109 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. If it seems that some young people are more adept than their elders at handling multiple streams of information—at, say, doing their homework while also emailing, texting, Googling, Digging, iTuning, and Angry Birding—that may be a developmental difference rather than a cultural one.

      An uncommon verbing of iTunes as well as Angry Birds.

    2. Who’s Afraid of Digital Natives? Let’s not get intimidated by kids and their Internet savvy.

      This is a common trope/stereotype which since has generally turned out not to be true. While some of the generation at this time were more digitally savvy, on the whole it turns out that they aren't always as savvy as we thought or expected them to be.

      Note that this was written in 2011.

      When did the phrase "digital native" originate?

      Cross reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_nativen which indicates:

      Native–immigrant analogy terms, referring to age groups' relationships with and understanding of the Internet, were used as early as 1995 by John Perry Barlow in an interview,[9] and used again in 1996 as part of the Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace.

      The specific terms "digital native" and "digital immigrant" were popularized by education consultant Marc Prensky in his 2001 article entitled Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants, in which he relates the contemporary decline in American education to educators' failure to understand the needs of modern students.

  2. Sep 2021
    1. The weird way you tap or push a whole image of a page to the side—it’s the uncanny valley of page turning, not a simulation or replacement of it.

      This may be the first time I've seen uncanny valley applied to a topic other than recognizing people versus robots or related simulacra.

    1. -lit hours.60 There are few trades which are not described as honouring Saint Monday: shoemakers, tailors, colliers, printing workers, potters, weavers, hosiery workers, cutlers, all Cockneys. Despite the full employment of many London trades during the Napoleonic Wars, a witness complained that "we see Saint Monday so religiously kept in this great city.. . in general followed by a Saint Tuesday a

      Saint Monday https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Monday

      I've frequently heard people say they hate Mondays, but I've never heard of the cultural phenomenon of Saint Monday.

    2. nabled Tristram to date his conception very exactly. It also provoked The Clockmaker's Outcry against the Author: The directions I had for making several clocks for the country are counter- manded; because no modest lady now dares to mention a word about winding- up a clock, without exposing herself to the sly leers and jokes of the family ... Nay, the common expression of street-walkers is, "Sir, will you have your clock wound up

      It also provoked The Clockmaker's Outcry against the author:

      [...] Nay, the common expression of street-walkers is, "Sir, will you have your clock wound up?"

      I've actually heard the euphemism clock in a sexual setting in my youth, but never heard the origin. This is the likely source. It's been 20 years or more since I've heard this in common speech though.

    1. Tran Ngoc, herself a musician, speculates that this is because flutists are trained to use sounds like t and k to help articulate notes crisply. “So there’s this link with language that might not be present for other instruments,” she says.

      I was taught something relatively similar for bits of kazoo and harmonica. I wonder if these effects would be seen in those settings as well?

    2. “With whistling, it was more like, let’s see what people did naturally to simplify the signal. What did they keep?” she says.
    3. In practice, almost every whistled tonal language chooses to use pitch to encode the tones.

      Why is pitch encoding of tones more prevalent in tonal languages? What is the efficiency and outcome of the speech and the information that can be encoded?

    4. Whistlers of tonal languages thus face a dilemma: Should they whistle the tones, or the vowels and consonants? “In whistling, you can produce only one of the two. They have to choose,” says Meyer.

      Non-tonal speech is easy to transfer into whistling language, but tonal languages have to choose between whistling the tones or the vowels and consonants as one can only produce one of the two with whistling.

      What effect does this tell us about the information content and density of languages, particularly tonal languages and whistling?

    5. Whistled languages are almost always developed by traditional cultures that live in rugged, mountainous terrain or in dense forest. That’s because whistled speech carries much farther than ordinary speech or shouting, says Julien Meyer, a linguist and bioacoustician at CNRS, the French national research center, who explores the topic of whistled languages in the 2021 Annual Review of Linguistics.

      Rugged mountainous terrain and dense forests show a marked increase in the use of whistled languages as a means of carrying the sound further than ordinary speech or even shouting.

      Who'd have thought that geography would have such an influence on language outside of language spread?

