375 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2019
  2. unix4lyfe.org unix4lyfe.org
    1. if you care at all about storing timestamps in MySQL, store them as integers and use the UNIX_TIMESTAMP() and FROM_UNIXTIME() functions.

      MySQL does not store offset

    2. The system clock is inaccurate. You're on a network? Every other system's clock is differently inaccurate.

      System clocks are inaccurate

    3. A time format without an offset is useless.

      Always use timezone offset

    4. If you want to store a humanly-readable time (e.g. logs), consider storing it along with Unix time, not instead of Unix time.

      Logs should be stored along with Unix time

    5. When storing a timestamp, store Unix time. It's a single number.

      Store Unix timestamps (single numbers)

    6. Most of your code shouldn't be dealing with timezones or local time, it should be passing Unix time around.

      Most of your code should use Unix time

    7. Unix time: Measured as the number of seconds since epoch (the beginning of 1970 in UTC). Unix time is not affected by time zones or daylight saving

      Unix time - # of seconds since 1970 in UTC

    8. GMT is still used: it's the British national timezone in winter. In summer it becomes BST.

      GMT and BST in Britain

    9. Australian Eastern Standard Time is UTC+1000. e.g. 10:00 UTC is 20:00 EST on the same day.

      Example of UTC offset

    10. GMT: UTC used to be called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) because the Prime Meridian was (arbitrarily) chosen to pass through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich.

      GMT - previous name of UTC

    11. UTC: The time at zero degrees longitude (the Prime Meridian) is called Coordinated Universal Time (UTC is a compromise between the French and English initialisms)

      UTC

    1. August 26th, 17—.

      It is now seven days since Walton's first letter to his sister (Vol. 1, Letter IV), although whether the year ought to be considered 1797 or 1799 is an ongoing debate. The date given in the Draft is August 13, before the date of Walton's last letter, so was revised here.

    1. Unlike similar tools that are scheduled to take backups at a fixed time of the day, Timeshift is designed to run once every hour and take snapshots only when a snapshot is due. This is more suitable for desktop users who keep their laptops and desktops switched on for few hours daily. Scheduling snapshots at a fixed time on such users will result in missed backups since the system may not be running when the snapshot is scheduled to run. By running once every hour and creating snapshots when due, Timeshift ensures that backups are not missed.
    2. If you need a tool to backup your documents and files please take a look at the excellent BackInTime application which is more configurable and provides options for saving user files.
    3. Timeshift is similar to applications like rsnapshot, BackInTime and TimeVault but with different goals.
  3. Nov 2019
    1. I started this project mainly to explore using a React Native app to build React Native apps. There is a lot missing... I had to abandon while it was in progress since I don't have as much free time any more.
    1. Pro-posals also include a block count at which point they gointo e ect; this e ectiveness date must be at least 1 weekin the future at time of proposal submission to give usersample time to review and vote on the proposal.
    1. This booklet itells you how to use the R statistical software to carry out some simple analyses that are common in analysing time series data.

      what is time series?

  4. Oct 2019
    1. The value of uninterrupted time to devote to development is hard to overstate, and if I continue I won’t have that. So I couldn’t expect to be nearly as productive, which makes the whole thing less attractive — I’m one of those people who derives a lot of enjoyment from making tangible progress.
    1. Each year the winner is crowned with great fanfare at Eastwood Shopping Centre, which is owned by Yuhu Group, the company founded by billionaire property developer and political donor Huang Xiangmo.

      A suggestive paragraph that may have had currency at the time you put together the story - but really, pretty much irrelevant.

      With all this unnecessary detail - it's no wonder you never got round to the teeny weeny task of counterbalancing the grand crusade of George Simon to put an end to to the event, with the fact that it failed. Spectacularly!

      And if you had just a bit more time, you probably would have been able to also include there was another similar attempt prior to his, from one of his factional colleagues, that was also punted by council.

    1. Currently, untenured librarians get 30 days ( 6 weeks) of research leave in an academic year for five years. Can someone explain how this will change in the new contract. I am so sorry to ask this question. It is very confusing to me. Thank you.

  5. Sep 2019
    1. Variation in Rates of Fatal Police Shootings across US States:the Role of Firearm Availability

      Hello! This article is about the relationship between firearm prevalence (the IV) and the rates of fatal police shootings (the DV). The authors hypothesize that the greater the prevalence of firearms, the grater the rates of fatal police shooting.

      This article follows the classical structure of social science research -- abstract, introduction, literature review/theory, research design, findings, and conclusions.

  6. Aug 2019
    1. We shall not cease from exploration, and the end of all our exploring will be to arrive where we started, and know the place for the first time
  7. Jul 2019
    1. at any time, in any place

      Huge thanks to Maha Bali for reminding me to make this point about annotation's capabilities to extend reading across time and space.

