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    1. A habit of the top 1% people is to make simple decisions fast, and think more carefully about the important ones.

      It optimizes energy.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors have studied the effects of platelets in OPC biology and remyelination. For this, they used mutant mice with lower levels of platelets as a demyelinating/remyelinating scenario, as well as in a model with large numbers of circulating platelets.

      Strengths:

      -The work is very focused, with defined objectives.<br /> -The work is properly done.

      Revision comments:

      Having consulted the new version of the work by Amber et al., the modifications and the point-by-point cover letter explaining them give direct answers to my previous comments.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This paper reported a protocol of using human-induced pluripotent stem cells to generate cells expressing microglia-enriched genes and responding to LPS by drastically upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Upon subretinal transplantation in mice, hiPSC-derived cells integrated into the host retina and maintained retinal homeostasis while they responded to RPE injury by migration, proliferation, and phagocytosis. The findings revealed the potential of using hiPSC-derived cell transplantation for microglia replacement as a therapeutic strategy for retinal diseases.

      Strengths:

      The paper demonstrates a method of consistently generating a significant quantity of hiPSC-derived microglia-like cells for in vitro study or for in vivo transplantation. RNAseq analysis offers an opportunity for comprehensive transcriptome profiling of the derived cells. It is impressive that following transplantation, these cells were well integrated into the retina, migrated to the corresponding layers, adopted microglia-like morphologies, and survived for a long term without generating apparent harm. The work has laid a foundation for future utilization of hiPSC-derived microglia in lab and clinical applications.

      Weaknesses:

      (1) The primary weakness of the paper concerns its conclusion of having generated "homogenous mature microglia", partly based on the RNAseq analysis. However, the comparison of gene profiles was carried out only between "hiPSC-derived mature microglia" and the proliferating myeloid progenitors. While the transcriptome profiles revealed a trend of enrichment of microglia-like gene expression in "hiPSC-derived mature microglia" compared to proliferating myeloid progenitors, this is not sufficient to claim they are "mature microglia". It is important that one carries out a comparative analysis of the RNAseq data with those of primary human microglia, which may be done by leveraging the public database. To convincingly claim these cells are mature microglia, questions to be addressed include how similar the molecular signatures of these cells are compared with the fully differentiated primary microglia cell or if they remain progenitor-like or take on mosaic properties, and how they distinguish from macrophages.

      (2) While the authors attempted to demonstrate the functional property of "hiPSC-derived mature microglia" in culture, they used LPS challenge, which is an inappropriate assay. This is because human microglia respond poorly to LPS alone but need to be activated by a combination of LPS with other factors, such as IFNγ. Their data that "hiPSC-derived mature microglia" showed robust responses to LPS indeed implicates that these cells do not behave like mature human microglia.

      (3) The resolution of Figs. 4 - 6 is so low that even some of the text and labels are hardly readable. Based on the morphology shown in Fig. 4 and the statement in line 147, these hiPSC-derived "cells altered their morphology to a rounded shape within an hour of incubation and rapidly internalized the fluorescent-labeled particles". This is a peculiar response. Usually, microglia do not respond to fluorescent-labeled zymosan by turning into a rounded-shaped morphology within an hour when they internalize them. Such a behavior usually implicates weak phagocytotic capacity.

      (4) Data presented in Fig. 5 are not very convincing to support that transplanted cells were immunopositive for "human CD11b (Fig.5C), as well as microglia signature markers P2ry12 and TMEM119 (Fig.5D)" (line 167). The resolution and magnification of Fig. 5D are too low to tell the colocalization of tdT and human microglial marker immunolabeling. In the flat-mount images (C, I), hCD11b immunolabeling is not visible in the GCL or barely visible in the IPL. This should be discussed.

      (5) Microglia respond to injury by becoming active and losing their expression of the resting state microglial marker, such as P2ry12, which is used in Fig. 6 for the detection of migrated microglia. To confirm that these cells indeed respond to injury like native microglia, one should check for activated microglial markers and induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the sodium iodate-injury model.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this paper, Behruznia and colleagues use long-read sequencing data for 335 strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to study genome evolution in this clonal bacterial pathogen. They use both a "classical" pangenome approach that looks at the presence and absence of genes, and a more general pangenome graph approach to investigate structural variants also in non-coding regions. The two main results of the study are that (1) the MTBC has a small pangenome with few accessory genes, and that (2) pangenome evolution is driven by deletions in sublineage-specific regions of difference. Combining the gene-based approach with a pangenome graph is innovative, and the former analysis is largely sound apart from a lack of information about the data set used. The graph part, however, requires more work and currently fails to support the second main result. Problems include the omission of important information and the confusing analysis of structural variants in terms of "regions of difference", which unnecessarily introduces reference bias. Overall, I very much like the direction taken in this article, but think that it needs more work: on the one hand by simply telling the reader what exactly was done, on the other by taking advantage of the information contained in the pangenome graph.

      Strengths:

      The authors put together a large data set of long-read assemblies representing most lineages of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis context, covering a large geographic area. State-of-the-art methods are used to analyze gene presence-absence polymorphisms (Panaroo) and to construct a pangenome graph (PanGraph). Additional analysis steps are performed to address known problems with misannotated or misassembled genes in pangenome analysis.

      Weaknesses:

      The study does not quite live up to the expectations raised in the introduction. Firstly, while the importance of using a curated data set is emphasized, little information is given about the data set apart from the geographic origin of the samples (Figure 1). A BUSCO analysis is conducted to filter for assembly quality, but no results are reported. It is also not clear whether the authors assembled genomes themselves in the cases where, according to Supplementary Table 1, only the reads were published but not the assemblies. In the end, we simply have to trust that single-contig assemblies based on long-reads are reliable.

      One issue with long read assemblies could be that high rates of sequencing errors result in artificial indels when coverage is low, which in turn could affect gene annotation and pangenome inference (e.g. Watson & Warr 2019, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41587-018-0004-z). Some of the older long-read data used by the authors could well be problematic (PacBio RSII), but also their own Nanopore assemblies, six of which have a mean coverage below 50 (Wick et al. 2023 recommend 200x for ONT, https://doi.org/ 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1010905). Could the results be affected by such assembly errors? Are there lineages, for example, for which there is an increased proportion of RSII data? Given the large heterogeneity in data quality on the NCBI, I think more information about the reads and the assemblies should be provided.

      The part of the paper I struggled most with is the pangenome graph analysis and the interpretation of structural variants in terms of "regions of difference". To start with, the method section states that "multiple whole genomes were aligned into a graph using PanGraph" (l.159/160), without stating which genomes were for what reason. From Figure 5 I understand that you included all genomes, and that Figure 6 summarizes the information at the sublineage level. This should be stated clearly, at present the reader has to figure out what was done. It was also not clear to me why the authors focus on the sublineage level: a minority of accessory genes (107 of 506) are "specific to certain lineages or sublineages" (l. 240), so why conclude that the pangenome is "driven by sublineage-specific regions of difference", as the title states? What does "driven by" mean? Instead of cutting the phylogeny arbitrarily at the sublineage level, polymorphisms could be described more generally by their frequencies.

      I fully agree that pangenome graphs are the way to go and that the non-coding part of the genome deserves as much attention as the coding part, as stated in the introduction. Here, however, the analysis of the pangenome graph consists of extracting variants from the graph and blasting them against the reference genome H37Rv in order to identify genes and "regions of difference" (RDs) that are variable. It is not clear what the authors do with structural variants that yield no blast hit against H37Rv. Are they ignored? Are they included as new "regions of difference"? How many of them are there? etc. The key advantage of pangenome graphs is that they allow a reference-free, full representation of genetic variation in a sample. Here reference bias is reintroduced in the first analysis step.

      Along similar lines, I find the interpretation of structural variants in terms of "regions of difference" confusing, and probably many people outside the TB field will do so. For one thing, it is not clear where these RDs and their names come from. Did the authors use an annotation of RDs in the reference genome H37Rv from previously published work (e.g. Bespiatykh et al. 2021)? This is important basic information, its lack makes it difficult to judge the validity of the results. The Bespiatykh et al. study uses a large short-read data (721 strains) set to characterize diversity in RDs and specifically focuses on the sublineage-specific variants. While the authors cite the paper, it would be relevant to compare the results of the two studies in more detail.

      As far as I understand, "regions of difference" have been used in the tuberculosis field to describe structural variants relative to the reference genome H37Rv. Colloquially, regions present in H37Rv but absent in another strain have been called "deletions". Whether these polymorphisms have indeed originated through deletion or through insertion in H37Rv or its ancestors requires a comparison with additional strains. While the pangenome graph does contain this information, the authors do not attempt to categorize structural variants into insertions and deletions but simply seem to assume that "regions of difference" are deletions. This, as well as the neglect of paralogs in the "classical" pangenome analysis, puts a question mark behind their conclusion that deletion drives pangenome evolution in the MTBC.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Li Zhang et al. characterized two new Gram-negative endolysins identified through an AMP-targeted search in bacterial proteomes. These endolysins exhibit broad lytic activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and retain significant antimicrobial activity even after prolonged exposure to high temperatures (100{degree sign}C for 1 hour). This stability is attributed to a temperature-reversible transition from a dimer to a monomer. The authors suggest several potential applications, such as complementing heat sterilization processes or being used in animal feed premixes that undergo high-temperature pelleting, which I agree with.

      Strengths:

      The claims are well-supported by relevant and complementary assays, as well as extensive bioinformatic analyses.

      Weaknesses:

      There are numerous statements in the introduction and discussion sections that I currently do not agree with and consider need to be addressed. Therefore, I recommend major revisions.

      Major comments:

      Introduction and Discussion:

      The introduction and the discussion are currently too general and not focused. Furthermore, there are some key concepts that are missing and are important for the reader to have an overview of the current state-of-the-art regarding endolysins that target gram-negatives. Specifically, the concepts of 'Artilysins', 'Innolysins', and 'Lysocins' are not introduced. Besides this, the authors do not mention other high-throughput mining or engineering strategies for endolysins, such as e.g. the VersaTile platform, which was initially developed by Hans Gerstmans et al. for one of the targeted pathogens in this manuscript (i.e., Acinetobacter baumannii). Recent works by Niels Vander Elst et al. have demonstrated that this VersaTile platform can be used to high-throughput screen and hit-to-lead select endolysins in the magnitude tens of thousands. Lastly, Roberto Vázquez et al. have recently demonstrated with bio-informatic analyses that approximately 30% of Gram-negative endolysin entries have AMP-like regions (hydrophobic short sequences), and that these entries are interesting candidates for further wet lab testing due to their outer membrane penetrating capacities. Therefore, I fully disagree with the statement being made in the introduction that endolysin strategies to target Gram-negatives are 'in its infancy' and I urge the authors to provide a new introduction that properly gives an overview of the Gram-negative endolysin field.

      Results:

      It should be mentioned that the halo assay is a qualitative assay for activity testing. I personally do not like that the size of the halos is used to discriminate in endolysin activity. In this reviewer's opinion, the size of the halo is highly dependent on (i) the molecular size of the endolysin as smaller proteins can diffuse further in the agar, and (ii) the affinity of the CBD subdomain of the endolysin for the bacterial peptidoglycan. It should also be said that in the halo assay, there is a long contact time between the endolysin and the bacteria that are statically embedded in the agar, which can result in false positive results. How did the authors mitigate this?

      Testing should have been done at equimolar concentrations. If the authors decided to e.g. test 50 µg/mL for each protein, how was this then compensated for differences in molecular weight? For example, if PHAb10 and PHAb11 have smaller molecular sizes than PHAb7, 8, and 9, there is more protein present in 50 µg/mL for the first two compared to the others, and this would explain the higher decrease in bacterial killing (and possibly the larger halos).

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors show that upon treatment with Doxorubicin (Doxo), there is an increase in senescence and inflammatory markers in the muscles. They also show these genes get upregulated in C2C12 myoblasts when treated with conditioned media or 15d-PGJ2. 15dPGJ2 induces cell death in the myoblasts, decreases proliferation (measured by cell numbers), and decreases differentiation and fusion. 15d-PGJ2 modified Cys184 of HRas, which is required for its activation as indicated by the FRET analysis with RAF RBD. They also showed that 15d-PGJ2 activates ERK signaling, but not Akt signaling, through the electrophilic center. 15d-PGJ2 inhibits Golgi localization of HRAS (only WT, not C181 or C184 mutant). They also showed that expressing the WT HRas followed by 15d-PGJ2 treatment led to a decrease in the levels of MHC mRNA and protein, and this defect is dependent on C184. This is a well-written manuscript with interesting insights into the mechanism of action of 15d-PGJ2. However, some clarification and experiments will help the paper advance the field significantly.

      Strengths:

      The data clearly shows that 15d-PGJ2 has a negative role in the myoblast cells and that it leads to modification of HRas protein. Moreover, the induction of biosynthetic enzymes in the PGD2 pathway also supports the induction of 15d-PGJ2 in Doxorubicin-treated cells. Both conditioned media experiments and the 15d-PGJ2 experiments show that 15d-PGJ2 could be the active component secreted by the senescent myoblasts.

      Weaknesses:

      The genes that are upregulated in the muscles upon injection with Doxo are also markers for inflammation. Since Doxo is also known to induce systemic inflammation, it is important to delineate these two effects (Inflammatory cells vs senescent cells). The expression of beta Gal and other markers of senescence in the tissue sections will help to delineate these.

      In Figure 2, where the defect in the differentiation of myoblasts upon treatment with 15d-PGJ2 is shown, most of the cells die within 48 hours at higher concentrations, making it difficult to perform the experiments. This also shows that 15d-PGJ2 was toxic to these cells. Lower concentrations show a decrease in the differentiation based on the lower number of nuclei in fibers and low expression of MyoD, MyoG, and MHC. However, it is unclear if this is due to increased cell death or defective differentiation. It would be a lot more informative if the cell count, cell division, and cell death could be plotted for these concentrations of the drug during the experiment. Also, in the myoblast experiments, are the effects of treatment with Dox reversible?

      In Figure 3, most of the experiments are done at a high concentration, which induces almost complete cell death within 48 hours. Even at such a high concentration of 15dPGJ2, the increase in ERK phosphorylation is minimal.

      The experiment Figure 4C shows that C181 and C84 mutants of the HRas show higher levels in Golgi compared with WT. However, this could very well be due to the defect in palmitoylation rather than the modification with 15d-PGJ2. Though the authors allude to the possibility that intracellular redistribution of HRas by 15d-PGJ2 requires C181 palmitoylation, the direct influence of C184 modification on C181 palmitoylation is not shown. To have a meaningful conclusion, the authors need to compare the palmitoylation and modification with 15d-PGJ2.

      To test if the inhibition of myoblast differentiation depends on HRas, they overexpressed the HRas and mutants in the C2C12 lines. However, this experiment does not take the endogenous HRAs into consideration, especially when interpreting the C184 mutant. An appropriate experiment to test this would be to knock down or knock out HRas (or make knock-in mutations of C184) and show that the effect of 15d-PGJ2 disappears. Moreover, in this specific experiment, it is difficult to interpret without a control with no HRas construct and another without the 15d-PGJ2 treatment.

      Moreover, the overall study does not delineate the toxic effects of 15d-PGJ2 from its effect on the differentiation.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Zheng et al. study the 'glass' transitions that occurs in proteins at ca. 200K using neutron diffraction and differential isotopic labeling (hydrogen/deuterium) of the protein and solvent. To overcome limitations in previous studies, this work is conducted in parallel with 4 proteins (myoglobin, cytochrome P450, lysozyme and green fluorescent protein) and experiments were performed at a range of instrument time resolutions (1ns - 10ps). The author's data looks compelling, and suggests that transitions in the protein and solvent behavior are not coupled and contrary to some previous reports, the apparent water transition temperature is a 'resolution effect'; i.e. instrument response limited. This is likely to be important in the field, as a reassessment of solvent 'slaving' and the role of the hydration shell on protein dynamics should be reassessed in light of these findings.

      Strengths:

      The use of multiple proteins and instruments with a rate of energy resolution/ timescales.

      Weaknesses:

      The paper could be organised to better allow the comparison of the complete dataset collected.<br /> The extent of hydration clearly influences the protein transition temperature. The authors suggest that "water can be considered here as lubricant or plasticizer which facilitates the motion of the biomolecule." This may be the case, but the extent of hydration may also alter the protein structure.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The present paper introduces Oscillation Component Analysis (OCA), in analogy to ICA, where source separation is underpinned by a biophysically inspired generative model. It puts the emphasis on oscillations, which is a prominent characteristic of neurophysiological data.

      Strengths:

      Overall, I find the idea of disambiguating data-driven decompositions by adding biophysical constrains useful, interesting and worth pursuing. The model incorporates both a component modelling of oscillatory responses that is agnostic about the frequency content (e.g. doesn't need bandpass filtering or predefinition of bands) and a component to map between sensor and latent-space. I feel these elements can be useful in practice.

      Weaknesses:

      Lack of empirical support: I am missing empirical justification of the advantages that are theoretically claimed in the paper. I feel the method needs to be compared to existing alternatives.

      Comments on the revised version: This concern has been addressed in the revised version.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This study identifies new types of interactions between Drosophila gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) and shows that these interactions influence sensory responses and behavior. The authors find that HCN, a hyperpolarization-activated cation channel, suppresses the activity of GRNs in which it is expressed, preventing those GRNs from depleting the sensillum potential, and thereby promotes the activity of neighboring GRNs in the same sensilla. HCN is expressed in sugar GRNs, so HCN dampens excitation of sugar GRNs and promotes excitation of bitter GRNs. Impairing HCN expression in sugar GRNs depletes the sensillum potential and decreases bitter responses, especially when flies are fed on a sugar-rich diet, and this leads to decreased bitter aversion in a feeding assay. The authors' conclusions are supported by genetic manipulations, electrophysiological recordings, and behavioral assays.

      Strengths:

      (1) Non-synaptic interactions between neurons that share an extracellular environment (sometimes called "ephaptic" interactions) have not been well-studied, and certainly not in the insect taste system. A major strength of this study is the new insight it provides into how these interactions can impact sensory coding and behavior.

      (2) The authors use many different types of genetic manipulations to dissect the role of HCN in GRN function, including mutants, RNAi, overexpression, ectopic expression, and neuronal silencing. Their results convincingly show that HCN impacts the sensillum potential and has both cell-autonomous and nonautonomous effects that go in opposite directions. Temporally controlled RNAi experiments suggest that the effect is not due to developmental changes. There are a couple of conflicting or counterintuitive results, but the authors discuss potential explanations.

      (3) Experiments comparing flies raised on different food sources suggest an explanation for why the system may have evolved the way that it did: when flies live in a sugar-rich environment, their bitter sensitivity decreases, and HCN expression in sugar GRNs helps to counteract this decrease. New experiments in the revised paper show the timecourse of how sugar diet affects GRN responses and sensillum potential.

      Weaknesses/Limitations:

      (1) The RNAi Gal80ts experiment only compares responses of experimental flies housed at different temperatures without showing control flies (e.g. Gal4/+ and UAS/+ controls) to confirm that observed differences are not due to nonspecific effects of temperature. Certainly temperature cannot account for sugar and bitter GRN firing rates changing in opposite directions, but it may have some kind of effect.

      (2) The experiments where flies are put on sugar vs. sorbitol food show that the diet clearly affects GRN responses and sensillum potential, even for food exposures as short as 1-4 hours, but it is not clear to what extent the GRNs in the labellum are being stimulated during those incubation periods. The flies are most likely not feeding over a 1 hour period if they were not starved beforehand, in which case it is not clear how many times the labellar GRNs would contact the food substrate.

      (3) The authors mention that HCN may impact the resting potential in addition to changing the excitability of the cell through various mechanisms. It would be informative to record the resting potential and other neuronal properties, but this is very difficult for GRNs, so the current study is not able to determine exactly how HCN affects GRN activity.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This study reports on the thermophilization of bird communities in a network of islands with varying areas and isolation in China. Using data from 10 years of transect surveys, the authors show that warm-adapted species tend to gradually replace cold-adapted species, both in terms of abundance and occurrence. The observed trends in colonisations and extinctions are related to the respective area and isolation of islands, showing an effect of fragmentation on the process of thermophilization.

      Strengths:

      Although thermophilization of bird communities has been already reported in different contexts, it is rare that this process can be related to habitat fragmentation, despite the fact that it has been hypothesized for a long time that it could play an important role. This is made possible thanks to a really nice study system in which the construction of a dam has created this incredible Thousand Islands lake. Here, authors do not simply take observed presence-absence as granted and instead develop an ambitious hierarchical dynamic multi-species occupancy model. Moreover, they carefully interpret their results in light of their knowledge of the ecology of the species involved.

      Weaknesses:

      Despite the clarity of this paper on many aspects, I see a strong weakness in the authors' hypotheses, which obscures the interpretation of their results. Looking at Figure 1, and in many sentences of the text, a strong baseline hypothesis is that thermophilization occurs because of an increasing colonisation rate of warm-adapted species and extinction rate of cold-adapted species. However, there does not need to be a temporal trend! Any warm-adapted species that colonizes a site has a positive net effect on CTI; similarly, any cold-adapted species that goes extinct contributes to thermophilization.

      Another potential weakness is that fragmentation is not clearly defined. Generally, fragmentation sensu lato involves both loss of habitat area and changes in the spatial structure of habitats (i.e. fragmentation per se). Here, both area and isolation are considered, which may be slightly confusing for the readers if not properly defined.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors isolated and cultured pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) and pulmonary artery adventitial fibroblasts (PAAF) of the lung samples derived from the patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and the healthy volunteers. They performed RNA-seq and proteomics analyses to detail the cellular communication between PASMC and PAAF, which are the main target cells of pulmonary vascular remodeling during the pathogenesis of PAH. The authors revealed that PASMC and PAAF retained their original cellular identity and acquired different states associated with the pathogenesis of PAH, respectively.

