790 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Nettaviser måtte skru av kommentarfeltene. Det er et enormt informasjonsbehov, mange må gi uttrykk for fortvilelse og sinne. Men den kollektive gapestokken er nådeløs. Se for deg å bli navngitt på nettet, anklaget for å være en massedrapsmann.

      Høyt informasjonsbehov sier mye om tilliten generelt i samfunnet idag

  2. Oct 2021
  3. Sep 2021
    1. Ces informations doivent être complétées par une note d’information adressée aux familles par voie postale ou par le biais du carnet de correspondance.
    2. Il importe de leur donner une information la plus complète et la plus claire possible quant à l’organisation des élections des représentants de parents d’élèves
  4. www.library.upenn.edu www.library.upenn.edu
    1. How have chance survivals shaped literary and linguistic canons? How might the topography of the field appear differently had certain prized unica not survived? What are the ways in which authors, compilers, scribes, and scholars have dealt with lacunary exemplaria? How do longstanding and emergent methodologies and disciplines—analysis of catalogs of dispersed libraries, reverse engineering of ur-texts and lost prototypes, digital reconstructions of codices dispersi, digital humanities. and cultural heritage preservation, and trauma studies to name a few,—serve to reveal the extent of disappearance? How can ideologically-driven biblioclasm or the destruction wrought by armed conflicts -- sometimes occurring within living memory -- be assessed objectively yet serve as the basis for protection of cultural heritage in the present? In all cases, losses are not solely material: they can be psychological, social, digital, linguistic, spiritual, professional. Is mournful resignation the only response to these gaps, or can such sentiments be harnessed to further knowledge, understanding, and preservation moving forward?
    1. tea

      I love this picture because although it is simple it highlights what Orwell is missing in that tea is meant to be enjoyed, and the method by which it is enjoyed is irrelevant. Well done!

    2. Orwell in this instance is a rather large narcissist

      I think narcissist is the perfect description of Orwell's tone in this text, as he clearly acts as if his method of tea drinking is superior, despite there being other valid methods that could improve taste or realizing that it is all personal preference. There is more than one way to make tea and if he wants people to accept his methods then he has to accept the validity of their's

    1. We may disagree on a lot of things, but the author opened up my mind by showing me there is another way to drink tea.

      I respect your ability to view both your's and the author's perspectives as equals and notice that although you have differing opinions, you both have valid points in that you may be making the taste better but also destroying it's natural flavor

    1. We need more SCOSS-like experimentation. We need initiatives with short iterations of conceptualization and execution, a sort of trial-and-error mentality as we navigate this complex issue. We need research organisations and libraries to create budget lines for open infrastructures. We need funders to start supporting the maintenance of open infrastructures like the eLife Innovation Initiative or the Chan Zuckerberg Foundation.

    1. Knowledge Futures Group is a 501c3 nonprofit building open source technology and collaborating with communities of practice to design and build the public digital infrastructure needed for effective, equitable, and sustainable knowledge futures.
    1. “With whistling, it was more like, let’s see what people did naturally to simplify the signal. What did they keep?” she says.
    2. In practice, almost every whistled tonal language chooses to use pitch to encode the tones.

      Why is pitch encoding of tones more prevalent in tonal languages? What is the efficiency and outcome of the speech and the information that can be encoded?

    3. Whistlers of tonal languages thus face a dilemma: Should they whistle the tones, or the vowels and consonants? “In whistling, you can produce only one of the two. They have to choose,” says Meyer.

      Non-tonal speech is easy to transfer into whistling language, but tonal languages have to choose between whistling the tones or the vowels and consonants as one can only produce one of the two with whistling.

      What effect does this tell us about the information content and density of languages, particularly tonal languages and whistling?

    1. what counts as authoritative varies by audience and is layered with historical understanding of truth and trust

      Authority is constructed and contextual.

    1. It would be harder to find better evidence of the maxim that “the medium affects consciousness”.

      I wish I had something cheeky to say. Just testing the tags.

