100 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2023
    1. Additionally, the governor is proposing legislation that would cap enrollment of low-performing cyber charters until performance improves, impose a moratorium on new cyber charter schools, subject charter management companies to the state’s Right to Know Law, and establish a new funding formula for charters.

      We keep making rules and systems for charters that are not on the same level as traditional public schools. No takeovers, not government intervention. Why are we still re-inventing the wheel?

      Not that the state interventions are ideal, but charters continue to operate, even with dismal scores, with little repercussions.

    2. “Pennsylvania’s charter school law is the worst in the nation and is failing students, teachers, school districts and taxpayers,” Wolf said in a news release. “There are high-quality charter schools, but some of them, especially some cyber charter schools, are underperforming.

      Which is it? Can they be high quality and underperforming?

    1. This means that for over a decade and a half, the most vulnerable and struggling districts lost proportionally the most students along with their per-pupil funding.

      Not only do districts lose funding, those students lost a powerful connective force in their hometown - teachers.

    2. companies providing the service

      If this is a corporate project, what are the qualifications of the instructors and who is checking those requirements? Are there requirements?

    1. Over the three growth periods in this study, the typical charter school student in Pennsylvania hadsimilar academic growth in reading and weaker math growth compared to their TPS counterparts. Inmath, the learning difference is about the equivalent to losing 30 days of learning compared to theirTPS peers. In the first two growth periods of the study, students in Pennsylvania charter schoolsexperience growth similar to their TPS peers in reading, while experiencing weaker growth in math. Bythe third growth period, students in Pennsylvania charter schools exhibit similar growth to their TPScounterparts in both reading and math.

      Is the slower growth due to the time it takes to assimilate into an online platform?

    2. The third set of analysis illustrates the impact of online charter schools in Pennsylvania, also referredto as cyber charter schools.

      These are full-time online schools.

    3. The 2011 findings also showed wide variation in student andschool performance, with a quarter of charter schools outperforming their local school options inreading and over half outpacing their local TPS in math.

      It's interesting that across all schools, growth for students is down, but some show significantly higher growth. Why?

    1. "I'd tell my teacher, 'I don't get this,' and she'd say, 'You have to figure it out for yourself,' and I'd say, 'But I don't get it,'"

      A hyper-focus on "learner centered" does not mean that teachers are excused from helping students learn the material.

    2. "I was told that in the student-centered model, my role as a teacher was primarily to supervise students to make sure they were using Buzz."

      Deprofessionalization of teaching in action.

    3. The companies needed the EAA's students to do well in order to prove the effectiveness of their products when making sales pitches to other schools and districts;

      This is a clear conflict of interest.

    4. met students where they were academically rather than forcing them to march lock-step through the traditional, age-based grade system.

      How were these schools held accountable different than similar schools not in the program?

    5. "Usually these teams are built around the more experienced teachers. It is problematic when novice or non-teachers are in charge of creating school-based curriculum and course content."

      Experienced teachers bring a wealth of resources and background which can be used to design coherent, veritcally aligned, and accessible programs of study.

    6. "We're building this plane as we fly it," is a phrase numerous sources we've interviewed have attributed to Mary Esselman, who was in the thick of the technological planning.

      Move fast and break things doesn't work so well in education.

    7. "We do have too many failing schools in our state," he said. "If you look at us statewide, only 16 percent of our kids are college-ready. That's absolutely unacceptable.

      A hyper-focus on college as the ultimate goal of education holds us back. College, also, needs to revamp its expectations for what strong education looks like.

    1. So, once again, we have proof that, instead of investing the resources necessary to accomplish the goal of turning around our worst-performing schools as quickly as possible, the EAA operated on the cheap, using an untested, unproven, beta stage software platform with the teachers and students the beta testing guinea pigs.

      Improvement often takes years with teams of people tackling components of the problems.

    2. Instead of being a model for implementing a computer-based teaching model, BUZZ crashed regularly, had major content deficiencies, and was so hard to use that its benefits were all but overwhelmed by its flaws.

      Even if it was working, would teachers and students see benefits? What of this model is supported by evidence?

    1. help you identify your high opportunity students

      How do you define a high opportunity student? What does that look like?

