- Sep 2013
Instead of this the young are made to believe that everyone else fulfils those ethical demands - that is, thateveryone else is virtuous. It is on this that the demand is based that the young, too, shall become virtuous.
topographical variety of anxiety; in its later phases it coincidescompletely with fear of the super-ego .
show that the price we pay for our advance incivilization is a loss of happiness through the heightening of the sense of guilt.
hr führt in’s Leben uns hinein.Ihr lasst den Armen schuldig werden,Dann überlasst Ihr ihn den Pein,Denn iede Schuld rächt sich auf Erden
ambivalence; guilt; remorse; aggressive avengence
Since civilization obeys aninternal erotic impulsion which causes human beings to unite in a closely-knit group, it can only achieve thisaim through an ever-increasing reinforcement of the sense of guilt.
And since the inclination to aggressiveness against the father was repeated in the followinggenerations, the sense of guilt, too, persisted, and it was reinforced once more by every piece ofaggressiveness that was suppressed and carried over to the super-ego
evolution of stricter superego, more guilt
This remorse was the result of the primordial ambivalence of feeling towards the father. His sonshated him, but they loved him, too. After their hatred had been satisfied by their act of aggression, their lovecame to the fore in their remorse for the deed
remorse is subset (love) of resulting ambivalence (hate, love)
excluding from the present discussion the case of a sense of guilt due toremorse
nice logical acknowledgement
make good the omission. Nor is there any great secret about the matter. Whenone has a sense of guilt after having committed a misdeed, and because of it, the feeling should moreproperly be called remorse
a person feeling guilty because he really has done something which cannot be justified.
guilt (self-destruction driven by extreme ambivalence) vs remorse (constructive action)
child reacts to his first great instinctual frustrations with excessivelystrong aggressiveness and with a correspondingly severe super-ego, he is following a phylogenetic modeland is going beyond the response that would be currently justified; for the father of prehistoric times wasundoubtedly terrible,
children trained to respond with strong external (aggressive) and internal (super-ego) manifestations
cause of disease (i.e. etiology)
A child who has been veryleniently brought up can acquire a very strict conscience. But it would also be wrong to exaggerate thisindependence; it is not difficult to convince oneself that severity of upbringing does also exert a stronginfluence on the formation of the child’s super-ego.
genetic vs. environmental influences on the formation of conscience
A considerable amount of aggressiveness must bedeveloped in the child against the authority which prevents him from having his first, but none the less hismost important, satisfactions, whatever the kind of instinctual deprivation that is demanded of him may be;but he is obliged to renounce the satisfaction of this revengeful aggressiveness
authority turns into superego external object--father conscience arises through suppression of aggressive impulse
First comes renunciation of instinct owing to fear of aggression by the external authority. (This is, ofcourse, what fear of the loss of love amounts to, for love is a protection against this punitive aggression.)After that comes the erection of an internal authority, and renunciation of instinct owing to fear of it - owingto fear of conscience
In (2) internal authority, bad intentions=bad actions, leads to guilt and punishment
instinctual renunciation (i.e. renunciation of instinct)--is it the source of conscience?
loss of love and punishment on the part of the external authority - hasbeen exchanged for a permanent internal unhappiness, for the tension of the sense of guilt
guilt arising from "big other" external and super-ego internal
fear of loss of love
helplessness and dependence on other people
What is bad is often not at all what is injurious or dangerousto the ego; on the contrary, it may be something which is desirable and enjoyable to the ego
we shall add that even when a person has not actually done thebad thing but has only recognized in himself an intention to do it, he may regard himself as guilty; and thequestion then arises of why the intention is regarded as equal to the deed
His aggressiveness is introjected, internalized; it is, in point of fact,sent back to where it came from - that is, it is directed towards his own ego. There it is taken over by aportion of the ego, which sets itself over against the rest of the ego as super-ego, and which now, in theform of ‘conscience’, is ready to put into action against the ego the same harsh aggressiveness that the egowould have liked to satisfy upon other, extraneous individuals
What means does civilization employ in order to inhibit theaggressiveness which opposes it, to make it harmless, to get rid of it, perhaps?