      Strengths:

      Although previous studies have shown that PASMC and PAAF cells each have an important role in the pathogenesis of PAH, there have been scarce reports focusing on the interactions between PASMC and PAAF. These findings may provide valuable information for elucidating the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

      Weaknesses:

      The results of proteome analysis using primary culture cells in this paper seem a bit insufficient to draw conclusions. In particular, the authors described "We elucidated the involvement of cellular crosstalk in regulating cell state dynamics and identified pentraxin-3 and hepatocyte growth factor as modulators of PASMC phenotypic transition orchestrated by PAAF." However, the presented data are considered limited and insufficient.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this study, the authors generated a novel transgenic mouse line OpalinP2A-Flpo-T2A-tTA2 to specifically label mature oligodendrocytes, and at the same time their embryonic origins by crossing with a progenitor cre mouse line. With this clever approach, they found that LGE/CGE-derived OLs make minimum contributions to the neocortex, whereas MGE/POA-derived OLs make a small but lasting contribution to the cortex. These findings are contradictory to the current belief that LGE/CGE-derived OPCs make a sustained contribution to cortical OLs, whereas MGE/POA-derived OPCs are completely eliminated. Thus, this study provides a revised and more comprehensive view on the embryonic origins of cortical oligodendrocytes. To specifically label mature oligodendrocytes, and at the same time their embryonic origins by crossing with a progenitor cre mouse line. With this clever approach, they found that LGE/CGE-derived OLs make minimum contributions to the neocortex, whereas MGE/POA-derived OLs make a small-but-lasting contribution to to cortex. These findings are contradictory to the current belief that LGE/CGE-derived OPCs make a sustained contribution to cortical OLs, whereas MGE/POA-derived OPCs are completely eliminated. Thus, this study has provided a revised and updated view on the embryonic origins of cortical oligodendrocytes.

      Strengths:

      The authors have generated a novel transgenic mouse line to specifically label mature differentiated oligodendrocytes, which is very useful for tracing the final destiny of mature myelinating oligodendrocytes. Also, the authors carefully compared the distribution of three progenitor cre mouse lines and suggested that Gsh-cre also labeled dorsal OLs, contrary to the previous suggestion that it only marks LGE-derived OPCs. In addition, the author also analyzed the relative contributions of OLs derived from three distinct progenitor domains in other forebrain regions (e.g. Pir, ac). Finally, the new transgenic mouse lines and established multiple combinatorial genetic models will facilitate future investigations of the developmental origins of distinct OL populations and their functional and molecular heterogeneity.

      Comments on latest version: In this revised and improved manuscript, the authors have adequately addressed my concerns, and I have no further issues to raise.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Gout, a prevalent form of arthritis among the elderly, exhibits an intricate relationship with age and gut microbiota. The authors found that gut microbiota plays a crucial role in determining susceptibility to age-related gout. They observed that age-related gut microbiota regulated the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and modulated uric acid metabolism. "Younger" microbiota has a positive impact on the gut microbiota structure of old or aged mice, enhancing butanoate metabolism and butyric acid content. Finally, they found butyric acid exerts a dual effect, inhibiting inflammation in acute gout and reducing serum uric acid levels. This work's insight emphasizes the potential of a "young" gut microbiome in mitigating senile gout. The whole study was interesting, but there were some minor errors in the overall writing of the paper. The author should carefully check the spelling of the words in the text and the case consistency of the group names.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      The paper submitted by Yogesh and Keller explores the role of cholinergic input from the basal forebrain (BF) in the mouse primary visual cortex (V1). The study aims to understand the signals conveyed by BF cholinergic axons in the visual cortex, their impact on neurons in different cortical layers, and their computational significance in cortical visual processing. The authors employed two-photon calcium imaging to directly monitor cholinergic input from BF axons expressing GCaMP6 in mice running through a virtual corridor, revealing a strong correlation between BF axonal activity and locomotion. This persistent activation during locomotion suggests that BF input provides a binary locomotion state signal. To elucidate the impact of cholinergic input on cortical activity, the authors conducted optogenetic and chemogenetic manipulations, with a specific focus on L2/3 and L5 neurons. They found that cholinergic input modulates the responses of L5 neurons to visual stimuli and visuomotor mismatch, while not significantly affecting L2/3 neurons. Moreover, the study demonstrates that BF cholinergic input leads to decorrelation in the activity patterns of L2/3 and L5 neurons.

      This topic has garnered significant attention in the field, drawing the interest of many researchers actively investigating the role of BF cholinergic input in cortical activity and sensory processing. The experiments and analyses were thoughtfully designed and conducted with rigorous standards, providing evidence of layer-specific differences in the impact of cholinergic input on neuronal responses to bottom-up (visual stimuli) and top-down inputs (visuomotor mismatch).

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The circuit mechanism underlying the formation of grid cell activity and the organization of grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) is still unclear. To understand the mechanism, the current study investigated synaptic interactions between stellate cells (SC) and PV+ interneurons (IN) in layer 2 of the MEC by combing optogenetic activations and paired patch-clamp recordings. The results convincingly demonstrated highly structured interactions between these neurons: specific and direct excitatory-inhibitory interactions existed at the scale of grid cell phase clusters, and indirect interactions occurred at the scale of grid modules.

      Strengths:

      Overall, the manuscript is very well written, the approaches used are clever, and the data were thoroughly analyzed. The study conveyed important information for understanding the circuit mechanism that shapes grid cell activity. It is important not only for the field of MEC and grid cells, but also for broader fields of continuous attractor networks and neural circuits.

      Weaknesses:

      (1) The study largely relies on the fact that ramp-like wide-field optogenetic stimulation and focal optogenetic activation both drove asynchronous action potentials in SCs, and therefore, if a pair of PV+ INs exhibited correlated activity, they should receive common inputs. However, it is unclear what criteria/thresholds were used to determine the level of activity asynchronization, and under these criteria, what percentage of cells actually showed synchronized or less asynchronized activity. A notable percentage of synchronized or less asynchronized SCs could complicate the results, i.e., PV+ INs with correlated activity could receive inputs from different SCs (different inputs), which had synchronized activity. More detailed information/statistics about the asynchronization of SC activity is necessary for interpreting the results.

      (2) The hypothesis about the "direct excitatory-inhibitory" synaptic interactions is made based on the GABAzine experiments in Figure 4. In the Figure 8 diagram, the direct interaction is illustrated between PV+ INs and SCs. However, the evidence supporting this "direct interaction" between these two cell types is missing. Is it possible that pyramidal cells are also involved in this interaction? Some pieces of evidence or discussions are necessary to further support the "direction interaction".

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this very interesting study, Agha and colleagues show that two types of Chx10-positive neurons (V2a neurons) have different anatomical and electrophysiological properties and receive distinct patterns of excitatory and inhibitory inputs as a function of speed during fictive swimming in the larval zebrafish. Using single cell fills they show that one cell type has a descending axon ("descending V2as"), while the other cell type has both a descending axon and an ascending axon ("bifurcating V2as"). In the Chx10:GFP line, descending V2as display strong GFP labeling, while bifurcating V2as display weak GFP labeling. The bifurcating V2as are located more laterally in the spinal cord. These two cell types have different electrophysiological properties as revealed by patch-clamp recordings. Positive current steps indicated that descending V2as comprise tonic spiking or bursting neurons. Bifurcating V2as comprise chattering or bursting neurons. The two types of V2a neurons display different recruitment patterns as a function of speed. Descending tonic and bifurcating chattering neurons are recruited at the beginning of the swimming bout, at fast speeds (swimming frequency above 30 Hz). Descending bursting neurons were preferentially recruited at the end of swimming bouts, at low speeds (swimming frequency below 30 Hz), while bifurcating bursting neurons were recruited for a broader swimming frequency range. The two types of V2a neurons receive distinct patterns of excitatory and inhibitory inputs during fictive locomotion. In descending V2as, when speed increases: i) excitatory conductances increase in fast neurons and decreases in slow neurons; ii) inhibitory conductances increase in fast neurons and increases in slow neurons. In bifurcating V2as, when speed increases: i) excitatory conductances increase in fast neurons but does not change in slow neurons; ii) inhibitory conductances increase in fast neurons and does not change in slow neurons. The timing of excitatory and inhibitory inputs was then studied. In descending V2as, fast neurons receive excitatory and inhibitory inputs that are in anti-phase with low contrast in amplitude and are both broadly distributed over the phase. The slow neurons receive two peaks of inhibition, one in anti-phase with the excitatory inputs and another just after the excitation. In bifurcating V2as, fast neurons receive two peaks of inhibition, while the slow ones receive anti-phase inhibition. They also show that silencing Dmrt3-labeled dI6 interneurons disrupted rhythm generation selectively at high speed.

      Strengths:

      This study focuses on the diversity of V2a neurons in zebrafish, an interesting cell population playing important roles in locomotor control and beyond, from fish to mammal. The authors provide compelling evidence that two subtypes of V2as show distinct anatomical, electrophysiological, speed-dependent spiking activity, and receive distinct synaptic inputs as a function of speed. This opens the door to future investigation of the inputs and outputs of these neurons. Finding ways to activate or inhibit specifically these cells would be very helpful in the years to come. The authors also provide an interesting speed-dependent circuit mechanism for rhythm generation.

      Weaknesses:

      No major weakness detected. The experiments were carefully done, and the data are of high quality.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      While there are many models for sequence retrieval, it has been difficult to find models that vary the speed of sequence retrieval dynamically via simple external inputs. While recent works have proposed some mechanisms, the authors here propose a different one based on heterogeneous plasticity rules. Temporally symmetric plasticity kernels (that do not distinguish between the order of pre and post spikes, but only their time difference) are expected to give rise to attractor states, asymmetric ones to sequence transitions. The authors incorporate a rate-based, discrete-time analog of these spike-based plasticity rules to learn the connections between neurons (leading to connections similar to Hopfield networks for attractors and sequences). They use either a parametric combination of symmetric and asymmetric learning rules for connections into each neuron, or separate subpopulations having only symmetric or asymmetric learning rules on incoming connections. They find that the latter is conducive to enabling external inputs to control the speed of sequence retrieval.

      Comments on revised version:

      The authors have addressed most of the points of the reviewers.

      A major substantive point raised by both reviewers was on the biological plausibility of the learning.

      The authors have added a section in the Discussion. This remains an open question, however the discussion suffices for the current paper.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This study examined the role of a prefrontal cortex cell type in active avoidance behavior. The authors conduct a series of behavioral experiments incorporating fiber photometry and optogenetic silencing. The results indicate that prefrontal parvalbumin (PV) neurons play a permissive role in performing signaled active avoidance learning, for which details are sorely lacking. Notably, infralimbic parvalbumin activity resolves incompatible defensive responses to threat by suppressing conditional freezing in order to permit active instrumental controlling responses. The overall findings provide a significant contribution to our understanding of mechanisms that support aversively motivated instrumental learning and may provide insight into both stress vulnerability and resilience processes.

      Strengths:

      The writing and presentation of data is clear. The authors use a number of temporally-relevant methods and analyses that identify a novel prefrontal mechanism in resolving the conflict between competing actions (freezing vs escape avoidance). The authors conduct an extensive number of experiments to demonstrate that the uncovered prefrontal mechanism is selective for the initiation of avoidance under threat circumstances, not reward settings or general features of movement.

      Weaknesses:

      The study exclusively focuses on parvalbumin cells, thus questions remain whether the present findings are specific to parvalbumin or applicable to other prefrontal interneuron subtypes. The exact mechanisms that coordinate infralimbic parvalbumin cell activity and threat avoidance behavior are not explored.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Peterson et al., present a series of experiments in which the Pavlovian performance (i.e. time spent at a food cup/port) of male and female rats is assessed in various tasks in which context/cue/outcome relationships are altered. The authors find no sex differences in context-irrelevant tasks, and no such differences in tasks in which the context signals that different cues will earn different outcomes. They do find sex differences, however, when a single outcome is given and context cues must be used to ascertain which cue will be rewarded with that outcome (Ctx-dep O1 task). Specifically, they find that males acquired the task faster, but that once acquired, performance of the task was more resilient in female rats against exposures to a stressor. Finally, they show that these sex differences are reflected in differential rates of c-fos expression in all three subregions of rat OFC, medial, lateral and ventral, in the sense that it is higher in females than males, and only in the animals subject to the Ctx-dep O1 task in which sex differences were observed.

      Strengths:

      • Well written<br /> • Experiments elegantly designed<br /> • Robust statistics<br /> • Behaviour is the main feature of this manuscript, rather than any flashy techniques or fashionable lab methodologies, and luckily the behaviour is done really well.<br /> • For the most part I think the conclusions were well supported, although I do have some slightly different interpretations to the authors in places.

      Weaknesses:

      The authors have done an excellent job of addressing all previous weaknesses. I have no further comments.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This interesting study investigates the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the stable operation and maintenance of functionally appropriate rhythmic motor patterns during changing environmental conditions - temperature in this study in the crab Cancer borealis stomatogastric neural pattern generating network producing the pyloric motor rhythm, which is naturally subjected to temperature perturbations over a substantial range. This study is relevant to the general problem that some rhythmic motor systems adjust to changing environmental conditions and state changes by increasing the cycle frequency in a smooth monotonic fashion while maintaining the relative timing of different network activity pattern phases that determine proper motor coordination. How this is achieved mechanistically in complex dynamic motor networks is not understood, particularly how the frequency and phase adjustments are achieved as conditions change while avoiding operational instabilities on different time scales. The authors specifically studied the contributions of the hyperpolarization-activated inward current (Ih), which is involved in rhythm control, to the adjustments of frequency and phases in the pyloric rhythmic pattern as the temperature was altered from 11 degrees C to 21 degrees C. They present strong evidence that this current is a critical biophysical feature in the ability of this system to adjust transiently and persistently to temperature perturbations appropriately. After blocking Ih in the pyloric network with cesium, the network was unable to reliably produce its characteristic rapid and smooth increase in the frequency of the triphasic rhythmic motor pattern in response to increasing temperature or its typical steady-state increase in frequency over this Q10 temperature range.

      Strengths:

      (1) The authors addressed this problem by technically rigorous experiments in the crab Cancer borealis stomatogastric ganglion (STG) in vitro, which readily allows for neuronal activity recording in a behaviorally and architecturally defined rhythmic neural circuit in conjunction with the application of blockers of Ih and synaptic receptors to disrupt circuit interactions. This approach is an effective way to experimentally investigate how complex rhythmic networks, at least in poikilotherms, mechanistically adjust to environmental perturbations such as temperature.

      (2) While previous work demonstrated that Ih increases in pyloric neurons as temperature increases, the authors here establish that this increase is necessary for normal responses of STG neural activity to temperature, which consist of a smooth monotonic increase in the frequency of rhythmic activity with increasing temperature.

      (3) The data shows that blocking Ih with cesium causes the frequency to transiently decrease ("jags") when the temperature increases and then increases after the temperature stabilizes at a steady state, revealing a non-monotonic frequency response to temperature perturbations.

      (4) The authors dissect some of the underlying neuronal and circuit dynamics, presenting evidence that after blocking Ih, the non-monotonic jags in the frequency response are mediated by intrinsic properties of pacemaker neurons, while in the steady state, Ih determined the overall frequency change (i.e., temperature sensitivity) through network interactions.

      (5) The authors' results highlight the existence of more complex dynamic responses to increasing temperature for the first time, suggesting a longer timescale process than previously recognized that may result from interactions between multiple channels and/or ion channel kinetics.

      Weaknesses:

      The involvement of Ih in achieving the frequency and phase adjustments as conditions change and allowing smooth transitions to avoid operational instabilities in other complex rhythmic motor netReviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Using the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system (STNS), the authors present an interesting study wherein the contribution of the Ih current to temperature-induced changes in the frequency of a rhythmically active neural circuit is evaluated. Ih is a hyperpolarization-activated cation current that depolarizes neurons. Under normal conditions, increasing the temperature of the STNS increases the frequency of the spontaneously active pyloric rhythm. Notably, under normal conditions, as temperature systematically increases, the concomitant increase in pyloric frequency is smooth (i.e., monotonic). By contrast, blocking Ih with extracellular cesium produces temperature-induced pyloric frequency changes that follow a characteristic sawtooth response (i.e., non-monotonic). That is, in cesium, increasing temperature initially results in a transient drop in pyloric frequency that then stabilizes at a higher frequency. Thus, the authors conclude that Ih establishes a mechanism that ensures smooth changes in neural network frequency during environmental disturbances, a feature that likely bestows advantages to the animal's function.

      The study describes several surprising and interesting findings. In general, the study's primary observation of the cesium-induced sawtooth response is remarkable. To my knowledge, this type of response has not yet been described in neurobiological systems, and I suspect that the unexpected response will be of interest to many readers.

      At first glance, I had some concerns regarding the use of extracellular cesium to understand network phenomena. Yes, extracellular cesium blocks Ih. But extracellular cesium has also been shown to block astrocytic potassium channels, at least in mammalian systems (i.e., K-IR, PMID: 10601465), and such a blockade can elevate extracellular potassium. I was heartened to see that the authors acknowledge the non-specificity of cesium (lines 320-325) and I agree with the authors' contention that "a first approximation most of the effects seen here can likely be attributed to Cs+ block of Ih". Upon reflecting on the potential confound, I was also reassured to see that extracellular cesium alone does not increase pyloric frequency, an effect that might be expected if cesium indirectly raises [K+]outside. I suggest including that point in the discussion.

      In summary, the authors present a solid investigation of a surprising biological phenomenon. In general, my comments are fairly minor. This is an interesting study.

      Strengths:

      A major strength of the study is the identification of an ionic conductance that mediates stable, monotonic changes in oscillatory frequency that accompany changes in the environment (i.e., temperature).

      Weaknesses:

      A potential experimental concern stems from the use of extracellular cesium to attribute network effects specifically to Ih. Previous work has shown that extracellular cesium also blocks inward-rectifier potassium channels expressed by astrocytes, and that such blockade may also elevate extracellular potassium, an action that generally depolarizes neurons. Notably, the authors address this potential concern in the discussion.works, for example, in homeotherms, is not established, so the present results may have limited general extrapolations.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      This work successfully identified and validated TRLs in hepatic metastatic uveal melanoma, providing new horizons for enhanced immunotherapy. Uveal melanoma is a highly metastatic cancer that, unlike cutaneous melanoma, has a limited effect on immune checkpoint responses, and thus there is a lack of formal clinical treatment for metastatic UM. In this manuscript, the authors described the immune microenvironmental profile of hepatic metastatic uveal melanoma by sc-RNAseq, TCR-seq, and PDX models. Firstly, they identified and defined the phenotypes of tumor-reactive T lymphocytes (TRLs). Moreover, they validated the activity of TILs by in vivo PDX modeling as well as in vitro co-culture of 3D tumorsphere cultures and autologous TILs. Additionally, the authors found that TRLs are mainly derived from depleted and late-activated T cells, which recognize melanoma antigens and tumor-specific antigens. Most importantly, they identified TRLs-associated phenotypes, which provide new avenues for targeting expanded T cells to improve cellular and immune checkpoint immunotherapy.

      Comments on revised manuscript

      The revised manuscript has addressed all my concerns.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This is large-scale genomics and transcriptomics study of the epidemic community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus clone USA300, designed to identify core genome mutations that drove the emergence of the clone. It used publicly available datasets and a combination of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and independent principal-component analysis (ICA) of RNA-seq profiles to compare USA300 versus non-USA300 within clonal complex 8. By overlapping the analyses the authors identified a 38bp deletion upstream of the iron-scavenging surface-protein gene isdH that was both significantly associated with the USA300 lineage and with a decreased transcription of the gene.

      Strengths:

      Several genomic studies have investigated genomic factors driving the emergence of successful S. aureus clones, in particular USA300. These studies have often focussed on acquisition of key accessory genes or have focussed on a small number of strains. This study makes a smart use of publicly available repositories to leverage the sample size of the analysis and identify new genomics markers of USA300 success.

      The approach of combining large-scale genomics and transcriptomics analysis is powerful, as it allows to make some inferences on the impact of the mutations. This is particular important for mutations in intergenic regions, whose functional impact is often uncertain.

      The statistical genomics approaches are elegant and state-of-the-art and can be easily applied to other contexts or pathogens.

      Weaknesses:

      The main weakness of this work is that these data don't allow a casual inference on the role of isdH in driving the emergence of USA300. It is of course impossible to prove which mutation or gene drove the success of the clone, however, experimental data would have strengthen the conclusions of the authors in my opinion.

      Another limitation of this approach is that the approach taken here doesn't allow to make any conclusions on the adaptive role of the isdH mutation. In other words, it is still possible that the mutation is just a marker of USA300 success, due to other factors such as PVL, ACMI or the SCCmecIVa. This is because by its nature this analysis is heavy influenced by population structure. Usually, GWAS is applied to find genetic loci that are associated with a phenotype and are independent of the underlying population structure. Here, authors are using GWAS to find loci that are associated with a lineage. In other words, they are simply running a univariate analysis (likely a logistic regression) between genetic loci and the lineage without any correction for population structure, since population structure is the outcome. Therefore, this approach can't be applied to most phenotype-genotype studies where correction for population structure is critical.

      Finally, the approach used is complex and not easily reproduced to another dataset. Although I like DBGWAS and find the network analysis elegant, I would be interested in seeing how a simpler GWAS tool like Pyseer would perform.

    1. Joint Public Review:

      The present study explored the principles that allow cells to maintain complex subcellular proteinaceous structures despite the limited lifetimes of the individual protein components. This is particularly critical in the case of neurons, where the size and protein composition of synapses define synaptic strength and encode memory.