    1. It is not really a trifling effort, as those will discover who have yet to essay it. To “clear” even seven hours and a half from the jungle is passably difficult. For some sacrifice has to be made. One may have spent one’s time badly, but one did spend it; one did do something with it, however ill-advised that something may have been. To do something else means a change of habits. And habits are the very dickens to change! Further, any change, even a change for the better, is always accompanied by drawbacks and discomforts. If you imagine that you will be able to devote seven hours and a half a week to serious, continuous effort, and still live your old life, you are mistaken. I repeat that some sacrifice, and an immense deal of volition, will be necessary. And it is because I know the difficulty, it is because I know the almost disastrous effect of failure in such an enterprise, that I earnestly advise a very humble beginning. You must safeguard your self-respect. Self-respect is at the root of all purposefulness, and a failure in an enterprise deliberately planned deals a desperate wound at one’s self-respect. Hence I iterate and reiterate: Start quietly, unostentatiously.
    2. What I suggest is that at six o’clock you look facts in the face and admit that you are not tired (because you are not, you know), and that you arrange your evening so that it is not cut in the middle by a meal. By so doing you will have a clear expanse of at least three hours. I do not suggest that you should employ three hours every night of your life in using up your mental energy. But I do suggest that you might, for a commencement, employ an hour and a half every other evening in some important and consecutive cultivation of the mind. You will still be left with three evenings for friends, bridge, tennis, domestic scenes, odd reading, pipes, gardening, pottering, and prize competitions. You will still have the terrific wealth of forty-five hours between 2 p.m. Saturday and 10 a.m. Monday. If you persevere you will soon want to pass four evenings, and perhaps five, in some sustained endeavour to be genuinely alive. And you will fall out of that habit of muttering to yourself at 11.15 p.m., “Time to be thinking about going to bed.” The man who begins to go to bed forty minutes before he opens his bedroom door is bored; that is to say, he is not living.

      How to handle post work day

  8. Jun 2019
    1. MelNet: A Generative Model for Audio in the Frequency Domain

      本文的主要贡献如下:

      • 提出了 MelNet。一个语谱图的生成模型,它结合了细粒度的自回归模型和多尺度生成过程,能够同时捕获局部和全局的结构。

      • 展示了 MelNet 在长程依赖性上卓越的性能。

      • 展示了 MelNet 在多种音频生成任务上优秀的能力:无条件语音生成任务、音乐生成任务、文字转语音合成任务。而且在这些任务上,MelNet 都是端到端的实现。

  9. May 2019
    1. Не пытайся обменивать свое время на деньги. Меняй его на фан, профессиональный рост и самореализацию. Прямая конвертация труда в деньги обычно происходит по не самому выгодному курсу. Гораздо эффективнее вкладывать эти часы в обучение тому чего ты раньше делать не умел, и в будущем продавать уже эти умения по сильно большему ценнику.
  10. Apr 2019
    1. This article talks about the challenges of developing for VR and the extra work involved over creating traditional games. It looks at the main areas of difficulty that come with virtual reality development and then presents what solutions developers are coming up with to overcome those challenges. Some of the challenges are familiar to developers, such as trying to obtain a high frame rate, but have new angles that need to be considered such as wider viewing angles and lower latency. The article covers eight main technical challenges and then dives into the solutions that developers are applying to these challenges. The author wraps up the article by stating some of the concerns about virtual reality and that some may consider it just a novelty. Overall though, he feels as if virtual reality is a huge leap in technology and is one that developers should start working on it.

  11. Mar 2019
    1. is your company embracing just in time learning This article, by shift learning (a credible if not foremost publisher) lists benefits of just in time learning. Among those are the ability to provide up to date and easily accessed information. They argue that it creates more engaged employees but do not provide data to support this argument. rating 3/5

    1. just in time teaching This article provides practice strategies by which one can use just in time teaching. This was authored for use in higher education environments but can easily be used in other settings. It appears to have practical use. rating 5/5

    1. what is just in time learning: build an engagement engine This article helps professional developers strategize about the use of just in time learning. Some of the tips are unsurprising while others offer new ideas. It is a quick read and useful for ideas for professional developers. rating 5/5

    1. 10 awesome ways to use mobile learning for employee training This is an article about strategies and applications of mobile learning for employee development. A number of ideas are presented. I lack the knowledge base to evaluate the soundness, novelty, etc. of these ideas. There are screen shots and they are interesting enough but give only a limited idea of the concept being discussed. rating 3/5

    1. Using Just in Time Training for Active Learning in The Workplace

      This does not necessarily seem to be of top quality but it is the only item I have found so far that addresses just in time training specifically within healthcare. It does not do so in great depth. It does briefly address technology and mobile learning but not in a way that is tremendously insightful. rating 2/2

    1. Time Training (and the Best Practices

      What is just in time training This is an introductory and brief article that relates to just in time training. It describes the conditions needed to bring about adoption of this process. I am not in a position to evaluate the content but the ideas seem useful. rating 4/5

    1. This article explains just in time learning (such as that which can be done via devices) within the context of higher education. My interest is in public health education, but at this moment, I am not sure how much I can narrow in on that topic, so I will save this for now. This is obviously not a scholarly article but is of some interest nonetheless. rating 2/5

    1. This plain page incorporates an overview of job aids by Allison Rossett, who is the foremost authority on the topic. Not all information is given away for free as she wants to sell her books, which are also promoted on the page. This page can be a good way of tracking her current work. Rating 3/5

    1. In academia, an article that is 10 years old is considered dated.

      In academia - but Lasch is still considered relevant?

    2. The more recent the research is, the better—or at least, more relevant—it’s assumed to be.

      The more recent the better

    3. In a field such as technology, in which time does not march so much as it whizzes by, the freshness test is understandable.
    4. Society does not change overnight, but thinking it does lends a sense of drama to our everyday lives.

      Drama is more important that reality?

  12. Feb 2019
    1. she did not advocate extensive reading. She wanted her program to be within the reach of every woman-

      I'm thinking this is also a nod at the time women had/didn't have because of the various duties they had to fulfill. Also maybe a nod at the fact that women would probably not really have a space/place in which they could extensively read. Yes?