    6. <small><cite class='h-cite via'> <span class='p-author h-card'> Josh Cohen </span> in "More Than 80 Cultures Still Speak in Whistles" - Language Learning - Art of Memory Forum (<time class='dt-published'>09/01/2021 12:48:40</time>)</cite></small>

  3. Aug 2021
    1. The classical meaning of this word was strongly linked to economic contexts. It was often used to denote ‘that whichis weighed together, kept together, saved’. C.T. Lewis and C. Short, A Latin Dictionary(Oxford: Oxford University Press,1999). For Enlightenment English speakers, the Oxford English Dictionary’s (OED’s) 2a definition for compendium,which takes its early modern usage in neo-Latinate culture into account, is: ‘An abridgement or condensation of a largerwork or treatise, giving the sense and substance, within smaller compass.’

      Notice the tying in of things kept together in an economic context. How does this relate to the commonplacing of ideas (or even the gathering of flowers with florilegia)?

    2. The Latin noun ‘compendium’, and the phrase ‘via compendiaria’ were used assynonyms for the noun ‘methodus’ during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.23ByLinnaeus’s time, the word was used in Latin book titles to denote a compilation of collocatedtexts that had previously existed as separate works on their own, or which, if removed and distrib-uted separately, could be read without recourse to other parts of the book.
  4. Jul 2021
    1. 1920's slang

      • dough, bread: money,
      • vamp: (of women)
      • Sheik: a attractive man (from Valentino film)
      • and how!: indeed!
      • putting on the Ritz: dressing up, 1929 Putting on the Ritz with reference to Ritz Hotel
      • Ragamuffin: a bedraggled or messy person
      • tomato: a pretty woman "ready for the picking"
      • wet blanket: a killjoy (used to put out a fire)
      • whopee: having a really good time (sex)
      • fried, smoked, bent, zozzled, ossified: drunk
      • bump off: to kill someone (from gangster culture)
      • cheaters: glasses
      • hot: stolen
      • hock: pawn something for quick cash
      • petting party: get together of men and women where kissing or petting occurred
      • bob: short haircut style
      • heebie jeebies: shaking or trembling as a result of psychological
      • it: sex appeal, from eponymous film title starring Clara Bow
  5. Jun 2021
    1. While the term “meritocracy” was first coined just over 60 years ago, it has become so deeply ingrained into our collective ethos that it is hard to imagine a just society organized any other way.

      Meritocracy, despite having been coined in 1958, has become deeply ingrained into the American collective ethos.

      Aside from democracy, many words with the -cracy (or even -crat) endings have politically charged or negative connotations. Meritocracy, bureaucracy, plutocracy, bureaucrat, etc. What other examples are there? Does this thesis hold up over a larger corpus of words?

    1. The viciousness of church politics can rival pretty much any other politics you can name; the difference is that the viciousness within churches is often cloaked in lofty spiritual language and euphemisms.

      It would be interesting to examine some of this language and these euphemisms to uncover the change over time.

  6. Apr 2021
    1. Resources:

      • Duolingo
      • Routledge book on Colloquial Welsh by Gareth King
      • S4C on TV or online BBC iplayer or website
      • BBC Radio Cymry
      • BBC Bite Size
      • Llyn Bochlwyd (lake gray cheek)
      • Foel Fawr
      • Coed Llugwy
      • Cwm Cneifion

      Erasure of culture

      Memory and place names

      "A nation which forgets its past has no future." - Winston Churchill (check quote and provenance)

    1. “child-directed” or “caretaker” speech.

      Child-directed speech (CDS) refers to speech from a caregiver directed towards a child, as opposed to overheard speech - for example "Is lil'timmy ready for a nappy wappy?" Speech acquisition in children is an area of particular interest for linguists because it has significant implications for later childhood development and socialization. This article is not directly concerned with language acquisition, but rather the sense of forced infantilization that users of many major applications such as Venmo or Yelp feel is being imposed on them. Still, this is an interesting way to frame the topic of app design and the implications it has for the relationship between users and companies.