      PSD95 is an abundant synapse protein that acts as a scaffold in the recruitment of transmitter receptors and other signaling proteins and is required for proper memory formation. The authors used super-resolution microscopy to study PSD95 super-complexes isolated from the brains of mice expressing tagged PSD variants (Halo-Tag, mEos, GFP). Their results show compellingly that a large fraction (~25%) of super-complexes contains two PSD95 copies about 13 nm apart, that there is substantial turnover of PSD95 proteins in super-complexes over a period of seven days, and that ~5-20% of the super-complexes contain new and old PSD95 molecules. This percentage is higher in synaptic fractions as compared to total brain lysates, and highest in isocortex samples (~20%). These important findings support the notion put forward by Crick that sequential subunit replacement gives synaptic super-complexes long lifetimes and thus aids in memory maintenance. Overall, this is very interesting, providing key insights into how synaptic protein complexes are formed and maintained. On the other hand, the actual role of these PSD95 super-complexes in long-term memory storage remains unknown.

      Strengths

      (1) The study employed an appropriate and validated methodology.

      (2) Large numbers of PSD95 super-complexes from three different mouse models were imaged and analyzed, providing adequately powered sample sizes.

      (3) State-of-the-art super-resolution imaging techniques (PALM and MINFLUX) were used, providing a robust, high-quality, cross-validated analysis of PSD95 protein complexes that is useful for the community.

      (4) The result that PSD95 proteins in dimeric complexes are on average 12.7 nm apart is useful and has implications for studies on the nanoscale organization of PSD95 at synapses.

      (5) The finding that postsynaptic protein complexes can continue to exist while individual components are being renewed is important for our understanding of synapse maintenance and stability.

      (6) The data on the turnover rate of PSD95 in super-complexes from different brain regions provide a first indication of potentially meaningful differences in the lifetime of super-complexes between brain regions.

      Weaknesses

      (1) The manuscript emphasizes the hypothesis that stable super-complexes, maintained through sequential replacement of subunits, might underlie the long-term storage of memory. While an interesting idea, this notion requires considerably more research. The presented experimental data are indeed consistent with this notion, but there is no evidence that these complexes are causally related to memory storage.

      (2) Much of the presented work is performed on biochemically isolated protein complexes. The biochemical isolation procedures rely on physical disruption and detergents that are known to alter the composition and structure of complexes in certain cases. Thus, it remains unclear how the protein complexes described in this study relate to PSD95 complexes in intact synapses.

      (3) Because not all GFP molecules mature and fold correctly in vitro and the PSD95-mEos mice used were heterozygous, the interpretation of the corresponding quantifications is not straightforward.

      (4) It was not tested whether different numbers of PSD95 molecules per super-complex might contribute to different retention times of PSD95, e.g. in synaptic vs. total-forebrain super-complexes.

      (5) The conclusion that the population of 'mixed' synapses is higher in the isocortex than in other brain regions is not supported by statistical analysis.

      (6) The validity of conclusions regarding PSD95 degradation based on relative changes in the occurrence of SiR-Halo-positive puncta is limited.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Bowler et al. present a thoroughly tested system for modularized behavioral control of navigation-based experiments, particularly suited for pairing with 2-photon imaging but applicable to a variety of techniques. This system, which they name behaviorMate, represents a valuable contribution to the field. As the authors note, behavioral control paradigms vary widely across laboratories in terms of hardware and software utilized and often require specialized technical knowledge to make changes to these systems. Having a standardized, easy-to-implement, and flexible system that can be used by many groups is therefore highly desirable. This work will be of interest to systems neuroscientists looking to integrate flexible head-fixed behavioral control with neural data acquisition.

      Strengths:

      The present manuscript provides compelling evidence of the functionality and applicability of behaviorMate. The authors report benchmark tests for real-time update speed between the animal's movement and the behavioral control, on both the treadmill-based and virtual reality (VR) setups. Further, they nicely demonstrate and quantify reliable hippocampal place cell coding in both setups, using synchronized 2-photon imaging. This place cell characterization also provides a concrete comparison between the place cell properties observed in treadmill-based navigation vs. visual VR in a single study, which itself is a helpful contribution to the field.

      Documentation for installing and operating behaviorMate is available via the authors' lab website and linked in the manuscript.

      Weaknesses:

      The following comments are mostly minor suggestions intended to add clarity to the paper and provide context for its significance.

      (1) As VRMate (a component of behaviorMate) is written using Unity, what is the main advantage of using behaviorMate/VRMate compared to using Unity alone paired with Arduinos (e.g. Campbell et al. 2018), or compared to using an existing toolbox to interface with Unity (e.g. Alsbury-Nealy et al. 2022, DOI: 10.3758/s13428-021-01664-9)? For instance, one disadvantage of using Unity alone is that it requires programming in C# to code the task logic. It was not entirely clear whether VRMate circumvents this disadvantage somehow -- does it allow customization of task logic and scenery in the GUI? Does VRMate add other features and/or usability compared to Unity alone? It would be helpful if the authors could expand on this topic briefly.

      (2) The section on "context lists", lines 163-186, seemed to describe an important component of the system, but this section was challenging to follow and readers may find the terminology confusing. Perhaps this section could benefit from an accompanying figure or flow chart, if these terms are important to understand.

      (2a) Relatedly, "context" is used to refer to both when the animal enters a particular state in the task like a reward zone ("reward context", line 447) and also to describe a set of characteristics of an environment (Figure 3G), akin to how "context" is often used in the navigation literature. To avoid confusion, one possibility would be to use "environment" instead of "context" in Figure 3G, and/or consider using a word like "state" instead of "context" when referring to the activation of different stimuli.

      (3) Given the authors' goal of providing a system that is easily synchronizable with neural data acquisition, especially with 2-photon imaging, I wonder if they could expand on the following features:

      (3a) The authors mention that behaviorMate can send a TTL to trigger scanning on the 2P scope (line 202), which is a very useful feature. Can it also easily generate a TTL for each frame of the VR display and/or each sample of the animal's movement? Such TTLs can be critical for synchronizing the imaging with behavior and accounting for variability in the VR frame rate or sampling rate.

      (3b) Is there a limit to the number of I/O ports on the system? This might be worth explicitly mentioning.

      (3c) In the VR version, if each display is run by a separate Android computer, is there any risk of clock drift between displays? Or is this circumvented by centralized control of the rendering onset via the "real-time computer"?

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Qin and colleagues analysed data from the Human Connectome Project on four right-handed subgroups with different gyrification patterns in Heschl's gyrus. Based on these groups, the authors highlight the structure-function relationship of planum temporale asymmetry in lateralised language processing at the group level and next at the individual level. In particular, the authors propose that especially microstructural asymmetries are related to functional auditory language asymmetries in the planum temporale.

      Strengths:

      The study is interesting because of an ongoing and long-standing debate about the relationship between structural and functional brain asymmetries, and in particular whether structural brain asymmetries can be seen as markers of functional language brain lateralisation.

      In this debate, the relationship between Heschl's gyrus asymmetry and planum temporale asymmetry is rare and therefore valuable here. A large sample size and inter-rater reliability support the findings.

      Weaknesses:

      In this case of multiple brain measures, it would be important to provide the reader with some sort of effect size (e.g. Cohen's d) to help interpret the results. In addition, the authors highlight the microstructural results in spite of the macrostructural results. However, the macrostructural surface results are also strong. I would suggest either reducing the emphasis on micro vs macrostructural results or adding information to justify the microstructural importance.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this study, the authors trained a variational autoencoder (VAE) to create a high-dimensional "voice latent space" (VLS) using extensive voice samples, and analyzed how this space corresponds to brain activity through fMRI studies focusing on the temporal voice areas (TVAs). Their analyses included encoding and decoding techniques, as well as representational similarity analysis (RSA), which showed that the VLS could effectively map onto and predict brain activity patterns, allowing for the reconstruction of voice stimuli that preserve key aspects of speaker identity.

      Strengths:

      This paper is well-written and easy to follow. Most of the methods and results were clearly described. The authors combined a variety of analytical methods in neuroimaging studies, including encoding, decoding, and RSA. In addition to commonly used DNN encoding analysis, the authors performed DNN decoding and resynthesized the stimuli using VAE decoders. Furthermore, in addition to machine learning classifiers, the authors also included human behavioral tests to evaluate the reconstruction performance.

      Weaknesses:

      This manuscript presents a variational autoencoder (VAE) to evaluate voice identity representations from brain recordings. However, the study's scope is limited by testing only one model, leaving unclear how generalizable or impactful the findings are. The preservation of identity-related information in the voice latent space (VLS) is expected, given the VAE model's design to reconstruct original vocal stimuli. Nonetheless, the study lacks a deeper investigation into what specific aspects of auditory coding these latent dimensions represent. The results in Figure 1c-e merely tested a very limited set of speech features. Moreover, there is no analysis of how these features and the whole VAE model perform in standard speech tasks like speech recognition or phoneme recognition. It is not clear what kind of computations the VAE model presented in this work is capable of. Inclusion of comparisons with state-of-the-art unsupervised or self-supervised speech models known for their alignment with auditory cortical responses, such as Wav2Vec2, HuBERT, and Whisper, would strengthen the validation of the VAE model and provide insights into its relative capabilities and limitations.

      The claim that the VLS outperforms a linear model (LIN) in decoding tasks does not significantly advance our understanding of the underlying brain representations. Given the complexity of auditory processing, it is unsurprising that a nonlinear model would outperform a simpler linear counterpart. The study could be improved by incorporating a comparative analysis with alternative models that differ in architecture, computational strategies, or training methods. Such comparisons could elucidate specific features or capabilities of the VLS, offering a more nuanced understanding of its effectiveness and the computational principles it embodies. This approach would allow the authors to test specific hypotheses about how different aspects of the model contribute to its performance, providing a clearer picture of the shared coding in VLS and the brain.

      The manuscript overlooks some crucial alternative explanations for the discriminant representation of vocal identity. For instance, the discriminant representation of vocal identity can be either a higher-level abstract representation or a lower-level coding of pitch height. Prior studies using fMRI and ECoG have identified both types of representation within the superior temporal gyrus (STG) (e.g., Tang et al., Science 2017; Feng et al., NeuroImage 2021). Additionally, the methodology does not clarify whether the stimuli from different speakers contained identical speech content. If the speech content varied across speakers, the approach of averaging trials to obtain a mean vector for each speaker-the "identity-based analysis"-may not adequately control for confounding acoustic-phonetic features. Notably, the principal component 2 (PC2) in Figure 1b appears to correlate with absolute pitch height, suggesting that some aspects of the model's effectiveness might be attributed to simpler acoustic properties rather than complex identity-specific information.

      Methodologically, there are issues that warrant attention. In characterizing the autoencoder latent space, the authors initialized logistic regression classifiers 100 times and calculated the t-statistics using degrees of freedom (df) of 99. Given that logistic regression is a convex optimization problem typically converging to a global optimum, these multiple initializations of the classifier were likely not entirely independent. Consequently, the reported degrees of freedom and the effect size estimates might not accurately reflect the true variability and independence of the classifier outcomes. A more careful evaluation of these aspects is necessary to ensure the statistical robustness of the results.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Lu & Golomb combined EEG, artificial neural networks, and multivariate pattern analyses to examine how different visual variables are processed in the brain. The conclusions of the paper are mostly well supported, but some aspects of methods and data analysis would benefit from clarification and potential extensions.

      The authors find that not only real-world size is represented in the brain (which was known), but both retinal size and real-world depth are represented, at different time points or latencies, which may reflect different stages of processing. Prior work has not been able to answer the question of real-world depth due to the stimuli used. The authors made this possible by assessing real-world depth and testing it with appropriate methodology, accounting for retinal and real-world size. The methodological approach combining behavior, RSA, and ANNs is creative and well thought out to appropriately assess the research questions, and the findings may be very compelling if backed up with some clarifications and further analyses.

      The work will be of interest to experimental and computational vision scientists, as well as the broader computational cognitive neuroscience community as the methodology is of interest and the code is or will be made available. The work is important as it is currently not clear what the correspondence between many deep neural network models and the brain is, and this work pushes our knowledge forward on this front. Furthermore, the availability of methods and data will be useful for the scientific community.

      Some analyses are incomplete, which would be improved if the authors showed analyses with other layers of the networks and various additional partial correlation analyses.

      Clarity

      (1) Partial correlations methods incomplete - it is not clear what is being partialled out in each analysis. It is possible to guess sometimes, but it is not entirely clear for each analysis. This is important as it is difficult to assess if the partial correlations are sensible/correct in each case. Also, the Figure 1 caption is short and unclear.

      For example, ANN-EEG partial correlations - "Finally, we directly compared the timepoint-by-timepoint EEG neural RDMs and the ANN RDMs (Figure 3F). The early layer representations of both ResNet and CLIP were significantly correlated with early representations in the human brain" What is being partialled out? Figure 3F says partial correlation

      Issues / open questions

      (2) Semantic representations vs hypothesized (hyp) RDMs (real-world size, etc) - are the representations explained by variables in hyp RDMs or are there semantic representations over and above these? E.g., For ANN correlation with the brain, you could partial out hyp RDMs - and assess whether there is still semantic information left over, or is the variance explained by the hyp RDMs?

      (3) Why only early and late layers? I can see how it's clearer to present the EEG results. However, the many layers in these networks are an opportunity - we can see how simple/complex linear/non-linear the transformation is over layers in these models. It would be very interesting and informative to see if the correlations do in fact linearly increase from early to later layers, or if the story is a bit more complex. If not in the main text, then at least in the supplement.

      (4) Peak latency analysis - Estimating peaks per ppt is presumably noisy, so it seems important to show how reliable this is. One option is to find the bootstrapped mean latencies per subject.

      (5) "Due to our calculations being at the object level, if there were more than one of the same objects in an image, we cropped the most complete one to get a more accurate retinal size. " Did EEG experimenters make sure everyone sat the same distance from the screen? and remain the same distance? This would also affect real-world depth measures.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Kv2 subfamily potassium channels contribute to delayed rectifier currents in virtually all mammalian neurons and are encoded by two distinct types of subunits: Kv2 alpha subunits that have the capacity to form homomeric channels (Kv2.1 and Kv2.2), and KvS or silent subunits (Kv5,6,8.9) that can assemble with Kv2.1 or Kv2.2 to form heteromeric channels with novel biophysical properties. Many neurons express both types of subunits and therefore have the capacity to make both homomeric Kv2 channels and heteromeric Kv2/KvS channels. Determining the contributions of each of these channel types to native potassium currents has been very difficult because the differences in biophysical properties are modest and there are no Kv2/KvS-specific pharmacological tools. The authors set out to design a strategy to separate Kv2 and Kv2/KvS currents in native neurons based on their observation that Kv2/KvS channels have little sensitivity to the Kv2 pore blocker RY785 but are blocked by the Kv2 VSD blocker GxTx. They clearly demonstrate that Kv2/KvS currents can be differentiated from Kv2 currents in native neurons using a two-step strategy to first selectively block Kv2 with RY785, and then block both with GxTx. The manuscript is beautifully written; takes a very complex problem and strategy and breaks it down so both channel experts and the broad neuroscience community can understand it.

      Strengths:

      The compounds the authors use are highly selective and unlikely to have significant confounding cross-reactivity to other channel types. The authors provide strong evidence that all Kv2/KvS channels are resistant to RY785. This is a strength of the strategy - it can likely identify Kv2/KvS channels containing any of the 10 mammalian KvS subunits and thus be used as a general reagent on all types of neurons. The limitation then of course is that it can't differentiate the subtypes, but at this stage, the field really just needs to know how much Kv2/KvS channels contribute to native currents and this strategy provides a sound way to do so.

      Weaknesses:

      The authors are very clear about the limitations of their strategy, the most important of which is that they can't differentiate different subunit combinations of Kv2/KvS heteromers. This study is meant to be a start to understanding the roles of Kv2/KvS channels in vivo. As such, this is a minor weakness, far outweighed by the potential of the strategy to move the field through a roadblock that has existed since its inception.

      The study accomplishes exactly what it set out to do: provide a means to determine the relative contributions of homomeric Kv2 and heteromeric Kv2/KvS channels to native delayed rectifier K+ currents in neurons. It also does a fabulous job laying out the case for why this is important to do.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In their current study, Cummings et al have approached this fundamental biochemical problem using a combination of purified enzyme-substrate reactions, MS/MS, and microscopy in vitro to provide key insights into the hierarchy of generating polyglycylation in cilia and flagella. They first establish that TTLL8 is a monoglycylase, with the potential to add multiple mono glycine residues on both α- and β-tubulin. They then go on to establish that monoglycylation is essential for TTLL10 binding and catalytic activity, which progressively reduces as the level of polyglycylation increases. This provides an interesting mechanism of how the level of polyglycylation is regulated in the absence of a deglycylase. Finally, the authors also establish that for efficient TTLL10 activity, it is not just monoglycylation, but also polyglutamylation that is necessary, giving a key insight into how both these modifications interact with each other to ensure there is a balanced level of PTMs on the axonemes for efficient cilia function.

      Strengths:

      The manuscript is well-written, and experiments are succinctly planned and outlined. The experiments were used to provide the conclusions to what the authors were hypothesising and provide some new novel possible mechanistic insights into the whole process of regulation of tubulin glycylation in motile cilia.

      Weaknesses:

      The initial part of the manuscript where the authors discuss about the requirement of monoglycylation by TTLL8 is not new. This was established back in 2009 when Rogowski et al (2009) showed that polyglycylation of tubulin by TTLL10 occurs only when co-expressed in cells with TTLL3 or TTLL8. So, this part of the study adds very little new information to what was known.

      The study also fails to discuss the involvement of the other monoglycylase, TTLL3 in the entire study, which is a weakness as in vivo, in cells, both the monoglycylases act in concert and so, may play a role in regulating the activity of TTLL10.

    1. 52303

      DOI: 10.1038/s41467-024-47236-1

      Resource: BDSC_52303

      Curator: @bandrow

      SciCrunch record: RRID:BDSC_52303


      What is this?

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    Annotators

    1. (1) The filing by a registered elector of a written request with a board of elections or the secretary of state, on a form prescribed by the secretary of state and signed by the elector, that the registration be canceled. The filing of such a request does not prohibit an otherwise qualified elector from reregistering to vote at any time.

      The only true protest vote.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      DMS-MaP is a sequencing-based method for assessing RNA folding by detecting methyl adducts on unpaired A and C residues created by treatment with dimethylsulfate (DMS). DMS also creates methyl adducts on the N7 position of G, which could be sensitive to tertiary interactions with that atom, but N7-methyl adducts cannot be detected directly by sequencing. In this work, the authors adopt a previously developed method for converting N7-methyl-G to an abasic site to make it detectable by sequencing and then show that the ability of DMS to form an N7-methyl-G adduct is sensitive to RNA structural context. In particular, they look at the G-quadruplex structure motif, which is dense with N7-G interactions, is biologically important, and lacks conclusive methods for in-cell structural analysis.

      Strengths:

      - The authors clearly show that established methods for detecting N7-methyl-G adducts can be used to detect those adducts from DMS and that the formation of those adducts is sensitive to structural context, particularly G-quadruplexes.

      - The authors assess the N7-methyl-G signal through a wide range of useful probing analyses, including standard folding, adduct correlations, mutate-and-map, and single-read clustering.

      - The authors show encouraging preliminary results toward the detection of G-quadruplexes in cells using their method. Reliable detection of RNA G-quadruplexes in cells is a major limitation for the field and this result could lead to a significant advance.

      - Overall, the work shows convincingly that N7-methyl-G adducts from DMS provide valuable structural information and that established data analyses can be adapted to incorporate the information.

      Weaknesses:

      - Most of the validation work is done on the spinach aptamer and it is the only RNA tested that has a known 3D structure. Although it is a useful model for validating this method, it does not provide a comprehensive view of what results to expect across varied RNA structures.

      - It's not clear from this work what the predictive power of BASH-MaP would be when trying to identify G-quadruplexes in RNA sequences of unknown structure. Although clusters of G's with low reactivity and correlated mutations seem to be a strong signal for G-quadruplexes, no effort was made to test a range of G-rich sequences that are known to form G-quadruplexes or not. Having this information would be critical for assessing the ability of BASH-MaP to identify G-quadruplexes in cells.

      - Although the authors present interesting results from various types of analysis, they do not appear to have developed a mature analysis pipeline for the community to use. I would be inclined to develop my own pipeline if I were to use this method.

      - There are various aspects of the DAGGER analysis that don't make sense to me:<br /> (1) Folding of the RNA based on individual reads does not represent single-molecule folding since each read contains only a small fraction of the possible adducts that could have formed on that molecule. As a result, each fold will largely be driven by the naive folding algorithm. I recommend a method like DREEM that clusters reads into profiles representing different conformations.<br /> (2) How reliable is it to force open clusters of low-reactivity G's across RNA's that don't already have known G-quadruplexes?<br /> (3) By forcing a G-quadruplex open it will be treated as a loop by the folding algorithm, so the energetics won't be accurate.<br /> (4) It's not clear how signals on "normal" G's are treated. In Figure 5C some are wiped to 0 but others are kept as 1.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors performed experimental evolution of MreB mutants that have a slow-growing round phenotype and studied the subsequent evolutionary trajectory using analysis tools from molecular biology. It was remarkable and interesting that they found that the original phenotype was not restored (most common in these studies) but that the round phenotype was maintained.

      Strengths:

      The finding that the round phenotype was maintained during evolution rather than that the original phenotype, rod-shaped cells, was recovered is interesting. The paper extensively investigates what happens during adaptation with various different techniques. Also, the extensive discussion of the findings at the end of the paper is well thought through and insightful.