history of the development of the individual--
the bees, the ants, the termites - strove for thousands of years before they arrived at theState institutions, the distribution of functions and the restrictions on the individual, for which we admirethem to-day
equally, can find things for which we are horrified of them, etc.
animals, not exhibit any such cultural struggle?
what is "struggle"? "culture"? is filiocide and the like, as performed to maintain social infrastructure, something with which animals are confronted, not a struggle?
struggle is what all life essentially consists of,and the evolution of civilization may therefore be simply described as the struggle for life of the humanspecies.
civilization is a process in the service of Eros, whose purpose is to combine single human individuals, andafter that families, then races, peoples and nations, into one great unity, the unity of mankind. Why this hasto happen, we do not know
agree? what of cultures?
aggression is an original, self-subsisting instinctual disposition in man
Since the assumption of the existence of the instinct is mainly based on theoretical grounds,we must also admit that it is not entirely proof against theoretical objections. But this is how things appearto us now, in the present state of our knowledge
research on instinct?
satisfaction of the instinct is accompanied by an extraordinarily high degree ofnarcissistic enjoyment, owing to its presenting the ego with a fulfilment of the latter’s old wishes foromnipotence.
satisfy instinct for narcissistic enjoyment
4510 The assumption of the existence of an instinct of death or destruction has met with resistance even inanalytic circles; I am aware that there is a frequent inclination rather to ascribe whatever is dangerous andhostile in love to an original bipolarity in its own nature. To begin with it was only tentatively that I putforward the views I have developed here, but in the course of time they have gained such a hold upon methat I can no longer think in any other way. To my mind, they are far more serviceable from a theoreticalstandpoint than any other possible ones; they provide that simplification, without either ignoring or doingviolence to the facts, for which we strive in scientific work. I know that in sadism and masochism we havealways seen before us manifestations of the destructive instinct (directed outwards and inwards), stronglyalloyed with erotism; but I can no longer understand how we can have overlooked the ubiquity of non-eroticaggressivity and destructiveness and can have failed to give it its due place in our interpretation of life. (Thedesire for destruction when it is directed inwards mostly eludes our perception, of course, unless it is tingedwith erotism.) I remember my own defensive attitude when the idea of an instinct of destruction firstemerged in psycho-analytic literature, and how long it took before I became receptive to it. That othersshould have shown, and still show, the same attitude of rejection surprises me less. For ‘little children donot like it’ when there is talk of the inborn human inclination to ‘badness’, to aggressiveness anddestructiveness, and so to cruelty as well. God has made them in the image of His own perfection; nobodywants to be reminded how hard it is to reconcile the undeniable existence of evil - despite the protestationsof Christian Science - with His all-powerfulness or His all-goodness. The Devil would be the best way out asan excuse for God; in that way he would be playing the same part as an agent of economic discharge asthe Jew does in the world of the Aryan ideal. But even so, one can hold God responsible for the existenceof the Devil just as well as for the existence of the wickedness which the Devil embodies. In view of thesedifficulties, each of us will be well advised, on some suitable occasion, to make a low bow to the deeplymoral nature of mankind; it will help us to be generally popular and much will be forgiven us for it.¹¹ In Goethe’s Mephistopheles we have a quite exceptionally convincing identification of the principle of evil with thedestructive instinct:Denn alles, was entsteht,Ist wert, dass es zu Grunde geht . . .So ist dann alles, was Ihr Sünde,Zerstörung, kurz das Böse nennt,Mein eigentliches Element.The Devil himself names as his adversary, not what is holy and good, but Nature’s power to create, to multiply life -that is, Eros:Der Luft, dem Wasser, wie der ErdenEntwinden tausend Keime sich,Im Trocknen, Feuchten, Warmen, Kalten!Hätt’ ich mir nicht die Flamme vorbehalten,Ich hätte nichts Aparts für mich.
