20 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2021
    1. “We need to find ways to meet our customers’ needs and ambitions of reducing emissions to remain relevant for them.

      Énergir can, and should, meet their customers' needs by helping them to end their use of gas and by accelerating a managed decapitalization of their existing gas assets. Énergir should "Pump Heat, Not Gas." By this I mean, they should refocus as a "thermal-utility," rather than as a gas-supplier and build a new business focused on the installation of heat pumps and the provision of geothermal district heating for their customers.

    2. will reduce overall natural-gas usage by about 70 percent in buildings that install them,

      Quebec's plan to encourage hybrid heating (electric + gas) will cause a dramatic increase in gas bills:

      Reducing the quantity of gas commodity consumed does not reduce the largely fixed costs of gas delivery. Thus, in order to ensure revenue neutrality and adequate utility cost recovery, a 70% reduction in the quantity of gas delivered will require a 333% increase in the per-unit cost of gas delivery. This increased cost will, of course, be offset by reduced expenditure on the gas commodity. However, If we make the reasonable assumption that today's costs are evenly split between commodity and delivery, a 70% reduction in gas consumption will require a new per-unit price of delivered gas which is at least 182% of the current price with a reduction to 8.25% of the commodity's share of costs. Gas consumers will be paying for pipes, not gas... (I'm not sure what todays cost split is in Quebec. If it's 60% delivery, the price will rise to 212% of today's cost. If it is only 40%, the price will rise to 151% of today's. )

      However, it is likely that if the per unit cost of gas increases by the amounts calculated above, a great many gas users will realize that the cost/kWh or BTU of heating with electric heat pumps is lower than that for gas. Thus, it is likely that gas abandonment will increase over the current rates. While environmentalists will welcome increased gas abandonment, it should be recognized that it will create additional pressure to increase the per-unit cost of gas delivery which will, of course, encourage even more abandonment. The result will be a gas death-spiral.

      The Quebec approach is unlikely to lead to good outcomes.

  2. Jul 2021
  3. Jun 2021
  4. Jan 2021
    1. a report identifying the climate strategies and technologies that will result in the most air and water quality improvements

      One would expect such a report to say much about reducing emissions from electricity generation, however, in many states, particularly those in the Northeast and North, electricity generation and use only produces a small portion of GHG emissions. In New York State, electricity generation is responsible for less than 20% of emissions while heating and transportation each produce between 35% and 40% of emissions. Thus, in New York, emissions from electricity are a third-level priority. In New York, a focus on adoption of heat pumps and electric vehicles will contribute more to cleaning our air and water than a focus on electricity.

      It is important that this report identify strategies and technologies which are appropriate for the various regions of the country.

  5. Aug 2020
  6. Jul 2020
  7. Jun 2020
    1. Figure 6.1.46.1.4\PageIndex{4}: Temperature versus heat. The system is constructed so that no vapor evaporates while ice warms to become liquid water, and so that, when vaporization occurs, the vapor remains in the system. The long stretches of constant temperatures at 0oC0oC0^oC and 100oC100oC100^oC reflect the large amounts of heat needed to cause melting and vaporization, respectively.

      Figure 6.1.4 : Temperature versus heat. The system is constructed so that no vapor evaporates while ice warms to become liquid water, and so that, when vaporization occurs, the vapor remains in the system. The long stretches of constant temperatures at 0oC and 100oC reflect the large amounts of heat needed to cause melting and vaporization, respectively.

    2. Heat and work have signs (positive or negative), and the sign of each depends on whether the system we are considering is gaining or losing energy. In this class, if a process makes the system gain energy, qqq and/or www are positive; if the process makes the system lose energy, qqq and/or www are negative. We can put this information into four formal statements: If heat flows into a system, qqq is positive. If heat flows out of a system, qqq is negative If the surroundings do work on the system, www is positive. If the system does work, www is negative.

      Heat and work have signs (positive or negative), and the sign of each depends on whether the system we are considering is gaining or losing energy. In this class, if a process makes the system gain energy, q and/or w are positive; if the process makes the system lose energy, q and/or w are negative. We can put this information into four formal statements:

      • If heat flows into a system, q is positive.
      • If heat flows out of a system, q is negative
      • If the surroundings do work on the system, w is positive.
      • If the system does work, w is negative.
  8. Apr 2019
  9. Mar 2019
    1. According to the analysis, urban areas were found to be relatively cooler than the surrounding non-urban areas during heat waves. At 44.5°C, the non-urban areas were warmer than urban areas (43.7°C). However, during the night, all urban areas were hotter than the surrounding non-urban areas.

