactive" and didn't have it done before the due date. Instead, I was given grace and I was able to submit a better report and request because of it.

      Grace goes a long way.

    2. However, every minute writing and grading retakes or grading long-overdue work is a minute that I’m not planning effective and creative instruction, grading current work so students receive timely feedback, or communicating with parents.

      This may mean you're grading too much.

      Assessment should be focused and pointed. Narrative feedback is helpful. Allowing retakes gives you an opportunity to focus only on what needs improvement. It is not a wholesale redo of the assignment. A retake should have the student focus on the specific gap in understanding which prevents them from achieving proficiency.

    3. Under retake policies, parents at my school have expressed concerns about how overwhelmed their children become due to being caught in a vicious cycle of retakes.

      This is not caused by a retake policy itself. It is caused by either A) not having a robust formative assessment strategy to catch struggling students or, B) not implementing reasonable checkpoints which help students learn to self-regulate.

    4. Retakes and soft deadlines allow students to procrastinate

      It is a major assumption that hard deadlines and tests prevent students from procrastinating. What disallowing retakes ends up doing is locking students into a cycle where they are actively discouraged from learning rather than taking the time to learn something.

    5. They spend hours a day on video games and social media

      Or:

      • working
      • taking care of siblings
      • taking care of other relatives
      • trying to find something to eat
      • ...
    6. In math classes, where concepts constantly build on one another, traditional policies hold students to schedules that keep them learning with the class.

      Assuming all students learn content at the same rate is dangerous. There may be fundamental math skills that take one student longer to learn than another. That may mean multiple attempts at demonstrating those skills.

      If I were to disallow retakes, even the intrinsically motivated student who struggles with fundamentals loses out on mastering the concept. I lose out on knowing that student is struggling. Retakes allow me to more fully assess a student's progress toward mastery, incrementally working on correcting errors and gaps in understanding.

      By promoting pacing over learning, we are doing our students a disservice.

    7. One of his research studies showed that college students who were held to firm deadlines performed better, in general, than students who chose their own deadlines or turned in all work at the end of the semester.

      This argument is errantly conflating two separate ideas: retakes and deadlines.

      The act of allowing a retake does not preclude the use of deadlines. Setting deadlines for initial work is important because that way, I can check student work before the major assessment. There are also deadlines for completing retakes…the end of the semester being the hard stop.

      I'm also building in structure for retakes. The fact that I allow a retake does not mean it happens when and where a student wants. They work within my defined schedule, which includes deadlines.

      Arguing against retakes because deadlines disappear assumes that they are contingent upon one another when in reality, they work together to help students develop agency and time management skills.

      This makes sense at a high level, but in reality, none of us - in school or out of school - lives in a deadline free world. I have deadlines to meet at work and if my product is not quality at the deadline, I have to do it again.

      The difference is that we cannot fire students from school.

    8. In my experience, however, the more lenient we are in these matters, the less students learn. The traditional policies—giving each assessment only once, penalizing late work, and giving zeros in some situations—help most students maximize their learning and improve their time management skills, preparing them for success in college and career.

      This statement comes with zero qualification for "in my experience." Is there research or empirical evidence that supports this statement? Are there other interventions or policies that could be used in place of allowing retakes?

      Setting up the entire post on the premise of "in my experience" makes it a hard sell to start.

  2. Jun 2019
    1. Use a simple rubric and select 2-3 specific skills to grade

      We're using a consistent rubric that clearly communicates student demonstration of skill.

      It is up to teachers to define the learning outcomes to be used.

    2. Feedback on a finished product is not useful to students

      I disagree with this statement. There is always room for feedback. Perhaps she means constructive feedback on process isn't useful after the product is finished.

      Do not give feedback the entire way through a project only to stay silent at the end.

      Also, don't forget the power of peer feedback, even using the same rubric, so students have an example of what it feels like to critically assess their own work.

    3. If we penalize students who make mistakes while practicing a skill, we create an environment where mistakes are scary

      Mistakes are a necessary part of learning to do something correctly. Recording an attempt is also fine, depending on the context.

    4. I had over a hundred assignments in my grade book

      This also dilutes what really matters in the gradebook with other stuff that really should be formative (feedback-centric) rather than summative.

  3. May 2019
    1. In contrast, participants in our experiments expected to be separated from their phones (this was the norm in the lab) and were not confronted with unanswerable notifications or calls while separated. We therefore suggest that defined and protected periods of separation, such as these, may allow consumers to perform better not just by reducing interruptions but also by increasing available cognitive capacity.

      The task at hand, if it grabs enough of the cognitive resources from the individual, may help downplay or minimize the resources allocated for the phone if it isn't present.

    2. These results are consistent with the proposition that the effects of smartphone salience on available cognitive capacity stem from the singularly important role these devices play in many consumers’ lives.

      The draw is based on personal preference and experience, not necessarily because of empirically visible stimuli.

    3. We posit that individual differences in dependence on one’s smartphone will moderate the effects of smartphone salience on available cognitive capacity, such that individuals who most depend on their phones will suffer the most from their presence—and benefit the most from their absence.

      Forcing a reduction in use - not relying on the phone for work-related tasks, for instance - can help reduce the attention drain of the phone when it is not in use.

    4. Consistent with this evidence, we posit that the mere presence of consumers’ own smartphones can reduce the availability of attentional resources (i.e., cognitive capacity) even when consumers are successful at controlling the conscious orientation of attention (i.e., resisting overt distraction).

      It may be possible to not pick up your phone when it buzzes, but it is harder to reduce or eliminate the resources allocated to paying attention to the stimulus.

    5. To our knowledge, only one prior study has investigated the cognitive effects of the mere presence of a mobile device—one that is not ringing, buzzing, or otherwise actively interfering with a focal task. Thornton et al. (2014, 485–86) found that a visually salient cellphone can impair performance on tasks requiring sustained attention by eliciting awareness of the “broad social and informational network … that one is not part of at the moment.”

      FOMO in the research.

    6. Similarly, research in the educational sphere demonstrates that using mobile devices and social media while learning new material reduces comprehension and impairs academic performance (e.g., Froese et al. 2012).

      The purpose of the use is important. But can the purpose of the task outweigh or overrule the automatic attention drive?

    7. Consistent with this position, research indicates that signals from one’s own phone (but not someone else’s) activate the same involuntary attention system that responds to the sound of one’s own name (Roye, Jacobsen, and Schröger 2007).

      Whaaaaat....

    8. Automatic attention generally helps individuals make the most of their limited cognitive capacity by directing attention to frequently goal-relevant stimuli without requiring these goals to be constantly kept in mind.

      This is a really interesting statement. I have conditioned goals that grab my attention.

    9. Preferential attention to temporarily relevant stimuli, such as those associated with a current task or decision, is supported by WM; when a goal is active in WM, stimuli relevant to that goal are more likely to attract attention (e.g., Moskowitz 2002; Soto et al. 2005; Vogt et al. 2010).