      Weaknesses:<br /> I find there are three general weaknesses:

      (1) Although the paper states in the abstract that it emphasizes "new knowledge to be gained" it remains unclear what this concretely is. On page 4 they state 3 three research questions, these could be more extensively discussed in the abstract. Also, these questions read more like genetics questions while the paper is a lot about cell biological findings.

      (2) it is not clear to me from the text what we already know about the restoration of MreB loss from suppressors studies (in the literature). Are there suppressor screens in the literature and which part of the findings is consistent with suppressor screens and which parts are new knowledge?

      (3) The clarity of the figures, captions, and data quantification need to be improved.

    1. Joint Public Review:

      An outside expert evaluated your responses to the original reviewers and offered the following comments:

      The main criticism was whether deleterious variants were appropriately classified in the work. The authors use two different methods to characterize the effect of alleles to satisfy these comments. The result is somewhat complex. The authors do replicate the effect of dominance on fixation and segregation of deleterious alleles by classifying polymorphisms as synonymous or synonymous with SNPeff. This is not entirely surprising as it is approximately equivalent to classifying based on fold degeneracy (but it includes sites that have other than 0 or 4 fold degeneracy). However, the authors do not mention in the text that their observation of increased segregating deleterious mutations in recessive alleles was only statistically significant in A. halleri (for both analyses). Using SIFT, the authors only find an effect of dominance in A. lyrata. So in reality, while the trends are the same across the analyses, the statistical significance of the effects of dominance was not consistent.

      Reviewer 2 had several more detailed criticisms of the manuscript. The first was that the authors should explore the dominance of linked deleterious mutations themselves. I agree that this would be interesting, but it is very difficult to accomplish, and I agree with the author's reluctance to do much more here. The reviewer also criticized the authors simulation approach. The authors provided their simulation script as requested, but declined to do additional simulations under varied selection coefficients. I felt this was a minimally adequate response to the reviewers concerns, but the authors could have reasonably conducted a few additional simulations under varied selection coefficients.

      I think that the scope of the findings described in the assessment was reasonable. This is interesting work, but despite the author's arguments, the system is somewhat unique if for no other reason than that balancing selection at S-loci is uniquely strong

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      The authors provided a detailed analysis of the real-time structural changes in actin filaments resulting from cofilin binding, using High-Speed Atomic Force Microscopy (HSAFM). The cofilin family controls the lifespan of actin filaments in cells by severing the filament and promoting depolymerization. Understanding the effects of cofilin on actin filament structure is critical. It is widely acknowledged that cofilin binding significantly shortens the pitch of the actin helix. The authors previously reported (1) that this shortening extends to the unbound region of the actin filament on the pointed end side of the cofilin binding cluster. In this study, the authors presented substantially improved AFM images and provide detailed accounts of the dynamics observed. It was found that a minimal cofilin-binding cluster, consisting of 2-4 molecules, could induce changes in the helical parameters over one or more actin crossover repeats. Adjacent to the cofilin-binding clusters, the actin crossovers were observed to shorten within seconds, and this shortening was limited to one side of the cluster. Additionally, the phosphate binding to the actin filament was observed to stabilize the helical twist, suggesting a mechanism in which cofilin preferentially binds to ADP-bound actin filaments. These findings significantly advance our understanding of actin filament dynamics which is essential for a wide of cellular processes.

      However, two insufficient parts exist. Readers should be aware of possible errors in the Mean Axial Distance (MAD) analysis and the limitations of discussions about the actin subunit structure.

      The authors have presented findings that the MAD within actin filaments exhibits a significant dependency on the helical twist. However, difficulty in determining each subunit interval from the AFM image might affect the analysis. For example, the observation of three peaks in HHP6 of Figure Supplement 6C, corresponding to 4.5 pairs, showed peak intervals of 5, 11.8, 8.7, and 5.7 nm (measured from the figure). The second region (11.8 nm) appears excessively long. If one peak is hidden in the second region, the MAD becomes 5.5 nm.

      The authors also suggest a strong link between the C-form (cofilin binding form of actin found in cofilactin) and the formation of regions of the short pitch helix outside the cofilin binding cluster. However, the AFM observation did not provide any evidence about the actin form in these regions because of measurement limitations. Additionally, Oda et al. (2) have demonstrated that the C-form is highly unstable in the absence of cofilin binding, casting doubt on the possibility of the C-form propagating without cofilin binding. The "C-actin-like structure" in the paper is not necessarily related to the C-form actin. It might be one of the G-forms (monomeric actin forms) or another unknown form.

      (1) K. X. Ngo et al., a, Cofilin-induced unidirectional cooperative conformational changes in actin filaments revealed by high-speed atomic force microscopy. eLife 4, (2015).<br /> (2) T. Oda et al., Structural Polymorphism of Actin. Journal of molecular biology 431, 3217-3228 (2019).

    1. Reviewer #3 (Public Review):

      This work probes the control of the hox operon in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis, where this operon directs the synthesis of a bidirectional hydrogenase that functions to produce hydrogen. In assessing the control of the hox system, the authors focused on the relative contributions of cyAbrB2, alongside SigE (and to a lesser extent, SigA and cyAbrB1) under both aerobic and microoxic conditions. In mapping the binding sites of these different proteins, they discovered that cyAbrB2 bound many sites throughout the chromosome, repressed many of its target genes, and preferentially bound regions that were (relatively) rich in AT-residues. These characteristics led the authors to consider that cyAbrB2 may function as a nucleoid-associated protein (NAP) in Synechocystis, given the functional similarities with other NAPs like H-NS. They assessed the local chromosome conformation in both wild type and cyabrB2 mutant strains at multiple sites within a 40 kb window on either side of the hox locus, using a region within the hox operon as bait. They concluded that cyAbrB2 functions as a nucleoid associated protein that influences the activity of SigE through its modulation of chromosome architecture.

      The authors approached their experiments carefully, and the data were generally very clearly presented. At the same time, the overall work contains many lines of inquiry and different protein investigations that in some ways made it more challenging to identify the overall take-away message(s).

      Based on the data presented, the authors make a strong case for cyAbrB2 as a nucleoid-associated protein, given the multiple ways in which is seems to function similarly to the well-studied Escherichia coli H-NS protein. They now provide additional commentary that relates cyAbrB2 with other nucleoid-associated proteins.

      Previous work had revealed a role for SigE in the control of hox cluster expression, which nicely justified its inclusion (and focus) in this study. The focus on cyAbrB2 is also well-justified, given previous reports of its control of hox expression; however, it shares binding sites with an essential homologue cyAbrB1. Interestingly, while the B1 protein appears to bind similar sites, instead of repressing hox expression, it is known as an activator of this operon. If the information on cyAbrB1 is retained in the manuscript, it would be important to consider how cyAbrB1 activity might influence the results described here (although the authors could also consider removing the cyAbrB1 information to help improve the focus of the manuscript).

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      This manuscript presents a model in which combined action of the transporter-like protein DISP and the sheddases ADAM10/17 promote shedding of a mono-cholesteroylated Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) species following cleavage of palmitate from the dually lipidated precursor ligand. The authors propose that this leads to transfer of the cholesterol-modified SHH to HDL for solubilization. The minimal requirement for SHH release by this mechanism is proposed to be the covalently linked cholesterol modification because DISP could promote transfer of a cholesteroylated mCherry reporter protein to serum HDL. The authors used an in vitro system to demonstrate dependency on DISP/SCUBE2 for release of the cholesterol modified ligand. These results confirm previously published results from other groups (PMC3387659 and PMC3682496).

      A strength of the work is the use of a bicistronic SHH-Hhat system to consistently generate dually-lipidated ligand to determine the quantity and lipidation status of SHH released into cell culture media.

      Key shortcomings include the unusual normalization strategies used for many experiments and the lack of quantification/statistical analyses for several experiments. Due to these omissions, it is difficult to conclude that the data justify the conclusions. The significance of the data provided is overstated because many of the presented experiments confirm/support previously published work. The study provides a modest advance in understanding of the complex issue of SHH membrane extraction.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The manuscript by Kelbert et al. presents results on the involvement of the yeast transcription factor Sfp1 in the stabilisation of transcripts whose synthesis it stimulates. Sfp1 is known to affect the synthesis of a number of important cellular transcripts, such as many of those that code for ribosomal proteins. The hypothesis that a transcription factor can remain bound to the nascent transcript and affect its cytoplasmic half-life is attractive. However, the association of Sfp1 with cytoplasmic transcripts remains to be validated, as explained in the following comments:

      A two-hybrid based assay for protein-protein interactions identified Sfp1, a transcription factor known for its effects on ribosomal protein gene expression, as interacting with Rpb4, a subunit of RNA polymerase II. Classical two-hybrid experiments depend on the presence of the tested proteins in the nucleus of yeast cells, suggesting that the observed interaction occurs in the nucleus. Unfortunately, the two-hybrid method cannot determine whether the interaction is direct or mediated by nucleic acids. The revised version of the manuscript now states that the observed interaction could be indirect.

      To understand to which RNA Sfp1 might bind, the authors used an N-terminally tagged fusion protein in a cross-linking and purification experiment. This method identified 264 transcripts for which the CRAC signal was considered positive and which mostly correspond to abundant mRNAs, including 74 ribosomal protein mRNAs or metabolic enzyme-abundant mRNAs such as PGK1. The authors did not provide evidence for the specificity of the observed CRAC signal, in particular what would be the background of a similar experiment performed without UV cross-linking. This is crucial, as Figure S2G shows very localized and sharp peaks for the CRAC signal, often associated with over-amplification of weak signal during sequencing library preparation.

      In a validation experiment, the presence of several mRNAs in a purified SFP1 fraction was measured at levels that reflect the relative levels of RNA in a total RNA extract. Negative controls showing that abundant mRNAs not found in the CRAC experiment were clearly depleted from the purified fraction with Sfp1 would be crucial to assess the specificity of the observed protein-RNA interactions (to complement Fig. 2D). The CRAC-selected mRNAs were enriched for genes whose expression was previously shown to be upregulated upon Sfp1 overexpression (Albert et al., 2019). The presence of unspliced RPL30 pre-mRNA in the Sfp1 purification was interpreted as a sign of co-transcriptional assembly of Sfp1 into mRNA, but in the absence of valid negative controls, this hypothesis would require further experimental validation. Also, whether the fraction of mRNA bound by Sfp1 is nuclear or cytoplasmic is unclear.

      To address the important question of whether co-transcriptional assembly of Spf1 with transcripts could alter their stability, the authors first used a reporter system in which the RPL30 transcription unit is transferred to vectors under different transcriptional contexts, as previously described by the Choder laboratory (Bregman et al. 2011). While RPL30 expressed under an ACT1 promoter was barely detectable, the highest levels of RNA were observed in the context of the native upstream RPL30 sequence when Rap1 binding sites were also present. Sfp1 showed better association with reporter mRNAs containing Rap1 binding sites in the promoter region. Removal of the Rap1 binding sites from the reporter vector also led to a drastic decrease in reporter mRNA levels. Co-purification of reporter RNA with Sfp1 was only observed when Rap1 binding sites were included in the reporter. Negative controls for all the purification experiments might be useful.

      To complement the biochemical data presented in the first part of the manuscript, the authors turned to the deletion or rapid depletion of SFP1 and used labelling experiments to assess changes in the rate of synthesis, abundance and decay of mRNAs under these conditions. An important observation was that in the absence of Sfp1, mRNAs encoding ribosomal protein genes not only had a reduced synthesis rate, but also an increased degradation rate. This important observation needs careful validation, as genomic run-on experiments were used to measure half-lives, and this particular method was found to give results that correlated poorly with other measures of half-life in yeast (e.g. Chappelboim et al., 2022 for a comparison). As an additional validation, a temperature shift to 42{degree sign}C was used to show that , for specific ribosomal protein mRNA, the degradation was faster, assuming that transcription stops at that temperature. It would be important to cite and discuss the work from the Tollervey laboratory showing that a temperature shift to 42{degree sign}C leads to a strong and specific decrease in ribosomal protein mRNA levels, probably through an accelerated RNA degradation (Bresson et al., Mol Cell 2020, e.g. Fig 5E). Finally, the conclusion that mRNA deadenylation rate is altered in the absence of Sfp1, is difficult to assess from the presented results (Fig. 3D).

      The effects of SFP1 on transcription were investigated by chromatin purification with Rpb3, a subunit of RNA polymerase, and the results were compared with synthesis rates determined by genomic run-on experiments. The decrease in polII presence on transcripts in the absence of SFP1 was not accompanied by a marked decrease in transcript output, suggesting an effect of Sfp1 in ensuring robust transcription and avoiding RNA polymerase backtracking. To further investigate the phenotypes associated with the depletion or absence of Sfp1, the authors examined the presence of Rpb4 along transcription units compared to Rpb3. An effect of spf1 deficiency was that this ratio, which decreased from the start of transcription towards the end of transcripts, increased slightly. To what extent this result is important for the main message of the manuscript is unclear.

      Suggestions: a) please clearly indicate in the figures when they correspond to reanalyses of published results. b) In table S2, it would be important to mention what the results represent and what statistics were used for the selection of "positive" hits.

      Strengths:<br /> - Diversity of experimental approaches used.<br /> - Validation of large-scale results with appropriate reporters.

      Weaknesses:<br /> - Lack of controls for the CRAC results and lack of negative controls for the co-purification experiments that were used to validate specific mRNA targets potentially bound by Sfp1.<br /> - Several conclusions are derived from complex correlative analyses that fully depend on the validity of the aforementioned Sfp1-mRNA interactions.

    1. in the case of the new world the the the maize plant the wild maize plant had a little cob on it that was only about one centimeter long

      for - corn - thousands of years to breed from 1 cm cob to present size - transition - stone age to agriculture - importance of women

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:<br /> This paper presents a cognitive model of out-of-distribution generalisation, where the representational basis is grid-cell codes. In particular, the authors consider the tasks of analogies, addition, and multiplication, and the out-of-distribution tests are shifting or scaling the input domain. The authors utilise grid cell codes, which are multi-scale as well as translationally invariant due to their periodicity. To allow for domain adaptation, the authors use DPP-A which is, in this context, a mechanism of adapting to input scale changes. The authors present simulation results demonstrating that this model can perform out-of-distribution generalisation to input translations and re-scaling, whereas other models fail.

      Strengths:<br /> This paper makes the point it sets out to - that there are some underlying representational bases, like grid cells, that when combined with a domain adaptation mechanism, like DPP-A, can facilitate out-of-generalisation. I don't have any issues with the technical details.

      Weaknesses:<br /> The paper does leave open the bigger questions of 1) how one learns a suitable representation basis in the first place, 2) how to have a domain adaptation mechanism that works in more general settings other than adapting to scale. Overall, I'm left wondering whether this model is really quite bespoke or whether there is something really general here. My comments below are trying to understand how general this approach is.

      COMMENTS<br /> This work relies on being able to map inputs into an appropriate representational space. The inputs were integers so it's easy enough to map them to grid locations. But how does this transfer to making analogies in other spaces? Do the inputs need to be mapped (potentially non-linearly) into a space where everything is linear? In general, what are the properties of the embedding space that allows the grid code to be suitable? It would be helpful to know just how much leg work an embedding model would have to do.

      It's natural that grid cells are great for domain shifts of translation, rescaling, and rotation, because they themselves are multi-scaled and are invariant to translations and rotations. But grid codes aren't going to be great for other types of domain shifts. Are the authors saying that to make analogies grid cells are all you need? If not then what else? And how does this representation get learned? Are there lots of these invariant codes hanging around? And if so how does the appropriate one get chosen for each situation? Some discussion of the points is necessary as otherwise, the model seems somewhat narrow in scope.

      For effective adaptation of scale, the authors needed to use DPP-A. Being that they are relating to brains using grid codes, what processes are implementing DPP-A? Presumably, a computational module that serves the role of DPP-A could be meta-learned? I.e. if they change their task set-up so it gets to see domain shifts in its training data an LSTM or transformer could learn to do this. The presented model comparisons feel a bit of a straw man.

      I couldn't see it explained exactly how R works.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors use an interesting expression system called a retron to express single-stranded DNA aptamers. Expressing DNA as a single-stranded sequence is very hard - DNA is naturally double-stranded. However, the successful demonstration by the authors of expressing Lettuce, which is a fluorogenic DNA aptamer, allowed visual demonstration of both expression and folding. This method will likely be the main method for expressing and testing DNA aptamers of all kinds, including fluorogenic aptamers like Lettuce and future variants/alternatives.

      Strengths:

      This has an overall simplicity which will lead to ready adoption. I am very excited about this work. People will be able to express other fluorogenic aptamers or DNA aptamers tagged with Lettuce with this system.

      Weaknesses:

      Several things are not addressed/shown:

      (1) How stable are these DNA in cells? Half-life?

      (2) What concentration do they achieve in cells/copy numbers? This is important since it relates to the total fluorescence output and, if the aptamer is meant to bind a protein, it will reveal if the copy number is sufficient to stoichiometrically bind target proteins. Perhaps the gels could have standards with known amounts in order to get exact amounts of aptamer expression per cell?

      (3) Microscopic images of the fluorescent E. coli - why are these not shown (unless I missed them)? It would be good to see that cells are fluorescent rather than just showing flow sorting data.

      (4) I would appreciate a better Figure 1 to show all the intermediate steps in the RNA processing, the subsequent beginning of the RT step, and then the final production of the ssDNA. I did not understand all the processing steps that lead to the final product, and the role of the 2'OH.

      (5) I would like a better understanding or a protocol for choosing insertion sites into MSD for other aptamers - people will need simple instructions.

      (6) Can the gels be stained with DFHBI/other dyes to see the Lettuce as has been done for fluorogenic RNAs?

      (7) Sometimes FLAPs are called fluorogenic RNA aptamers - it might be good to mention both terms initially since some people use fluorogenic aptamer as their search term.

      (8) What E coli strains are compatible with this retron system?

      (9) What steps would be needed to use in mammalian cells?

      (10) Is the conjugated RNA stable and does it degrade to leave just the DNA aptamer?

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors have developed a valuable method based on a fully cell-free system to express a channel protein and integrate it into a membrane vesicle in order to characterize it biophysically. The study presents a useful alternative to study channels that are not amenable to being studied by more traditional methods.

      Strengths:

      The evidence supporting the claims of the authors is solid and convincing. The method will be of interest to researchers working on ionic channels, allowing them to study a wide range of ion channel functions such as those involved in transport, interaction with lipids, or pharmacology.

      Weaknesses:

      The inclusion of a mechanistic interpretation of how the channel protein folds into a protomer or a tetramer to become functional in the membrane would strengthen the study.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      In this important study, Huffer et al posit that non-cold sensing members of the TRPM subfamily of ion channels (e.g., TRPM2, TRPM4, TRPM5) contain a binding pocket for icilin which overlaps with the one found in the cold-activated TRPM8 channel.

      The authors identify the residues involved in icilin binding by analyzing the existing TRPM8-icilin complex structures and then use their previously published approach of structure-based sequence comparison to compare the icilin binding residues in TRPM8 to other TRPM channels. This approach uncovered that the residues are conserved in a number of TRPM members: TRPM2, TRPM4, and TRPM5. The authors focus on TRPM4, with the rationale that it has the simplest activation properties (a single Ca2+-binding site). Electrophysiological studies show that icilin by itself does not activate TRPM4, but it strongly potentiates the Ca2+ activation of TRPM4, and introducing the A867G mutation (the mutation that renders avian TRPM8 sensitive to icilin) further increases the potentiating effects of the compound. Conversely, the mutation of a residue that likely directly interacts with icilin in the binding pocket, R901H, results in channels whose Ca2+ sensitivity is not potentiated by icilin.

      The data indicate that, just like in TRPV channels, the binding pockets and allosteric networks might be conserved in the TRPM subfamily.

      The data are convincing, and the authors employ good experimental controls.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This work combines molecular dynamics (MD) simulations along with experimental elucidation of the efficacy of ATP as a biological hydrotrope. While ATP is broadly known as the energy currency, it has also been suggested to modulate the stability of biomolecules and their aggregation propensity. In the computational part of the work, the authors demonstrate that ATP increases the population of the more expanded conformations (higher radius of gyration) in both a soluble folded mini-protein Trp-cage and an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) Aβ40. Furthermore, ATP is shown to destabilise the pre-formed fibrillar structures using both simulation and experimental data (ThT assay and TEM images). They have also suggested that the biological hydrotrope ATP has significantly higher efficacy as compared to the commonly used chemical hydrotrope sodium xylene sulfonate (NaXS).

      Strengths:

      This work presents a comprehensive and compelling investigation of the effect of ATP on the conformational population of two types of proteins: globular/folded and IDP. The role of ATP as an "aggregate solubilizer" of pre-formed fibrils has been demonstrated using both simulation and experiments. They also elucidate the mechanism of action of ATP as a multi-purpose solubilizer in a protein-specific manner. Depending on the protein, it can interact through electrostatic interactions (for predominantly charged IDPs like Aβ40), or primarily van der Waals' interactions through (for Trp-Cage).

      Weaknesses:

      The data presented by the authors are sound and adequately support the conclusions drawn by the authors. However, there are a few points that could be discussed or elucidated further to broaden the scope of the conclusions drawn in this work as discussed below:

      (i) The concentration of ATP used in the simulations is significantly higher (500 mM) as compared to those used in the experiments (6-20 mM) or cellular cytoplasm (~5 mM as mentioned by the authors). Since the authors mention already known concentration dependence of the effect of ATP, it is worth clarifying the possible limitations and implications of the high ATP concentrations in the simulations. It seems ATP can stabilise the proteins at low concentrations, but the current work does not address this possible effect. It would be interesting to see whether the effect of ATP on globular proteins and IDPs remains similar even at lower ATP concentrations.