    2. If you are a Canvas-user, enable the Notes column in your gradebook and record brief notes about what each student has shared with you.

      I like keeping notes in the roster as well - it's a quick-glance way to see keywords for each student.

  2. Apr 2023
    1. The activity theory for organisations relates to how two different organisational contexts that interact with each other develop and eventually share a common language, culture and environment, in order to reach common goals.

      This could be a good framework for how schools engage with the community to provide opportunities they are not able to otherwise provide for students. The community is a part of the learning process and exposes students to authentic learning opportunities.

    2. students observe scientific processes they normally do not experience at school, and then report on what they have observed; in doing so, they develop skills such as asking questions, scientific reading, organising information and planning a presentation

      Why are these experiences unique to school? Were they industry or research based? Were they looking at specialized equipment?

      For schools, does "out of school learning" mean that students are reaching for things schools cannot provide? Or things they do not provide (choice)?

    3. Studies have also shown that learning is a unified concept; any distinction between formal and informal science learning is artificial

      We are not helping students by dismissing background knowledge they possess as a result of learning on their own.

    4. However, students who are not interested in school science often choose to participate in science activities outside school.

      Calvin and Hobbes - "we don't talk about dinosaurs in school."

    5. In addition, many practitioners in the field of informal science learning recognise the need to create productive collaborations between informal science education organisations and schools

      See Esach (2007) for more context of the "edutainment" aspect of informal learning. Is entertaining content/context more important that the educational context? What should schools accept - or reject - from that position?

    1. leaving students with little room to develop their own approaches to answering the question

      See previous note.

      The danger is that students might often need coaching on specific skills, which can be very difficult for a teacher to managce in one setting. As a result, many opt for the more recipe-based result.

    2. They require a question or problem that serves to organize and drive activities; and these activities result in a series of artifacts, or products, that culminate in a final product that addresses the driving question.

      Everything is working toward answering the driving question. The problem is that schools often dilute those questions or potential solutions to align with "the content" rather than allowing students to explore authentically.

    3. Drawing analogies from everyday learning, researchers argue that knowledge is contextualized; that is, learners construct knowledge by solving complex problems in situations in which they use cognitive tools, multiple sources of information, and other individuals as resources

      When we're solving problems out of school, we have several contexts which play into our understanding. Using this idea, we can structure learning experiences in school the same way - to engage students in multiple contexts for learning complex ideas.

    1. Schooled people do better, although they rarely use the supposedly general algorithms taught in school. Instead, they invent new methods specific to the situation at hand.

      Even though application is often missing, having formal training in some form of the skill can help general ideas be transferred to new situations.

    2. Yet to be tru-ly skillful outside school, people must develop situation-specific forms of competence.

      Having an idea of application helps with transfer. School generally misses the application component (see the previous note).

    3. utside school, actions are intimately connected with objects and events; people often use the objects and events directly in their reasoning, without necessarily using symbols to represent them. School learning, by contrast, is mostly symbol-based; indeed, con-nections to the events and objects symbolized are often lost.

      The story is that, "we need theory before we can apply," but much learning can happen through experience, trial & error, and feedback on production.

    4. school is an institution that values thought that proceeds independently, without aid of physi­cal and cognitive tools.

      This is a huge gap between school and authentic activity, where if we were actually modelling the behavior of that skill, the tools would be included.

    5. No individual in the system can pilot the ship alone. The knowledge necessary for successful piloting is distributed throughout the whole system.

      In this case, is there individual training? Or does the team train together to form the unit of knowledge necessary?

  3. Mar 2023
    1. Practice testing and distributed practice received high utility assessments because they benefit learners of different ages and abilities and have been shown to boost students’ performance across many criterion tasks and even in educational contexts

      Active practice with the material helps recall.

  4. Feb 2023
    1. who believed that parents, caregivers, peers, and the culture at large are responsible for developing higher-order functions.

      We can watch adults model things, but we need people to teach us the nuance and context of those behaviors.

    1. this is different than simply copying someone else's behavior.

      The inflection point of when something is learned comes in demonstration? Or in spontaneous performance of the behavior?

    1. it is time to actually perform the behavior you observed.

      Is this in conflict with the statement earlier of learning with no demonstration of new behaviors?