      How do we train ourselves (or students or our children) to focus on a task using goals? What kinds of goals are more effective at maintaining or attracting attention?

    10. Individuals are constantly surrounded by potentially meaningful information; however, their ability to use this information is consistently constrained by cognitive systems that are capable of attending to and processing only a small amount of the information available at any given time (e.g., Craik and Lockhart 1972; Newell and Simon 1972)

      Multitasking is not a real thing.

  4. Feb 2019
    1. Schools and teachers aiming to adopt new practices must contend with the "geological dig" of previous policies that send contradictory signals and prevent a complete transformation of practice.(

      Identifying a problem of practice extends to the culture of practice. If there is a problem, are there policies or programs in place that work against the desired outcomes? If so, they also need to be changed as part of the solution.

    2. Organizational structures must be redesigned so that they actively foster learning and collaboration about serious problems of practice.

      This means relinquishing some measure of control from the administrative offices. Allowing teachers to identify problems and explore solutions as they see fit provides agency and autonomy.

      This, as PD, is a radical idea in some places (including Elkhart).

    3. Habits and cultures inside schools must foster critical inquiry into teaching practices and student outcomes.

      If we're not talking about how we teach and how students learn, then we're missing development opportunities.

    4. Policies that support teachers' learning communities allow such structures and extra-school arrangements to come and go and change and evolve as necessary, rather than insist on permanent plans or promises.

      Follow up on the immediate goals and allow teachers to adjust rather than expect the same goals to persist over time.

    5. Structures that break down isolation, that empower teachers with professional tasks, and that provide arenas for thinking through standards of practice are central to this kind of professional growth.

      Group settings and strong partnership in between these collaborative times brings two people into cooperation and builds a viable support system for changing practice.

    6. To serve teachers' needs, professional development must embrace a range of opportunities that allow teachers to share what they know and what they want to learn and to connect their learning to the contexts of their teaching.

      Interactive, problem-based (or goal-based?) PD is a good way to engage teachers in the habit of reflecting on and implementing changes to practice. There are tangible ideas to latch onto, which can raise motivation and increase drive for change.

    7. PDSs create settings in which novices enter professional practice by working with expert practitioners while veteran teachers renew their own professional development as they assume roles as mentors, university adjuncts, and teacher leaders.

      See Burbank & Kauchak, 2003, for some of the dangers in this type of setting.

      Though, if it is the core structure of the school, some of the challenges identified in the study's conclusion may be mitigated because all participants are engaged in the process enough to have enrolled.

    8. Effective professional development involves teachers both as learners and as teachers and allows them to struggle with the uncertainties that accompany each role

      This is a constructivist position on teacher PD.

    9. "teacher training"

      See Kennedy, 2005.

    10. The success of this agenda ultimately turns on teachers' success in accomplishing the serious and difficult tasks of learning the skills and perspectives assumed by new visions of practice and unlearning the practices and beliefs about students and instruction that have dominated their professional lives to date

      Change is more than just "doing it differently." It is a serious revision of general practice. Doing this without support is not likely.

    1. What types of knowledge acquisition does the CPD support, i.e. procedural or propositional? •Is the principal focus on individual or collective development? •To what extent is the CPD used as a form of accountability? •What capacity does the CPD allow for supporting professional autonomy? •Is the fundamental purpose of the CPD to provide a means of transmission or to facilitate transformative practice?

      Questions to guide planning PD and designing experiences for teachers.

    2. it recognises the range of different conditions required for transformative practice.

      A single, magic-bullet style of PD isn't the point. Transformative PD relies on methods and mechanisms from various development opportunities. It is up to the participant to make it transformative.

      PD can support and encourage transformation through style and substance. Coordinators/coaches/trainers need to be aware of the end goal and what to include or exclude depending on that goal.

    3. negotiating a joint enterprise gives rise to relations of mutual accountability among those involved’ (p. 81), therefore arguably promoting greater capacity for transformative practice than a managerial form of accountability would allow.

      Collaborative efforts change the frame of the activity and allow for participants to engage more fully.

    4. When the professional activity is collective, the amount of knowledge available in a clinical unit cannot be measured by the sum total of the knowledge possessed by its individual members. A more appropriate measure would be the knowledge generated by the richness of the connections between individuals.

      Knowledge generated is the defining factor. PD with collaborative groups is aways more rich because of the community building expertise and information. No single idea is better than another and all in participation benefit from the synthesis.

    5. there are no requirements for that person to have particular strengths in terms of interpersonal communication or to be trained in the role of supporter.

      This is similar in the US. The common denominator is often subject area.

    6. The mentoring or coaching relationship can be collegiate, for example, ‘peer coaching’, but is probably more likely to be hierarchical

      Mentor teachers are rarely seen as coaches or peers...at least in ECS, there is an evaluative aspect. Or, it's so hands off that the title is perfunctory more than anything else.

    7. Arguably, standards also provide a common language, making it easier for teachers to engage in dialogue about their professional practice.

      Defining concepts and ideas is a difficult part of any PD. Is this different than NBCT standards?

    8. one of the drawbacks of this model is that what is passed on in the cascading process is generally skills-focused, sometimes knowledge-focused, but rarely focuses on values

      Values are set by the community and need to involve leaders. If teacher trainers aren't on board with the values, this model simply delegates the training work.

    9. The cascade model involves individual teachers attending ‘training events’ and then cascading or disseminating the information to colleagues

      "Train the trainer" in the US. Get a core group up and running, allow them to matriculate out into the community.

    10. performance management requires that somebody takes charge of evaluating and managing change in teacher performance, and this includes, where necessary, attempting to remedy perceived weaknesses in individual teacher performanc

      Focused on lack of skill or in efforts to close perceived gaps. Teacher autonomy and choice is low.

    11. What the training model fails to impact upon in any significant way is the manner in which this new knowledge is used in practice.

      Skills are not necessarily taught in context of teaching or locale.

    12. This model of CPD supports a skills-based, technocratic view of teaching whereby CPD provides teachers with the opportunity to update their skills in order to be able to demonstrate their competence.

      Come, learn a skill, show you can do it move on. CPR, CPI, RTI, etc?

    13. These nine categories are then organised along a spectrum that identifies the relative potential capacity for transformative practice and professional autonomy inherent in each, the premise of this being that such conditions require teachers to be able to articulate their own conceptions of teaching and be able to select and justify appropriate modes of practice.

      A comparative spectrum can help classify different kinds of PD for different situations, depending on the goals.

    1. To avoid overload, future development efforts may want to consider the timing of projects and levels of teacher assistance needed to provide adequate support in the classroom prior to beginning projects.

      This is true for all teachers. The level of change or challenge provided by PD needs to be cognizant of how committed teachers already are and provide support if a high time investment is required.

    2. While action research provided teachers with a tool for examining their own practice, the power of action research teaming stemmed from its ability to foster collaboration and professional development through collaborative research.