  13. Jan 2019
    1. nature—as opposed to cul-ture—is ahistorical and timeless?

      Doreen Massey has an interesting book that touches on this (Space, Place, and Gender), where she points out that time and space are treated as binaries, where time is typically masculine and dynamic and space is feminine and static. Nature (gendered feminine) is spatial, a place, and therefore not a time ("ahistorical and timeless"). Culture, on the other hand, is temporal, dynamic, masculine. It's a very particular rhetoric which begs the "which one?" question.

      (While Massey points out this common way of conceiving of time/space and binaries in general [A vs. Not A], she argues that the concept of space needs to be defined on its own merit, distinct from its binary opposite.)

    1. MAD-GAN: Multivariate Anomaly Detection for Time Series Data with Generative Adversarial Networks

      这 paper 挺神的,用 GAN 做时序数据异常检测。主要神在 G 和 D 都仅用 LSTM-RNN 来构造的!不仅因此值得我关注,更因为该模型可以为自己思考“非模板引力波探测”带来启发!

    1. Cross-cultural disaster research may also provide further insights regard­ing disaster phases.

      Evokes feminist, critical and post-colonial theory, as well as multi- and inter-disciplinary research methods/perspectives, e.g., anthropology, etc.

      These points of view may also provide insights on how disaster phases interact with wholly different notions of social time.

    2. As the field of collective behavior highlights, individuals in social settings have different perceptions of reality-social settings are not homogeneous (e.g., Turner and Killian I 987).' Thus, to tap further the mutually inclusive, multidimen­sional and social-time aspects of disaster phases, researchers should draw upon multiple publics and their definition of disaster phases.

      Neal suggests avoiding the disaster phase terminology when interviewing various stakeholders (emergency mgt, disaster-affected people, government agencies) in order to "draw upon various groups' language to describe phases" instead of the National Governors Assn phases.

    3. Consid� e�g the redefinition of disaster phases based on social time may help us WJtb the broader and more important struggle of defining disaster.

      What happened with this call to arms? Did Neal or others in the emergency management research community follow up?

      http://ijmed.org/articles/624/download/ <-- Neal's 2013 paper on "Social Time and Disaster"

    4. Consid� e�g the redefinition of disaster phases based on social time may help us WJtb the broader and more important struggle of defining disaster

      Neal wrote a more recent 2013 paper discussing the topic of social time and disaster.

      http://ijmed.org/articles/624/download/

    5. D!saster and hazard researchers have recognized the social time aspect of disasters. Dynes_ (1970) alludes to social time regarding the social consequences of a disaster. Dynes observes that social time: is important because the activities of every community vary over a period of time duri�� �e day, the week, the month, and the year. S�c� patterned acuv1nes have implications for potential damage within thecommurnty, for preventative activity within the commu­�ty, for the inventory of the meaning of the disaster, for the rmm�?1ate tasks necessary within the community, and for the mobilizanon of community effort. (Dynes 1970, p. 63)

      As early as 1970 (pre-Zerubavel, Adam, Nowotny, and Giddens), Dynes suggested that social time be taken into account for disaster response.

      ** Get this paper. What social time work did he cite?

    6. The Phases Should Reflect Social Rather Than Objective Time Giddens (I 987), although not the first, makes an important theoretical distinction between social and objective time. Giddens defines clock time as the use of quantified units. Clock time represents "day-to-day" structured activities. Typically, studies refer to disaster phases with hours, days, weeks, or years. Social time, however, is contingent upon the needs or opportunities of a society.

      Cites Giddens here to describe differences between social time (sturcturation) and clock time.

    7. Stoddard argues that the use of time-and-space models in disaster research

      Complete quote runs over 2 pages: "Stoddard argues that the use of time-and-space models in disaster research provides an important methodological disaster research tool. Most important, he contends that the different phases of disaster represent different types of individual and group behavior."

      Stoddard's definition offers a solid framework to begin the conversation about how and why it's important to understand the interaction between pluritemporal modes of time and humanitarian response (individual and group sensemaking and enactment).

    1. The fact that information produced by discretionary decision making cannotbe conveyed anonymously has important implications for CSCW systems design.Naturally, such information must be accompanied by the identity of the source.But how to represent and present the identity of the source?

      This dilemma also applies to the complexity of representing time in information systems.

    2. At the level of the objects themselves, shareabilitymay not be a problem, but in terms of their interpretation, the actors must attempt tojointly construct a common information space which goes beyond their individualpersonal information spaces. A nice example of how this is a problem has been givenby Savage (1987, p. 6): ‘each functional department has its own set of meaningsfor key terms. [...] Key terms such aspart, project, subassembly, toleranceareunderstood differently in different parts of the company.’

      This would be good to explore with SBTF in the interviews. Particularly, whether there are different meanings to time modes, time meta data, etc., applied by Core Team, Coordinators, GIS Team, experienced volunteers, new volunteers, etc.

      Is this part of the problem with articulating the information extracted from social media and entering it in the Google Sheet in order to become an artifact?

  14. Dec 2018
    1. Recording accurate and consistent time is often a challenge. Web log fi les record many different timestamps during a search interaction: the time the query was sent from the client, the time it was received by the server, the time results were returned from the server, and the time results were received on the client. Server data is more robust but includes unknown network latencies. In both cases the researcher needs to normalize times and synchronize times across multiple machines. It is common to divide the log data up into “days,” but what counts as a day? Is it all the data from midnight to midnight at some common time reference point or is it all the data from midnight to midnight in the user’s local time zone? Is it important to know if people behave differently in the morning than in the evening? Then local time is important. Is it important to know everything that is happening at a given time? Then all the records should be converted to a common time zone.