  5. Aug 2021
    1. What the Internet has done to date is expand the potentiality formore widespread, instantaneous awareness of activity and consequences on aglobal scale. This means that verifiability need not be personal—so long asreliable information can be retrieved from information systems. But havingretrieved the information or having it instantaneously available does not meanthat we have the capacity to act upon it.
    2. While it is clear that technologies of communication change societiesand permit different forms of human organization, it is not clear that theychange the basic human thought processes embedded in language. The humanbrain does adapt differently to different technologies (recall the differences inbrain wiring between readers of ideograms and of phonetic alphabets), butthe evidence to date indicates the human brain adapts in order to translateinformation into language, so as to exchange information and permit concertedaction with others with whom we communicate. This concerted action is nolonger, as at the dawn of language, action undertaken by people in close contactbut rather is activity undertaken because of reliance upon expectations storedin individual and social memory.
    1. Normally, thousands of rabbits and guinea pigs are used andkilled, in scientific laboratories, for experiments which yieldgreat and tangible benefits to humanity. This war butcheredmillions of people and ruined the health and lives of tens ofmillions. Is this climax of the pre-war civilization to be passedunnoticed, except for the poetry and the manuring of the battlefields, that the“poppies blow”stronger and better fed? Or is thedeath of ten men on the battle field to be of as much worth inknowledge gained as is the life of one rabbit killed for experi-ment? Is the great sacrifice worth analysing? There can be onlyone answer—yes. But, if truth be desired, the analysis must bescientific.

      Idea: Neural net parameter analysis but with society as the 'neural net' and the 'training examples' things like industrial accidents, etc. How many 'training examples' does it take to 'learn' a lesson, and what can we infer about the rate of learning from these statistics?

    1. Some words, like "the" or "a" are pretty unsurprising; in fact they are redundant since you could probably understand the message without them. The real essence of the message lies in words that aren't as common, such as "alien" or "invasion".

      why does natural language has redundancy?

    2. If your string of symbols constitutes a passage of English text, then you could just count the number of words it contains. But this is silly: it would give the sentence "The Sun will rise tomorrow" the same information value as he sentence "The world will end tomorrow" when the second is clearly much more significant than the first. Whether or not we find a message informative depends on whether it's news to us and what this news means to us.

      importantly, information depends on the prior knowledge of the receiver. If we have no idea about the relative frequency of sun rise and world ending, then the two sentences has the same amount of information to the receiver.

    3. To treat them all on equal terms, Shannon decided to forget about exactly how each of these methods transmits a message and simply thought of them as ways of producing strings of symbols

      ultimately it boils down to the transmission of a series of encoded message, whether in the form of spoken language, drums, smoke, or Morse code

    1. There is, however, a major flaw: Hartley's measure gives the same value to every symbol. You could well imagine situations, though, in which one symbol carries a lot more significance than another

      Hartley apparently assumes people have no prior knowledge about the symbols & frequency

    2. Hartley thought, the information content should grow in direct proportion to the length of the string. If every symbol has an information content of, say, , then a string of ten symbols should have an information content of And a string of symbols should have an information content of Writing for the information of the string of length , we need  

      first rule: information content should be proportional to the length of the string

    3. Since we have decided that information content hinges on that total number, our measure of information should allocate the same value to two strings produced on the two different machines

      second rule: the use of alphabetic system shouldn't affect the information content

    4. Hartley realised that, as a measure of information, the quantity has a fatal flaw. If we apply it to our coin example, we see that a string of length has information content while a string of length has information content So adding an extra symbol to the string has added amount of information. This means that adding an extra symbol to a string of length adds only amount if information, while adding an extra symbol to a string of length adds amount of information — the information added grows exponentially with the length of the string. But that’s weird: why should an extra symbol carry much more weight when it is added to a long string than when it is added to a short string?

      typo: "if information" should be "of information"; also good point

    5. When there is only one flip, receiving its outcome only rules out one other possibility. But when there are ten, there are a total of possible outcomes (because there are different strings of Hs and Ts of length 10). Receiving the information of which one it actually was rules out possibilities

      The information content seems abundant; however, any of the 1024 possibilities content the same amount of information,

    6. How informative is this piece of information? Well, it's not that informative really, because there were only two possibilities

      this assumes that the receiver has the same prior knowledge as the send of the message.