      Urban heat island effect

  10. May 2018
  11. May 2017
    1. heat trace (heating cable)
      Heat trace or heating cable is used to warm or heat underground structures, storage tanks, vessels, and instrumentation in order to maintain a specified temperature or eliminate the possibility of freezing. Heat trace or heating cable accomplish this task by adding the amount of heat energy to the process fluid that is lost from the process fluid. It is desirable to maintain a certain temperature since higher temperatures reduce viscosity, enhance combustion, and prevent freezing or crystallization of the fluid. Within the oil and gas industry, elevated temperatures are required to separate the crude oil or raw natural gas to the surface and freeze protection is required to allow refining and distribution of the fluid (Thermon South Africa (Pty.) Ltd. ). Heat trace or heating cable often utilizes resistance wire to provide a medium for voltage to pass through. Due to the resistance of the wire, the heat trace or heating cable becomes warmer and is able to use this heat to warm the underground structures that it surrounds. One material used in resistance wires is nickel-chromium (Peterjohn, Melillo, Bowles, & Steudler, 1993). Heat trace has been used since the early 1900s to ensure the proper flow of petroleum, tar, and wax through pipelines. Since then, certain products within the petroleum and chemical industries needed to be kept between specific temperatures to ensure their quality. Today, the most commonly used heat trace medium is steam (Thermon South Africa (Pty.) Ltd. ). 
      

      References

      Peterjohn, W. T., Melillo, J. M., Bowles, F. P., & Steudler, P. A. (1993). Soil Warming and Trace Gas Fluxes: Experimental Design and Preliminary Flux Results. Oecologia, 18-24.

      Thermon South Africa (Pty.) Ltd. . (n.d.). Heat Tracing Technologies. Retrieved from Thermon South Africa (Pty.) Ltd. : file:///H:/Users/rrs020.BUCKNELL.000/Downloads/thermon-sa_heat-trace-technologies_energy-savings.pdf

    2. frost heave
      Before the understanding of frost heave, there was a widely held belief that rocks and stones could grow and multiply. Stones were believe to grow from small pebbles. These stones then rose to the surface of the ground. Another belief was that stones were the offspring of “mother-stones” or “breeding-stones.” Today, it is known that this motion of stones moving upwards toward the surface of the ground is due to frost heave. Frost heave occurs when water in soil or rock freezes and thaws in a cyclic process. This causes an upward movement of the surface of the ground due to the freezing of water underneath. Geologist Stephen Taber from the University of South Carolina proved through extensive research that “it was not expansion, but rather the formation of ice lenses by segregation of water from the soil as the ground freezes that is the principal cause of frost heave.” He also showed that liquids other than water can also cause frost heave. The direction of heave is governed by the growth of ice lenses. Ice lenses form perpendicular to the direction of heat flow, so it is not always the case that frost heave occurs in the path of least resistance (Manz, 2011). 
      

      References

      Manz, L. (2011). Frost Heave. Geo News, 18-23.

  12. May 2016
    1. lesh, the engineering manager, and Dubusker drew on all of McDonnell's experience with shingled-skin structures around jet afterburners for heat protection.
  13. Nov 2015
    1. LOPINOD is also being used to fund the development of a Low Carbon Plan. This plan will focus on the full spectrum of renewables including wind, solar, marine source heat pumps and tidal. It is hoped that we will become a hub for all green energy going forward, building on our existing involvement in the wind farm industry.

      Beachhead for solar, tidal, marine source heat pumps as well as wind energy

  14. Sep 2015
    1. ITM is based on the theory of temperament. Temperament is a quality resulting from the interaction of opposite properties present in elements consisting of minute particles. Thus, a uniform quality occurs which is present in all of them. Hotness, coldness, moistness, and dryness are four temperaments that naturally occur in every existingsubstance including living creatures (2)

      These temperments match up with the four-fold alchemical division that uses the same four qualities of heat, cold, moisture and dryness.