      Challenges of using time-based log data are similar to difficulties in the SBTF time study using Slack transcripts, social media, and Google Sheets

    2. Two common ways to partition log data are by time and by user. Partitioning by time is interesting because log data often contains signifi cant temporal features, such as periodicities (including consistent daily, weekly, and yearly patterns) and spikes in behavior during important events. It is often possible to get an up-to-the- minute picture of how people are behaving with a system from log data by compar-ing past and current behavior.

      Bookmarked for time reference.

      Mentions challenges of accounting for time zones in log data.

    1. The Indeterminacy of the Past: Multiple Times, Multiple Voices The third methodological theme concerns ihe f1asl as indetc,rr,1inate. 10 We are constantly revising our knowledge of the past in light of new developments in the present.

      Visibility can be obtained by peeling back the history of the infrastructure -- how it began, how it was added to, how it changed/adapted over time.

      Looking back in time also provides an opportunity to consider how different people/perspectives influenced the infrastructure. Who was vocal? Who was silent? Who was silenced?

    2. Classifications may or may not become standardized. If they do not, they are ad hoc, limited to an individual or a local community, and/or of Limited duration. At the same time, every successful standard imposes a classification system, al the very least between good and bad ways of organizing acLions or things. And the work-arounds involved in the practical use of standards frequently entail the use of ad hoc nonstandard categories.

      This is an important point for classifying and standardizing modes of time and temporal representations in information systems. What comes first? The class or the standard?

    1. Classifications may or may not become standardized. If they do not, they are ad hoc, limited to an individual or a local community, and/or of limited duration. At the same time, every successful standard imposes a classification system, at the very least between good and bad ways of organizing actions or things. And the work-arounds involved in the practical use of standards frequently entail the use of ad hoc nonstandard categories.

      This is an important point for classifying and standardizing modes of time and temporal representations in information systems. What comes first? The class or the standard?

    1. In particular, concurrency control problems arise when the software, data,and interface are distributed over several computers. Time delays when ex-changing potentially conflicting actions are especially worrisome. ... Ifconcurrency control is not established, people may invoke conflicting ac-tions. As a result, the group may become confused because displays are incon-sistent, and the groupware document corrupted due to events being handledout of order. (p. 207)

      This passage helps to explain the emphasis in CSCW papers on time/duration as a system design concern for workflow coordination (milliseconds between MTurk hits) versus time/representation considerations for system design

    2. eople prefer to know who else is present in a shared space, and they usethis awareness to guide their work

      Awareness, disclosure, and privacy concerns are key cognitive/perception needs to integrate into technologies. Social media and CMCs struggle with this knife edge a lot.

      It's also seems to be a big factor in SBTF social coordination that leads to over-compensating and pluritemporal loading of interactions between volunteers.

    1. Deep Neural Networks for Automatic Classification of Anesthetic-Induced Unconsciousness

      spatio-temporo-spectral features.

    2. Using Convolutional Neural Networks to Classify Audio Signal in Noisy Sound Scenes

      先辨别信号位置,再过滤出信号,这和 LIGO 找event波形的套路很像~ ;又看到 RNN与CNN 结合起来的应用~

    3. Sound Event Detection Using Spatial Features and Convolutional Recurrent Neural Network.

      输入数据是多通道音频信号,网络是结合了CNN 和 LSTM。

    1. nail-adorned jewels she gave to the heroes:

      She is well-respected within the mead hall and in return respects the men of the hall

    2. ’Mid hall-building holders. The highly-famed queen, 55 Peace-tie of peoples, oft passed through the building, Cheered the young troopers; she oft tendered a hero A beautiful ring-band, ere she went to her sitting

      Wealhtheow portrays the role of a traditional Anglo-Saxon woman at the time. Wealhtheow is first introduced to the audience, she immediately falls into her role as peaceful greeter and cocktail waitress. The author then reinforces that she is a member of the weaker gender by directing Wealhtheow to her proper position behind the king. When the queen is not serving drinks or greeting the hall guests, she may usually be found obediently following Hrothgar throughout the mead hall and "waiting for hope-news".

    1. This may be a personal itch, but at least for personal archiving needs, I’m sick, sick, sick of the recency bias that’s eaten the internet since the first stirrings of Web 2.0. Wikis are practically the only sites that have escaped chronological organization. It would be cool to have easily-manipulated collections with non-kludgey support for series ordering, order-by-popularity, order-by-popularity with a manual bump for posts you want to highlight, hell even alphabetical ordering. None of these things are remotely unsolved problems, but they’re poorly supported on the social-media silos most people’s content lives on these days.
  15. Nov 2018
    1. Multilevel Wavelet Decomposition Network for Interpretable Time Series Analysis

      初步扫了一眼,感觉这篇文章应该可以给我一些 idea,内含我感兴趣(看得懂)的方法/机制,另外综述的参考文献对我来时也应该很有帮助。

      本文是北京航空航天大学发表于KDD 2018的文章,作者提出了将小波变换和深度神经网络进行完美结合,克服了融合的损失,对时间序列数据的分析起到了很好的启发性研究。

      Summary

    2. Foundations of Sequence-to-Sequence Modeling for Time Series

      利用序列到序列模型来做时序数据预测的理论研究 paper~

    3. Interpretable Convolutional Filters with SincNet

      一篇值得我高度关注的 paper,来自 AI 三巨头之一 Yoshua Bengio!其背后的核心是将数字信号处理DSP中卷积的激励函数(滤波器)进行了重新设计,不仅会保留了卷积的特性(线性性+时间平移不变性)还在滤波器上添加待学习参数来学习合适的高低频截断位置。

    4. A Deep Neural Network for Unsupervised Anomaly Detection and Diagnosis in Multivariate Time Series Data

      虽然数据特点为多变量时序信号+噪声少还频率低,不过作者提出的 Multi-Scale Convolutional Recurrent Encoder-Decoder (MSCRED) 网络很有趣,可见基于注意力机制的 ConvLSTM 在模式识别上是大为有用的!

