3 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2020
    1. Cessation of nitrous oxide resulted in characteristic convulsions similar to those seen in alcohol withdrawal in all mice.

      This demonstrates that tolerance is possible. However, exposure in humans lasts only several minutes at a time. Let's assume 3 exposures per day lasting 10 minutes each (i.e. 30 minutes total). It would take 68 days to reach 34 hours of exposure. Alternatively, that's a ratio of 1 to 47 exposure to non-exposure. It's unclear whether that would be sufficient for tolerance.

      In the 50% exposure group, convulsion score was effectively zero by hour 6 (from full text). This does not mean that withdrawal symptoms were gone. However, it does imply that recovery is rapid. It seems plausible that 20 hours between doses is sufficient to reach baseline, rendering tolerance in humans extremely unlikely. I will need to compare to alcohol withdrawal to confirm.

      Edit: Alcohol withdrawal in mice can be induced with 72 hours of alcohol exposure. That implies it is similar to NO. In humans, "the shakes" appear to last 1 or two weeks. In mice, convulsions appear to be half gone in 25 hours, suggesting that they last a few days. Thus, it appears that NO withdrawal is possibly an order of magnitude shorter than alcohol withdrawal.

      In conclusion, NO used in a normal fashion is unlikely to be harmful (except for risk of inducing B12 deficiency). Even if it is harmful, the short half life means that it will be apparent very quickly. I'm aware of several reports of B12 deficiency from NO abuse, but I haven't seen any reports of withdrawal symptoms.

  2. Jan 2018
    1. These neurons express multiple itch receptors including MrgprA3, MrgprC11, and histamine receptor 1, and correspondingly respond to multiple pruritogens. Deletion of MrgprA3+ sensory neurons significantly inhibits itch behavior not only in acute itch conditions14, but also in chronic itch conditions13,15, demonstrating that this neuronal population is crucial for mediating itch sensation. However, whether the chronic itch response requires the activation of Mrgprs in MrgprA3+ neurons is unknown.

      This is interesting!

  3. Jun 2017