      (ii) The authors make a somewhat ambitious statement that the role of ATP as a solubilizer of pre-formed fibrils could be used as a therapeutic strategy in protein aggregation-related diseases. However, it is not clear how it would be so since ATP is a promiscuous substrate in several biochemical processes and any additional administration of ATP beyond normal cellular concentration (~5 mM) could be detrimental.

      (iii) A natural question arises about what is so special about ATP as a solubilizer. The authors have also asked this question but in a limited scope of comparing to a commonly used chemical hydrotrope NaXS. However, a bigger question would be what kind of chemical/physical features make ATP special? For example, (i) if the amphiphilic property is important, what about some standard surfactants? (ii) how would ATP compare to other nucleotides like ADP or GTP? It might be useful to explore such questions in the future to further establish the special role of ATP in this regard.

      (iv) In Figure 2F, it seems that in the presence of 0.5 M ATP, the Rg increases (as expected), but the number of native contacts remains almost similar. The reduction in the number of native contacts at higher ATP concentrations is not as dramatic as the increase in Rg. This is somewhat counterintuitive and should be looked into. Normally one would expect a monotonous reduction in the number of native contacts as the protein unfolds (increase in Rg).

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      In their manuscript "PDGFRRa signaling regulates Srsf3 transcript binding to affect PI3K signaling and endosomal trafficking" Forman and colleagues use iMEPM cells to characterize the effects of PDGF signaling on alternative splicing. They first perform RNA-seq using a one-hour stimulation with Pdgf-AA in control and Srsf3 knockdown cells. While Srsf3 manipulation results in a sizeable number of DE genes, PDGF does not. They then turn to examine alternative splicing, due to findings from this lab. They find that both PDGF and Srsf3 contribute much more to splicing than transcription. They find that the vast majority of PDGF-mediated alternative splicing depends upon Srsf3 activity and that skipped exons are the most common events with PDGF stimulation typically promoting exon skipping in the presence of Srsf3. They used eCLIP to identify RNA regions bound to Srsf3. Under both PDGF conditions, the majority of peaks were in exons with +PDGF having a substantially greater number of these peaks. Interestingly, they find differential enrichment of sequence motifs and GC content in stimulated versus unstimulated cells. They examine 2 transcripts encoding PI3K pathway (enriched in their GO analysis) members: Becn1 and Wdr81. They then go on to examine PDGFRRa and Rab5, an endosomal marker, colocalization. They propose a model in which Srsf3 functions downstream of PDGFRRa signaling to, in part, regulate PDGFRa trafficking to the endosome. The findings are novel and shed light on the mechanisms of PDGF signaling and will be broadly of interest. This lab previously identified the importance of PDGF naling on alternative splicing. The combination of RNA-seq and eCLIP is an exceptional way to comprehensively analyze this effect. The results will be of great utility to those studying PDGF signaling or neural crest biology. There are some concerns that should be considered, however.

      (1) It took some time to make sense of the number of DE genes across the results section and Figure 1. The authors give the total number of DE genes across Srsf3 control and loss conditions as 1,629 with 1,042 of them overlapping across Pdgf treatment. If the authors would add verbiage to the point that this leaves 1,108 unique genes in the dataset, then the numbers in Figure 1D would instantly make sense. The same applies to PDGF in Figure 1F and the Venn diagrams in Figure 2.

      (2) The percentage of skipped exons in the +PSI on the righthand side of Figure 2F is not readable.

      (3) It would be useful to have more information regarding the motif enrichment in Figure 3. What is the extent of enrichment? The authors should also provide a more complete list of enriched motifs, perhaps as a supplement.

      (4) It is unclear what subset of transcripts represent the "overlapping datasets" on lines 280-315. The authors state that there are 149 unique overlapping transcripts, but the Venn diagram shows 270. Also, it seems that the most interesting transcripts are the 233 that show alternative splicing and are bound by Srsf3. Would the results shown in Figure 5 change if the authors focused on these transcripts?

      (5) In general, there is little validation of the sequencing results, performing qPCR on Arhgap12 and Cep55. The authors should additionally validate the PI3K pathway members that they analyze. Related, is Becn1 expression downregulated in the absence of Srsf3, as would be predicted if it is undergoing NMD?

      (6) What is the alternative splicing event for Acap3?

      (7) The insets in Figure 6 C"-H" are useful but difficult to see due to their small size. Perhaps these could be made as their own figure panels.

      (8) In Figure 6A, it is not clear which groups have statistically significant differences. A clearer visualization system should be used.

      (9) Similarly in Figure 6B, is 15 vs 60 minutes in the shSrsf3 group the only significant difference? Is there a difference between scramble and shSrsf3 at 15 minutes? Is there a difference between 0 and 15 minutes for either group?

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:<br /> Sha K et al aimed at identifying the mechanism of response and resistance to castration in the Pten knockout GEM model. They found elevated levels of TNF overexpressed in castrated tumors associated with an expansion of basal-like stem cells during recurrence, which they show occurring in prostate cancer cells in culture upon enzalutamide treatment. Further, the authors carry on a timed dependent analysis of the role of TNF in regression and recurrence to show that TNF regulates both processes. Similarly, CCL2, which the authors had proposed as a chemokine secreted upon TNF induction following enzalutamide treatment, is also shown to be elevated during recurrence and associated with the remodeling of an immunosuppressive microenvironment through depletion of T cells and recruitment of TAMs.

      Strengths:

      The paper exploits a well-established GEM model to interrogate mechanisms of response to standard-of-care treatment. This is of utmost importance since prostate cancer recurrence after ADT or ARSi marks the onset of an incurable disease stage for which limited treatments exist. The work is relevant in the confirmation that recurrent prostate cancer is mostly an immunologically "cold" tumor with an immunosuppressive immune microenvironment

      Weaknesses:

      While the data is consistent and the conclusions are mostly supported and justified, the findings overall are incremental and of limited novelty. The role of TNF and NF-kB signaling in tumor progression and the role of the CCL2-CCR2 in shaping the immunosuppressive microenvironment are well established.

      On the other hand, it is unclear why the authors decided to focus on the basal compartment when there is a wealth of literature suggesting that luminal cells are if not exclusively, surely one of the cells of origin of prostate cancer and responsible for recurrence upon antiandrogen treatment. As a result, most of the later shown data has to be taken with caution as it is not known if the same phenomena occur in the luminal compartment.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Liver cancer shows a higher incidence in males than females with incompletely understood causes. This study utilized a mouse model that lacks the bile acid feedback mechanisms (FXR/SHP DKO mice) to study how dysregulation of bile acid homeostasis and a high circulating bile acid may underlie the gender-dependent prevalence and prognosis of HCC. By transcriptomics analysis comparing male and female mice, unique sets of gene signatures were identified and correlated with HCC outcomes in human patients. The study showed that the ovariectomy procedure increased HCC incidence in female FXR/SHP DKO mice that were otherwise resistant to age-dependent HCC development and that removing bile acids by blocking intestine bile acid absorption reduced HCC progression in FXR/SHP DKO mice. Based on these findings, the authors suggest that gender-dependent bile acid metabolism may play a role in the male-dominant HCC incidence, and that reducing bile acid levels and signaling may be beneficial in HCC treatment.

      Strengths:

      (1) Chronic liver diseases often preceed the development of liver and bile duct cancer. Advanced chronic liver diseases are often associated with dysregulation of bile acid homeostasis and cholestasis. This study takes advantage of a unique FXR/SHP DKO model that develops high organ bile acid exposure and spontaneous age-dependent HCC development in males but not females to identify unique HCC-associated gene signatures. The study showed that the unique gene signature in female DKO mice that had lower HCC incidence also correlated with lower-grade HCC and better survival in human HCC patients.

      (2) The study also suggests that differentially regulated bile acid signaling or gender-dependent response to altered bile acids may contribute to gender-dependent susceptibility to HCC development and/or progression.

      Weaknesses:

      (1) HCC shows heterogeneity, and it is unclear what tissues (tumor or normal) were used from the DKO mice and human HCC gene expression dataset to obtain the gene signature, and how the authors reconcile these gene signatures with HCC prognosis.

      (2) The authors identified a unique set of gene expression signatures that are linked to HCC patient outcomes, but analysis of these gene sets to understand the causes of cancer promotion is still lacking. The studies of urea cycle metabolism and estrogen signaling were preliminary and inconclusive. These mechanistic aspects may be followed up in revision or future studies.

      (3) While high levels of bile acids are convincingly shown to promote HCC progression, their role in HCC initiation is not established. The DKO model may be limited to conditions of extremely high levels of organ bile acid exposure. The DKO mice do not model the human population of HCC patients with various etiology and shared liver pathology (i.e. cirrhosis). Therefore, high circulating bile acids may not fully explain the male prevalence of HCC incidence.

      (4) The authors showed lower circulating bile acids and increased fecal bile acid excretion in female mice and hypothesized that this may be a mechanism underlying the lower bile acid exposure that contributed to lower HCC incidence in female DKO mice. Additional analysis of organ bile acids within the enterohepatic circulation may be performed because a more accurate interpretation of the circulating bile acids and fecal bile acids can be made in reference to organ bile acids and total bile acid pool changes in these mice.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Wilson's Disease (WD) is an inherited rare pathological condition due to a mutation in ATP7B that alters mitochondrial structure and dysfunction. Additionally, WD results in dysregulated copper metabolism in patients. These metabolic abnormalities affect the functions of the liver and can result in cholecystitis. Understanding the immune component and its contribution to WD and cholecystitis has been challenging. In this work, the authors have performed single-cell RNA sequencing of mesenchymal tissue from three WD patients and three liver hemangioma patients.

      Strengths:

      The authors describe the transcriptomic alterations in myeloid and lymphoid compartments.

      Weaknesses:

      In brief, this manuscript lacks a clear focus, and the writing needs vast improvement. Figures lack details (or are misrepresented), the results section only catalogs observations, and the discussion needs to focus on their findings' mechanistic and functional relevance. The major weakness of this manuscript is that the authors do not provide a mechanistic link between the absence of ATP7B and NK cells' impaired/altered functions. While the work is of high clinical relevance, there are various areas that could be improved.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:<br /> This manuscript aimed to investigate the emergence of emotional sensitivity and its relationship with gestational age. Using an oddball paradigm and event-related potentials, the authors conducted an experiment in 120 healthy neonates with a gestational age range of 35 to 40 weeks. A significant developmental milestone was identified at 37 weeks gestational age, marking a crucial juncture in neonatal emotional responsiveness.

      Strengths:<br /> This study has several strengths, by providing profound insights into the early development of social-emotional functioning and unveiling the role of gestational age in shaping neonatal perceptual abilities. The methodology of this study demonstrates rigor and well-controlled experimental design, particularly involving matched control sounds, which enhances the reliability of the research. Their findings not only contribute to the field of neurodevelopment, but also showcase potential clinical applications, especially in the context of autism screening and early intervention for neurodevelopmental disorders.

      Comments on the revised version:

      After reviewing the authors' response letter and the revised manuscript, I believe they have done a commendable job in addressing my comments.<br /> Additionally, I concur with the concerns raised by Reviewer #2 regarding several potential confounding factors that require better control in their experimental design. These include the differences in physical properties between vocal and nonvocal stimuli, as well as the infant's exposure to the speech/auditory environment. These concerns should be thoroughly and explicitly discussed in the manuscript, ensuring a clearer understanding for the readers.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this manuscript, Tung and colleagues identify Calreticulin as a repressor of ATF6 signaling using a crispr screen and characterize the functional interaction between ATF6 and CALR.

      Strengths:

      The manuscript is well written and interesting with an innovative experimental design which provides some new mechanistic insight into ATF6 regulation as well as crosstalk with the IRE1 pathway. The methods used were fit for purpose and reasonable conclusions were drawn from the data presented.

      Comments on latest version:

      The authors did a good job at addressing my comments even though they found several aspects to exceed the scope of the work. The manuscript is clearer now and the model pushed by the authors is better supported by the data. One point I am curious about the authors' opinion would be about the status of ATF6alpha activation in pathological cells in which CALR is mutated (e.g., myeloproliferative neoplasms), although this neither challenges the conclusions of the manuscript and my positive opinion of the work.

    1. Reviewer #3 (Public Review):

      In this study, Ruan et al. investigate the role of the IQCH gene in spermatogenesis, focusing on its interaction with calmodulin and its regulation of RNA-binding proteins. The authors examined sperm from a male infertility patient with an inherited IQCH mutation as well as Iqch CRISPR knockout mice. The authors found that both human and mouse sperm exhibited structural and morphogenetic defects in multiple structures, leading to reduced fertility in Ichq-knockout male mice. Molecular analyses such as mass spectrometry and immunoprecipitation indicated that RNA-binding proteins are likely targets of IQCH, with the authors focusing on the RNA-binding protein HNRPAB as a critical regulator of testicular mRNAs. The authors used in vitro cell culture models to demonstrate an interaction between IQCH and calmodulin, in addition to showing that this interaction via the IQ motif of IQCH is required for IQCH's function in promoting HNRPAB expression. In sum, the authors concluded that IQCH promotes male fertility by binding to calmodulin and controlling HNRPAB expression to regulate the expression of essential mRNAs for spermatogenesis. These findings provide new insight into molecular mechanisms underlying spermatogenesis and how important factors for sperm morphogenesis and function are regulated.

      The strengths of the study include the use of mouse and human samples, which demonstrate a likely relevance of the mouse model to humans; the use of multiple biochemical techniques to address the molecular mechanisms involved; the development of a new CRISPR mouse model; ample controls; and clearly displayed results. Assays are done rigorously and in a quantitative manner. Overall, the claims made by the authors in this manuscript are well-supported by the data provided.

    1. Reviewer #3 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This study used prolonged stimulation of a limb to examine possible plasticity in somatosensory evoked potentials induced by the stimulation. They also studied the extent that the blood brain barrier (BBB) was opened by the prolonged stimulation and whether that played a role in the plasticity. They found that there was potentiation of the amplitude and area under the curve of the evoked potential after prolonged stimulation and this was long-lasting (>5 hrs). They also implicated extravasation of serum albumin, caveolae-mediated transcytosis, and TGFb signalling, as well as neuronal activity and upregulation of PSD95. Transcriptomics was done and implicated plasticity related genes in the changes after prolonged stimulation, but not proteins associated with the BBB or inflammation. Next, they address the application to humans using a squeeze ball task. They imaged the brain and suggested that the hand activity led to an increased permeability of the vessels, suggesting modulation of the BBB.

      Strengths:

      The strengths of the paper are the novelty of the idea that stimulation of the limb can induce cortical plasticity in a normal condition, and it involves the opening of the BBB with albumin entry. In addition, there are many datasets, both rat and human data.

      Weaknesses:

      The explanation of why prolonged stimulation in the rat was considered relevant to normal conditions is still somewhat weak. The authors argue that the stimulation frequency they used is similar to rhythmic whisker movement. That is a good argument. However, the intensity they used, 2 mA is in the range they say can elicit a seizure if stimulation is 50 Hz. So that weakens the argument.

      The authors made a lot of the requested changes but some questions were not addressed or the explanations were so brief that the confusion remained. Please go over the revisions again and make sure sentences are complete, jargon is explained, and arguments/justifications are clear. It will help the reader greatly.

      The authors responded to the previous comments of Reviewer 2 regarding experimental design and variability of washout periods. It would be useful to incorporate the response into the paper so the readers know why the authors think the variability was not an important factor in the results.

      Comments on the revised version:

      The manuscript is improved.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Wang, He et al have constructed a comprehensive single nucleus atlas for the gills of the deep sea Bathymodioline mussels, which possess intracellular symbionts that provide a key source of carbon and allow them to live in these extreme environments. They provide annotations of the different cell states within the gills, shedding light on how multiple cell types cooperate to give rise to the emergent functions of the composite tissues and the gills as a whole. They pay special attention to characterizing the bacteriocyte cell populations and identifying sets of genes that may play a role in their interaction with the symbiotes.

      Wang, He et al sample mussels from 3 different environments: animals from their native methane rich environment, animals transplanted to a methane-poor environment to induce starvation and animals that have been starved in the methane-poor environment and then moved back to the methane-rich environment. They demonstrated that starvation had the biggest impact on bacteriocyte transcriptomes. They hypothesize that the up-regulation of genes associated with lysosomal digestion leads to the digestion of the intracellular symbiont during starvation, while the non-starved and reacclimated groups more readily harvest the nutrients from symbiotes without destroying them. Further work exploring the differences in symbiote populations between ecological conditions will further elucidate the dynamic relationship between host and symbiote. This will help disentangle specific changes in transcriptomic state that are due to their changing interactions with the symbiotes from changes associated with other environmental factors.

      This paper makes available a high quality dataset that is of interest to many disciplines of biology. The unique qualities of this non-model organism and collection of conditions sampled make it of special interest to those studying deep sea adaptation, the impact of environmental perturbation on Bathymodioline mussels populations, and intracellular symbiotes. The authors also use a diverse array of tools to explore and validate their data.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The manuscript by Dubicka and co-workers on calcification in miliolid foraminifera presents an interesting piece of work. The study uses confocal and electron microscopy to show that the traditional picture of calcification in porcelaneous foraminifera is incorrect.

      Strengths:<br /> The authors present high-quality images and an original approach to a relatively solid (so I thought) model of calcification.

      Weaknesses:

      There are several major shortcomings. Despite the interesting subject and the wonderful images, the conclusions of this manuscript are simply not supported at all by the results. The fluorescent images may not have any relation to the process of calcification and should therefore not be part of this manuscript. The SEM images, however, do point to an outdated idea of miliolid calcification. I think the manuscript would be much stronger with the focus on the SEM images and with the speculation of the physiological processes greatly reduced.

      Comments on revised version:

      I continue to disagree. As the authors acknowledge: 'may be a hint indicating ACC...', but it may also be something else. This is really something else than showing ACC is involved in foraminiferal calcification. I still think the reasoning is shaky and below, I will clarify why the fluorescence may well not be related to ACC and in fact, some or even most of the vesicles may not play the role that the authors suggest. Even if they do, the conclusions are not supported by the data presented here. Unfortunately, I found some of the other answers to my question not satisfactory either.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors utilize fluid-structure interaction analyses to simulate fluid flow within and around the Cambrian cnidarian Quadrapyrgites to reconstruct feeding/respiration dynamics. Based on vorticity and velocity flow patterns, the authors suggest that the polyp expansion and contraction ultimately develop vortices around the organism that are like what modern jellyfish employ for movement and feeding. Lastly, the authors suggest that this behavior is likely a prerequisite transitional form to swimming medusae.

      Strengths:

      While fluid-structure-interaction analyses are common in engineering, physics, and biomedical fields, they are underutilized in the biological and paleobiological sciences. Zhang et al. provide a strong approach to integrating active feeding dynamics into fluid flow simulations of ancient life. Based on their data, it is entirely likely the described vortices would have been produced by benthic cnidarians feeding/respiring under similar mechanisms. However, some of the broader conclusions require additional justification.

      Weaknesses:

      (1) The claim that olivooid-type feeding was most likely a prerequisite transitional form to jet-propelled swimming needs much more support or needs to be tailored to olivooids. This suggests that such behavior is absent (or must be convergent) before olivooids, which is at odds with the increasing quantities of pelagic life (whose modes of swimming are admittedly unconstrained) documented from Cambrian and Neoproterozoic deposits. Even among just medusozoans, ancestral state reconstruction suggests that they would have been swimming during the Neoproterozoic (Kayal et al., 2018; BMC Evolutionary Biology) with no knowledge of the mechanics due to absent preservation.<br /> (2) While the lack of ambient flow made these simulations computationally easier, these organisms likely did not live in stagnant waters even within the benthic boundary layer. The absence of ambient unidirectional laminar current or oscillating current (such as would be found naturally) biases the results.<br /> (3) There is no explanation for how this work could be a breakthrough in simulation gregarious feeding as is stated in the manuscript.

      Despite these weaknesses the authors dynamic fluid simulations convincingly reconstruct the feeding/respiration dynamics of the Cambrian Quadrapyrgites, though the large claims of transitionary stages for this behavior are not adequately justified. Regardless, the approach the authors use will be informative for future studies attempting to simulate similar feeding and respiration dynamics.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Extracellular ATP represents a danger-associated molecular pattern associated to tissue damage and can act also in an autocrine fashion in macrophages to promote proinflammatory responses, as observed in a previous paper by the authors in abdominal sepsis. The present study addresses an important aspect possibly conditioning the outcome of sepsis that is the release of ATP by bacteria. The authors show that sepsis-associated bacteria do in fact release ATP in a growth dependent and strain-specific manner. However, whether this bacterial derived ATP play a role in the pathogenesis of abdominal sepsis has not been determined. To address this question, a number of mutant strains of E. coli has been used first to correlate bacterial ATP release with growth and then, with outer membrane integrity and bacterial death. By using E. coli transformants expressing the ATP-degrading enzyme apyrase in the periplasmic space, the paper nicely shows that abdominal sepsis by these transformants results in significantly improved survival. This effect was associated to the reduction of small peritoneal macrophages and CX3CR1+ monocytes, and increase in neutrophils. To extrapolate the function of bacterial ATP from the systemic response to microorganisms, the authors exploited bacterial OMVs either loaded or not with ATP to investigate the systemic effects devoid of living microorganisms. This approach showed that ATP-loaded OMVs induced degranulation of neutrophils after lysosomal uptake, suggesting this mechanism could contribute to sepsis severity.

      Strengths:

      The most compelling part of the study is the analysis of E. coli mutants to address different aspects of bacterial release of ATP that could be pathogenically relevant during systemic dissemination of bacteria in the host.