      此外paper里的数学表述和实验讨论也很值得参考学习,算是非常标准的基于新model的 paper 样板~

    5. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks On Multichannel Time Series For Human Activity Recognition.

      这个文章的研究对象是 HAR 问题。不过这里的多通道时序信号是排成 长 x 宽维度,模拟图片数据来解决的,并不是图像的多通道。不过最后的效果貌似很不错,远胜过 SVM,KNN,MV,以及 DBN(深度置信网络)。

      文章对网络结构的英文描述还是值得借鉴的~

    6. Towards a universal neural network encoder for time series

      数据任务是“时序序列的分类”,这是我感兴趣的问题。Universal 代表不需要额外设置和训练,从某数据集训练后,就可以拿到另一个新训练集类型去搞事情~ 另一个特点是用了 encoder 得到了低维不变的表示。

    7. Time Series Classification Using Multi-Channels Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

      这是一个三通道并列输入的时序信号模型。效果貌似不错,还针对不同模型算法的预测时间在不同训练规模数据上的模型表现做了对比,

      另外文章的模型图示也很有启发性。

    8. Stochastic Adaptive Neural Architecture Search for Keyword Spotting

      一篇讲 identifying keywords in a real-time audio stream 的 paper。这和引力波探测中的数据处理很接近哦~!此文提出 end-end 的“随机自适应神经构架搜寻” (SANAS) 实现高效准确的训练效果。这显然对 real-time 特点的类型数据应用带来启发。FYI:人家源码还开放了。。。

    9. WaveGlow: A Flow-based Generative Network for Speech Synthesis

      一篇来自 NVIDIA 的小文。提出的实时生成网络 WaveGlow 结合了 Glow 和 WaveNet 的特点,实现了更快速高效准确的语音合成。

    10. Deep learning for time series classification: a review

      这个文与我的课题貌似相当相关!

      准备好好写一个 Paper Summary 为好~

    11. Deep Learning for Time-Series Analysis

      一个比较简洁的关于时序序列的 DL 应用的综述文章。

      其中也有谈论时序序列的分类问题。

    12. Whispered-to-voiced Alaryngeal Speech Conversion with Generative Adversarial Networks

      这是一篇用 GAN 来做 Voiced Speech Restoration 的,并且使用了作者自己提出的 speech enhancement using GANs (SEGAN) 。

      于我而言,亮点有二:

      1. 数据是时序语音
      2. 利用 GAN 对语音的增强效果似乎对降噪有些启发
      3. 网络结构图画的蛮好看的:

    13. Model Selection Techniques -- An Overview

      一篇关于模型选择的综述文章。涉及信号处理,图像处理等等多方面数据信息的处理。发表在信号处理的期刊杂志上。

      文中关于模型选择的大概念方向,和数学表示,是值得好好阅读的。

    14. End-to-end music source separation: is it possible in the waveform domain?

      讨论的是 Music source separation 问题。

      作者认为前人基于spectrogram的输入数据都忽略了相位信息,所以提出了直接waveform-based的模型得到了明显更好的效果。

    15. Unifying Probabilistic Models for Time-Frequency Analysis

      文章涉及好些自己还没搞懂的概念和方法:

      • 时频分析
      • Gaussian processes
      • ...

      文中的 review 给的是很不错的~

    1. Early Attrition among First Time eLearners: A Review of Factors that Contribute to Drop-out, Withdrawal and Non-completion Rates of Adult Learners undertaking eLearning Programmes

      NEW - This study researches dropout rates in eLearning. There are many reasons for attrition with adult eLearners which can be complex and entwined. The researched provide different models to test and also a list of barriers to eLearning - where technology issues ranked first. In conclusion, the authors determined that further research was necessary to continue to identify the factors that contribute to adult learner attrition.

      RATING: 7/10

    1. SurveyMonkey

      SurveyMonkey is a FREE survey platform that allows for the collection of responses from targeted individuals that can be easily collected and used to create reports and quantify results. SurveyMonkey can be delivered via email, mobile, chat, web and social media. The platform is easy to use and can be used as an add on for large CRMs such as Salesforce. There are over 100 templates and the ability to develop customized templates to suit your needs. www.surveymonkey.com

      RATING: 5/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

  16. Oct 2018
    1. iving in the Past, Present, andFuture: Measuring TemporalOrientation With Language

      Messages were rated on their temporal distance from the present, with 0 representing current moments, negative values representing the past and positive values denoting the future. • Extraversion positively associated with future & negatively with the past • Openness negatively with the past • Conscientiousness negatively with the present, pos with others • Agreeableness negatively with the present, pos w future • Life satisfaction present neg future pos • Neuroticism none • Depression present pos, future neg