    1. Müller-Wille and Scharf ‘Indexing Nature’, also points out that Linnaeus interleaved blanksheets into his texts so that he could take notes. Cooper points out that this had been a common practice in natural historysince at least the late seventeenth century (Cooper, Inventing the Indigenous, 74–5).

      Apparently interleaving blank sheets into texts was a more common practice than I had known! I've seen it in the context of Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) using the practice to take notes in his Bible, but not in others.

    2. First, what were the economies of attention thatguided his commonplacing techniques? Second, what type of impact did his note-taking skillshave upon the way that he arranged information in texts?

      The two questions addressed in this article.

    3. The foregoing studies suggest two strands of commonplacing circa 1700. The first was thecollection of authoritative knowledge, usually in the form of quotations. The second was thecollection of personal or natural knowledge, with Francis Bacon’s lists, desiderata and apho-risms serving as early examples. While Moss has shown that the first strand was losing popular-ity by the 1680s, recent scholarship has shown that the second retained momentum through theeighteenth century,9especially in scientific dictionaries,10instructional cards,11catalogues,12

      loose-leaf manuscripts,13syllabi14and, most especially, notebooks.15

      There are two strands of commonplacing around 1700: one is the traditional collection of authoritative knowledge while the second was an emergent collection of more personal knowledge and exploration.

    1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sammelband

      Sammelband (/ˈzæməlbænt/ ZAM-əl-bant, plural Sammelbände /ˌzæməlˈbɛndə/ ZAM-əl-BEN-də or Sammelbands), or sometimes nonce-volume, is a book comprising a number of separately printed or manuscript works that are subsequently bound together.

      Compare and contrast this publishing scheme with the idea of florilegium and commonplace books.

      Did commonplace keepers ever sammelband their own personal volumes? And perhaps include more comprehensive indices?

      What time periods did this pattern take place? How does this reflect on the idea of reorganizing early modern information management practices? Could these have bled over into the idea of the evolution of the Zettelkasten?

    1. Moss points out the implied analogy between the commonplace-book and "moveable type, capable of both setting a page of text in an apparentiy immutable form and of rearranging all the eléments of that page into other pattems for other meanings" (p. 252); with characteristie prudence, she mentions this analogy only when it finally becomes explicit in one of her later texts, Jean Oudart's Methode des orateurs oí 1668

      The ideas of moveable type and moveable information can be an important idea in the evolution of commonplace books to zettelkasten and thence into digital forms of commonplaces.

    2. At the heart of these is the shift from a manuscript culture to a print culture, which leads first to a rapid increase in the production and use of commonplace-books, and eventuaUy to a kind of implosión, where the wealth of materi-als available in print makes it virtuaUy impossible to devise a comprehen-sive compendium.

      Was the decline of commonplaces in culture due to a sort of defeatist attitude about the ever-increasing amount of information?

      Evidence of this can be found in the expressions of how impressive Niklas Luhmann's 90,000 index card zettelkasten is. For those without the value of keeping and using one, it can seem a lot of work, but to what end?

    1. He mentions Amazon wishlists that pile up and never get used. Similar to the way people pile up bookmarks and never use or revisit them.

      One of the benefits of commonplace books (and tools like Obsidian, et al.) is that one is forced to re-see or re-discover these over time. This restumbling upon these things can be incredibly valuable.