      Perhaps the focus can be on "collaborative [X]." While this was AR based, common goals in the school can also unite teachers in changing (or examining) methods and habits with students.

    3. Preservice teachers’ uncertainties may be due to their developing understanding of what teaching and professional development entails.

      Even first year teachers can struggle with this because their body of experience which can be used to contribute to a discussion is much smaller than many other staff members' present.

    4. Another inservice teacher reported that action research teaming provided a mechanism for professional growth through peer collaboration, “Research teaming creates a feeling of community and professionalism because teachers learn from one another and listen to each other as experts”

      Leaving space for teachers to contribute in a led workshop allows for true collaboration while the facilitator falls into a facilitative role rather than an instructional role.

      Allowing people to dialog on instructional ideas allows me to feel out the room rather than diving in with my pre-planned notes. Adjusting on the fly can help ensure everyone's needs are met much more effectively.

    5. Other veteran teachers noted that action research teaming increased their awareness of student learning.

      Discussing results after trying something new can help illicit insight. Talking with one another in PD is important!

    6. However, when asked if they would be willing to participate in action research teaming in the future, preservice teacher candidates were more positive (x̄=6.4)<math><mtext>(</mtext><mtext>x</mtext><mtext>̄</mtext><mtext>=6.4)</mtext></math> than their veteran counterparts (x̄=5.8)<math><mtext>(</mtext><mtext>x</mtext><mtext>̄</mtext><mtext>=5.8)</mtext></math>.

      Maybe it's that the preservice teachers are more overwhelmed with learning to teach and they aren't a full staff member in the cooperating district, so potential impact (perception) is decreased.

    7. inservice teachers strongly believed action research teaming to be an effective vehicle to improve their teaching practice (x̄=6.0<math><mtext>x</mtext><mtext>̄</mtext><mtext>=6.0</mtext></math>, see Table 1); teacher candidates were less positive (x̄=4.7)<math><mtext>(</mtext><mtext>x</mtext><mtext>̄</mtext><mtext>=4.7)</mtext></math> about collaborative action research as a vehicle to change their teaching. Inservice teachers were also more positive (x̄=5.5)<math><mtext>(</mtext><mtext>x</mtext><mtext>̄</mtext><mtext>=5.5)</mtext></math> about the potential for collaborative action research for examining views about research than their preservice counterparts (x̄=4.2)<math><mtext>(</mtext><mtext>x</mtext><mtext>̄</mtext><mtext>=4.2)</mtext></math>. Both groups viewed the collaboration process as an effective vehicle for dialoguing with their team counterparts, but again developmental differences appeared. Experienced teachers thought collaboration provided an effective vehicle to talk with their teacher candidates about both teaching (x̄=6.2)<math><mtext>(</mtext><mtext>x</mtext><mtext>̄</mtext><mtext>=6.2)</mtext></math> and research (x̄=5.3)<math><mtext>(</mtext><mtext>x</mtext><mtext>̄</mtext><mtext>=5.3)</mtext></math>. Teacher candidates, while generally positive about the dialogic possibilities of teaming, were markedly less positive about its potential to provide a forum for discussion about teaching (x̄=4.7)<math><mtext>(</mtext><mtext>x</mtext><mtext>̄</mtext><mtext>=4.7)</mtext></math> and research (x̄=4.0)<math><mtext>(</mtext><mtext>x</mtext><mtext>̄</mtext><mtext>=4.0)</mtext></math>.

      It's interesting that seasoned teachers saw immediate value in this process while preservice teachers didn't. Perhaps it's because of autonomy?

    8. One way to overcome this isolation is to encourage collaboration with informed peers through established frameworks within school communities.

      Perhaps restructuring traditional PD to be more longitudinal can help. But, how do I manage so many different teams?

    9. Traditionally, views of beginning as well as inservice teacher practice are typically organized to disseminate a knowledge base constructed almost exclusively by outside experts.

      Am I considered an outside expert? How does a district-level coach fall into the PD structure?

      Perhaps it is defined by relationships...since I know my teachers and I'm employed by the district, I'm a colleague rather than an outsider. But, I don't have my own classroom to try things in, so my advice and training is taken at face value based on my own experiences.

    10. Specifically, professional development must include opportunities for active interpretive processes that examine the complex contexts of classrooms and schools

      Asking teachers questions about practices, even if you're not kicking off an AR project, can be more effective for growth.

    11. When collaboration does take place, it is too often limited to an exchange of daily anecdotes, or discussions of “tricks of the trade” to improve practice

      Sharing tips without background or information on implementing isn't equipping teachers for success.

    12. but unless deliberate attempts to share findings are established, the products of teacher research often remain within individual classrooms

      Does this mean we should focus more on longitudinal AR for PD?

  5. Jan 2019
    1. As teachers gained familiarity and agency, they moved from perceiving ‘research’ as a domain that existed outside the classroom, to doing research and seeing where it fits with classroom practice.

      Is the term "action research" a barrier for teachers to engage?

    2. In our research program overall, we have observed the success of teacher teams who follow a cyclical structure of co-planning/ co-teaching/ implementation/ debriefing with enactments (practice) in between team meetings, and so we expected to see this pattern repeat itself (and it did).

      This would be a great use of time for the ambassador program next year.

    3. This discussion informed the development of a problem statement (a brief statement encapsulating the problem under focus in the classroom) and corresponding research question.

      Is there a way to do this in smaller chunks of time? The time commitment to group meetings may dissuade potential participants. How can the researcher help identify and define a problem for teachers to look at?

    4. The most important factor was that at least some visual evidence of classroom practice and student work was shared in team meetings, which allowed team members to literally see what was happening in one another’s classrooms.

      "If you can't see it, it isn't happening."

      Finding time to see these practices is hard. The researcher (or facilitator) can play part of that role in documenting sessions for the group as a whole. Asking teachers to identify examples can also promote observational skills when trying to gather data.

    5. they realized that they would be supported rather than judged and that team members would help to find answers

      The Instruction rounds format would be great for building this trust and teach valid observation techniques.

    6. Teachers saw each other as mutually supportive.

      Building this relationship takes time. Departments support one another, but for collaborative, systemic work, we need to break out of department silos and consider common cross-curricular methods.

  6. Nov 2018
    1. Students are entitled to a more educative and user-friendly assessment system. They deserve far more feedback -- and opportunities to use it -- as part of the local assessment process.

      Evaluate and reflect on your assessment systems. Do you have a system in the sense that it is longitudinal and recursive? How do you need to adjust your practices to ensure students get this feedback on their learning?

    2. Our job is to teach to the standards, not the test.

      What would it take to go an entire year thinking this way? What habits in planning do you need to address? How would your assignments change?

    3. Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment
    4. The point of assessment in education is to advance learning, not to merely audit absorption of facts.

      How do we need to change language among teachers and students to change perception? What kinds of practical habits can we adopt?