    1. The HTTP-based Memento framework bridges the present and past Web. It facilitates obtaining representations of prior states of a given resource by introducing datetime negotiation and TimeMaps. Datetime negotiation is a variation on content negotiation that leverages the given resource's URI and a user agent's preferred datetime. TimeMaps are lists that enumerate URIs of resources that encapsulate prior states of the given resource. The framework also facilitates recognizing a resource that encapsulates a frozen prior state of another resource.
  17. Aug 2018
    1. The notion of temporal structuring views "real time" not as an inherent property of Internet­based activities, or an inevitable consequence of technol­ogy use, but as an enacted temporal structure, reflecting the decisions people have made about how they wish to structure their activities, both on or off the Internet. As an alternative to the idea of '·real time," Bennett and Wei II ( 1997) have suggested the notion of "real-enough time," proposing that people design their process and technology infrastructures to accommodate variable timing demands, which are contingent on task and context. We believe such "real-enough" temporal structures are important ar­eas of further empirical investigation, allowing us to move beyond the fixation on a singular, objective "real time" to recognize the opportunities people have to (re)shape the range of temporal structures that shape their lives.

      real time vs real-enough time

    2. The notion of temporal structuring focuses attention on what people actually do temporally in their practices, and how in such ongoing and situated activity they shape and are shaped by particular temporal structures. By exam­ining when people do what they do in their practices, we can identify what temporal structures shape and are shaped (often concurrently) by members of a community; how these interact; whether they are interrelated, over­lapping, and nested, or separate and distinct; and the ex­tent to which they are compatible, complementary, or contradictory.

      Different interaction patterns of temporal structures that are shaped by people and shape people's activities.

    3. Viewed from a practice perspective, the distinction be­tween cyclic and linear time blurs because it depends on the observer's point of view and moment of observation. In particular cases, simply shifting the observer's vantage point (e.g., from the corporate suite to the factory floor) or changing the period of observation (e.g., from a week to a year) may make either the cyclic or the linear aspect of ongoing practices more salient.

      Could it be that SBTF volunteers are situating themselves in time as a way to respond to a cyclic/linear tension? or a spatial tension?

    4. An emphasis on the cyclic temporality of organizational life also underpins the work on entrain­ment, developed in the natural sciences and gaining cur­rency in organization studies. Defined as "the adjustment of the pace or cycle of one activity to match or synchro­nize with that of another" (Ancona and Chong 1996, p. 251 ), entrainment has been used to account for a variety of organizational phenomena displaying coordinated or synchronized temporal cycles (Ancona and Chong 1996, Clark 1990, Gersick 1994, McGrath 1990).

      Entrainment definition.

    5. In spite of the general movement from particular to­wards universal notions of time (Castells 1996, Giddens 1990, Zerubavel 1981 ), we can see that in use, all uni versa! temporal structures must be particularized to local contexts because they are enacted through the situated practices of specific community members in specific locations and time zones.

      Cites Castells (networks), Giddens (structuration) and Zerubavel (semiotics) as moving away from particular time to more universal notions of real-time, 24-hour clock, and calendars, respectively.

      Orlikowski and Yates argue that even universal notions need situated and contextual practices to make sense of time.

    6. One such op­position is that between universal (global, standardized, acontextual) and particular (local, situated, context­specific) time.

      Orlikowski and Yates describe situated, contextual time as particular.

    7. Table 1 Different Perspectives on Time in Organizations

      Objective vs Subjective vs Practice-based perspectives in time

    8. Event time, in contrast, is conceived as "qualitative time-heterogeneous, discontinuous, and unequivalent when different time periods are compared" (Starkey

      Event time definition -- as qualitative.

      How does this help describe friction of SBTF social coordination attempting to handle mechanical clocktime (timestamps, urgency, timelines, etc.) and dynamic event time (disaster unfolds, rhythms, horizons, etc.)

    1. The haunting question is how do I fit into the story.

      Need to read the football club paper to understand this context but is it referring to situating oneself in the story?

      Read the Nâslund and Pemer paper to see how they are using the term "semantic fit".

    2. Maclean et al. also demonstrate clearly how sensemaking can be defined by its stages. The movement through time of different forms of interpretive work is captured in their phrase ‘language that constructs and gives order to reality, which it (temporarily) sta-bilizes’ (p. 20). They suggest that this movement consists of locating, meaning-making, and becoming.

      Maclean et al's definition of sensemaking

      The idea of temporal stages and spatial movement that includes locating could also be a way to describe the situating behavior.

      So far, this is the only definition that seems to include a temporal-spatial component

    3. Later in their article, Cunliffe and Coupland effectively summarize sensemaking as embodied efforts to figure out what to do and who we are. That is a tidy framework for interpreting the life stories of elite bankers since they are essentially figuring out what they did and who they were, with heavy editing, to point up the legitimacy of the what and who that are retrieved.

      Another Cunliffe and Coupland definition of sensemaking

      Could "embodied efforts to figure out what to do and who we are" touch on what I'm calling situated time? Need to read the paper to see how they refer to the term embodied.

    4. Gephart et al. define sensemaking as ‘an ongoing process that creates an intersubjective sense of shared meanings through conversation and non-verbal behavior in face to face settings where people seek to/produce, negotiate, and maintain a shared sense of meaning’ (2010: 284–285).

      Gephart's definition of sensemaking

      Could "shared meaning" be driving the need for SBTF volunteers to situate themselves in time in order to co-construct a story?

    5. Cunliffe and Coupland treat sensemaking as ‘collaborative activity used to create, legitimate and sustain organiza-tional practices or leadership roles’ (p. 65). If we add the phrase ‘and individual’ to the word ‘collaborative’ in that definition then we have a rendition of sensemaking that works for the Maclean et al. article, right down to the focus on legitimacy and leadership.