God has made them in the image of His own perfection; nobodywants to be reminded how hard it is to reconcile the undeniable existence of evil
God responsible for Devil and all wickedness
manifestations of the destructive instinct (directed outwards and inwards), stronglyalloyed with erotism; but I can no longer understand how we can have overlooked the ubiquity of non-eroticaggressivity and destructiveness and can have failed to give it its due place in our interpretation of life. (Thedesire for destruction when it is directed inwards mostly eludes our perception, of course, unless it is tingedwith erotism.)
inward destruction eludes perception
two kinds of instinct
sadism (component instinct of sexuality, alloy b/t love and destruction) and masochism (union between INWARD destructiveness and sexuality)
instinct is diverted towards the externalworld and comes to light as an instinct of aggressiveness and destructiveness. In this way the instinct itselfcould be pressed into the service of Eros, in that the organism was destroying some other thing, whetheranimate or inanimate, instead of destroying its own self
still bound to increase self-destruction
instinct of death
conflicting instincts: (1) to preserve living substance (join into larger units) and (2) dissolve units into primaeval, inorganic state
Eros: (from Wikipedia) <u>Sigmund Freud</u> In Freudian psychology, Eros is strictly the sexual component of our life, not to be confused with libido which Freud referred to as our life force, the will to live. It is the desire to create life and favors productivity and construction. In early psychoanalytic writings, instincts from the Eros were opposed by forces from the ego. But in later psychoanalytic theory, Eros is opposed by the destructive death instinct of Thanatos (death instinct or death drive). In his 1925 paper "The Resistances to Psycho-Analysis", Freud explains that the psychoanalytic concept of sexual energy is more in line with the Platonic view of Eros...than with the common use of the word "sex" as related primarily to genital activity. He also mentions the philosopher Schopenhauer as an influence. He then goes on to confront his adversaries for ignoring such great precursors and for tainting his whole theory of Eros with a pansexual tendency. He finally writes that his theory naturally explains this collective misunderstanding as a predictable resistance to the acknowledgement of sexual activity in childhood. However, F.M. Cornford finds the standpoints of Plato and of Freud to be "diametrically opposed" with regard to Eros. In Plato, Eros is a spiritual energy initially, which then "falls" downward; whereas in Freud Eros is a physical energy which is "sublimated" upward.
Carl Jung In Carl Jung's analytical psychology, the counterpart to Eros is Logos, a Greek term for the principle of rationality. Jung considers Logos to be a masculine principle, while Eros is a feminine principle. According to Jung: "Woman’s psychology is founded on the principle of Eros, the great binder and loosener, whereas from ancient times the ruling principle ascribed to man is Logos. The concept of Eros could be expressed in modern terms as psychic relatedness, and that of Logos as objective interest." This gendering of Eros and Logos is a consequence of Jung's theory of the anima/animus syzygy of the human psyche. Syzygy refers to the split between male and female. According to Jung, this split is recapitulated in the unconscious mind by means of "contrasexual" (opposite-gendered) elements called the anima (in men) and the animus (in women). Thus men have an unconscious feminine principle, the "anima", which is characterized by feminine Eros. The work of individuation for men involves becoming conscious of the anima and learning to accept it as one's own, which entails accepting Eros. This is necessary in order to see beyond the projections that initially blind the conscious ego. "Taking back the projections" is a major task in the work of individuation, which involves owning and subjectivizing unconscious forces which are initially regarded as alien. In essence, Jung's concept of Eros is not dissimilar to the Platonic one. Eros is ultimately the desire for wholeness, and although it may initially take the form of passionate love, it is more truly a desire for "psychic relatedness", a desire for interconnection and interaction with other sentient beings. However, Jung was inconsistent, and he did sometimes use the word "Eros" as a shorthand to designate sexuality.
Starting from speculations on thebeginning of life and from biological parallels
transference neuroses as attempts made by the egoto defend itself against sexuality; but the concept of libido was endangered
Narcissism (1) obtain understanding of traumatic neuroses, (2) transference neuroses as attempts made by ego to defend itself against sexuality
narcissism - that is to say, the discovery that the ego itself is cathected with libido, that the ego,indeed, is the libido’s original home, and remains to some extent its headquarters. This narcissistic libidoturns towards objects, and thus becomes object-libido; and it can change back into narcissistic libido oncemore.
cathect--to invest emotional energy in
object libido(narcissistic libido turned towards objects) has bidirectional relationship with <-->narcissistic libido
enquiries advanced from the repressed to therepressing forces
eg what do we repress vs. what is repressing us
Repression is another well-known defense mechanism. Repression acts to keep information out of conscious awareness. However, these memories don't just disappear; they continue to influence our behavior. For example, a person who has repressed memories of abuse suffered as a child may later have difficulty forming relationships.