  6. Jul 2021
    1. We do not want to give the impression that facts, leading to increased information, and insights, leading to increased understanding, are always easy to distinguish. And we would admit that sometimes a mere recital of facts can itself lead to greater understanding. The point we want to emphasize here is that this book is about the art of reading for the sake of in­creased understanding. Fortunately, if you learn to do that, reading for information will usually take care of itself.

      This book will focus on and emphasize reading for greater understanding with the benefit that, when accomplished, reading for information should take care of itself without significantly more work.

    2. Here by "learning" is meant understanding more, not remem­bering more information that has the same degree of intelli­gibility as other information you already possess.

      A definition of learning here. Is this the thing that's missing from my note above?

    3. The first sense is the one in which we speak of ourselves as reading newspapers, magazines, or anything else that, according to our skill and talents, is at once thoroughly intel­ligible to us. Such things may increase our store of informa­tion, but they cannot improve our understanding, for our understanding was equal to them before we started. Otherwise, we would have felt the shock of puzzlement and perplexity that comes from getting in over our depth-that is, if we were both alert and honest.

      Here they're comparing reading for information and reading for understanding.

      How do these two modes relate to Claude Shannon's versions of information (surprise) and semantics (the communication) itself. Are there other pieces which exist which we're not tacitly including here? It feels like there's another piece we're overlooking.

    4. whether the advent of modem communications media has much enhanced our understanding of the world in which we live.

      But it may be seriously questioned whether the advent of modem communications media has much enhanced our understanding of the world in which we live.

      Now that I'm thinking about it, I sort of want the ability to more easily capture audio, annotate and save it while I'm listening to radio or even television. Pausing the media and having the ability to reply it (TIVO and some DVRs provide this capability) and do other things with it would be truly fantastic, especially for saving tidbits for later use and consumption.

    1. Facebook AI. (2021, July 16). We’ve built and open-sourced BlenderBot 2.0, the first #chatbot that can store and access long-term memory, search the internet for timely information, and converse intelligently on nearly any topic. It’s a significant advancement in conversational AI. https://t.co/H17Dk6m1Vx https://t.co/0BC5oQMEck [Tweet]. @facebookai. https://twitter.com/facebookai/status/1416029884179271684

    1. By making the storage and organization of information everyone’s responsibility and no one’s, the internet and web could grow, unprecedentedly expanding access, while making any and all of it fragile rather than robust in many instances in which we depend on it.
    2. As Jorge Luis Borges pointed out, a library without an index becomes paradoxically less informative as it grows.

      Explore why this is so from an information theoretic perspective. Is it true?

    1. In 1791, France’s revolutionary government issued the world’s first national cataloging code, calling for playing cards to be used for bibliographical records.

      Reference for this as well?

    2. Linnaeus experimented with a few filing systems. In 1752, while cataloging Queen Ludovica Ulrica’s collection of butterflies with his disciple Daniel Solander, he prepared small, uniform sheets of paper for the first time. “That cataloging experience was possibly where the idea for using slips came from,” Charmantier explained to me. Solander took this method with him to England, where he cataloged the Sloane Collection of the British Museum and then Joseph Banks’s collections, using similar slips, Charmantier said. This became the cataloging system of a national collection.

      Description of the spread of the index card idea.

    1. Linnaeus had to manage a conflict between the need to bring information into a fixed order for purposes of later retrieval, and the need to permanently integrate new information into that order, says Mueller-Wille. “His solution to this dilemma was to keep information on particular subjects on separate sheets, which could be complemented and reshuffled,” he says.

      Carl Linnaeus created a method whereby he kept information on separate sheets of paper which could be reshuffled.

      In a commonplace-centric culture, this would have been a fascinating innovation.

      Did the cost of paper (velum) trigger part of the innovation to smaller pieces?

      Did the de-linearization of data imposed by codices (and previously parchment) open up the way people wrote and thought? Being able to lay out and reorder pages made a more 3 dimensional world. Would have potentially made the world more network-like?

      cross-reference McLuhan's idea about our tools shaping us.