  7. Jul 2018
    1. ÄÉ=íÜçëÉ=íÜ~í=ÅçãÄáåÉ=íÜÉçêóI=ãçÇÉäáåÖI=éê~ÅíáÅÉI=ÑÉÉÇÄ~ÅâI=~åÇ=Åç~ÅÜáåÖ=íç=~ééäáÅ~íáçåK

      Most effective programs include each of these components.

    2. låÅÉ=~=êÉä~íáîÉäó=ÜáÖÜ=äÉîÉä=çÑ=ëâáää=Ü~ë=ÄÉÉå=~ÅÜáÉîÉÇI=~= ëáòÉ~ÄäÉ=éÉêÅÉåí~ÖÉ=çÑ=íÉ~ÅÜÉêë=ïáää=ÄÉÖáå=íç=íê~åëÑÉê=íÜÉ=ëâáää=áåíç=íÜÉáê=áåëíêìÅíáçå~ä=ëáíì~íáçåëI=Äìí=íÜáë=ïáää=åçí=ÄÉ=íêìÉ=çÑ=~ää=éÉêëçåë=Äó=~åó=ãÉ~åëI=~åÇ=áí=áë=éêçÄ~ÄäÉ=íÜ~í=íÜÉ=ãçêÉ=ÅçãéäÉñ=~åÇ=ìåÑ~ãáäá~ê=íÜÉ=ëâáää=çê=ëíê~íÉÖóI=íÜÉ=äçïÉê=ïáää=ÄÉ=íÜÉ=äÉîÉä=çÑ=íê~åëÑÉêK

      Teaching in small chunks and then partnering with a coach to synthesize a new methods may be more beneficial when you cannot me daily.

    3. É~ÅÜÉêë=äÉ~êå=íÜÉ=âåçïäÉÇÖÉ=~åÇ=ÅçåÅÉéíë=íÜÉó=~êÉ=í~ìÖÜí=~åÇ=Å~å=ÖÉåÉê~ääó=ÇÉãçåëíê~íÉ=åÉï=ëâáääë=~åÇ=ëíê~íÉÖáÉë=áÑ=éêçîáÇÉÇ=çééçêíìåáíáÉë=Ñçê=~åó=ÅçãÄáå~íáçå=çÑ=ãçÇÉä=áåÖI=éê~ÅíáÅÉI=çê=ÑÉÉÇÄ~ÅâK

      Learning the skill is simple. Feedback and followup translate the skill into inclusion in practice.

    4. çåÇáíáçåë=íÜ~í=~êÉ=åçí=Åçããçå=áå=ãçëí=áåëÉêîáÅÉ=ëÉííáåÖë=ÉîÉå=ïÜÉå=íÉ~ÅÜÉêë=é~êíáÅáé~íÉ=áå=íÜÉ=ÖçîÉêå~åÅÉ=çÑ=íÜçëÉ=ëÉííáåÖëK

      PD is often done to teachers rather than for teachers. Consider how this is done by the technical trainer described by Hargreaves & Dawe.

    1. Col-laborativeculturesmayneedadministrativesupportandleadershipto helpthemgrowandto facilitatetheirdevelopment,buttheirevolu-tion~dependingasit doesonvulnerablehumanqualitiesliketrustandsharing-willinevitablybeslow

      See Taylor chapter.

    2. Smyth& Garman(1989)desoribeevariouswaysin whicha veneerof voluntarismoftendisguiseswhatamountstoclandestinecompulsionthroughcareerbribery,impliedsupervisorypressure,threatsofevaluation,andthelike.

      How do we effectively communicate the rationale for coaching programs so that people can freely volunteer without thinking about "the man" watching?

    3. "Eyenpeercoaching.. ." -theveryphrasesuggestsa qualityof innoCiUOU1;nC:l15andbenevo-lencein peercoachingwhichis so self-evidentthatresistanceto it couldnotpossiblybeinter-pretedasanythingotherthanevidenceofper-sonalweaknessandvulnerabilityamongindi-vidualteachers.

      There are often deeper issues to resistance than what appears on the surface. We have to be introspective about our practice with teachers to get to the root of some of these problems.

    4. In thisview,technicalcoachingandsimilarpro-fessionaldevelopmentstrategiesreducedques-tionsaboutends,goals,andvaluesin teachingtoquestionsof means,techniques,andproced-ures

      Teachers end up copying what they see rather than reflecting on the practice at a deeper level as applied in their classroom. This is on the coaches to communicate.

    5. Evenso,it seemsto us thatthetimeimplicationsof implementingpeercoachingarebeingtreateda littledisrnis-sivelyhere.

      Communicating the time commitment realistically helps remove the facade of "just work harder to improve" that can come from admins pushing a new program.

    6. Itschiefpurposeisto helpteacherstransferspecifickindsof train-ingto theirclassroompractice,whilealsode-velopingmechanismsforprofessionaldialogueandcollegialrelationshipsin theirschools.

      I wonder if keeping the old PD model as a part of coaching helps the transition through seeing the same people in multiple contexts.

    7. Coachingis,therefore,a viralpartof inser-vicetrainingthatenablesteachersto makesub-stantialchangesintheirpractice

      Initial instruction isn't enough. There has to be long term, longitudinal support. See Taylor.

    8. Garmston(1987)hashelpfullyidentifiedanddefinedthreedifferentforms:technicalcoaching,collegialcoaching,andchal-lengecoaching.

      Coaching models

    9. It hasassociatedcollaborativeprofessionalde-velopmentnotwiththeuncriticaladoptionof"proven"technicalproceduresofeffectiveteachingintroducedfromelsewhere,butwithapracticallyguidedyetthoughtfulprocessof im-provementamongcommunitiesof professionalcolleagues

      Suggestions on improvement are based on experience with evidence, not on theory alone.

    10. Theylendsupportfora shiftawayfromuniversity-orcollege-basedcoursestargettedattheindividualteacher,andintendedto raisehisor herlevelofintellectualawarenessandabilityto reflect,tomoreschool-centredformsofprofessionaldevelopmentwhichrecognize,bringtogether,andbuildupontheskills,experience,andin-sightsthatteachersalreadyhave.

      Stop putting professors in front of teachers. Get teachers together, in a room, to talk about practice as a form of development. Build a culture of collegiality within the school as a way to shift practice.

    11. esearchershavefounda consistencyandcoherencein teachers'knowledgewhichis wellsuitedtoprovidinggroundsforwiseactioninthebusy,rapidlychangingenvironmentof theclassroom

      Instructional knowledge cannot be defined only by theory. It is the task of school leaders to identify teacher leaders in context.

    12. It helpsexplainwhymostadministrativelysup-portedinitiativesincollaborativeteacherde-velopmenttaketheformnQ.t of extendedcriti-calreflectionor of actionresearch,forinstance,butof collectiveexposureto ant:;(Cternallyde-signedprocessof instructionaltrainingin pur-portedlynewteachingstrategies

      Rather than collaborating to define and solve problems, it's collaborating on how to implement the program they're being told to implement.