Sometimes we do this consciously by forcing the unwanted information out of our awareness, which is known as suppression. In most cases, however, this removal of anxiety-provoking memories from our awareness is believed to occur unconsciously.
Denial is probably one of the best known defense mechanisms, used often to describe situations in which people seem unable to face reality or admit an obvious truth (i.e. "He's in denial."). Denial is an outright refusal to admit or recognize that something has occurred or is currently occurring. Drug addicts or alcoholics often deny that they have a problem, while victims of traumatic events may deny that the event ever occurred.
Denial functions to protect the ego from things that the individual cannot cope with. While this may save us from anxiety or pain, denial also requires a substantial investment of energy. Because of this, other defenses are also used to keep these unacceptable feelings from consciousness.
object-instincts: sadistic (affection replaced by cruelty) Neurosis struggle b/t self-preservation and demands of the libido--the ego won over libido at the price of sever sufferings and renunciation
preservation of the species
consider in context of Darwinian "survival", and interesting to consider the contrast with Berlant's "Slow Death" concept--hunger to the point of obesity, love striving after objects to the point of depression
Schiller,that ‘hunger and love are what moves the world’
Christian Morgenstern (1871-1914) German romantic poet, "Das Wasser": "Ohne Wort, Ohne Wort; rinnt das Wasser immer fort; andernfalls, andernfalls; sprach' es doch nichts andres als: Bier und Brot, Lieb und Treu; und das waere auch nicht neu. Dieses zeigt, dieses zeigt; daß das Wasser besser schweigt."
Is it "self-evident"? Once something surfaces from the unconscious into consciousness, it seems intuitively "self-evident"
Gentle is Zarathustra to the sickly. Verily, he is not indignant at their modes of consolation and ingratitude. May they become convalescents and overcomers, and create higher bodies for themselves! Neither is Zarathustra indignant at a convalescent who looketh tenderly on his delusions, and at midnight stealeth round the grave of his God; but sickness and a sick frame remain even in his tears. Many sickly ones have there always been among those who muse, and languish for God; violently they hate the discerning ones, and the latest of virtues, which is uprightness.
consider in the report of Nietzsche's illness in ecce homo--"create higher bodies for themselves"--uebermensch?
(of a person) recovering from an illness or operation
choose that path which man hath followed blindly, and to approve of it — and no longer to slink aside from it, like the sick and perishing!
intentionality--instead of just following blindly, choose it
A new pride taught me mine ego, and that teach I unto men: no longer to thrust one’s head into the sand of celestial things, but to carry it freely, a terrestrial head, which giveth meaning to the earth!
is nietzsche (or zarathustra) teaching to overcome pedagogical limitations (i.e. other teachers?)
ego; and the more it learneth, the more doth it find titles and honours for the body and the earth.
shift towards self-consciousness
ego — it speaketh of the body, and still implieth the body
first level, perceptual awareness
bowels of existence do not speak unto man, except as man.
recursive loops, man speak unto man as bowels of existence
It was the body which despaired of the body — it groped with the fingers of the infatuated spirit at the ultimate walls.
body is responsible for spiritual morals
A man was he, and only a poor fragment of a man and ego. Out of mine own ashes and glow it came unto me, that phantom. And verily, it came not unto me from the beyond! What happened, my brethren? I surpassed myself, the suffering one; I carried mine own ashes to the mountain; a brighter flame I contrived for myself. And lo! Thereupon the phantom WITHDREW from me! To me the convalescent would it now be suffering and torment to believe in such phantoms: suffering would it now be to me, and humiliation. Thus speak I to backworldsmen.
any concept/values any negation to the body (e.g. desires of body make religious figures not want sex) desires beyond the body, from the body
ideas backward to the world--all those concepts go back to the body
the lion is needed for this capture
cannot be camel/child?