      Source: Shneidman, Laura A., and Meadow, Susan Goldin. “Language Input and Acquisition in a Mayan Village: How Important Is Directed Speech?” Developmental Science 15, no. 5 (September 2012): 659–73. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01168.x.

    1. A reproduction of Carroll’snotes on his number alphabet will be found in Warren Weaver’s arti-cle “Lewis Carroll: Mathematician,” inScientific Americanfor April1956.)

      I need to track down this reference and would love to see what Weaver has to say about the matter.

      Certainly Weaver would have spoken of this with Claude Shannon (or he'd have read it).

  7. Mar 2021
    1. Following on the IndieWeb's "just" conversation, this illustration is a good example of the idea, though step 5 doesn't include the words "just" or "simply". It can reflect the problems of leaving these words out without providing the additional context they're papering over.

    1. Other words that have no rhyme include: silver, purple, month, ninth, pint, wolf, opus, dangerous, marathon and discombobulate.
    1. A nice list of replacement words to make one's writing seem warmer and more human.

      It would be cool if tools like Grammar.ly or Hemmingway.app had pieces like this built in.

    1. Ludwig is the first sentence search engine that helps you write better English by giving you contextualized examples taken from reliable sources.

    1. This has taken off hugely.

      hugely used in context

      Apparently Donald Trumpisms are leaking into broader society, though even here it seems to be used ironically, thus also making fun of Trump himself.

    1. For example, in the Dyirbal language, the morpheme balam marks each entity in its noun class with the semantic property of edibility,[8] and Burmese encodes the semantic property for the ability to cut or pierce. Encoding the functional property for transportation, housing, and speech are also attested in world languages.
    1. Every woman talked to a student. This has two interpretations. Under one reading, every woman talked to the same student (the class president, for example), and here the noun phrase a student is specific. Under the second reading, various students were talked to. In this case, a student is non-specific.
    1. Polysemy is thus distinct from homonymy—or homophony—which is an accidental similarity between two words (such as bear the animal, and the verb to bear); while homonymy is often a mere linguistic coincidence, polysemy is not.
  8. Feb 2021
    1. https://www.duolingo.com/skill/cy/Dillad1/tips-and-notes

      This looks like the divergence of the idea of fox and vixen could appear here with mutations in these languages then later entering English.

      The pronunciation difference of ff and f also could factor here.

    1. There is one particular similarity between evidentials and hyperlinks I find intriguing, and that is their function as deictics. ‘Deictic’ is the fancy linguist word for ‘pointing’.
    2. In other languages there are features of the grammar that mark the source of information. When source of information is part of the grammar, this is known as evidentiality.
    3. Evidentials indicate source of evidence for claims made by the author.
    1. Only fifteen of the thirty-seven commonplace books were written in his hand. He might have dictated the others to a secretary, but the nature of his authorship, if it existed, remains a matter of conjecture. A great deal of guesswork also must go into the interpretation of the entries in his own hand, because none of them are dated. Unlike the notes of Harvey, they consist of endless excerpts, which cannot be connected with anything that was happening in the world of politics.

      I find myself wondering what this study of his commonplace books would look like if it were digitized and cross-linked? Sadly the lack of dates on the posts would prevent some knowledge from being captured, but what would the broader corpus look like?

      Consider the broader digital humanities perspective of this. Something akin to corpus linguistics, but at the level of view of what a single person reads, thinks, and reacts to over the course of their own lifetime.

      How much of a person could be recreated from such a collection?

    1. In that film, he replaced Kevin Spacey in the role of J. Paul Getty after Spacey had an #MeToo downfall.

      apparently the # predicates the use of an instead of a? I'll have to look this up in some style guides. It sounds awkward to say.