    2. Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it

      Retrieval practice is a method which can be used to reinforce retention.

    1. The goal of assimilation is to maintain the status quo. By assimilating information, you are keeping your existing knowledge and schemas intact and simply finding a place to store this new information.

      This is really good to be aware of because sometimes we stretch really far to keep from having to reevaluate our thinking.

    1. Assimilation and accommodation both work in tandem as part of the learning process.2 Some information is incorporated into our existing schemas through the process of assimilation, while other information leads to the development of new schemas or total transformations of existing ideas through the process of accommodation.

      New ideas can be both assimilated and accommodated. It isn't all or nothing.

    2. The process is somewhat subjective, because we tend to modify experience or information to fit in with our pre-existing beliefs

      There is no method of objectively looking at something new. We have to practice disassociating the pre-existing understanding we may have from our schemas as we learn new things.

    1. Raising children free from these stereotypes and limitations, she believed, would lead to greater freedom and fewer restrictions of free will

      This discredits the dignity and value that comes from being male and female!

    2. When subjected to societal disapproval, people will often feel pressured to alter their behavior or face rejection by those who disapprove of them.

      This is one of the problems with postmodern society. Everyone has a different version of truth. Even though postmodern thinking says that "your truth is true," there is ridicule or societal issues when it doesn't align with theirs.

    3. All of these influences add up to how gender schema is formed.

      How many of these patterns are subliminal? Or, are they only impactful if they aren't recognized, even if they're prevalent in culture?

      Is not worrying about these kinds of text patterns a sign that my schema is already fixed? Or is it insensitive to say that it's not an issue for me and my understanding of gender value?

    4. Gender schema theory was introduced by psychologist Sandra Bem in 1981 and asserted that children learn about male and female roles from the culture in which they live.

      All learning is local and defined by our environment, which includes culture.

    1. People are more likely to pay attention to things that fit in with their current schemas.

      Is this because it's easier to assimilate than it is to accommodate?

    2. Event schemas are focused on patterns of behavior that should be followed for certain events.

      How many event schemas do we possess for learning vs schooling? Would students describe the two similarly or differently? Would they even see a connection?

  5. Jan 2023
    1. Punishment does not teach a person how to behave appropriately.

      It teaches what not to do (avoidance) but not how to act desirably.

    2. Skinner’s learning theories have been discredited by more current ones that consider higher order and more complex forms of learning.

      Conditioning has no bearing on showing understanding of the lessons learned. Can a rat explain why it is shocked vs getting a food pellet? Can it transfer that knowledge to a new situation? Or is conditioning simply forming habits?

    1. Skinner found that when and how often behaviors were reinforced played a role in the speed and strength of acquisition.

      Immediately praising or responding can increase the association of the behavior with the response.

    2. negatively reinforcing your behavior (not your child's).

      We learn that removing children screaming makes our situation more pleasant. The method of removing that child is the learned behavior.

    3. Respondent behaviors

      This seems to counter learned behaviors. There is no reinforcement after this kind of response. How does it fit?

      Maybe it fits because operant conditioning is concerned with learning, not necessarily responses?

    4. Skinner was more interested in how the consequences of people's actions influenced their behavior.

      Applying motivations after the fact. All behaviors are determined by the response and are learned.

    1. the transmission of information from teacher to learner is essentially the transmission of the response appropriate to a certain stimulus.

      We create stimuli specifically to generate a particular response. Knowing something is the demonstration of the response, nothing to do with metacognitive processes.

    2. Radical behaviorists such as Skinner also made the ontological claim that facts about mental states are reducible to facts about behavioral dispositions.

      The mind is nothing more than a decision machine and we can understand it if we understand cause/effect relationships.

    3. they focused on objectively observable, quantifiable events and behavior. They argued that since it is not possible to observe objectively or to quantify what occurs in the mind, scientific theories should take into account only observable indicators such as stimulus-response sequences.

      Adding empirical evidence to conclusions drawn about human psychology. Cause/effect relationships.

    4. Their methodology was primarily introspective, relying heavily on first-person reports of sensations and the constituents of immediate experiences.

      Self-reporting leads to bias in results?