All values have already been created, and all created values — do I represent. Verily, there shall be no ‘I will’ any more. Thus speaketh the dragon. My brethren, wherefore is there need of the lion in the spirit? Why sufficeth not the beast of burden, which renounceth and is reverent? To create new values — that, even the lion cannot yet accomplish: but to create itself freedom for new creating — that can the might of the lion do.
lion cannot accomplish the task of the child--i.e. the task of creating new values after destroying the dragon, whose scales represent old values. old values are presented as glitter, something the dragon seems proud of--the camel mistakenly may assume the role of of bearing the loads of new values
But in the loneliest wilderness happeneth the second metamorphosis: here the spirit becometh a lion; freedom will it capture, and lordship in its own wilderness. Its last Lord it here seeketh: hostile will it be to him, and to its last God; for victory will it struggle with the great dragon.
lion slays the dragon--destruction of old values that once weighed down the camel
o feed on the acorns and grass of knowledge, and for the sake of truth to suffer hunger of soul?
Nietzsche makes knowledge palpable, think of figs in EH (ecce homo)
wandlung--change ver--stronger/negative association, not always the case (for)
Ein Umweg zu meinem Zwecke
a detour to my purpose
Was der Sinn fühlt, was der Geist erkennt, das hat niemals in sich sein Ende. Aber Sinn und Geist möchten dich überreden, sie seien aller Dinge Ende: so eitel sind sie.
What the sense feeleth, what the spirit discerneth, hath never its end in itself. But sense and spirit would fain persuade thee that they are the end of all things: so vain are they.
Aber der Erwachte, der Wissende sagt: Leib bin ich ganz und gar, und Nichts ausserdem; und Seele ist nur ein Wort für ein Etwas am Leibe. Der Leib ist eine grosse Vernunft, eine Vielheit mit Einem Sinne, ein Krieg und ein Frieden, eine Heerde und ein Hirt. Werkzeug deines Leibes ist auch deine kleine Vernunft, mein Bruder, die du „Geist“ nennst, ein kleines Werk- und Spielzeug deiner grossen Vernunft.
But the awakened one, the knowing one, saith: “Body am I entirely, and nothing more; and soul is only the name of something in the body.” The body is a big sagacity (having or showing keen mental discernment and good judgment; shrewd, but Vernunft means rational/sane), a plurality with one sense, a war and a peace, a flock and a shepherd.
Leib bin ich und Seele
Body am I and Soul
Von den Verächtern des Leibes.
THE DESPISERS OF THE BODY
Milde ist Zarathustra den Kranken. Wahrlich, er zürnt nicht ihren Arten des Trostes und Undanks. Mögen sie Genesende werden und Überwindende und einen höheren Leib sich schaffen! Nicht auch zürnt Zarathustra dem Genesenden, wenn er zärtlich nach seinem Wahne blickt und Mitternachts um das Grab seines Gottes schleicht: aber Krankheit und kranker Leib bleiben mir auch seine Thränen noch. Vieles krankhafte Volk gab es immer unter Denen, welche dichten und gottsüchtig sind; wüthend hassen sie den Erkennenden und jene jüngste der Tugenden, welche heisst: Redlichkeit.
Gentle is Zarathustra to the sickly. Verily, he is not indignant at their modes of consolation and ingratitude. May they become convalescents and overcomers, and create higher bodies for themselves! Neither is Zarathustra indignant at a convalescent who looketh tenderly on his delusions, and at midnight stealeth round the grave of his God; but sickness and a sick frame remain even in his tears. (Vieles... (Redlichkeit--fidelity and honest))
Kranken und Absterbenden
sick and perishing
Ja, diess Ich und des Ich’s Widerspruch und Wirrsal redet noch am redlichsten von seinem Sein, dieses schaffende, wollende, werthende Ich, welches das Maass und der Werth der Dinge ist. Und diess redlichste Sein, das Ich — das redet vom Leibe, und es will noch den Leib, selbst wenn es dichtet und schwärmt und mit zerbrochnen Flügeln flattert. Immer redlicher lernt es reden, das Ich: und je mehr es lernt, um so mehr findet es Worte und Ehren für Leib und Erde. Einen neuen Stolz lehrte mich mein Ich, den lehre ich die Menschen: nicht mehr den Kopf in den Sand der himmlischen Dinge zu stecken, sondern frei ihn zu tragen, einen Erden-Kopf, der der Erde Sinn schafft!