    13. It helpsexplainthepecu-liarparadoxthatteachersareapparentlybeingurgedto collaboratemore,justat themomentwhenthereis lessforthemto collaborateabout.

      Kicking back against top down reform.

    14. Class-roomisdlationhasbeenheldresponsibleforteachers'anxietyabouttheireffectiveness,theirfearfulnessof externalevaluationandtheirirn-mersionintheimmediacyoftheirownclass-rooms.

      Not talking to other people can make us inflate perceived problems through our own lenses without checks.

    1. In fact, Bourdieu argues that the school reenforces the dominant culture in society, that is, the culture of the dominant—economic—class. This puts students from the dominant class in an advantageous position. By virtue of the acquired cultural capital in the family, the embodied cultural capital, these students possess the capital that makes them more likely to succeed in their academic career

      Well off students are supported at the family and academic level while students who are not supported are hit double with schools reinforcing the home situation inadvertantly.

    1. Table 2. Statements per cluster at the level of seven core clusters.

      Coded statements for collaborative learning online.

    2. In other words, we need to bridge the gap between networked learning and the recognition, valuation and rewarding of it by managers of learners, for instance teachers (in the case of students) or line managers (in the case of organizational learning).

      Making the connection with meaning is the bigger challenge. We can recognize learning, but how to formalize it remains elusive.

    3. Four main types of activities are distinguished to describe how we learn at the workplace (Eraut, 2004): (1) participation in group activities, (2) working alongside others, (3) tackling challenging tasks, and (4) working with clients.

      Learning is social! The internet can help us formalize informal work without taking over the process.

    4. Nevertheless, unlike formal learning, informal learning is not rewarded nor recognised, mainly due to lacking information about how individuals learn through their network (networked learning)

      Giving credit for informal learning will add value to that time for those who struggle to make the time.

    1. Further, conditions are created (in consultation with the principal) to support professional development (for example, teachers are given enough time to participate in the training activities). Support for this point is also found by Borman et al. (2000). They stated that ‘successful schools are provided sufficient resources to implement reforms and to provide quality learning environments’ (p. 67).

      Time to make it work.

    2. Both cyclic processes can influence and even steer each other. For example, after the facilitator has observed all the teachers, he or she can plan an evaluation and monitoring conference in which the results of the observations are discussed with the team.

      Provides flexibility in the system to respond to needs.

    3. presentation of theory, demonstration of skills, practice in a secure environment, pre-conference, observation and post-conference

      New model, combining approaches.

    4. Glickman (1990) distinguishes three coaching strategies: directive, collaborative and non-directive.

      Coaching strategies.

    5. The facilitators have to ask a lot of questions during the conferences in order to stimulate reflective teaching.

      Listening is critical. Allow the teachers to talk their learning out.

    6. These models are strongly focused on the individual teacher, and neither teaching teams nor the school context are taken into account.

      How do programs abstract to the bigger picture?

    7. Secondly, a stronger emphasis is needed on monitoring the results of the staff development process.

      How is learning implemented?

    8. two distinct classes: those that focus on teaching techniques and those that take a developmental-reflective approach.

      teacher centered vs student centered

    9. Despite this success, no results were found on student level, due to the fact that the goals of the professional development of the teacher’s were open to individual choice and mostly not explicitly linked to goals on student level.

      Show the connections, unified goals

    10. The teacher is the key figure when it comes to influencing student performance and therefore teacher professional development programmes should focus on improving teaching quality.

      If this isn't the goal, PD is missing the point,

    1. A clear link between self-regulated learning behaviours and learning success in online environments is established focusing on self-efficacy, interactions with others, and strategies for regulation

      Encouraging teachers to work effectively, but also to interact in legitimate and candid ways with other people. As designers, we have to encourage those interactions and promote that culture in asynchronous arenas.

    2. Professional expertise has four basic components (Tynjälä & Gijbels, 2012): factual knowledge which is based around conceptual or theoretical knowledge often codified in books, reports and other media sources; experiential knowledge which is difficult to codify and is often acquired through professional practice; self-regulative knowledge, focused on metacognition and ‘knowing oneself’; and sociocultural knowledge, which is embedded in the social practices of groups and communities, providing a framework for interactions

      How can PD capture each of these components? How can we develop them concurrently and encourage teachers to link each with the other for holistic growth?

    3. Learning for work often blends deliberate, formalised learning with reactive, non-formal learning

      Teaching is constantly changing via policy, technology, or curriculum. Teachers need to stay on top of changes in the workplace.

    4. Conventional forms of professional training are losing currency, particularly where they do not address critical dimensions of professional learning important for the contemporary workplace

      PD outside the scope of context of teaching is useless. See also Hawley & Valli

    5. allowing each individual to tailor specific learning needs to their work demands.

      If courses are generalized, teachers can self-select what they want to learn when they want to learn it.

      Builds a case for modular learning opportunities.

    1. Analysis of the data found that teachers rely toa greater degree on interactive rather than independent informal learning activities.

      Working with people is preferable to working alone. Perhaps because it includes feedback in the moment?

    2. a lack of time(M¼3:2, SD¼0:67) and a lack of proximity to colleagues’ work areas

      How do we expand time available and decrease the physical separation barrier without a complete redesign? Can online spaces help accomplish this task?

    3. These enhancedunderstandings can be used to reconsider the design of work environments so that theyare more conducive to informal learning as well as to rethink the design of professionaldevelopment programs so that they further develop the ability of professionals to solveproblems and learn independently

      PD has to change in response to environmental stimuli.

    4. Empirical studies have been conducted to examine some aspects of these models.For example, Kwakman (2003) investigated factors affecting engagement in informallearning activities in a survey of 542 secondary teachers in The Netherlands. Surveyfindings revealed that four personal characteristics (professional attitudes, appraisalsof feasibility of learning activities, appraisals of the meaningfulness of learningactivities, loss of personal accomplishment), two task factors (work pressure and jobvariety) and two work environment factors (collegial support and intentional learningsupport) influenced participation in workplace learning activities, with the personalcharacteristics appearing to influence participation more substantially than either thetask or work environment factors.

      It's a combination of factors, personal, cultural, and external, that influence participation in growth activities.

    5. Informal learning refers to activities initiated by people in work settings that result inthe development of their professional knowledge and skills (

      The program can be formalized, but access is personal, so it counts as informal?

    1. Further, teachers with high work engagement—but not teachers with service or management responsibilities—used more informal learning opportunities.

      High engagement means they want to improve, but because of life situations, informal work meets their schedules better.

    2. The finding that teachers collaborate more at the beginning of their career than in the middle or at the end may be attributable to younger teachers still being more eager to learn from and draw on the professional expertise of more experienced teachers

      Is there a perception that older teachers don't have anything else to learn about teaching? It would help explain the increase in content development people do.