      Cunliffe and Coupland's definition of sensemaking

      This seems less relevant to the SBTF volunteers' situating behavior.

    6. Whittle and Mueller also anticipate and inform the nature of reconstructing a life story when they depict sensemaking as ‘a broader term [than stories] that refers to the process through which people interpret themselves and the world around them through the pro-duction of meaning’ (p. 114). It is their focus on ‘meaning’ and their inclusion of both the person and ‘the world around them’ that fits Maclean

      Whittle and Mueller's definition of sensemaking

      Could "process through which people interpret themselves and the world around them through the production of meaning" be driving the need for SBTF volunteers to situate themselves in time in order to co-construct a story?

    1. Second, howtime is variously used in past constructions that givesense to what has occurred, in for example, nostal-gic tales that seek to sustain identity-relevant valuesand beliefs, or using time to leverage reformulationsin repositioning these tales, for example, with theaim of undermining nostalgia as a platform for resis-tance (see Brown and Humphreys 2002; Strangleman1999).

      Future research direction: Importance of reflexivity // Effects of Time Perspectives on sensemaking

      See: Zimbardo & Boyd's Time Perspectives

    2. As Bojeet al. (2016a, p. 395)indicate, through situating antenarratives in subjec-tive time, they are able to show ‘how diverse voicesinterconnect, embed and entangle in organizationalstrategies’.

      Need to unpack this a bit. Is this how to scaffold the SBTF situated time instances into a sensemaking process?

      Subjective time (per the philosopher's term) is referred to as socially-constructed time (by the sociologists).

      In Brunelle (2017):

      *"temporal construals

      The way organizational members interpret or situate themselves in time and embrace time-related concepts such as of time scarcity, urgency, orientation. ‘temporal construals inform and are informed by intersubjective, subjective and objective times.’ (R. A. Roe et al., 2009)"*

    1. Theway organizational membersinterpret or situate themselves in time and embrace time-related concepts such as of time scarcity, urgency, orientation. ‘temporal construals inform and are informed by intersubjective, subjective and objective times.’ (R. A. Roe et al., 2009

      Get Roe's paper. This helps to bridge the ideas of "situated time" and "subjective time" -- or socially constructed ways of experiencing, thinking about and perceiving time.

      See: Dawson and Sykes 2018 See: Pöppel 1978 - https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-46354-9_23

    1. There is also a need for mechanisms to support transformations and processesover time, both for scientific data and scientific ideas. These mechanisms should not only help the user visualize but also express time and change.

      This is still true today. Is the problem truly a technical one or an opportunity to re-imagine the human process of representing time as an attribute and time as a function of evolving data?

    2. Time as order considers temporal data as data that can be described by a time attribute, which can improve navigation or organization. Time as change considers temporal data as data that evolve over time.

      The contrast of time as representing either order or change could be a very helpful way to categorize messy, dynamic humanitarian crisis data.

      We need ways to capture data as an event timeline (X happened, then Y which demands response Z) as well acknowledge that X and Y may be in flux in an evolving crisis zone.

    3. Temporal Data and Data Temporality: Time is change, not only ord

      Synthesis:

    1. These same requirements exist in distributed computing, in which tasks need to be scheduled so that they can be completed in the correct sequence and in a timely manner, with data being transferred between computing elements appropriately.

      time factors in crowd work include speed, scheduling, and sequencing

    1. Nature has been incorporated into social theorizing only in as far as it either has become an object to which meaning is attributed and which hence figures as part of human reflexivity, as object met with emotions or attitudes; or, it is seen as an object of transformation by those forces which act upon it: economic forces, but foremost forces emanating from science and technology. The natural environment, including the biosphere and a multitude of environmental risks which have come to the fore today, negate clear-cut boundaries between the effects of human intervention, and hence agency, and synergistic processes which are 'natural' but still a result of human interaction with the environment. Time, it has been emphasized, is not only embedded in symbolic meaning or intersubjective social relations but also in artifacts, in natural and in culturally made ones. Likewise, the ongoing transformation and endangering of the natural environment is performed by processes which are chemical and atmospheric, biological and physical. But they all interact with social processes tied to energy production and use, modes of food production and land utilization, demographic pressures and possible interferences through use of tech-nology.

      Nowotny seems to share Adam's concern about extracting nature and natural time from social constructions of time.

      Perhaps this is a good place to embed the study's disaster event temporality as a way to further make sense of DHN social coordination and actions/reactions of disaster-affected people?

    2. Social identities have increasing difficulty in being construed in terms of stable social attributes in a highly mobile -both socially and geographically - society. They will have to rely on other, temporal dimensions, in what are becoming increasingly precari-ous, if not completely contingent, identities in constant need of redefi-nition. One's 'own', proper time situated in a momentous present which is extended on the societal level in order to accommodate the pressing overload of problems, choices and strategies, becomes a central value for the individual as well as a characteristic of the societal system (Nowotny, 1989a)

      I'm curious how this idea of mobility creates a precarious, contingent identity which forces people to use other temporal dimensions to situate themselves.

      This could be an interesting way to approach the situated time phenomena I'm seeing in the SBTF study.

    3. Major societal transformations are linked to information and communication technologies, giving rise to processes of growing global interdependence. They in turn generate the approxi-mation of coevalness, the illusion of simultaneity by being able to link instantly people and places around the globe. Many other processes are also accelerated. Speed and mobility are thus gaining in momentum, leading in turn to further speeding up processes that interlink the move-ment of people, information, ideas and goods.