Yea, this ego, with its contradiction and perplexity, speaketh most uprightly of its being — this creating, willing, evaluing ego, which is the measure and value of things. And this most upright existence, the ego — it speaketh of the body, and still implieth the body, even when it museth and raveth and fluttereth with broken wings. Always more uprightly learneth it to speak, the ego; and the more it learneth, the more doth it find titles and honours for the body and the earth. A new pride taught me mine ego, and that teach I unto men: no longer to thrust one’s head into the sand of celestial things, but to carry it freely, a terrestrial head, which giveth meaning to the earth!
Aber „jene Welt“ ist gut verborgen vor dem Menschen, jene entmenschte unmenschliche Welt, die ein himmlisches Nichts ist; und der Bauch des Seins redet gar nicht zum Menschen, es sei denn als Mensch.
But that “other world” is well concealed from man, that dehumanised, inhuman world, which is a celestial naught; and the bowels of existence do not speak unto man, except as man.
Gut und böse und Lust und Leid und Ich und Du — farbiger Rauch dünkte mich’s vor schöpferischen Augen. Wegsehn wollte der Schöpfer von sich, — da schuf er die Welt. Trunkne Lust ist’s dem Leidenden, wegzusehn von seinem Leiden und sich zu verlieren. Trunkne Lust und Selbst-sich-Verlieren dünkte mich einst die Welt. Diese Welt, die ewig unvollkommene, eines ewigen Widerspruches Abbild und unvollkommnes Abbild — eine trunkne Lust ihrem unvollkommnen Schöpfer: — also dünkte mich einst die Welt.
Good and evil, and joy and woe, and I and thou — coloured vapours did they seem to me before creative eyes. The creator wished to look away from himself,— thereupon he created the world. Intoxicating</b.> joy is it for the sufferer to look away from his suffering and forget himself. Intoxicating joy and self-forgetting, did the world once seem to me. This world, the eternally imperfect, an eternal contradiction’s image and imperfect image — an intoxicating joy to its imperfect creator:— thus did the world once seem to me.
Ein Zauber wohnt selbst in seinem Lehrstuhle. Und nicht vergebens sassen die Jünglinge vor dem Prediger der Tugend. Seine Weisheit heisst: wachen, um gut zu schlafen. Und wahrlich, hätte das Leben keinen Sinn und müsste ich Unsinn wählen, so wäre auch mir diess der wählenswürdigste Unsinn.
A magic resideth even in his academic chair. And not in vain did the youths sit before the preacher of virtue. His wisdom is to keep awake in order to sleep well. that is to say, there is not much substanceAnd verily, if life had no sense, and had I to choose nonsense, this would be the desirablest nonsense for me also.
dumm stehe ich da wie dieser Lehrstuhl.
he knows his position in dieser Lehrstuhl
Wiederkäuend frage ich mich, geduldsam gleich einer Kuh
und was macht ein Kuh?
Was kann ich dafür, dass die Macht gerne auf krummen Beinen wandelt?
How can I help it, if power like to walk on crooked legs?
Zehn Mal musst du des Tages dich selber überwinden: das macht eine gute Müdigkeit und ist Mohn der Seele. Zehn Mal musst du dich wieder mit dir selber versöhnen; denn Überwindung ist Bitterniss, und schlecht schläft der Unversöhnte. Zehn Wahrheiten musst du des Tages finden: sonst suchst du noch des Nachts nach Wahrheit, und deine Seele blieb hungrig. Zehn Mal musst du lachen am Tage und heiter sein: sonst stört dich der Magen in der Nacht, dieser Vater der Trübsal. Wenige wissen das: aber man muss alle Tugenden haben, um gut zu schlafen. Werde ich falsch Zeugniss reden? Werde ich ehebrechen? Werde ich mich gelüsten lassen meines Nächsten Magd? Das Alles vertrüge sich schlecht mit gutem Schlafe. Und selbst wenn man alle Tugenden hat, muss man sich noch auf Eins verstehn: selber die Tugenden zur rechten Zeit schlafen schicken.