  9. Jan 2021
    1. This is important, because it signals that the undertone of the speeches, beyond the overt directives, was goading his supporters to take action. By contrast, passive voice is often used to distance oneself from something or someone. In addition, research on linguistic indicators of deception has found that people who are lying often use more motion words.
    1. But there can also be a buildup of tension as one gathers information that is incompatible with one’s key signature, which gets progressively more difficult to maintain, and can lead to the sort of intensity of experience that drives an annealing-like process when the key signature flips.

      cue [[Godel Escher Bach]]'s [[Little Harmonic Labyrinth]]: ends in a pseudo-tonic that never returns back to original [[tonic]]. results in tension dangling from continual musical modulation without resolution

      similar to [[linguistic]] structures as well - unconsciously keeping track of constructions and hierarchies within sentences

  10. Dec 2020
    1. The idea that speaking out loud and thinking are closely related isn’t new. It emerged in Ancient Greece and Rome, in the work of such great orators as Marcus Tullius Cicero. But perhaps the most intriguing modern development of the idea appeared in the essay ‘On the Gradual Formation of Thoughts During Speech’ (1805) by the German writer Heinrich von Kleist.

      Some of this is at play with the idea of "rubber ducking" as a means of debugging programs

    2. Like many of us, I talk to myself out loud, though I’m a little unusual in that I often do it in public spaces. Whenever I want to figure out an issue, develop an idea or memorise a text, I turn to this odd work routine. While it’s definitely earned me a reputation in my neighbourhood, it’s also improved my thinking and speaking skills immensely. Speaking out loud is not only a medium of communication, but a technology of thinking: it encourages the formation and processing of thoughts.

      I've noticed speaking out loud also seems to help me in practicing and acquiring a new language.

    1. It is choosing to adopt what some residents half-jokingly call the “Kumbaya” Montclair mentality.

      There's an interesting dichotomous meaning going on here. There's the common "peace, love, and happiness" meaning of the word from the 60's/70's hippies, but there's also the Gullah translation of the original song who's lyric was essentially, "Come by here".

    1. After the famous comedian Bob Hope popularized the catchphrase “now you’re cooking with gas!” on his 1930s-era radio show, the slogan became synonymous with “modern, efficient, clean.”

      Never knew Hope was the progenitor of this idiom.

  11. Nov 2020
    1. "zhèngmíng 正名" ("rectification of names")

      I see this and my limited Japanese knowledge translates this as "up" "mouth" with some additional subtlety missing for further lack of knowledge.

    1. The teams of campaign staffers and other aides that first embed themselves into government agencies after an election have historically been called “landing teams” and “beachhead teams,” summoning the memory of the storming of Normandy during World War II.To avoid any associations with war, some Biden aides are sticking to soberingly bureaucratic terms, referring to landing teams as “ARTs” or Agency Review Teams, and beachhead team members as “temporary employees.”

      Example of military culture and verbiage in American vernacular.

  12. Oct 2020
    1. A nice hook to pull one into some of the reasons why one would want to pick up languages as well as how to do so.

      8:44 method of loci (locorum)

      10:02 Learning words in groups based on related sounds.

      11:22 Why learn languages? Motivation

      Language represents a world cultural view.

    1. To have, but maybe not to read. Like Stephen Hawking’s “A Brief History of Time,” “Capital in the Twenty-First Century” seems to have been an “event” book that many buyers didn’t stick with; an analysis of Kindle highlights suggested that the typical reader got through only around 26 of its 700 pages. Still, Piketty was undaunted.

      Interesting use of digital highlights--determining how "read" a particular book is.

    1. He wants to iron out differences, not protect them. He suggests measures like a mandatory national-service requirement and a more meaningful path to citizenship for immigrants.

      What if we look at the shrinking number of languages as a microcosm of identity. Are people forced to lose language? Do they not care? What are the other similarities and differences.

      Cross reference: https://boffosocko.com/2015/06/08/a-world-of-languages-and-how-many-speak-them-infographic/

  13. Sep 2020
    1. So Ocasio-Cortez gets in that the Squad is composed of women of color. But if Pelosi would likely respond the same way to four Jill Steins, then what is the meaning of the reference to race? Is the idea that Pelosi should hold her tongue simply because the Squad members aren’t white? Ocasio-Cortez is here appealing to another 2.0 meaning of racist—that which is offensive, for any reason, to people of a race. The Squad doesn’t like Pelosi’s critique, understandably. But the question is: Is that critique “racist” because four “racial” women don’t agree with it? Here, Ocasio-Cortez and the Squad allude to the subjectified meaning of racist, which can be hard to square with the core meaning of the word (believing that people of a category are inferior).