    1. This means that it does not allow for any degree of free will in the individual.

      Conditioning is appropriate in some cases - military training, athletics. Does it have a place in schools? If a behavior is conditioned, it is learned, but is that learned response able to push the learner to use it in next contexts?

      Are some instances of conditioning more okay because they can be transferred? Or is all conditioning as learning mechanism dubious?

    2. It is more likely that behavior is due to an interaction between nature (biology) and nurture (environment).

      Environment and experiences!

    3. The stimuli that have become associated with nicotine were neutral stimuli (NS) before “learning” took place but they became conditioned stimuli (CS), with repeated pairings. They can produce the conditioned response (CR).

      We have no bearing toward or away from nicotine on it's own. It's the pairing of nicotine (via the cigarette) and the release of dopamine that our body learns to crave.

    4. and these cues can trigger a feeling of craving

      Step 1 of the habit cycle.

    5. the conditioned stimulus acts as a type of signal or cue for the unconditioned stimulus

      A stimulus that does not cause a response is paired with a stimulus that does cause a response, linking those to stimuli.

    6. therefore is a natural response which has not been taught

      Reflexes, natural responses to stimuli. Blinking in sunlight, yawning when tired, etc.

    1. learning method in which a specific behavior is associated with either a positive or negative consequence.


    2. Instead of feeling anxious and tense in these situations, the child will learn to stay relaxed and calm.

      Conditioning is often presented as a way to achieve behaviors automatically. If those behaviors are things like self-regulation and awareness, is that a bad thing?

      If we condition students to calm themselves at a sound (like the meditation bowl thing) have they learned self-regulation? Or are they simply responding to a stimulus out of habit?

      Am I interested in forming habits which take over in specific situations or forming students who are aware of themselves and then choose the habits they want to develop?

    3. However, if the smell of food were no longer paired with the whistle, eventually the conditioned response (hunger) would disappear.

      Is this another method of learning? Or is it the same method - the same mechanism - just in the other direction?

      If we remove conditioned stimuli from our schools, would students unlearn those conditioned responses?

    4. the whistle sound would eventually trigger the conditioned response.

      This makes it sound like it is an inevitable process. If we are aware of the conditioning, are we able to work against it somehow?

    5. The conditioned stimulus is a previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response.

      Is this a cue that can be interrupted with a new routine?

    6. Behaviorism assumes that all learning occurs through interactions with the environment and that environment shapes behavior.

      There is no self with behaviorism - all learning is due to the environment and the physical responses.

      Holland JG. Behaviorism: Part of the problem or part of the solution. J Appl Behav Anal. 1978;11(1):163-74. doi:10.1901/jaba.1978.11-163

    7. This learning process creates a conditioned response through associations between an unconditioned stimulus and a neutral stimulus.

      The key is learned association. Conditioning is obviously important, but what role does it have in the context for formal schooling?

      Wolpe J, Plaud JJ. Pavlov's contributions to behavior therapy. The obvious and not so obvious. Am Psychol. 1997;52(9):966-72.

  6. Jun 2018
    1. a teacher constructs an instructional program

      I think it is important that teachers retain the role of constructing an instructional program and utilize the strengths and interests of the children when doing so. As was pointed out above, children learn best when they are able to use their preconceptions and misconceptions to test out new information. It is up to the teacher to know what her students know and harness this knowledge as a foundation for new concepts.

    2. Teachers must come to teaching with the experience of in-depth study of the subject area themselves.

      YES! There is a lack of truly knowledgeable teachers, especially in the early years and elementary. I work directly with 2-6 year olds who ask tons of questions. The main science focus in this age group is focused on plants and life cycles. I have observed so many wasted moments in the classroom because a teacher didn't know the answer to "how does the water go up the roots?" or "why are leaves green?" Teachers with rich background knowledge are able to apply that to the question and development of the child and continue to build layers of knowledge that will be added to in years ahead.

    3. For the scientific understanding to replace the naïve understanding, students must reveal the latter and have the opportunity to see where it falls short.

      To do this, a school must value student-driven learning. Not many are willing to devote time to taking a child's idea, putting it to the test, and seeking additional information on the topic unless it is one that relates directly and specifically to the prescribed curriculum.