Ten times a day must thou overcome thyself: that causeth wholesome weariness, and is poppy to the soul. Ten times must thou reconcile again with thyself; for overcoming is bitterness, and badly sleep the unreconciled. Ten truths must thou find during the day; otherwise wilt thou seek truth during the night, and thy soul will have been hungry. Ten times must thou laugh during the day, and be cheerful; otherwise thy stomach, the father of affliction, will disturb thee in the night. Few people know it, but one must have all the virtues in order to sleep well. Shall I bear false witness? Shall I commit adultery? Shall I covet my neighbour’s maidservant? All that would ill accord with good sleep. And even if one have all the virtues, there is still one thing needful: to send the virtues themselves to sleep at the right time.
Schamhaft ist noch der Dieb vor dem Schlafe: stets stiehlt er sich leise durch die Nacht. Schamlos aber ist der Wächter der Nacht, schamlos trägt er sein Horn.
Modest is even the thief in presence of sleep: he always stealeth softly through the night. Immodest, however, is the night-watchman; immodestly he carrieth his horn.
Ehre und Scham vor dem Schlafe! Das ist das Erste! Und Allen aus dem Wege gehn, die schlecht schlafen und Nachts wachen
Respect and modesty in presence of sleep! That is the first thing! And to go out of the way of all who sleep badly and keep awake at night!
Keine geringe Kunst ist schlafen: es thut schon Noth, den ganzen Tag darauf hin zu wachen. Zehn Mal musst du des Tages dich selber überwinden: das macht eine gute Müdigkeit und ist Mohn der Seele. Zehn Mal musst du dich wieder mit dir selber versöhnen; denn Überwindung ist Bitterniss, und schlecht schläft der Unversöhnte. Zehn Wahrheiten musst du des Tages finden: sonst suchst du noch des Nachts nach Wahrheit, und deine Seele blieb hungrig. Zehn Mal musst du lachen am Tage und heiter sein: sonst stört dich der Magen in der Nacht, dieser Vater der Trübsal. Wenige wissen das: aber man muss alle Tugenden haben, um gut zu schlafen. Werde ich falsch Zeugniss reden? Werde ich ehebrechen? Werde ich mich gelüsten lassen meines Nächsten Magd? Das Alles vertrüge sich schlecht mit gutem Schlafe.
No small art is it to sleep: it is necessary for that purpose (Noth) to keep awake all day. Ten times a day must thou overcome thyself: that causeth wholesome weariness, and is poppy to the soul. Ten times must thou reconcile again with thyself; for overcoming is bitterness, and badly sleep the unreconciled. Ten truths must thou find during the day; otherwise wilt thou seek truth during the night, and thy soul will have been hungry. Ten times must thou laugh during the day, and be cheerful; otherwise thy stomach, the father of affliction, will disturb thee in the night. Few people know it, but one must have all the virtues in order to sleep well. Shall I bear false witness? Shall I commit adultery? Shall I covet my neighbour’s maidservant? All that would ill accord with good sleep.
Aber sagt, meine Brüder, was vermag noch das Kind, das auch der Löwe nicht vermochte? Was muss der raubende Löwe auch noch zum Kinde werden? Unschuld ist das Kind und Vergessen, ein Neubeginnen, ein Spiel, ein aus sich rollendes Rad, eine erste Bewegung, ein heiliges Ja-sagen. Ja, zum Spiele des Schaffens, meine Brüder, bedarf es eines heiligen Ja-sagens: seinen Willen will nun der Geist, seine Welt gewinnt sich der Weltverlorene.
Innocence (Unshuld) is the child, and forgetfulness, a new beginning, a game, a self– rolling wheel, a first movement (Bewegung), a holy Yea. Aye, for the game of creating, my brethren, there is needed a holy Yea unto life: ITS OWN will, willeth now the spirit; HIS OWN world winneth the world’s outcast.