      Weaknesses:

      As pointed out in the limitations of the study whether ATP-loaded OMVs could provide a mechanistic proof of the pathogenetic role of bacteria-derived ATP independently of live microorganisms in sepsis is interesting but not definitively convincing. It could be useful to see whether degranulation of neutrophils is differently induced also by apyrase-expressing vs control E. coli transformants. Also, the increase of neutrophils in bacterial ATP-depleted abdominal sepsis, which has better outcome than "ATP-proficient" sepsis, seems difficult to correlate to the hypothesized tissue damage induced by ATP delivered via non-infectious OMVs. Is neutrophils count affected by ATP delivered via OMVs? Probably a comparison of cytokine profiles in the abdominal fluids of E. coli and OMV treated animals could be helpful in defining the different responses induced by OMV-delivered vs bacterial-released ATP.

      The analyses performed on OMV treated versus E. coli infected mice are not immediately related and difficult to combine when trying to draw a pathogenetic hypothesis for bacterial ATP in sepsis.

      It's not clear why lung neutrophils were used for RNAseq.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Gating of Kv10 channels is unique because it involves coupling between non-domain swapped voltage sensing domains, a domain-swapped cytoplasmic ring assembly formed by the N- and C-termini, and the pore domain. Recent structural data suggests that activation of the voltage sensing domain relieves a steric hindrance to pore opening, but the contribution of the cytoplasmic domain to gating is still not well understood. This aspect is of particular importance because proteins like calmodulin interact with the cytoplasmic domain to regulate channel activity. The effects of calmodulin (CaM) in WT and mutant channels with disrupted cytoplasmic gating ring assemblies are contradictory, resulting in inhibition or activation, respectively. The underlying mechanism for these discrepancies is not understood. In the present manuscript, Reham Abdelaziz and collaborators use electrophysiology, biochemistry and mathematical modeling to describe how mutations and deletions that disrupt inter-subunit interactions at the cytoplasmic gating ring assembly affect Kv10.1 channel gating and modulation by CaM. In the revised manuscript, additional information is provided to allow readers to identify within the Kv10.1 channel structure the location of E600R, one of the key channel mutants analyzed in this study. However, the mechanistic role of the cytoplasmic domains that this study focuses on, as well as the location of the ΔPASCap deletion and other perturbations investigated in the study remain difficult to visualize without additional graphical information. This can make it challenging for readers to connect the findings presented in the study with a structural mechanism of channel function.

      The authors focused mainly on two structural perturbations that disrupt interactions within the cytoplasmic domain, the E600R mutant and the ΔPASCap deletion. By expressing mutants in oocytes and recording currents using Two Electrode Voltage-Clamp (TEV), it is found that both ΔPASCap and E600R mutants have biphasic conductance-voltage (G-V) relations and exhibit activation and deactivation kinetics with multiple voltage-dependent components. Importantly, the mutant-specific component in the G-V relations is observed at negative voltages where WT channels remain closed. The authors argue that the biphasic behavior in the G-V relations is unlikely to result from two different populations of channels in the oocytes, because they found that the relative amplitude between the two components in the G-V relations was highly reproducible across individual oocytes that otherwise tend to show high variability in expression levels. Instead, the G-V relations for all mutant channels could be well described by an equation that considers two open states O1 and O2, and a transition between them; O1 appeared to be unaffected by any of the structural manipulations tested (i.e. E600R, ΔPASCap, and other deletions) whereas the parameters for O2 and the transition between the two open states were different between constructs. The O1 state is not observed in WT channels and is hypothesized to be associated with voltage sensor activation. O2 represents the open state that is normally observed in WT channels and is speculated to be associated with conformational changes within the cytoplasmic gating ring that follow voltage sensor activation, which could explain why the mutations and deletions disrupting cytoplasmic interactions affect primarily O2.

      Severing the covalent link between the voltage sensor and pore reduced O1 occupancy in one of the deletion constructs. Although this observation is consistent with the hypothesis that voltage-sensor activation drives entry into O1, this result is not conclusive. Structural as well as functional data has established that the coupling of the voltage sensor and pore does not entirely rely on the S4-S5 covalent linker between the sensor and the pore, and thus the severed construct could still retain coupling through other mechanisms, which is consistent with the prominent voltage dependence that is observed. If both states O1 and O2 require voltage sensor activation, it is unclear why the severed construct would affect state O1 primarily, as suggested in the manuscript, as opposed to decreasing occupancy of both open states. In line with this argument, the presence of Mg2+ in the extracellular solution affected both O1 and O2. This finding suggests that entry into both O1 and O2 requires voltage-sensor activation because Mg2+ ions are known to stabilize the voltage sensor in its most deactivated conformations.

      Activation towards and closure from O1 is slow, whereas channels close rapidly from O2. A rapid alternating pulse protocol was used to take advantage of the difference in activation and deactivation kinetics between the two open components in the mutants and thus drive an increasing number of channels towards state O1. Currents activated by the alternating protocol reached larger amplitudes than those elicited by a long depolarization to the same voltage. This finding is interpreted as an indication that O1 has a larger macroscopic conductance than O2. In the revised manuscript, the authors performed single-channel recordings to determine why O1 and O2 have different macroscopic conductance. The results show that at voltages where the state O1 predominates, channels exhibited longer open times and overall higher open probability, whereas at more depolarized voltages where occupancy of O2 increases, channels exhibited more flickery gating behavior and decreased open probability. These results are informative but not conclusive because additional details about how experiments were conducted, and group data analysis are missing. Importantly, results showing inhibition of single ΔPASCap channels by a Kv10-specific inhibitor are mentioned but not shown or quantitated - these data are essential to establish that the new O1 conductance indeed represents Kv10 channel activity.

      It is shown that conditioning pulses to very negative voltages result in mutant channel currents that are larger and activate more slowly than those elicited at the same voltage but starting from less negative conditioning pulses. In voltage-activated curves, O1 occupancy is shown to be favored by increasingly negative conditioning voltages. This is interpreted as indicating that O1 is primarily accessed from deeply closed states in which voltage sensors are in their most deactivated position. Consistently, a mutation that destabilizes these deactivated states is shown to largely suppress the first component in voltage-activation curves for both ΔPASCap and E600R channels.

      The authors then address the role of the hidden O1 state in channel regulation by calmodulation. Stimulating calcium entry into oocytes with ionomycin and thapsigarging, assumed to enhance CaM-dependent modulation, resulted in preferential potentiation of the first component in ΔPASCap and E600R channels. This potentiation was attenuated by including an additional mutation that disfavors deeply closed states. Together, these results are interpreted as an indication that calcium-CaM preferentially stabilizes deeply closed states from which O1 can be readily accessed in mutant channels, thus favoring current activation. In WT channels lacking a conducting O1 state, CaM stabilizes deeply closed states and is therefore inhibitory. It is found that the potentiation of ΔPASCap and E600R by CaM is more strongly attenuated by mutations in the channel that are assumed to disrupt interaction with the C-terminal lobe of CaM than mutations assumed to affect interaction with the N-terminal lobe. These results are intriguing but difficult to interpret in mechanistic terms. The strong effect that calcium-CaM had on the occupancy of the O1 state in the mutants raises the possibility that O1 can be only observed in channels that are constitutively associated with CaM. To address this, a biochemical pull-down assay was carried out to establish that only a small fraction of channels are associated with CaM under baseline conditions. These CaM experiments are potentially very interesting and could have wide physiological relevance. However, the approach utilized to activate CaM is indirect and could result in additional non-specific effects on the oocytes that could affect the results.

      Finally, a mathematical model is proposed consisting of two layers involving two activation steps for the voltage sensor, and one conformational change in the cytoplasmic gating ring - completion of both sets of conformational changes is required to access state O2, but accessing state O1 only requires completion of the first voltage-sensor activation step in the four subunits. The model qualitatively reproduces most major findings on the mutants. Although the model used is highly symmetric and appears simple, the mathematical form used for the rate constants in the model adds a layer of complexity to the model that makes mechanistic interpretations difficult. In addition, many transitions that from a mechanistic standpoint should not depend on voltage were assigned a voltage dependence in the model. These limitations diminish the overall usefulness of the model which is prominently presented in the manuscript. The most important mechanistic assumptions in the model are not addressed experimentally, such as the proposition that entry into O1 depends on the opening of the transmembrane pore gate, whereas entry into O2 involves gating ring transitions - it is unclear why O2 would require further gating ring transitions to conduct ions given that the gating ring can already support permeation by O1 without any additional conformational changes.

    1. 1:09 (Norris, offscreen) All the time you're collecting information you're asking new questions. That's the key 1:14 part of science. It's not just one question and the answer, it's one question leading 1:19 to a bunch of other questions, leading to a bunch of other answers, which in turn eventually 1:24 lead you to a much more full understanding of the process.

      Norris describes the "key part of science"

    2. 0:02 (Narrator) Science, the art of learning about the natural world around us. It seems straight-foward, 0:08 you ask a question, you make a hypothesis about what you expect to find, then you perform 0:14 an experiment to see if the hypothesis is correct, you analyze the data, and determine 0:20 if you were right. Simple, right? Well, not really. There is much more to it than that, 0:27 which is what makes science so exciting. And fun! In fact, scientists often describe it 0:34 as a process that is all about exploring, asking questions, testing hypotheses, and 0:41 changing directions if their original ideas were wrong; all the while working and sharing 0:47 with other scientists, advancing what 0:50 we know 0:51 about the world 0:52 around us.

      "Science [is] the art of learning about the natural world around us" (0:02). Unlike the linear process that often comes to mind, the scientific process constantly loops back onto itself and even entirely changes directions as more and more data is accumulated. This is what makes science so exciting, the discovery of information, the new questions prompted by such discoveries, and the interconnectedness of the science community which expands upon this process one hundred fold.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      This manuscript by Negi et al. investigates the effects of different ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifications on the stability of substrate proteins, seeking to provide mechanistic insights into known effects of these modifications on cellular protein abundance. The authors focus on comparative studies of two modifications, ubiquitin and FAT10 (a protein with two ubiquitin-like domains), on a panel of substrate proteins; prior work had established that FAT10-conjugated proteins had lower stability to proteosomal degradation than Ub-modified counterparts.

      Strengths of the work include its integration of data across diverse approaches, including molecular dynamics simulations, solution NMR spectroscopy, and in vitro and cellular stability assays. From these, the authors provide provocative mechanistic insight into the lower stability of FAT10 on its own, and in FAT10-mediated destabilization of substrate proteins in computational and experimental findings. Notably, such destabilization impacts both the tag and tagged proteins, raising some provocative questions about mechanism. The data here are generally compelling, albeit with minor concerns on presentation in parts. Conclusions from this work will be interesting to scientists in several fields, particularly those interested in cellular proteostasis and in vitro protein design / long-range communication.

      The most substantial weakness of this work from my perspective is the specificity of these destabilization effects. In particular, technical challenges of producing bona fide Ub- or FAT10-conjugated substrates with native linkages limits the ability to conduct in vitro studies on exactly the same molecules as being studied in cellular environments. Given some discussion in the manuscript about the importance of linkage location on the specificity of certain tag/substrate interactions, this raises an understandable but unfortunate caveat that needs to be considered more fully both in general and in light of data from other fields (e.g. single molecule pulling) showing site-dependence of comparable effects. I note that these concerns do not impact the caliber of the conclusions themselves, but perhaps suggest area for caution as to their potential impact at this time.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      This work focuses on the trade-off between precision and robustness in morphogen gradients of Hedgehog signaling. It presents a framework for how hedgehog signaling rises to precise responses and robust responses. This Framework is based on the characteristics of the hedgehog signaling pathway and specifically on the characteristics of the dynamical and stationary gradients that it forms in the Drosophila wing disc. On the one hand, the manuscript takes into account known results showing that the Hedgehog stationary gradient is robust due to a self-enhanced degradation (via activation of the Patched receptor). On the other hand, it uses the concept of dynamic interpretation of the gradient introduced by the leading author of this manuscript. According to this interpretation, different targets may be responding to a single signaling threshold and what differentiates the targets is whether they respond to the transient gradient, which extends over more cells, or if they respond to the stationary gradient. The Framework presented in this manuscript takes this prior knowledge and builds on it. The Framework proposes that the response from different targets will not be equally robust. Specifically, if the target responds to the stationary gradient, it will be a target with a robust response. Conversely, if the target responds to the gradient while it is being built, then it will be less robust but more precise. This framework is analyzed using mathematical models. Finally, experimental data that partially corroborate this framework are presented, focusing on the col and Dpp targets, which, according to previous results, read the stationary and transient gradients, respectively. To changes in Hh levels, the col pattern is more robust than the Dpp pattern. Furthermore, it is shown that this robustness decreases if the Patched receptor is not regulated. Hence, these experimental results confirm that the robustness is target-specific, as predicted by the models. The precision of the Dpp pattern is not tested experimentally.

  2. Jul 2024
    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Kerkoerle and colleagues present a very interesting comparative fMRI study in humans and monkeys, assessing neural responses to surprise reactions at the reversal of a previously learned association. The implicit nature of this task, assessing how this information is represented without requiring explicit decision making, is an elegant design. The paper reports that both humans and monkeys show neural responses across a range of areas when presented with incongruous stimulus pairs. Monkeys also show a surprise response when the stimuli are presented in the reversed direction. However, humans show no such surprise response based on this reversal, suggesting that they encode the relationship reversibly and bidirectionally, unlike the monkeys. This has been suggested as a hallmark of symbolic representation, that might be absent in nonhuman animals.

      I find this experiment and the results quite compelling, and the data do support the hypothesis that humans are somewhat unique in their tendency to form reversible, symbolic associations. I think that an important strength of the results is that the critical finding is the presence of an interaction between congruity and canonicity in macaques, which does not appear in humans. These results go a long way to allay concerns I have about the comparison of many human participants to a very small number of macaques.

      The results do appear to show that macaques show the predicted interaction effect (even despite the sample size), while humans do not. I think this is quite convincing. (Although had the results turned out differently (for example an effect in humans that was absent in macaques), I think this difference in sample size would be considerably more concerning.)

      I would also note that while I agree with the authors conclusions, it is also notable to me that the congruity effect observed in humans (red vs blue lines in Fig. 2B) appears to be far more pronounced than any effect observed in the macaques (Fig. 3C-3). Again, this does not challenge the core finding of this paper but does suggest methodological or possibly motivational/attentional differences between the humans and the monkeys (or, for example, that the monkeys had learned the associations less strongly and clearly than the humans). The authors now discuss this more fully.

      This is a strong paper with elegant methods and makes a worthwhile contribution to our understanding of the neural systems supporting symbolic representations in humans, as opposed to other animals.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      More than ten years ago, it was shown that activity in the primary visual cortex of mice substantially increases when mice are running compared to when they are sitting still. This finding 'revolutionised' our thinking about visual cortex, turning away from it being a passive image processor and highlighting the influence of non-visual factors. The current study now for the first time repeats this experiment in marmosets. The authors find that in contrast to mice, marmoset V1 activity is slightly suppressed during running, and they relate this to differences in gain modulations of V1 activity between the two species.

      Strengths

      - Replication in primates of the original finding in mice partly took so long, because of the inherent difficulties with recording from the brain of a running primate. In fact one recent, highly related study on macaques looked at spontaneous limb movements as the macaque was sitting. The treadmill for the marmosets in the current study is a very elegant solution to the problem of running in primates. It allows for true replication of the 'running vs stationary' experiment and undoubtedly opens up many possibilities for other experiments recording from a head-fixed but active marmoset.<br /> - In addition to their own data in marmoset, the authors run their analyses on a publicly available data set in mouse. This allows them to directly compare mouse and marmoset findings, which significantly strengthens their conclusions.<br /> - Marmoset vision is fundamentally different from mouse vision as they have a fovea and make goal-directed eye movements. In this revised version of their paper, the authors acknowledge this and investigate the possible effect of eye movements and pupil size on the differences they find between running and stationary. They conclude that eye input does not explain all these differences.

      Significance

      The paper provides interesting new evidence to the ongoing discussion about the influence of non-visual factors in general, and running in particular, on visual cortex activity. As such, it helps to pull this discussion out of the rodent field mainly and into the field of primate research. The bigger question of *why* there are differences between rodents and primates remains still unanswered, but the authors do their best to provide possible explanations. The elegant experimental set-up of the marmoset on a treadmill will certainly add new findings to this issue also in the years to come.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The current study provided a follow-up analysis using published datasets focused on the individual variability of both the distraction effect (size and direction) and the attribute integration style, as well as the association between the two. The authors tried to answer the question of whether the multiplicative attribute integration style concurs with a more pronounced and positively oriented distraction effect.

      Strengths:

      The analysis extensively examined the impacts of various factors on decision accuracy, with particular focus on using two-option trials as control trials, following the approach established by Cao & Tsetsos (2022). The statistical significance results were clearly reported.

      The authors meticulously conducted supplementary examinations, incorporating the additional term HV+LV into GLM3. Furthermore, they replaced the utility function from the expected value model with values from the composite model.

      Weaknesses:

      The authors did a great job addressing the weaknesses I raised in the previous round of review, except on the generalizability of the current result in the larger context of multi-attribute decision-making. It is not really a weakness of the manuscript but more of a limitation of the studied topic, so I want to keep this comment for public readers.

      The reward magnitude and probability information are displayed using rectangular bars of different colors and orientations. Would that bias subjects to choose an additive rule instead of the multiplicative rule? Also, could the conclusion be extended to other decision contexts such as quality and price, where a multiplicative rule is hard to formulate?

      Overall, the authors have achieved their aims after clarifying that the study was trying to establish a correlation between the integration style and attraction effect. This result may be useful to inspire neuroimaging or neuromodulation studies that investigate multi-attribute decision making.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Rook et al examined the role of BMP signaling in cerebellum development, using chick as a model alongside human tissue samples. They first examined p-SMADs and found differences between the species, with human samples retaining high p-SMAD after foliation, while in chick, BMP signaling appears to decrease following foliation. To understand the role of BMP during early development, they then used early chick embryos to modulate BMP, using either a constitutively active BMP regulator to increase BMP signaling or overexpressing the negative intracellular BMP regulator to decrease BMP signaling. After validating the constructs in ovo, the authors then examined GNP morphology and migration. They then determined whether the effects were cell autonomous.

      Strengths:

      The experiments were well-designed and well-controlled. The figures were extremely clear and convincing, and the accompanying drawings help orient the reader to easily understand the experimental set up. These studies also help clarify the role of BMP at different stages of cerebellum development, suggesting early BMP signaling is required for dorsalization, not rhombic lip induction, and that later BMP signaling is needed to regulate the timing of migration and maturation of granule neurons.

      Weaknesses:

      While these studies certainly hint that BMP modulation may affect tumor growth, this was not explicitly tested here. Future studies are required to generalize the functional role of BMP signaling in normal cerebellum development to malignant growth.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Zhu et al. set out to better understand the neural mechanisms underlying Drosophila larval escape behavior. The escape behavior comprises several sequenced movements, including a lateral roll motion followed by fast crawling. The authors specifically were looking to identify neurons important for the roll-to-crawl transition.

      Strengths:

      This paper is clearly written, and the experiments are logical and complementary. They support the author's main claim that SeIN128 is a type of descending neuron that is both necessary and sufficient to modulate the termination of rolling. In general, the rigor is high.

      Weaknesses:

      -This manuscript is narrowly focused on Drosophila larval escape behavior. It would be more accessible to a broader audience if this work were put into a larger context of descending control.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Campbell et al investigated the effects of light on the human brain, in particular the subcortical part hypothalamus during auditory cognitive tasks. The mechanisms and neuronal circuits underlying light effects in non-image forming responses are so far mostly studied in rodents but are not easily translated in humans. Therefore, this is a fundamental study aiming to establish the impact light illuminance has on the subcortical structures using the high-resolution 7T fMRI. The authors found that parts of the hypothalamus are differently responding to illuminance. In particular, they found that the activity of the posterior hypothalamus increases while the activity of the anterior and ventral parts of the hypothalamus decreases under high illuminance. The authors also report that the performance of the 2-back executive task was significantly better in higher illuminance conditions. However, it seems that the activity of the posterior hypothalamus subpart is negatively related to the performance of the executive task, implying that it is unlikely that this part of the hypothalamus is directly involved in the positive impact of light on performance observed. Interestingly, the activity of the posterior hypothalamus was, however, associated with an increased behavioural response to emotional stimuli. This suggests that the role of this posterior part of the hypothalamus is not as simple regarding light effects on cognitive and emotional responses. This study is a fundamental step towards our better understanding of the mechanisms underlying light effects on cognition and consequently optimising lighting standards.

      Strengths:

      While it is still impossible to distinguish individual hypothalamic nuclei, even with the high-resolution fMRI, the authors split the hypothalamus into five areas encompassing five groups of hypothalamic nuclei. This allowed them to reveal that different parts of the hypothalamus respond differently to an increase in illuminance. They found that higher illuminance increased the activity of the posterior part of the hypothalamus encompassing the MB and parts of the LH and TMN, while decreasing the activity of the anterior parts encompassing the SCN and another part of TMN. These findings are somewhat in line with studies in animals. It was shown that parts of the hypothalamus such as SCN, LH, and PVN receive direct retinal input in particular from ipRGCs. Also, acute chemogenetic activation of ipRGCs was shown to induce activation of LH and also increased arousal in mice.