    4. A logical extension of the view that new knowledge must be constructed from existing knowledge is that teachers need to pay attention to the incomplete understandings, the false beliefs, and the naive renditions of concepts that learners bring with them to a given subject.

      This comes about through dialogue with the child one-on-one or in a small group setting which is hard to find in modern class settings and teacher/student ratios. Young children who are given the opportunity to explore a rich environment and ask spontaneous questions are developing habits which will encourage them to keep learning through the rest of life.

    5. rather, the goal of education is better conceived as helping students develop the intellectual tools and learning strategies needed to acquire the knowledge that allows people to think productively about history, science and technology, social phenomena, mathematics, and the arts.

      I agree with this, but I am interested to see if this is seen as a negative or positive as the book continues. Personally, I think that this shift was viewed as a negative, isolating people from each other and building a dependency on AI up until a few years ago. At the moment, I see this view shifting to one of collaboration. I recently watched our elementary students preparing for a reading competition. They had 8 books for the team of 4. Amongst themselves, they decided to each read all the books, but then each took 2 books to read multiple times and be the "expert" on. I think dividing knowledge among people is becoming more important and it is becoming more acceptable to have depth of knowledge rather than breadth.

    6. Developmental researchers have shown that young children understand a great deal about basic principles of biology and physical causality, about number, narrative, and personal intent, and that these capabilities make it possible to create innovative curricula that introduce important concepts for advanced reasoning at early ages.

      I have seen this first-hand with my preschoolers. It all starts when an adult takes the time to question a child about his/her thinking and understand what the child has observed or experienced that has influenced this thinking. I work in a bilingual Mandarin/English school and recently had quite a scientific conversation with a child who was telling me that the word for muscle and chicken are nearly the same in Chinese and that the chicken's muscles were the part we were eating for lunch.

  7. Jul 2016
    1. Engage adult new writers with online communities of writers, as contributors, readers, and peers, to foster their self-directed learning, self-study, and persistence.

      I know it was not brought up, but when I have my young students peer review, there is always some tension because people are embarrassed to let their peers read their work? For adult learners, i wonder if that anxiety goes away, or if it is heightened because they are adults and sometimes as adults we like to appear as if we know the correct answers most of the time (or at least this is something I do).

    2. discuss, but do not debate

      This is a great tool but I feel like it is not being modeled enough in society. How can we shift this back into our world before it completely goes by the wayside? Do you think social media has caused a decline in the art of "discussion"?

    3. Know your students

      A lot of these strategies can be interlaced with educating youth as well.

    4. Because adults learn by doing, effective instruction focuses on tasksthat adults can perform, rather than on memorization of content. Be-cause adults are problem-solvers and learn best when the subject is of immediate use, effective instruction involves the learner in solving real-life problems.

      When we conduct PDs, these are good points to know to make our teaching more effective

    5. Because adults need to know whythey are learning something, effective teachers explain their reasons for teaching specific skills

      This is also emphasized at the high school level at times. Students often ask, "Why are we doing this?" "Am I ever going to use this?" Maybe instead of viewing that as whining, maybe it as actually more of an "adult" way of questioning.

    6. Is motivated to learn byinternal, rather than ex-ternal, factors

      I'm not too sure that this is always true. A raise, a degree, or a career choice are technically external factors.

  8. Jun 2016
    1. There are many appealing strengths to the idea that learning should be organized around authentic problems and projects that are frequently encountered in nonschool settings: in John Dewey’s vision, “School should be less about preparation for life and more like life itself.”

      I agree and attempt to incorporate "real life" problems as often as I can into my classroom. The problem I often come across is the textbook's idea of a "real life" problem is often much different from what the students relate with. Still, it always helps to add context, especially in math where the question "where are we ever going to use this?" is asked on a daily basis.

    2. there is an infinite number of numbers between any two rational numbers

      This is a fact that can be really unsettling for students to hear, but is also very important for them to actually think about. It not only helps them understand fractions, but also the concept of infinity. Many students, even in high school just simply do not understand fractions, or are not willing to spend the time to complete problems with fractions.