    3. In other words, teacher collaboration follows a linear pattern, with older teachers collaborating less frequently than younger teachers

      Can flattening this trend increase retention and build collegiality in schools with wide ranges of age?

    4. More specifically, teachers aged 27 participated on average in 2.89 in-service courses in the 2-year period surveyed. The average participation rate increased to 3.72 courses at age 42 before decreasing again to 1.58 courses at age 65

      Seems to match our 1/year course structure.

    5. In terms of content, this group of teachers participated most intensively in activities relating to their teaching subject, content and performance standards and teaching methods.

      Bringing in other areas of interest to engage all levels of instructor is critical for developing a strong program.

    6. The fourth phase covers years 19 and 30 of the career and again has two possible orientations: (1) “serenity” or (2) “conservatism”. Serene teachers experience a loss of engagement, a decline in career ambitions, but also greater sense of self-acceptance, whereas conservative teachers are sceptical towards educational innovations and critical of educational policy

      This is Elkhart.

    7. (1) “experimentation and activism” or (2) “reassessment and self-doubts”.

      How do schools support both aspects of phase 3? Is PD out of touch with the majority of the district staff?

    8. In other words, many beginning teachers participated in informal activities while continuing their formal training. In terms of the content of the activities pursued, beginning teachers attended more activities targeting classroom management and student discipline than did experienced teachers (more than 3 years of experience). Beginning teachers thus chose to attend activities dealing with topics that are particularly challenging for those new to the profession

      Focus on what you need to do now, survival skills.

      School response is cohort based.

    9. Rather, they organise the learning process and determine their learning goals and strategies independently

      Can we formalize this process into a hybrid?

    10. They include individual activities such as reading books and classroom observations as well as collaborative activities such as conversations with colleagues and parents, mentoring activities, teacher networks and study groups

      Compare these activities to the PLC leadership roles coaches and teacher leaders can have.

    11. The training model assumes that teachers update their knowledge and skills by means of workshops and courses.

      Limiting these trainings leaves a big gap in implementation and followup. Hopefully, the results show the need for sustained, middle-initiated and supported PD.

    12. We define professional development as uptake of formal and informal learning opportunities that deepen and extend teachers’ professional competence, including knowledge, beliefs, motivation and self-regulatory skills

      This is a good definition of PD. Active, related to practice, observable somewhere.

    13. Although the empirical basis is rather weak, findings indicate that beginning teachers tend to use observations and informal discussions with colleagues to improve their practice, whereas more experienced teachers are more inclined to use formal meetings for their professional learning

      Why the difference?

      I suppose that's why I'm reading this article. Jeez.

    14. “strong professional development opportunities must be embedded in the very fabric of public education” (p. 129)

      Broad charter for PD within NCLB.

    1. In this leading from the middle approach, districts don't just mediate and manage other people's reforms individually; they become the collective drivers of change and improvement together.

      Take the best ideas, learn from others, build a program that suits your locality.

    2. In an age of innovation and diversity, top-down strategies are inappropriate, while bottom-up strategies seem unable to achieve improvement on any significant scale.

      Need middlemen (coaches) to make sure implementation is sound but that results are tangible.

    3. Their focus on micromanaging two or three measurable priorities only works for systems pursuing traditional and comparatively narrow achievement goals. A digital age of complex skills, cultural diversity, and high-speed change calls for more challenging educational goals and more sophisticated and flexible change strategies.

      Designed-for-all PD has its place, but in the scheme of changing practice, is not effective.

    1. The findings of this study suggest the importance of transforming the cultural norms for teachers in the U.S. Such transformation may be possible through processes and practices that replace the culture of privacy with a culture of transparency.

      Culture permeates everything.

    2. In addition, Phil did not wish to disrupt his relationship with his peers, and had worked to build rapport with them by complimenting their work

      Aren't coaches supposed to intervene when they see bad practice? This sounds more like a cultural issue the admin needed to help with rather than a shortcoming of the coach.

    3. Phil and Audrey sought the principalship in order to secure the authority they thought necessary to influence teaching practice in their buildings. However, Pauline and Allison retained their faith that authority is not necessary for teachers to have influence in their schools. They focused their attention on developing positive relationships with their colleagues in order to grow mutual trust and respect.

      Is this perpetuating the dichotomy? If some are seen as go-getters by working on their admin license and others are okay staying where they are, do all teacher leaders get categorized as admin-in-training? How do we bring parity to the two outcomes?

    4. In other words, teachers mutually uphold an expectation that they will not interfere with each other’s work as it relates to teaching and learning within their individual classrooms.

      I want to disrupt the classroom work in order to improve it for all students. I'm okay making that statement.

    5. In other words, teachers’ “income goes up primarily as one acquires seniority and takes courses” (Lortie, 1975/2002, p. 102). Therefore, if teachers are compensated financially in any way for additional leadership work, their colleagues are more likely to resist their effortsbecause such work does not follow these traditional reward distribution structures.

      These cultural issues will only be addressed as we bring them to light and talk about what really bothers us as teachers.

    6. Additionally, Lortie (1975/2002) found that while most teachers believe it is acceptable for individual teachers to seek external rewards when they are working in solidarity with a teachers’ union, they do not accept such behavior when individual teachers seek their own rewards independent of collective action.

      This is interesting.

      Perhaps the union membership plays into the "for the greater good" persona teachers are supposed to embody?

    7. Thus, the norm of egalitarianism implies that teachers should focus on doing their own work, and not interfere with other teachers’ work unless they are asked specifically for assistance

      "Professional" to a teacher means "self-sufficient," which closes doors and prevents collegial relationships from forming between two people next door to one another.

    8. Some of the research on teacher leadership suggests that the norms of the teaching profession in the U.S. may limit the work of teacher leaders,

      These are not norms defined by buildings, but rather by the culture of teachers as a global body.

    1. Thus, as principals are prepared, they need to expe-rience a re-culturing concerning the need for teacher leadership, the goals of teacher leader-ship, and the definitions of teacher leadership

      Helps create clarity in a landscape full of conflicting information re, teacher leadership. Setting building culture and expectations are critical.

    2. Phil felt that an administrative position would give him greater authority to challenge his col-leagues while as a teacher leader, he was not as confident to confront colleagues about criti-cal issues.

      Confrontation isn't seen as a reflective process - it's a critical, evaluative mechanism in schools. We need to find ways to talk about what we do without connecting it to an individual's worth.

    3. he worried that tak-ing the initiative might disrupt relationships be-tween him and those colleagues with whom he worked most closely.

      It's still difficult to separate the practice of teaching from the person who teaches. We're not good at talking about how we work because it's such a personal activity in many places.