      Weaknesses:

      While the light characteristics are well documented and EDI calculated for all of the photoreceptors, it is not very clear why these irradiances and spectra were chosen. It would be helpful if the authors explained the logic behind the four chosen light conditions tested. Also, the lights chosen have cone-opic EDI values in a high correlation with the melanopic EDI, therefore we can't distinguish if the effects seen here are driven by melanopsin and/or other photoreceptors. In order to provide a more mechanistic insight into the light-driven effects on cognition ideally one would use silent substitution approach to distinguish between different photoreceptors. This may be something to consider when designing the follow-up studies.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The current study aims to quantify associations between regular use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) - defined as using PPI most days of the week during the last 4 weeks at one cross-section in time - with several respiratory outcomes (6 in total: risk of influenza, pneumonia, COVID-19, other respiratory tract infections, as well as COVID-19 severity and mortality) up to several years later in time.

      Strengths:

      Several sensitivity analyses were performed, including i) estimation of the e-value to assess how strong unmeasured confounders should be to explain observed effects, ii) comparison with another drug with a similar indication to potentially reduce (but not eliminate) confounding by indication, iii)

      Weaknesses:

      While the original submission had several weaknesses, the authors have appropriately addressed all issues raised. There are inevitable weaknesses remaining, but these are appropriately highlighted in the discussion. Remaining weaknesses that remain - but are highlighted in the discussion - include the fact that the main exposure of interest is only measured at one time-point whereas outcomes are assessed over a long time period, the inclusion of prevalent users leading to potential bias (e.g. those experiencing bad outcomes already stopping because of side-effects before inclusion in the study), and the possibility of unmeasured confounding explaining observations (e.g. severity of underlying comorbidities leading to PPI prescriptions combined with the absence of information about comorbidity severity), and potential selection bias.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Horn and colleagues present data suggesting that the targeting of GREM1 has little impact on a mouse model of metabolic dysfunction-associated steatohepatitis. Importantly, they also challenge existing data on the detection of GREM1 by ELISA in serum or plasma by demonstrating that high-affinity binding of GREM1 to heparin would lead to localisation of GREM1 in the ECM or at the plasma membrane of cells.

      Strengths:

      This is an impressive tour-de-force study around the potential of targeting GREM1 in MASH.

      This paper will challenge many existing papers in the field around our ability to detect GREM1 in circulation, at least using antibody-mediated detection.

      Well-controlled, detailed studies like this are critically important in order to challenge less vigorous studies in the literature.

      The impressive volume of high-level, well-controlled data using an impressive range of in vitro biochemical techniques, rodent models, and human liver slices.

      Weaknesses: only minor.

      (1) The authors clearly show that heparin can limit the diffusion of GREM1 into the circulation-however, in a setting where GREM1 is produced in excess (e.g. cancer), could this "saturate" the available heparin and allow GREM1 to "escape" into the circulation?

      (2) Secondly, has the author considered that GREM1 be circulating bound to a chaperone protein like albumin which would reduce its reactivity with GREM1 detection antibodies?

      (3) Statistics-there is no mention of blinding of samples-I assume this was done prior to analysis?

      (4) Line 211-I suggest adding the Figure reference at the end of this sentence to direct the reader to the relevant data.

      (5) Figure 1E Y-axis units are a little hard to interpret-can integers be used?

      (6) Did the authors attempt to detect GREM1 protein by IHC? There are published methods for this using the R&D Systems mouse antibody (PMID 31384391).

      (7) Did the authors ever observe GREM1 internalisation using their Atto-532 labelled GREM1?

      (8) Did the authors complete GREM1 ISH in the rat CDAA-HFD model? Was GREM1 upregulated, and if so, where?

      (9) Supplementary Figure 4C - why does the GFP level decrease in the GREM1 transgenic compared to control the GFP mouse? No such change is observed in Supplementary Figure 4E.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      In their manuscript, the authors propose a learning scheme to enable spiking neurons to learn the appearance probability of inputs to the network. To this end, the neurons rely on error-based plasticity rules for feedforward and recurrent connections. The authors show that this enables the networks to spontaneously sample assembly activations according to the occurrence probability of the input patterns they respond to. They also show that the learning scheme could explain biases in decision-making, as observed in monkey experiments. While the task of neural sampling has been solved before in other models, the novelty here is the proposal that the main drivers of sampling are within-assembly connections, and not between-assembly (Markov chains) connections as in previous models. This could provide a new understanding of how spontaneous activity in the cortex is shaped by synaptic plasticity.

      The manuscript is well written and the results are presented in a clear and understandable way. The main results are convincing, concerning the spontaneous firing rate dependence of assemblies on input probability, as well as the replication of biases in the decision-making experiment. Nevertheless, the manuscript and model leave open several important questions. The main problem is the unclarity, both in theory and intuitively, of how the sampling exactly works. This also makes it difficult to assess the claims of novelty the authors make, as it is not clear how their work relates to previous models of neural sampling.

      Regarding the unclarity of the sampling mechanism, the authors state that within-assembly excitatory connections are responsible for activating the neurons according to stimulus probability. However, the intuition for this process is not made clear anywhere in the manuscript. How do the recurrent connections lead to the observed effect of sampling? How exactly do assemblies form from feedforward plasticity? This intuitive unclarity is accompanied by a lack of formal justification for the plasticity rules. The authors refer to a previous publication from the same lab, but it is difficult to connect these previous results and derivations to the current manuscript. The manuscript should include a clear derivation of the learning rules, as well as an (ideally formal) intuition of how this leads to the sampling dynamics in the simulation.

      Some of the model details should furthermore be cleared up. First, recurrent connections transmit signals instantaneously, which is implausible. Is this required, would the network dynamics change significantly if, e.g., excitation arrives slightly delayed? Second, why is the homeostasis on h required for replay? The authors show that without it the probabilities of sampling are not matched, but it is not clear why, nor how homeostasis prevents this. Third, G and M have the same plasticity rule except for G being confined to positive values, but there is no formal justification given for this quite unusual rule. The authors should clearly justify (ideally formally) the introduction of these inhibitory weights G, which is also where the manuscript deviates from their previous 2020 work. My feeling is that inhibitory weights have to be constrained in the current model because they have a different goal (decorrelation, not prediction) and thus should operate with a completely different plasticity mechanism. The current manuscript doesn't address this, as there is no overall formal justification for the learning algorithm.

      Finally, the authors should make the relation to previous models of sampling and error-based plasticity more clear. Since there is no formal derivation of the sampling dynamics, it is difficult to assess how they differ exactly from previous (Markov-based) approaches, which should be made more precise. Especially, it would be important to have concrete (ideally experimentally testable) predictions on how these two ideas differ. As a side note, especially in the introduction (line 90), this unclarity about the sampling made it difficult to understand the contrast to Markovian transition models.

      There are also several related models that have not been mentioned and should be discussed. In 663 ff. the authors discuss the contributions of their model which they claim are novel, but in Kappel et al (STDP Installs in Winner-Take-All Circuits an Online Approximation to Hidden Markov Model Learning) similar elements seem to exist as well, and the difference should be clarified. There is also a range of other models with lateral inhibition that make use of error-based plasticity (most recently reviewed in Mikulasch et al, Where is the error? Hierarchical predictive coding through dendritic error computation), and it should be discussed how the proposed model differs from these.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors used a novel multi-dimensional experience sampling (mDES) approach to identify data-driven patterns of experience samples that they use to interrogate fMRI data collected during naturalistic movie-watching data. They identify a set of multi-sensory features of a set of movies that delineate low-dimensional gradients of BOLD fMRI signal patterns that have previously been linked to fundamental axes of cortical organization.

      Strengths:

      The novel solution to challenges associated with experience sampling offers potential access to aspects of experience that have been challenging to assess. While inventive, I worry that the reliability of the mDES approach is currently under-investigated, making it challenging to interpret the import of the later analyses, which are themselves strong and compelling.

      Weaknesses:

      The lack of direct interrogation of individual differences/reliability of the mDES scores warrants some pause.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this work, Noorman and colleagues test the predictions of the "four-stage model" of consciousness by combining psychophysics and scalp EEG in humans. The study relies on an elegant experimental design to investigate the respective impact of attentional and perceptual blindness on visual processing.

      The study is very well summarised, the text is clear and the methods seem sound. Overall, a very solid piece of work. I haven't identified any major weaknesses. Below I raise a few questions of interpretation that may possibly be the subject of a revision of the text.

      (1) The perceptual performance on Fig1D appears to show huge variation across participants, with some participants at chance levels and others with performance > 90% in the attentional blink and/or masked conditions. This seems to reveal that the procedure to match performance across participants was not very successful. Could this impact the results? The authors highlight the fact that they did not resort to post-selection or exclusion of participants, but at the same time do not discuss this equally important point.

      (2) In the analysis on collinearity and illusion-specific processing, the authors conclude that the absence of a significant effect of training set demonstrates collinearity-only processing. I don't think that this conclusion is warranted: as the illusory and non-illusory share the same shape, so more elaborate object processing could also be occuring. Please discuss.

      (3) Discussion, lines 426-429: It is stated that the results align with the notion that processes of perceptual segmentation and organization represent the mechanism of conscious experience. My interpretation of the results is that they show the contrary: for the same visibility level in the attentional blind or masking conditions, these processes can be implicated or not, which suggests a role during unconscious processing instead.

      (4). The two paradigms developed here could be used jointly to highlight non-idiosyncratic NCCs, i.e. EEG markers of visibility or confidence that generalise regardless of the method used. Have the authors attempted to train the classifier on one method and apply it to another (e.g. AB to masking and vice versa)? What perceptual level is assumed to transfer?

      (5). How can the results be integrated with the attentional literature showing that attentional filters can be applied early in the processing hierarchy?

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      It is suggested that for each limb the RG (rhythm generator) can operate in three different regimes: a non-oscillating state-machine regime, and in a flexordriven and a classical half-center oscillatory regime. This means that the field can move away from the old concept that there is only room for the classic half-center organization

      Strengths:

      A major benefit of the present paper is that a bridge was made between various CPG concepts ( "a potential contradiction between the classical half-center and flexor-driven concepts of spinal RG operation"). Another important step forward is the proposal about the neural control of slow gait ("at slow speeds ({less than or equal to} 0.35 m/s), the spinal network operates in a state regime and requires external inputs for phase transitions, which can come from limb sensory feedback and/or volitional inputs (e.g. from the motor cortex").

      Weaknesses:

      Some references are missing.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This paper provides a resource for researchers studying the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii. It is only the third whole-body connectome to be assembled and thus provides a comparison with those less complex animals: the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the tunicate Ciona intestinialis. The paper catalogs all cells in the body, not just neurons, and details how sensory neurons, interneurons, motor neurons, and effector organs are connected. From this, the authors are able to extract information about the organization of different aspects of the nervous system. These include the extent of recurrent connectivity, unimodal and multimodal sensory processing, and long-range and short-range connectivity.

      Several interesting conclusions are drawn, including the concept that circuit evolution might have proceeded by duplication and diversion of cell types, much as it has been posited that gene evolution has occurred. It also informs the understanding of the evolution of segmental body plans in annelids by mapping and comparing cells in each segment.

      Strengths:

      This paper contains a wealth of data. The raw dataset is available. The codes and scripts are provided to allow interested readers to utilize this dataset.

      The analysis is painstakingly meticulous. The diagrams are organized to orient the reader to the complexities of this overwhelming analysis

      Weaknesses:

      The strength of the paper is also its weakness. It contains so much data and analysis that it is burdensome to read and understand. There are 16 multi-panel data figures in the main text, and \another 38 supplemental figures, and 5 videos.

      The impact of the paper is diminished by its size and depth. The paper could be broken up into smaller thematic papers that would be more accessible to researchers interested in particular topics. For example, there could be a single paper on the mushroom body and another paper on the segmental organization.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      The authors in this paper investigate the nature of the activity in the rodent EPN during a simple freely moving cue-reward association task. Given that primate literature suggests movement coding whereas other primate and rodent studies suggest mainly reward outcome coding in the EPNs, it is important to try to tease apart the two views. Through careful analysis of behavior kinematics, position, and neural activity in the EPNs, the authors reveal an interesting and complex relationship between the EPN and mouse behavior.

      Strengths:

      (1) The authors use a novel freely moving task to study EPN activity, which displays rich movement trajectories and kinematics. Given that previous studies have mostly looked at reward coding during head-fixed behavior, this study adds a valuable dataset to the literature.

      (2) The neural analysis is rich and thorough. Both single neuron level and population level (i.e. PCA) analysis are employed to reveal what EPN encodes.

      Weaknesses:

      (1) One major weakness in this paper is the way the authors define the EPN neurons. Without a clear method of delineating EPN vs other surrounding regions, it is not convincing enough to call these neurons EPNs solely from looking at the electrode cannula track from Figure 2B. Indeed, EPN is a very small nucleus and previous studies like Stephenson-Jones et al (2016) have used opto-tagging of Vglut2 neurons to precisely label EPN single neurons. Wallace et al (2017) have also shown the existence of SOM and PV-positive neurons in the EPN. By not using transgenic lines and cell-type specific approaches to label these EPN neurons, the authors miss the opportunity to claim that the neurons recorded in this study do indeed come from EPN. The authors should at least consider showing an analysis of neurons slightly above or below EPN and show that these neurons display different waveforms or firing patterns.

      (2) The authors fail to replicate the main finding about EPN neurons which is that they encode outcome in a negative manner. Both Stephenson-Jones et al (2016) and Hong and Hikosaka (2008) show a reward response during the outcome period where firing goes down during reward and up during neutral or aversive outcome. However, Figure 2 G top panel shows that the mean population is higher during correct trials and lower during incorrect trials. This could be interesting given that the authors might try recording from another part of EPN that has not been studied before. However, without convincing evidence that the neurons recorded are from EPN in the first place (point 1), it is hard to interpret these results and reconcile them with previous studies.

      3) The authors say that: 'reward and kinematic doing are not mutually exclusive, challenging the notion of distinct pathways and movement processing'. However, it is not clear whether the data presented in this work supports this statement. First, the authors have not attempted to record from the entire EPN. Thus it is possible that the coding might be more segregated in other parts of EPN. Second, EPNs have previously been shown to display positive firing for negative outcomes and vice versa, something which the authors do not find here. It is possible that those neurons might not encode kinematic and movement variables. Thus, the authors should point out in the main text the possibility that the EPN activity recorded might be missing some parts of the whole EPN.

      4). The authors use an IR beam system to record licks and make a strong claim about the nature of lick encoding in the EPN. However, the authors should note that IR beam system is not the most accurate way of detecting licks given that any object blocking the path (paw or jaw-dropping) will be detected as lick events. Capacitance based, closed-loop detection, or video capturing is better suited to detect individual licks. Given that the authors are interested in kinematics of licking, this is important. The authors should either point this out in the main text or verify in the system if the IR beam is correctly detecting licks using a combination of those methods.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors state the study's goal clearly: "The goal of our study was to understand to what extent animal individuality is influenced by situational changes in the environment, i.e., how much of an animal's individuality remains after one or more environmental features change." They use visually guided behavioral features to examine the extent of correlation over time and in a variety of contexts. They develop new behavioral instrumentation and software to measure behavior in Buridan's paradigm (and variations thereof), the Y-maze, and a flight simulator. Using these assays, they examine the correlations between conditions for a panel of locomotion parameters. They propose that inter-assay correlations will determine the persistence of locomotion individuality.

      Strengths:

      The OED defines individuality as "the sum of the attributes which distinguish a person or thing from others of the same kind," a definition mirrored by other dictionaries and the scientific literature on the topic. The concept of behavioral individuality can be characterized as:<br /> (1) a large set of behavioral attributes,<br /> (2) with inter-individual variability, that are<br /> (3) stable over time.

      A previous study examined walking parameters in Buridan's paradigm, finding that several parameters were variable between individuals, and that these showed stability over separate days and up to 4 weeks (DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw718). The present study replicates some of those findings and extends the experiments from temporal stability to examining the correlation of locomotion features between different contexts.

      The major strength of the study is using a range of different behavioral assays to examine the correlations of several different behavior parameters. It shows clearly that the inter-individual variability of some parameters is at least partially preserved between some contexts, and not preserved between others. The development of high-throughput behavior assays and sharing the information on how to make the assays is a commendable contribution.

      Weaknesses:

      The definition of individuality considers a comprehensive or large set of attributes, but the authors consider only a handful. In Supplemental Fig. S8, the authors show a large correlation matrix of many behavioral parameters, but these are illegible and are only mentioned briefly in Results. Why were five or so parameters selected from the full set? How were these selected? Do the correlation trends hold true across all parameters? For assays in which only a subset of parameters can be directly compared, were all of these included in the analysis, or only a subset?

      The correlation analysis is used to establish stability between assays. For temporal re-testing, "stability" is certainly the appropriate word, but between contexts, it implies that there could be 'instability'. Rather, instead of the 'instability' of a single brain process, a different behavior in a different context could arise from engaging largely (or entirely?) distinct context-dependent internal processes, and have nothing to do with process stability per se. For inter-context similarities, perhaps a better word would be "consistency".

      The parameters are considered one by one, not in aggregate. This focuses on the stability/consistency of the variability of a single parameter at a time, rather than holistic individuality. It would appear that an appropriate measure of individuality stability (or individuality consistency) that accounts for the high-dimensional nature of individuality would somehow summarize correlations across all parameters. Why was a multivariate approach (e.g. multiple regression/correlation) not used? Treating the data with a multivariate or averaged approach would allow the authors to directly address 'individuality stability', along with the analyses of single-parameter variability stability.

      The correlation coefficients are sometimes quite low, though highly significant, and are deemed to indicate stability. For example, in Figure 4C top left, the % of time walked at 23{degree sign}C and 32{degree sign}C are correlated by 0.263, which corresponds to an R2 of 0.069 i.e. just 7% of the 32{degree sign}C variance is predictable by the 23{degree sign}C variance. Is it fair to say that a 7% determination indicates parameter stability? Another example: "Vector strength was the most correlated attention parameter... correlations ranged... to -0.197," which implies that 96% (1 - R2) of Y-maze variance is not predicted by Buridan variance. At what level does an r value not represent stability?

      The authors describe a dissociation between inter-group differences and inter-individual variation stability, i.e. sometimes large mean differences between contexts, but significant correlation between individual test and retest data. Given that correlation is sensitive to slope, this might be expected to underestimate the variability stability (or consistency). Is there a way to adjust for the group differences before examining the correlation? For example, would it be possible to transform the values to in-group ranks prior to correlation analysis?

      What is gained by classifying the five parameters into exploration, attention, and anxiety? To what extent have these classifications been validated, both in general and with regard to these specific parameters? Is the increased walking speed at higher temperatures necessarily due to an increased 'explorative' nature, or could it be attributed to increased metabolism, dehydration stress, or a heat-pain response? To what extent are these categories subjective?

      The legends are quite brief and do not link to descriptions of specific experiments. For example, Figure 4a depicts a graphical overview of the procedure, but I could not find a detailed description of this experiment's protocol.

      Using the current single-correlation analysis approach, the aims would benefit from re-wording to appropriately address single-parameter variability stability/consistency (as distinct from holistic individuality). Alternatively, the analysis could be adjusted to address the multivariate nature of individuality, so that the claims and the analysis are in concordance with each other.

      The study presents a bounty of new technology to study visually guided behaviors. The GitHub link to the software was not available. To verify the successful transfer of open hardware and open-software, a report would demonstrate transfer by collaboration with one or more other laboratories, which the present manuscript does not appear to do. Nevertheless, making the technology available to readers is commendable.

      The study discusses a number of interesting, stimulating ideas about inter-individual variability, and presents intriguing data that speaks to those ideas, albeit with the issues outlined above.

      While the current work does not present any mechanistic analysis of inter-individual variability, the implementation of high-throughput assays sets up the field to more systematically investigate fly visual behaviors, their variability, and their underlying mechanisms.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This work aims to understand the role of thalamus POm in dorsal lateral striatum (DLS) projection in learning a sensorimotor associative task. The authors first confirm that POm forms "en passant" synapses with some of the DLS neuronal subtypes. They then perform a go/no-go associative task that consists of the mouse learning to discriminate between two different textures and to associate one of them with an action. During this task, they either record the activity of the POm to DLS axons using endoscopy or silence their activity. They report that POm axons in the DLS are activated around the sensory stimulus but that the activity is not modulated by the reward. Last, they showed that silencing the POm axons at the level of DLS slows down learning the task.

      The authors show convincing evidence of projections from POm to DLS and that POm inputs to DLS code for whisking whatever the outcome of the task is. However, their results do not allow us to conclude if more neurons are recruited during the learning process or if the already activated fibres get activated more strongly. Last, because POm fibres in the DLS are also projecting to S1, silencing the POm fibres in the DLS could have affected inputs in S1 as well and therefore, the slowdown in acquiring the task is not necessarily specific to the POm to DLS pathway.

      Strengths:

      One of the main strengths of the paper is to go from slice electrophysiology to behaviour to get an in-depth characterization of one pathway. The authors did a comprehensive description of the POm projections to the DLS using transgenic mice to unambiguously identify the DLS neuronal population. They also used a carefully designed sensorimotor association task, and they exploited the results in depth.

      It is a very nice effort to have measured the activity of the axons in the DLS not only after the mice have learned the task but throughout the learning process. It shows the progressive increase of activity of POm axons in the DLS, which could imply that there is a progressive strengthening of the pathway. The results show convincingly that POm axons in the DLS are not activated by the outcome of the task but by the whisker activity, and that this activity on average increases with learning.

      Weaknesses:

      One of the main targets of the striatum from thalamic input are the cholinergic neurons that weren't investigated here, is there information that could be provided?

      It is interesting to know that the POm projects to all neuronal types in the DLS, but this information is not used further down the manuscript so the only take-home message of Figure 1 is that the axons that they image or silence in the DLS are indeed connected to DLS neurons and not just passing fibres. In this line, are these axons the same as the ones projecting to S1? If this is the case, why would we expect a different behaviour of the axon activity at the DLS level compared to S1?