    1. This system was invented by Carl Linnaeus,[1] around 1760.

      How is it not so surprising that Carl Linnaeus, the creator of a huge taxonomic system, also came up with the idea for index cards in 1760.

      How does this fit into the history of the commonplace book and information management? Relationship to the idea of a zettelkasten?

    1. These criteria – surprise serendipity, information and inner complexity

      These criteria – surprise serendipity, information and inner complexity – are the criteria any communication has to meet.

      An interesting thesis about communication. Note that Luhmann worked in general systems theory. I'm curious if he was working in cybernetics as well?

    2. Irritation: basically, without surprise or disappointment there’s no information. Both partners have to be surprised in some way to say communication takes place.

      This is a basic tenet of information theory. Interesting to see it appear in a work on writing.

    1. emerging technologies such as deep fakes, facial recognition, and other applications of artificial intelligence

      this sort of language will help make the document become outdated.

  7. Jun 2021
    1. faculty assume that students know how to, for example, take notes

      are note-taking skills taught at all?

    2. reading at the college level can be a real challenge for students from any discipline

      teaching how to read is an ongoing project. Digital reading techniques need to be introduced, reinforced and practiced across courses.

  8. May 2021
    1. If you're already an admin for the zone in question, then the proper way to get that information is to log on to the DNS server or DNS control console and read it right from there. If you're not an admin for the zone, you're not supposed to have that information. Note that the person you are talking to on the phone is almost certainly not a DNS zone admin, so they also should not have that information. If they somehow did have it, they definitely shouldn't give it out over the phone. This is for your protection.
    2. DNS zone information is sensitive. Many years ago it was possible for anyone to query a DNS server and literally get back all the records at once, but that was a security issue. Now you have to be an admin for the zone to get that info.
    3. "Put as much information about the problem itself into the email". This is where you show your ability to know what is important and relevant and establish your technical level. Don't be brief, don't imply, and break it down Barney style so the person receiving it knows to escalate your ticket.
    4. Look for certain questions that have been asked every time, and put those answers into the initial email you send about the new problem. Try to add things that make the potential problem sound local. The more information you give them that you know they will be asking for in their script, the faster you will get someone who can help you. And they will thank you for it.
    5. If you email helpdesk (us specifically), if you use appropriate technical detail you will probably get someone who knows what they're doing, and will greatly appreciate it. If you call, you will get me only. I will ask you lots of questions, with awkward pauses in between while I write my notes, and at the end of it I probably won't be able to help you. Technical detail is still welcome, but there are some questions I will ask you anyway even if they sound useless to you
    6. Put as much information about the problem itself into the email, within reason. No need to write a paragraph, that takes time away from you and from us. Bullet points are perfect (preferred).
    1. Career decision making involves so much uncertainty that it’s easy to feel paralysed. Instead, make some hypotheses about which option is best, then identify key uncertainties: what information would most change your best guess?

      We tend to think that uncertainties can't be weighted in our decision-making, but we bet on uncertainties all the time. Rather than throw your hands up and say, "I don't have enough information to make a call", how can we think deliberately about what information would reduce the uncertainty?

    1. These “Songline” stories are ancient, exhibit little variation over long periods of time, and are carefully learned and guarded by the Elders who are its custodians [7].

      What is the best way we could test and explore error correction and overwriting in such a system from an information theoretic standpoint?

    1. I can refer to a section of page in a book by using #(booknr)p(pagenr)(section), for example #8p113a. There are four sections in my journals: A (upper left), B (down left), C (upper right), D (down right).

      An interesting page/section reference method.

    1. Petrus Ramus

      Just making note of the fact that Petrus Ramus was the advisor of Theodor Zwinger and apparently influcnced Jean Bodin, about whom Ann M. Blair writes about in Too Much to Know: Managing Scholarly Information Before the Modern Age.

      I suspect these influences may impinge on my work on the history of memory and its downfall due to Ramism since the late 1500s and which impacts the history of information.