    4. In their case studies, the au-thors found that teacher leaders worked against the traditional concept of leadership embed-ded in position, leading in ways that were neither authoritarian nor domineering. They avoided oppressive behaviors connected to hi-erarchical conceptions of leadership by hum-bling themselves, maintaining equity among colleagues, and empowering other teachers to find their own solutions to problems

      Coaching means we listen and respond to help teachers find their own solutions. We don't walk in with all the answers - we listen critically and coach them through the reflection process.

      The end goal is that we run out of work because everyone is so good at the practice.

    5. Teacher leader effectiveness

      Instead of highlighting everything, this entire section is critical to understanding how to improve my work with others by avoiding and dispelling these misconceptions.

    6. As leadership becomes dis-tributed across the school, larger numbers of teachers engage in leadership practice, and pro-fessional learning communities are established, whereby teachers influence each other’s prac-tice

      Empowerment can go a long way in mobilizing internal expertise.

    7. power and authority are more even-ly spread across the school.

      Democratization of power.

    8. How have teachers’ experiences with teacher leader-ship and understandings of teacher leadership as a critical practice (constructed through their coursework) influenced their approach to lead-ership and career objectives?

      In other words, how are teacher leaders affected by leaders they've worked with in the past?

    1. For these reasons, overly rigid school cultures make it less likely that teachers will progress toward leadership within an environment of support and encouragement.

      Leadership requires autonomy. An oppressive admin or culture removes that decision making capacity, diminishing the need for teacher leaders to develop.

    2. Wilson (2016) wrote, “The school culture entails not only how things are done (systems, processes, and procedures), but also the mindset behind why things are done”

      See also Fullan, 2018

    3. These studies suggest that younger, less experienced teachers and elementary-level teachers are more likely to be motivated toward teacher leadership; but older, more experienced teachers are more likely to be recognized as teacher leaders by their colleagues

      Implied leadership because of experience and age alone.

    4. Although pedagogical knowledge and skills provide an essential foundation for teacher leadership, research suggests that dispositions (i.e., core beliefs, attitudes, and values) comprise a teacher’s stance, or way of thinking and being

      Valli 2008

    5. Informal collaboration, professional development, and graduate studies support the progression from teacher to teacher leader by providing “multiple opportunities for conversation, practice, and reflection”

      Becoming an expert (and a leader) takes time. Teachers need to wrestle with complex ideas with other teachers to develop an understanding of complex ideas in teaching.

    1. In making these plans and adjustmentsto plans, teachersshould consult their learners and ask themto participate, singlyand in groups, in planning.

      Including teachers in their own growth sets the same standard for operation as they have working with students.

      How often do we forget this principle?

    2. In o .ler to havesome reliable basis for helping the child, theteacher must be ableto create an environment in which the givenchild feels at home andwants to grow

      The same is true for adults. Working with teachers on improving practice or learning new skills requires support in context.

    3. A student who learnsa French word may be learning, too, that French is beautifulorugly, that wordsare arbitrary symbols, and that languagesare funor hard to leizn.

      What is the unintentional curriculum included by the teacher? How do attitudes and nonverbal habits communicate those lessons?

    1. An elementary teacher described that teacher leaders ‘seem to have a false sense of power’ and that she ‘feels talked down to’ by the teacher leaders at her school.

      What kind of training do teacher leaders need?

    2. However, mentor teachers were valued more than master teachers because teachers viewed them as more supportive and because they still have teaching responsibilities.

      Is this because teaching is such a variable profession? Meaning, if I'm out of the classroom for several years, is my experience less valuable because the nature of teaching has changed?

      Are there studies looking at the variability of teaching? What factors actually change which affect day to day instruction?

    3. they would like input into how many times they are observed and the length of the window of time that unannounced observations may take place.

      Backward rating to provide context for the observation results, maybe like Air bnb ratings? Interesting idea...

      But, would this just be used to justify poor results? Or would it actually provide some helpful insight into processes that could be improved?

    4. ‘[Teachers] are really hard on themselves if they only get 3s, except that is proficient, and I wish they realised how good that is.’

      How could moving to feedback without a score help alleviate the stereotype of 3 being worse than 4 on the scoring table? (See Gini-Newman & Case, 2018 notes)

    5. Kiranh (2013) found that teachers had a higher expectation of teacher leaders than they did of principals; yet their perception of feedback given to them by teacher leaders was lower than their perception of feedback they received from principals.

      This is strange. If teachers are concerned about the quality of observation by the principal. wouldn't the feedback from a teacher be more valuable?

      Perhaps the feedback is seen as job security notes rather than quality of instruction. What's the perception?

    6. he title caused the teacher leaders to focus more on improvement of the school and of the profession compared to other teachers

      It's interesting that the title broadened perspective for those teachers. How do we support that mindset while alleviating the social negatives associated?

    7. multiple planned and unplanned observations conducted by the principal and assistant principal(s)

      How did they alleviate responsibilities for admins to make more stops?

    8. PD groups focus on coaching and classroom support to improve individual teachers’ instruction through professional development that is individualised and relevant

      Not standalone PD with teachers. Long term, relationship based.

    9. Teachers learn how to connect their performance to student outcomes during weekly meetings

      Important to connect action to results in a structured way.

  8. Jun 2018
    1. mplementation of the action plan can be like conducting an experiment in which you testyour theories of how instructional strategies lead to student learning

      With all of the legwork, implementation is a natural outflow of the planning. Without implementing, all of the time spent analyzing and planning interventions is for naught. This really puts pressure on teachers to follow through from an intrinsic position rather than extrinsic.

    2. you need to figure out how you will measure its success.

      UbD

    3. ow the challenge is to develop a shared understanding of what effective instruction around this issue would look like.

      Student misconceptions can always be addressed, but only if we address the problem as a teacher-led response.

    4. Schools can then “triangulate” their findings by using multiple data sources to illuminate, confirm, or dispute their initial hypotheses.

      Breaking results down into component parts is an incredibly powerful mechanism for finding patterns. The workload is diminished because only areas of weakness are looked at item by item to identify weak points.

    5. As a school leader, you can then engage your teachers and administrators in constructive conversations about what they seein the data overview.

      Seeing the picture of the data tells a much stronger story than sorting through rows and columns of numbers can.

    6. To interpret score reports, it helps tounderstand the different types of assessments and the various scales that are used

      We lump information into "test scores," without really understanding what the different tests can show us about student growth.

    7. Set Up a Data System

      A system is not a binder and Excel spreadsheets. There needs to be some power behind the system so the people using it can get the information they need.

    8. Prepare, Inquire, and Act

      Similar to problem solving in the classroom? Gather information, ask questions (or look for emergent questions), and then make decisions once you have all the information.

    9. We have found that organizing thework of instructional improvement around a process that has specific, manageable steps helps educators build confidence and skill inusing data.

      Data volume is an overwhelming barrier when you're not a trained analyst or expert in identifying areas of needed improvement based on quantitative information.

    1. School leaders and policymakers must look carefully at the roles available to teacher leaders, recognizing the value in leading on ideas that emerge from others or from groups with which those leaders are involved.