      The authors used endoscopy to measure the POm axons in the DLS activity, which makes it impossible to know if the progressive increase of POm response is due to an increase of activity from each individual neuron or if new neurons are progressively recruited in the process.

      The picture presented in Figure 4 of the stimulation site is slightly concerning as there are hardly any fibres in neocortical layer 1 while there seems to be quite a lot of them in layer 4, suggesting that the animal here was injected in the VB. This is especially striking as the implantation and projection sites presented in Figures 1 and 2 are very clean and consistent with POm injection.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The novel advance by Wang et al is in the demonstration that, relative to a standard extinction procedure, the retrieval-extinction procedure more effectively suppresses responses to a conditioned threat stimulus when testing occurs just minutes after extinction. The authors provide some solid evidence to show that this "short-term" suppression of responding involves engagement of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

      Strengths:

      Overall, the study is well-designed and the results are potentially interesting. There are, however, a few issues in the way that it is introduced and discussed. Some of the issues concern clarity of expression/communication. However, others relate to a theory that could be used to help the reader understand why the results should have come out the way that they did. More specific comments and questions are presented below.

      Weaknesses:

      INTRODUCTION & THEORY

      (1) Can the authors please clarify why the first trial of extinction in a standard protocol does NOT produce the retrieval-extinction effect? Particularly as the results section states: "Importantly, such a short-term effect is also retrieval dependent, suggesting the labile state of memory is necessary for the short-term memory update to take effect (Fig. 1e)." The importance of this point comes through at several places in the paper:

      1A. "In the current study, fear recovery was tested 30 minutes after extinction training, whereas the effect of memory reconsolidation was generally evident only several hours later and possibly with the help of sleep, leaving open the possibility of a different cognitive mechanism for the short-term fear dementia related to the retrieval-extinction procedure." ***What does this mean? The two groups in study 1 experienced a different interval between the first and second CS extinction trials; and the results varied with this interval: a longer interval (10 min) ultimately resulted in less reinstatement of fear than a shorter interval. Even if the different pattern of results in these two groups was shown/known to imply two different processes, there is absolutely no reason to reference any sort of cognitive mechanism or dementia - that is quite far removed from the details of the present study.

      1B. "Importantly, such a short-term effect is also retrieval dependent, suggesting the labile state of memory is necessary for the short-term memory update to take effect (Fig. 1e)." ***As above, what is "the short-term memory update"? At this point in the text, it would be appropriate for the authors to discuss why the retrieval-extinction procedure produces less recovery than a standard extinction procedure as the two protocols only differ in the interval between the first and second extinction trials. References to a "short-term memory update" process do not help the reader to understand what is happening in the protocol.

      (2) "Indeed, through a series of experiments, we identified a short-term fear amnesia effect following memory retrieval, in addition to the fear reconsolidation effect that appeared much later."<br /> ***The only reason for supposing two effects is because of the differences in responding to the CS2, which was subjected to STANDARD extinction, in the short- and long-term tests. More needs to be said about how and why the performance of CS2 is affected in the short-term test and recovers in the long-term test. That is, if the loss of performance to CS1 and CS2 is going to be attributed to some type of memory updating process across the retrieval-extinction procedure, one needs to explain the selective recovery of performance to CS2 when the extinction-to-testing interval extends to 24 hours. Instead of explaining this recovery, the authors note that performance to CS1 remains low when the extinction-to-testing interval is 24 hours and invoke something to do with memory reconsolidation as an explanation for their results: that is, they imply (I think) that reconsolidation of the CS1-US memory is disrupted across the 24-hour interval between extinction and testing even though CS1 evokes negligible responding just minutes after extinction.

      (3) The discussion of memory suppression is potentially interesting but, in its present form, raises more questions than it answers. That is, memory suppression is invoked to explain a particular pattern of results but I, as the reader, have no sense of why a fear memory would be better suppressed shortly after the retrieval-extinction protocol compared to the standard extinction protocol; and why this suppression is NOT specific to the cue that had been subjected to the retrieval-extinction protocol.

      3A. Relatedly, how does the retrieval-induced forgetting (which is referred to at various points throughout the paper) relate to the retrieval-extinction effect? The appeal to retrieval-induced forgetting as an apparent justification for aspects of the present study reinforces points 2 and 3 above. It is not uninteresting but needs some clarification/elaboration.

      (4) Given the reports by Chalkia, van Oudenhove & Beckers (2020) and Chalkia et al (2020), some qualification needs to be inserted in relation to reference 6. That is, reference 6 is used to support the statement that "during the reconsolidation window, old fear memory can be updated via extinction training following fear memory retrieval". This needs a qualifying statement like "[but see Chalkia et al (2020a and 2020b) for failures to reproduce the results of 6]."

      https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32580869/<br /> https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7115860/

      CLARIFICATIONS, ELABORATIONS, EDITS

      (5) The Abstract was not easy to follow:

      5A. What does it mean to ask: "whether memory retrieval facilitates update mechanisms other than memory reconsolidation"? That is, in what sense could or would memory retrieval be thought to facilitate a memory update mechanism?

      5B. "First, we demonstrate that memory reactivation prevents the return of fear shortly after extinction training in contrast to the memory reconsolidation effect which takes several hours to emerge and such a short-term amnesia effect is cue independent (Study 1, N = 57 adults)."<br /> ***The phrasing here could be improved for clarity: "First, we demonstrate that the retrieval-extinction protocol prevents the return of fear shortly after extinction training (i.e., when testing occurs just min after the end of extinction)." Also, cue-dependence of the retrieval-extinction effect was assessed in study 2.

      5C. "Furthermore, memory reactivation also triggers fear memory reconsolidation and produces cue-specific amnesia at a longer and separable timescale (Study 2, N = 79 adults)." ***In study 2, the retrieval-extinction protocol produced a cue-specific disruption in responding when testing occurred 24 hours after the end of extinction. This result is interesting but cannot be easily inferred from the statement that begins "Furthermore..." That is, the results should be described in terms of the combined effects of retrieval and extinction, not in terms of memory reactivation alone; and the statement about memory reconsolidation is unnecessary. One can simply state that the retrieval-extinction protocol produced a cue-specific disruption in responding when testing occurred 24 hours after the end of extinction.

      5D. "...we directly manipulated brain activities in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and found that both memory retrieval and intact prefrontal cortex functions were necessary for the short-term fear amnesia."<br /> ***This could be edited to better describe what was shown: E.g., "...we directly manipulated brain activities in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and found that intact prefrontal cortex functions were necessary for the short-term fear amnesia after the retrieval-extinction protocol."

      5E. "The temporal scale and cue-specificity results of the short-term fear amnesia are clearly dissociable from the amnesia related to memory reconsolidation, and suggest that memory retrieval and extinction training trigger distinct underlying memory update mechanisms."<br /> ***The pattern of results when testing occurred just minutes after the retrieval-extinction protocol was different from that obtained when testing occurred 24 hours after the protocol. Describing this in terms of temporal scale is unnecessary, and suggesting that memory retrieval and extinction trigger different memory update mechanisms is not obviously warranted. The results of interest are due to the combined effects of retrieval+extinction and there is no sense in which different memory update mechanisms should be identified with retrieval (mechanism 1) and extinction (mechanism 2).

      5F. "These findings raise the possibility of concerted memory modulation processes related to memory retrieval..."<br /> ***What does this mean?

      (6) "...suggesting that the fear memory might be amenable to a more immediate effect, in addition to what the memory reconsolidation theory prescribes..."<br /> ***What does it mean to say that the fear memory might be amenable to a more immediate effect?

      (7) "Parallel to the behavioral manifestation of long- and short-term memory deficits, concurrent neural evidence supporting memory reconsolidation theory emphasizes the long-term effect of memory retrieval by hypothesizing that synapse degradation and de novo protein synthesis are required for reconsolidation."<br /> ***This sentence needs to be edited for clarity.

      (8) "previous behavioral manipulations engendering the short-term declarative memory effect..."<br /> ***What is the declarative memory effect? It should be defined.

      (9) "The declarative amnesia effect emerges much earlier due to the online functional activity modulation..."<br /> ***Even if the declarative memory amnesia effect had been defined, the reference to online functional activity modulation is not clear.

      (10) "However, it remains unclear whether memory retrieval might also precipitate a short-term amnesia effect for the fear memory, in addition to the long-term prevention orchestrated by memory consolidation."<br /> ***I found this sentence difficult to understand on my first pass through the paper. I think it is because of the phrasing of memory retrieval. That is, memory retrieval does NOT precipitate any type of short-term amnesia for the fear memory: it is the retrieval-extinction protocol that produces something like short-term amnesia. Perhaps this sentence should also be edited for clarity.

      I will also note that the usage of "short-term" at this point in the paper is quite confusing: Does the retrieval-extinction protocol produce a short-term amnesia effect, which would be evidenced by some recovery of responding to the CS when tested after a sufficiently long delay? I don't believe that this is the intended meaning of "short-term" as used throughout the majority of the paper, right?

      (11) "To fully comprehend the temporal dynamics of the memory retrieval effect..."<br /> ***What memory retrieval effect? This needs some elaboration.

      (12) "We hypothesize that the labile state triggered by the memory retrieval may facilitate different memory update mechanisms following extinction training, and these mechanisms can be further disentangled through the lens of temporal dynamics and cue-specificities."<br /> ***What does this mean? The first part of the sentence is confusing around the usage of the term "facilitate"; and the second part of the sentence that references a "lens of temporal dynamics and cue-specificities" is mysterious. Indeed, as all rats received the same retrieval-extinction exposures in Study 2, it is not clear how or why any differences between the groups are attributed to "different memory update mechanisms following extinction".

      (13) "In the first study, we aimed to test whether there is a short-term amnesia effect of fear memory retrieval following the fear retrieval-extinction paradigm."<br /> ***Again, the language is confusing. The phrase, "a short-term amnesia effect" implies that the amnesia itself is temporary; but I don't think that this implication is intended. The problem is specifically in the use of the phrase "a short-term amnesia effect of fear memory retrieval." To the extent that short-term amnesia is evident in the data, it is not due to retrieval per se but, rather, the retrieval-extinction protocol.

      (14) The authors repeatedly describe the case where there was a 24-hour interval between extinction and testing as consistent with previous research on fear memory reconsolidation. Which research exactly? That is, in studies where a CS re-exposure was combined with a drug injection, responding to the CS was disrupted in a final test of retrieval from long-term memory which typically occurred 24 hours after the treatment. Is that what the authors are referring to as consistent? If so, which aspect of the results are consistent with those previous findings? Perhaps the authors mean to say that, in the case where there was a 24-hour interval between extinction and testing, the results obtained here are consistent with previous research that has used the retrieval-extinction protocol. This would clarify the intended meaning greatly.

      DATA

      (15) Points about data:

      15A. The eight participants who were discontinued after Day 1 in study 1 were all from the no-reminder group. Can the authors please comment on how participants were allocated to the two groups in this experiment so that the reader can better understand why the distribution of non-responders was non-random (as it appears to be)?

      15B. Similarly, in study 2, of the 37 participants that were discontinued after Day 2, 19 were from Group 30 min, and 5 were from Group 6 hours. Can the authors comment on how likely these numbers are to have been by chance alone? I presume that they reflect something about the way that participants were allocated to groups, but I could be wrong.

      15C. "Post hoc t-tests showed that fear memories were resilient after regular extinction training, as demonstrated by the significant difference between fear recovery indexes of the CS+ and CS- for the no-reminder group (t26 = 7.441, P < 0.001; Fig. 1e), while subjects in the reminder group showed no difference of fear recovery between CS+ and CS- (t29 = 0.797, P = 0.432, Fig. 1e)."<br /> ***Is the fear recovery index shown in Figure 1E based on the results of the 1st test trial only? How can there have been a "significant difference between fear recovery indexes of the CS+ and CS- for the no-reminder group" when the difference in responding to the CS+ and CS- is used to calculate the fear recovery index shown in 1E? What are the t-tests comparing exactly, and what correction is used to account for the fact that they are applied post-hoc?

      15D. "Finally, there is no statistical difference between the differential fear recovery indexes between CS+ in the reminder and no reminder groups (t55 = -2.022, P = 0.048; Fig. 1c, also see Supplemental Material for direct test for the test phase)."<br /> ***Is this statement correct - i.e., that there is no statistically significant difference in fear recovery to the CS+ in the reminder and no reminder groups? I'm sure that the authors would like to claim that there IS such a difference; but if such a difference is claimed, one would be concerned by the fact that it is coming through in an uncorrected t-test, which is the third one of its kind in this paragraph. What correction (for the Type 1 error rate) is used to account for the fact that the t-tests are applied post-hoc? And if no correction, why not?

      15E. In study 2, why is responding to the CS- so high on the first test trial in Group 30 min? Is the change in responding to the CS- from the last extinction trial to the first test trial different across the three groups in this study? Inspection of the figure suggests that it is higher in Group 30 min relative to Groups 6 hours and 24 hours. If this is confirmed by the analysis, it has implications for the fear recovery index which is partly based on responses to the CS-. If not for differences in the CS- responses, Groups 30 minutes and 6 hours are otherwise identical.

      15F. Was the 6-hour group tested at a different time of day compared to the 30-minute and 24-hour groups; and could this have influenced the SCRs in this group?

      15G. Why is the range of scores in "thought control ability" different in the 30-minute group compared to the 6-hour and 24-hour groups? I am not just asking about the scale on the x-axis: I am asking why the actual distribution of the scores in thought control ability is wider for the 30-minute group?

      (16) During testing in each experiment, how were the various stimuli presented? That is, was the presentation order for the CS+ and CS- pseudorandom according to some constraint, as it had been in extinction? This information should be added to the method section.

      (17) "These results are consistent with previous research which suggested that people with better capability to resist intrusive thoughts also performed better in motivated dementia in both declarative and associative memories."<br /> ***Which parts of the present results are consistent with such prior results? It is not clear from the descriptions provided here why thought control ability should be related to the present findings or, indeed, past ones in other domains. This should be elaborated to make the connections clear.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This is a large cohort of ischemic stroke patients from a single centre. The author successfully set up predictive models for PTS.

      Strengths:

      The design and implementation of the trial are acceptable, and the results are credible. It may provide evidence of seizure prevention in the field of stroke treatment.

      Weaknesses:

      The methodology needs further consideration. The Discussion needs extensive rewriting.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      This study uses MEG to test for a neural signature of the trial history effect known as 'serial dependence.' This is a behavioral phenomenon whereby stimuli are judged to be more similar than they really are, in feature space, to stimuli that were relevant in the recent past (i.e., the preceding trials). This attractive bias is prevalent across stimulus classes and modalities, but a neural source has been elusive. This topic has generated great interest in recent years, and I believe this study makes a unique contribution to the field. The paper is overall clear and compelling, and makes effective use of data visualizations to illustrate the findings. Below, I list several points where I believe further detail would be important to interpreting the results. I also make suggestions for additional analyses that I believe would enrich understanding but are inessential to the main conclusions.

      (1) In the introduction, I think the study motivation could be strengthened, to clarify the importance of identifying a neural signature here. It is clear that previous studies have focused mainly on behavior, and that the handful of neuroscience investigations have found only indirect signatures. But what would the type of signature being sought here tell us? How would it advance understanding of the underlying processes, the function of serial dependence, or the theoretical debates around the phenomenon?

      (1a) As one specific point of clarification, on p. 5, lines 91-92, a previous study (St. John-Saaltink et al.) is described as part of the current study motivation, stating that "as the current and previous orientations were either identical or orthogonal to each other, it remained unclear whether this neural bias reflected an attraction or repulsion in relation to the past." I think this statement could be more explicit as to why/how these previous findings are ambiguous. The St. John-Saaltink study stands as one of very few that may be considered to show evidence of an early attractive effect in neural activity, so it would help to clarify what sort of advance the current study represents beyond that.

      (1b) The study motivation might also consider the findings of Ranieri et al (2022, J. Neurosci) Fornaciai, Togoli, & Bueti (2023, J. Neurosci), and Luo & Collins (2023, J. Neurosci) who all test various neural signatures of serial dependence.

      (2) Regarding the methods and results, it would help if the initial description of the reconstruction approach, in the main text, gave more context about what data is going into reconstruction (e.g., which sensors), a more conceptual overview of what the 'reconstruction' entails, and what the fidelity metric indexes. To me, all of that is important to interpreting the figures and results. For instance, when I first read, it was unclear to me what it meant to "reconstruct the direction of S1 during the S2 epoch" (p. 10, line 199)? As in, I couldn't tell how the data/model knows which item it is reconstructing, as opposed to just reporting whatever directional information is present in the signal.

      (2a) Relatedly, what does "reconstruction strength" reflect in Figure 2a? Is this different than the fidelity metric? Does fidelity reflect the strength of the particular relevant direction, or does it just mean that there is a high level of any direction information in the signal?

      (3) Then in the Methods, it would help to provide further detail still about the IEM training/testing procedure. For instance, it's not entirely clear to me whether all the analyses use the same model (i.e., all trained on stimulus encoding) or whether each epoch and timepoint is trained on the corresponding epoch and timepoint from the other session. This speaks to whether the reconstructions reflect a shared stimulus code across different conditions vs. that stimulus information about various previous and current trial items can be extracted if the model is tailored accordingly. Specifically, when you say "aim of the reconstruction" (p. 31, line 699), does that simply mean the reconstruction was centered in that direction (that the same data would go into reconstructing S1 or S2 in a given epoch, and what would differentiate between them is whether the reconstruction was centered to the S1 or S2 direction value)? Or were S1 and S2 trained and tested separately for the same epoch? And was training and testing all within the same time point (i.e., train on delay, test on delay), or train on the encoding of a given item, then test the fidelity of that stimulus code under various conditions?

      (3a) I think training and testing were done separately for each epoch and timepoint, but this could have important implications for interpreting the results. Namely if the models are trained and tested on different time points, and reference directions, then some will be inherently noisier than others (e.g., delay period more so than encoding), and potentially more (or differently) susceptible to bias. For instance, the S1 and S2 epochs show no attractive bias, but they may also be based on more high-fidelity training sets (i.e., encoding), and therefore less susceptible to the bias that is evident in the retrocue epoch.

      (4) I believe the work would benefit from a further effort to reconcile these results with previous findings (i.e., those that showed repulsion, like Sheehan & Serences), potentially through additional analyses. The discussion attributes the difference in findings to the "combination of a retro-cue paradigm with the high temporal resolution of MEG," but it's unclear how that explains why various others observed repulsion (thought to happen quite early) that is not seen at any stage here. In my view, the temporal (as well as spatial) resolution of MEG could be further exploited here to better capture the early vs. late stages of processing. For instance, by separately examining earlier vs. later time points (instead of averaging across all of them), or by identifying and analyzing data in the sensors that might capture early vs. late stages of processing. Indeed, the S1 and S2 reconstructions show subtle repulsion, which might be magnified at earlier time points but then shift (toward attraction) at later time points, thereby counteracting any effect. Likewise, the S1 reconstruction becomes biased during the S2 epoch, consistent with previous observations that the SD effects grow across a WM delay. Maybe both S1 and S2 would show an attractive bias emerging during the later (delay) portion of their corresponding epoch? As is, the data nicely show that an attractive bias can be detected in the retrocue period activity, but they could still yield further specificity about when and where that bias emerges.

      (5) A few other potentially interesting (but inessential considerations): A benchmark property of serial dependence is its feature-specificity, in that the attractive bias occurs only between current and previous stimuli that are within a certain range of similarity to each other in feature space. I would be very curious to see if the neural reconstructions manifest this principle - for instance, if one were to plot the trialwise reconstruction deviation from 0, across the full space of current-previous trial distances, as in the behavioral data. Likewise, something that is not captured by the DoG fitting approach, but which this dataset may be in a position to inform, is the commonly observed (but little understood) repulsive effect that appears when current and previous stimuli are quite distinct from each other. As in, Figure 1b shows an attractive bias for direction differences around 30 degrees, but a repulsive one for differences around 170 degrees - is there a corresponding neural signature for this component of the behavior?

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this study, the authors developed an organoid system that contains smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs; pacemaker) but few enteric neurons, and generates rhythmic contractions as seen in the developing gut. The stereotypical arrangements of SMCs and ICCs in the organoid allowed the authors to identify these cell types in the organoid without antibody staining. The authors took advantage of this and used calcium imaging and pharmacology to study how calcium transients develop in this system through the interaction between the two types of cells. The authors first show that calcium transients are synchronized between ICC-ICC, SMC-SMC, and SMC-ICC. They then used gap junction inhibitors to suggest that gap junctions are specifically involved in ICC-to-SMC signaling. Finally, the authors used an inhibitor of myosin II to suggest that feedback from SMC contraction is crucial for the generation of rhythmic activities in ICCs. The authors also show that two organoids become synchronized as they fuse and SMCs mediate this synchronization.

      Strengths:

      The organoid system offers a useful model in which one can study the specific roles of SMCs and ICCs in live samples.

      Weaknesses:

      Since only one blocker each for gap junction and myosin II was used, the specificities of the effects were unclear.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      In the article by Dearlove et al., the authors present evidence in strong support of nucleotide ubiquitylation by DTX3L, suggesting it is a promiscuous E3 ligase with capacity to ubiquitylate ADP ribose and nucleotides. The authors include data to identify the likely site of attachment and the requirements for nucleotide modification.

      While this discovery potentially reveals a whole new mechanism by which nucleotide function can be regulated in cells, there are some weaknesses that should be considered. Is there any evidence of nucleotide ubiquitylation occurring cells? It seems possible, but evidence in support of this would strengthen the manuscript. The NMR data could also be strengthened as the binding interface is not reported or mapped onto the structure/model, this seems of considerable interest given that highly related proteins do have the same activity.