„Aller Werth ward schon geschaffen, und aller geschaffene Werth — das bin ich. Wahrlich, es soll kein „Ich will“ mehr geben!“ Also spricht der Drache. Meine Brüder, wozu bedarf es des Löwen im Geiste? Was genügt nicht das lastbare Thier, das entsagt und ehrfürchtig ist? Neue Werthe schaffen — das vermag auch der Löwe noch nicht: aber Freiheit sich schaffen zu neuem Schaffen — das vermag die Macht des Löwen. Freiheit sich schaffen und ein heiliges Nein auch vor der Pflicht: dazu, meine Brüder, bedarf es des Löwen. Recht sich nehmen zu neuen Werthen — das ist das furchtbarste Nehmen für einen tragsamen und ehrfürchtigen Geist. Wahrlich, ein Rauben ist es ihm und eines raubenden Thieres Sache. Als sein Heiligstes liebte er einst das „Du-sollst“: nun muss er Wahn und Willkür auch noch im Heiligsten finden, dass er sich Freiheit raube von seiner Liebe: des Löwen bedarf es zu diesem Raube.
All values have already been created, and all created values — do I represent. Verily, there shall be no ‘I will’ any more. Thus speaketh the dragon. My brethren (Brother?), wherefore is there need of the lion in the spirit? Why sufficeth not the beast of burden, which renounceth and is reverent? To create new values — that, even the lion cannot yet accomplish: but to create itself freedom for new creating — that can the might of the lion do. To create itself freedom, and give a holy Nay even unto duty: for that, my brethren, there is need of the lion. To assume the right to new values — that is the most formidable assumption for a load-bearing and reverent spirit. Verily, unto such a spirit it is preying, and the work of a beast of prey. As its holiest, it once loved “Thou-shalt”: now is it forced to find illusion and arbitrariness even in the holiest things, that it may capture freedom from its love: the lion is needed for this capture.
Seinen letzten Herrn sucht er sich hier: feind will er ihm werden und seinem letzten Gotte, um Sieg will er mit dem grossen Drachen ringen. Welches ist der grosse Drache, den der Geist nicht mehr Herr und Gott heissen mag? „Du-sollst“ heisst der grosse Drache. Aber der Geist des Löwen sagt „ich will“.
Its last Lord it here seeketh: hostile will it be to him, and to its last God; for victory will it struggle with the great dragon. What is the great dragon which the spirit is no longer inclined to call Lord and God? “Thou-shalt,” is the great dragon called. But the spirit of the lion saith, “I will.” will vs. want
Ist es nicht das: sich erniedrigen, um seinem Hochmuth wehe zu thun? Seine Thorheit leuchten lassen, um seiner Weisheit zu spotten? Oder ist es das: von unserer Sache scheiden, wenn sie ihren Sieg feiert? Auf hohe Berge steigen, um den Versucher zu versuchen? Oder ist es das: sich von Eicheln und Gras der Erkenntniss nähren und um der Wahrheit willen an der Seele Hunger leiden? Oder ist es das: krank sein und die Tröster heimschicken und mit Tauben Freundschaft schliessen, die niemals hören, was du willst? Oder ist es das: in schmutziges Wasser steigen, wenn es das Wasser der Wahrheit ist, und kalte Frösche und heisse Kröten nicht von sich weisen? Oder ist es das: Die lieben, die uns verachten, und dem Gespenste die Hand reichen, wenn es uns fürchten machen will?
Is it not this: To humiliate oneself in order to mortify one’s pride? To exhibit one’s folly in order to mock at one’s wisdom? Or is it this: To desert our cause when it celebrateth its triumph? To ascend high mountains to tempt the tempter? (versucher vs. verfuerer) Or is it this: To feed on the acorns and grass of knowledge, and for the sake of truth to suffer hunger of soul? Or is it this: To be sick and dismiss comforters, and make friends of the deaf, who never hear thy requests? Or is it this: To go into foul water when it is the water of truth, and not disclaim <a href=http://books.google.com/books?id=Sh5Cz1IRGpUC&pg=PA56&lpg=PA56&dq=%22cold+frogs+and+hot+toads%22&source=bl&ots=xzRLt_9LBz&sig=zimFFL317hAvHqYYzwAsbRRKmzY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=qLknUvnKN8iWiAKutIF4&ved=0CDwQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=%22cold%20frogs%20and%20hot%20toads%22&f=false>"cold frogs and hot toads"</a>? Or is it this: To love those who despise us, and give one’s hand to the phantom when it is going to frighten us?
und zum Löwen das Kamee
how a camel becomes a lion