      The nature of the role may change over time as ideas emerge from the group. Need to be flexible with this.

    2. As schools nationwide respond to increasingly complex CCSS requirements, such as tailoring general reading comprehension strategies to better fit disciplinary-specific reading, writing, and communication stan­dards, collaborative models for professional learning, and particularly mod­els led by teacher leaders, may become increasingly necessary

      Are these driven by new content? Or are they driven by internal initiatives meant to change instruction?

    3. the roles played by teacher leaders are becoming more vital for supporting these types of models, ultimately facilitating systematic changes in school culture and teachers’ practice

      Is there a difference between groups facilitated by teacher leaders and groups facilitated by administrators?

    4. In fact, PLC structures, perhaps due to their recent hurried and often mandatory implementation in many districts across the country, often fail to live up to the ideals behind the model

      Slapping a name on a program does not help teachers implement the ideas without strong leadership.

    5. He went on to explain that this mix of participation and leadership meant that team members could literally “see” her involvement in the work, which bolstered their interest and commitment.

      Seeing progress emerge rather than stuff turned in can help increase motivation and buy in to the project.

    6. structures she provided, such as clear agendas, detailed fol­low-up notes, and what one teacher described as a running “to-do list” for the group, helped her team members to stay deeply and intently engaged on their chosen focus for inquiry, and the result was what she described as “massive momentum [for] our group

      Removing barriers of organization and facilitation from teachers allows them to dive into the work headfirst. Play a supporting role.

    7. mportant balance between structure and inquiry and the vital role that structure plays in allowing the inquiry at the heart of PLCs to play out

      Goals are important, but inquiry requires that questions be followed for emergence. What skills are necessary to balance?

    8. Ultimately, team leaders’ focus on and commitment to the structure of PLCs and the content of the inquiry cycles was crucial as they planned and led focused meetings.

      Were these leaders "officially" PLC trained? Or were they experts in working with adults and supporting initiatives at the district level?

    9. The structure of PLCs, alone, may not have produced the new learning and the ultimate benefits to teachers’ practice described above.

      Structure is based on solid goals and strong leadership. Calling meetings "PLCs" will not change culture or practice.

    10. Teachers require guid­ance as they learn to move from what Nelson, Deuel, Slavit, and Kennedy(2010) term “congenial conversations”—which focus on safety, privacy, and preserving the status quo, to “collegial conversations,” which focus on digging into practice, wrestling with disagreements, and building new knowledge and practice together (

      They require coaching in order to have fruitful discussions with one another.

    11. However, even with a leader present, teachers do not always know how to collaborate effectively, nor is it always clear what they might discuss (

      Ill-defined structure, too open ended.

    12. The structure provided by PLCs may allow teacher leaders to realize their full potential as they facilitate colleagues’ growth, without encountering some of the hindrances that can come with more informal leadership

      Providing structure without becoming too formal.

    13. The current study adds to this body of research by discussing specific ways teachers work with teacher leaders and how these teachers perceive the teacher leaders’ work as shap­ing their practice

      How do teacher leaders grow with one another?

    1. Individuals often definetheir affiliations in terms of some subgroup and have weaker ties to the larger organization

      Departments in the high schools. I wonder if the school reorganization in two years will help with this.

    2. because of the class and race differences between school professionals and parents inmost urban areas, conditions can be ripe for misunderstanding and distrust

      How many teachers in a high-poverty school look like their students?

    3. where necessary, counseling out those whose practiceremains inconsistent with the school's mission and values.

      Finding the right people for the vision means having hard conversations about commitment to the vision in general.

    4. Even simple interactions, if successful, can enhance collectivecapacities for more complex subsequent actions

      Foster moments for small trust building. Over time, it becomes the de facto mechanism for interacting with each other.

    5. On average, these improving schools recorded increases in student learning of8 percent in reading and 20 percent in mathematics in a five-year period

      Significant change, but not immediate. Change takes time, culture needs to gain momentum over institutional inertia.

    6. In schools in which relational trustwas improving over time

      This is a plastic cultural indicator. It can be built among faculty with strong leadership and a commitment to reform.

    7. elational trust fosters the necessary social exchanges amongschool professionals as they learn from one another. Talking honestly with colleagues aboutwhat's working and what's not means exposing your own ignorance and making yourselfvulnerable.

      Open and honest conversations about practice can only happen with participants trust one another not to make personal comments or attacks.

    8. Collective decision making withbroad teacher buy-in, a crucial ingredient for reform, occurs more readily in schools with strongrelational trust

      Tackling large problems in education require buy-in from all people in order for those solutions to be successful.

    9. they are constantlydiscerning the intentions embedded in the actions of others

      Clear communication about expectations and rationale helps alleviate confusion and prevent conflict based solely on misinterpretation.

    10. Such dependencies create a sense of mutual vulnerability for all individualsinvolved.

      Eroding this sense of vulnerability through isolated goal or agenda setting ultimately hurts students (Iannaccone, 1991)

    11. Each party in a relationship maintains an understanding of his or her role's obligations and holdssome expectations about the obligations of the other parties

      We all know what we need to do, but we also have to trust other people to do their jobs.

    12. social trust among teachers,parents, and school leaders improves much of the routine work of schools and is a key resourcefor reform

      Before you can do anything, you have to trust the people you work with.

    1. By positively engaging their peers, such teachers enact a larger circle ofsupport for achieving the moral purpose of advancing the learning and development ofchildren in their journey to adulthood

      The network effect.

    2. Such principals communicated with all teachers intheir schools about expectations of instructional improvement, the roles of teacher-leaders asa resource for improvement, and expectations of teachers interacting in positive ways with theteacher-leaders

      Not dictating the time or role of the leader in the building, but empowering their staff to take advantage of that individual's time and expertise.

      This is particularly important for younger or leaders with less in-class experience than other staff.

    3. principals must intentionally develop trusting relationships with teacher-leaders

      Seeing the evaluative leader of the building have a positive relationship with a teacher leader lends value and trust by extension.

    4. Here are some questions to frame initial conversations between teacher-leaders andthose who support their work

      Clarity in expectations are critical for successful implementation. See Bae et. al.

    5. Some of the content areas identified assupporting teacher-leaders in their work include: advanced curricular, instructional, andassessment practices; school culture and its implications for professional and organizationalimprovement; adult development; and facilitation, presentation, and coaching skills requiredto facilitate learning and collaboration for individuals as well as with small or large groups

      Without expanded skills, you cannot meet needs of teachers.

      It's interesting that teaching practices in the classroom are observable manifestations of these expanded beliefs/abilities.

    6. Further, working in authentic instructional situations allows teachers who lead to continuedeveloping their own instructional skills and, by doing so, to remain credible as teachers.

      Working in context supports the teacer's learning (Taylor 06) as well as builds credibility for a coach. What kind of coach is never around?