    3. Gradually, students come to ask self-regulatory questions themselves as the teacher fades out. At the end of each of the problem-solving sessions, students and teacher alternate in characterizing major themes by analyzing what they did and why. The recapitulations highlight the generalizable features of the critical decisions and actions and focus on strategic levels rather than on the specific solutions

      This is challenging for me to get the hang of as a teacher. It is very easy for a class to do an activity, a then have the discussion get taken over by a only a few select students that were faster at catching on to the concepts. You really have to be careful as the teacher to make sure you allow for enough time so that all students are able to finish and form ideas about what they just learned. Then having a system to allow all groups to share something is very helpful.

    4. Tests of transfer that use graduated prompting provide more fine-grained analysis of learning and its effects on transfer than simple one-shot assessments of whether or not transfer occurs

      I like to use this type of graduated prompting when doing discovery based tasks. It allows me to give the appearance of giving students hints, when really I am just trying to get them to remember or realize what they already know.

    5. For example, a group of Orange County homemakers did very well at making supermarket best-buy calculations despite doing poorly on equivalent school-like paper-and-pencil mathematics problems (Lave, 1988). Similarly, some Brazilian street children could perform mathematics when making sales in the street but were unable to answer similar problems presented in a school contex

      This could come back to the idea that students perceive themselves as "bad at math" so in a school setting, they automatically shut down and don't actually think about the problems. But when they are presented outside of an educational context, they don't think about it as math, they just think about it as part of their job or social obligation.

    6. e.g., a person may be performance oriented in mathematics but learning oriented in science and social studies or vice versa).

      I come across this issue often in math classes. I have to be very careful when assigning tasks to students, because it is a very fine line between too easy and too challenging. Especially in math, it seems that there a lot of students who have just accepted that they are "bad at math" so they are quick to give up until someone explicitly shows them the answer and how to do it. This is a big issue that I try to fix with students on a daily basis.

    7. A number of studies converge on the conclusion that transfer is enhanced by helping students see potential transfer implications of what they are learning

      I also like to assign problems where students have to identify the error in another student's work. It seems to help students see common mistakes, and helps prevent them from making them in the future.

    8. Understanding when, where, and why to use new knowledge can be enhanced through the use of “contrasting cases,” a concept from the field of perceptual learning (see, e.g., Gagné and Gibson, 1947; Garner, 1974; Gibson and Gibson, 1955). Appropriately arranged contrasts can help people notice new features that previously escaped their attention and learn which features are relevant or irrelevant to a particular concept

      I like using this in situations where a short-cut may be able to be used for one math problem, but cannot be applied in a similar looking problem. I am always sure to draw attention to the two problems so that students can see the slight differences and why they affect the outcome of the problem.

    9. In the rote method, students were taught to drop a perpendicular and then apply the memorized solution formula.Transfer Both groups performed well on typical problems asking for the area of parallelograms; however, only the understanding group could transfer to novel problems, such as finding the area of the figures below.or distinguishing between solvable and unsolvable problems such asThe response of the “rote” group to novel problems was, “We haven’t had that yet.”

      This is good, and also is the reason I hate teaching my students formulas. I almost always show them and make them practice problems first by figuring out what is going on, rather than giving them a formula. The second I give them a formula, they start blindly plugging numbers in, and cannot complete seemingly simple problems that look slightly different.

    10. The concept of adaptive expertise (Hatano and Inagaki, 1986) provides an important model of successful learning. Adaptive experts are able to approach new situations flexibly and to learn throughout their lifetimes. They not only use what they have learned, they are metacognitive and continually question their current levels of expertise and attempt to move beyond them. They don’t simply attempt to do the same things more efficiently; they attempt to do things better. A major challenge for theories of learning is to understand how particular kinds of learning experiences develop adaptive expertise or “virtuosos.”

      I like this, I know, and try to make it clear to my students, that I am not a complete expert in my field. It is ok for even me to make mistakes, or to admit that I am unsure about something (as long as I eventually find them the answer). When students see this, I believe they become less self-conscious about making mistakes in front of their classmates. It also helps the more advanced students understand that even they still have a lot to learn.