      Evokes Virilio theories and social/political critiques on speed/compression, as cited by Adam (2004).

      Also Hassan's work, also cited by Adam (2004).

    4. ut it will also have to come to terms with confronting 'the Other' (Fabian, 1983), with 'the curious asymmetry' still prevailing as a result of advanced industrial societies receiving a mainly endogenous and synchronic analytic treatment, while 'developing' societies are often seen in exogenous, diachronic terms. Study of 'Time and the Other' presupposes, often implicitly, that the Other lives in another time, or at least on a different time-scale. And indeed, when looking at the integrative but also potentially divisive 'timing' facilitated by modern communication and information-processing technology, is it not correct to say that new divisions, on a temporal scale, are being created between those who have access to such devices and those who do not? Is not one part of humanity, despite globalization, in danger of being left behind, in a somewhat anachronistic age?

      Nowotny argues that "the Other" (non-western, developing countries, Global South -- my words, not hers) is presumed to be on a different time scale than industrial societies. Different "cultural variations and how societal experience shapes the construction of time and temporal reference..."

      This has implications for ICT devices.

    5. only structural functional theory, but all postfunctionalist 'successor' theories for their lack in taking up 'substantive' temporal issues, he was also pleading from the selective point of view of Third World countries for the exploration of theoretically possible alternatives or, to put it into other words, the delineation of what in the experience of western and non-western societies so far is universally valid and yet historically restric-ted. Such questions touch the very essence of the process of moderniz-ation. They evoke images of a closed past and an open or no longer so open future, of structures of collective memory as well as shifting collec-tive and individual identities of people who are increasingly drawn into the processes of world-wide integration and globalization. Anthropologi-cal accounts are extremely rich in different time reckoning modes and systems, in the pluritemporalism that prevailed in pre-industrialized societies. The theory of historical time - or times - both from a western and non-western point of view still has to be written. There exists already an impressive corpus of writings analysing the rise of the new dominant 'western' concept of time and especially its links with the process of industrialization. The temporal representations underlying the different disciplines in the social sciences allow not only for a reconceptualization of their division of intellectual labour, but also for a programmatic view forward towards a 'science of multiple times' (Grossin, 1989). However, any such endeavour has to come to terms also with non-western temporal experience.

      Evokes Adam's critique of colonialization of time, commodification/post-industrial views, and need for post-colonial temporal studies.

    6. Time' and time research is not ·an institutionalized subfield or subspeciality of any of the social sciences. By its very nature, it is recalcitrantly transdisciplinary and refuses to be placed under the intellectual monopoly of any discipline. Nor is time sufficiently recognized as forming an integral dimension of any of the more permanent structural domains of social life which have led to their institutionalization as research fields. Although research grants can be obtained for 'temporal topics', they are much more likely to be judged as relevant when they are presented as part of an established research field, such as studies of working time being considered a legit-imate part of studies of working life or industrial relations.

      Challenges of studying time and avoiding the false claim that is a neglected subject.

    7. The standardization of local times into standard world time is one of the prime examples for the push towards standardization and integration also on the temporal scale (Zerubavel, 1982).

      Get this paper.

      Zerubavel, E. (1982) 'The Standardization of Time: A Sociohistorical Perspective', American Journal of Sociology 1: 1-12.

    8. At present, information and communication technologies con-tinue to reshape temporal experience and collective time consciousness (Nowotny, 1989b)

      Get this paper.

      Nowotny, H. (1989b) 'Mind, Technologies, and Collective Time Consciousness', in J. T. Fraser (ed.) Time and Mind, The Study of Time VI, pp. 197-216. Madison, CT: International Universities Press.

    9. Despite the apparent diversity of themes, certain common patterns can be discerned in empirical studies dealing with time. They bear the imprint of the ups and downs of research fashions as well as the waxing and waning of influences from neighbouring disciplines. But they all acknowledge 'time as a problem' in 'time-compact' societies (Lenntorp, 1978), imbued with the pressures of time that come from time being a scarce resource.

      Overview of interdisciplinary, empirical time/temporality studies from late 70s to 80s. (contemporary to this book)

      Cites Carey "The Case of the Telegraph" -- "impact of the telegraph on the standardization of time"

      Cites Bluedorn -- "it is omnipresent indecision-making, deadlines andother aspects of organizational behaviour like various forms of group processes"

    10. Studies of time in organizations have long since recognized the importance of 'events' as a complex admixture which shapes social life inside an organiz-ation and its relationship to the outside world. 'Sociological analyses', we are told, 'require a theory of time which recognizes that time is a socially constructed, organizing device by which one set, or trajectory of events is used as a point of reference for understanding, anticipating and attempting to control other sets of events. Time is in the events and events are defined by organizational members' (Clark, 1985:36).

      Review how this idea about events in organizations as a way to study time is used by Bluedorn, Mazmanian, Orlikowski, and/or Lindley.

    11. The tension between action theory (or the theory of structuration) and sys-tems theory has not completely vanished, but at least the areas of dis-agreement have become clearer. The 'event' structure of time with its implicit legitimization through physics, but which is equally a central notion for historians (Grossin, 1989) holds a certain attraction for empiri-cal studies and for those who are interested in the definitional

      Nowotny revisits Elias' idea about the relationship between time and events as a framework that is multidisciplinary, complex, integral to sensemaking, and appeals to empirical research.