    1. We still do not understand how information practices from the worlds of learning, finance, industry, and administration cross-pollinated. From the fourteenth century onward, accountants developed complex instructions for note-taking to describe holdings and transactions, as well for the recording of numbers and calculations. By the seventeenth century, merchants, and indeed ship captains, engineers, and state administrators, were known to travel with trunks of memoranda, massive inventories, scrap books, and various ledgers and log books that mixed descriptive notes and numbers. By the eighteenth century, tables and printed forms cut down on the need for notes and required less description and more systematic numerical notes. Notaries also were master information handlers, creating archives for their legal and financial documents and cross-referencing catalogue systems.

      I'm noticing no mention here of double entry book keeping or the accountant's idea of waste books.

      There's also no mention of orality or memory methods either.

    2. Humanists had the tools and even the concepts to invent the cross-referenced thematic library catalogue, but they did not do so. We do not know why it took several hundred years and the Italian director of the British Museum, Antonio Panizzi, to create a truly modern reference catalogue through his “Ninety-One Cataloguing Rules” in 1841.

      Origin of the modern reference catalogue...

    3. Why did a figure such as Leibniz fail to use his own tools? Perhaps messiness was the source of his creativity. This is a fact of intellectual originality with which Google must still grapple—libraries, after all, allow for the type of manageable disorder which is often the spark of creativity.

      Manageable disorder, messiness, and even chaos can be the source of boundless creativity.

      There's an idea in complexity theory that the most interesting things happen at the edge of chaos.

    4. Ideally, skilled readers organized notes into personal “arks of study,” or data chests. Vincent Placcius’s De arte excerpendi contains an engraving of a note cabinet, or scrinia literaria, in which notes are attached to hooks and hung on bars according to thematic organization, as well as various drawers for the storage of note paper, hooks, and possibly writing supplies. Both Placcius and later Leibniz built such contraptions, though none survives today. While these organizational tools cannot be directly linked to modern computers, it is difficult not to compare them. Placcius’s design looks strikingly like the old punch-card computation machines that date from the 1880s, and the first mainframes, such as the 1962 IBM 7090.

      "arks of study" being used as early data chests or stores is a fascinating conceptualization

    5. Conrad Gesner, the German author of the founding work of modern bibliography, the boldly titled Bibliotheca Universalis, claimed to list all known extant books in learned languages (Greek, Hebrew, and Latin) of eighteen thousand indexed authors. While he complained of a “harmful abundance of books,” he nonetheless gained his fame by cataloguing them.

      Add to the timeline

    6. In effect, Too Much to Know is a reference book about reference books, containing chapters on early “information management,” note-taking, reference genres and “finding devices,” compiling, and the impact of reference books.

      I love all of these various topics.

    7. The humanist remedy for information overload was to produce an unprecedented number of manuals about how to read books. They outlined what Blair calls the four S’s of early modern information management: storage, sorting, selection, summary.

      I'd love to have a list of these and some of their similarities. What would oral cultures have done? How would/did they manage their overflow of information, besides overwriting the new/improved and forgetting the old/unuseful?

    8. Vincent de Beauvais’s Speculum maius, in 1255, was the most ambitious compilation of summaries and excerpts of its time, containing some 4.5 million words.
    9. To extract knowledge successfully from reading was to “deflower” a book, as explained by the preface to the twelfth-century Libri deflorationum.

      Libri deflorationum

    10. Scholars such as Robert Darnton, Peter Burke, and Anthony Grafton have written about the long and colorful history of information.

      Some scholars to delve more deeply into. I've seen all three of these names in the past and have read some of their works.

    1. Schmitt, H.-J., Booy, R., Aston, R., Van Damme, P., Schumacher, R. F., Campins, M., Rodrigo, C., Heikkinen, T., Weil-Olivier, C., Finn, A., Olcén, P., Fedson, D., & Peltola, H. (2007). How to optimise the coverage rate of infant and adult immunisations in Europe. BMC Medicine, 5, 11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-5-11