    11. Sometimes, however, students can solve sets of practice problems but fail to conditionalize their knowledge because they know which chapter the problems came from and so automatically use this information to decide which concepts and formulas are relevant. Practice problems that are organized into very structured worksheets can also cause this proble

      My textbooks often do this, but I try to combat it as much as possible by either assigning problems in review sections that are already mixed up, or at least providing practice where problems are all mixed up before a large assessment. I could never understand why books would organize so many problem sets in ways that allowed students to work through them thoughtlessly.

    12. Experts usually mentioned the major principle(s) or law(s) that were applicable to the problem, together with a rationale for why those laws applied to the problem and how one could apply them (Chi et al., 1981). In contrast, competent beginners rarely referred to major principles and laws in physics; instead, they typically described which equations they would use and how those equations would be manipulated

      I often notice this in my classroom. I will teach a concept in a way similar to the expert, where I try to focus on the large concept so that students are able to apply that concept in other situations. However, often times when I hear students explaining what I taught to the other students around them, they will only focus on the single method used to solve that exact problem.

    13. Research shows that students who think that intelligence is a fixed entity are more likely to be performance oriented than learning oriented—they want to look good rather than risk making mistakes while learning. These students are especially likely to bail out when tasks become difficult

      These types of students are always the most challenging for me to teach. I firmly believe that the best way to learn is to try something out, get it wrong, then figure out for yourself why it is wrong and how to fix it. Students that are afraid to be wrong cannot learn in this way until their bad habits are broken.

    14. There is no universal best teaching practice.

      Could not agree more. I have been most successful when I have blended teaching strategies, or have switched strategies based on the goal of the lesson.

    15. This will require active coordination of the curriculum across school years.

      I completely agree that this would be the best environment for students to learn, but it has seemed to me very difficult to actually make it happen. Even within school districts there is often little communication between the elementary, middle, and high schools. And even within each level there is not always a natural flow from one classroom to the next. Having teachers keep classes of students for more than a semester or year at a time would help, but that is generally not the case, especially in core subject areas.

    16. Experts are also able to fluently access relevant knowledge because their understanding of subject matter allows them to quickly identify what is relevant. Hence, their attention is not overtaxed by complex events.

      This is an important skill. So many students seem to think that google can solve all of their problems, therefore they don't have to know/learn as much on their own. But the ability to sift through information and actually determine what is relevant and useful comes from your own understanding of the material.

    17. A common misconception regarding “constructivist” theories of knowing (that existing knowledge is used to build new knowledge) is that teachers should never tell students anything directly but, instead, should always allow them to construct knowledge for themselves.

      It seems to me that there always has to be some material where it is very difficult to draw on prior knowledge as it is completely new to students. On these types of lessons, teaching through discovery can lead to more frustration than good. I love to allow my students to discover concepts on their own, but it simply does not work for everything.

    18. In the most general sense, the contemporary view of learning is that people construct new knowledge and understandings based on what they already know and believe (e.g., Cobb, 1994; Piaget, 1952, 1973a,b, 1977, 1978; Vygotsky, 1962, 1978). A classic children’s book illustrates this point; see Box 1.2. A logical extension of the view that new knowledge must be constructed from existing knowledge is that teachers need to pay attention to the incomplete understandings, the false beliefs, and the naive renditions of concepts that learners bring with them to a given subject.

      Assessing students' prior knowledge is one of the most important tools for a teacher. Being able to relate a difficult concept to a simpler concept that students already understand allows students to come to a much deeper understanding of the content.

    19. At the same time, students often have limited opportunities to understand or make sense of topics because many curricula have emphasized memory rather than under- Page 9 Share Cite Suggested Citation: "1 Learning: From Speculation to Science." National Research Council. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2000. doi:10.17226/9853. × Save Cancel standing.

      I see this as a hard line to walk, especially being a math teacher, it is expected for students to memorize certain properties/equations, where as a teacher your focus has to be on getting the students to understand how and when to actually use the equation, and why it works in the first place.

    20. Fundamental understanding about subjects, including how to frame and ask meaningful questions about various subject areas, contributes to individuals’ more basic understanding of principles of learning that can assist them in becoming self-sustaining, lifelong learners.

      I agree, I can generally tell more about what a student knows by the questions they ask, compared to anything else. It is also important as teachers to ask meaningful questions to the students, and avoiding simple yes/no type questions.