      This is a subtle, but interesting example.

    2. Many of us hear this attack as saying that the four embody a fundamental otherness, and their true membership as “one of us” is fragile and even cancelable.
    1. Sexist replaced chauvinist around the same time racist did prejudiced, and for the same reason—potent terms need refreshment, especially when heavily used.
    1. Finding data

      You're right about data here. I follow some research out of the MIT Media lab by Cesar Hidalgo who may have some interesting data resources if you poke around.

      Some additional starting points:

    1. Cymraeg Byw was promoted with the intention of facilitating thelearning of Welsh particularly among adults, and providing a stable ‘plat-form’ from which they could progress to fluency – and inevitably, as withLiterary Welsh, the loser once again was the native speech of ordinaryWelsh speakers, dismissed by implication as irrelevant. The counter argu-ment, now all the stronger for hindsight, must be that, as with all languages,the aim of the serious learner is competence in the living language; if thatmeans coping with dialect variation, then so be it – it has to be faced sooneror later, and it may as well be sooner.
  14. Aug 2020
    1. Though there were no graduate schools in America at the time, a loan from a benefactor, Jonathan I. Bowditch, to whom the book was dedicated, enabled Child to take a leave of absence from his teaching duties to pursue his studies in Germany. There Child studied English drama and Germanic philology at the University of Göttingen, which conferred on him an honorary doctorate, and at Humboldt University, Berlin, where he heard lectures by the linguists Grimm and was much influenced by them.
  15. Jul 2020
    1. white and Black people

      There is something profoundly interesting to me seeing a distinguished linguist write the words white and Black next to each other as modifiers and seeing one capitalized and the other not.

  16. Jun 2020
    1. It seems that by learning a new language, you suddenly become attuned to perceptual dimensions that you weren’t aware of before.
  17. May 2020
  18. Apr 2020
  19. Jan 2020
    1. It’s very difficult to talk about something you cannot see or touch, yet we are obliged to do so, since global warming affects us all.

      It's also difficult to interact with those things when we're missing the words and vocabulary to talk about them intelligently.

  20. Dec 2019
  21. Nov 2019
    1. From this perspective, GPT-2 says less about artificial intelligence and more about how human intelligence is constantly looking for, and accepting of, stereotypical narrative genres, and how our mind always wants to make sense of any text it encounters, no matter how odd. Reflecting on that process can be the source of helpful self-awareness—about our past and present views and inclinations—and also, some significant enjoyment as our minds spin stories well beyond the thrown-together words on a page or screen.

      And it's not just happening with text, but it also happens with speech as I've written before: Complexity isn’t a Vice: 10 Word Answers and Doubletalk in Election 2016 In fact, in this mentioned case, looking at transcripts actually helps to reveal that the emperor had no clothes because there's so much missing from the speech that the text doesn't have enough space to fill in the gaps the way the live speech did.

    2. The most interesting examples have been the weird ones (cf. HI7), where the language model has been trained on narrower, more colorful sets of texts, and then sparked with creative prompts. Archaeologist Shawn Graham, who is working on a book I’d like to preorder right now, An Enchantment of Digital Archaeology: Raising the Dead with Agent Based Models, Archaeogaming, and Artificial Intelligence, fed GPT-2 the works of the English Egyptologist Flinders Petrie (1853-1942) and then resurrected him at the command line for a conversation about his work. Robin Sloan had similar good fun this summer with a focus on fantasy quests, and helpfully documented how he did it.

      Circle back around and read this when it comes out.

      Similarly, these other references should be an interesting read as well.

    3. For those not familiar with GPT-2, it is, according to its creators OpenAI (a socially conscious artificial intelligence lab overseen by a nonprofit entity), “a large-scale unsupervised language model which generates coherent paragraphs of text.” Think of it as a computer that has consumed so much text that it’s very good at figuring out which words are likely to follow other words, and when strung together, these words create fairly coherent sentences and paragraphs that are plausible continuations of any initial (or “seed”) text.

      This isn't a very difficult problem and the underpinnings of it are well laid out by John R. Pierce in An Introduction to Information Theory: Symbols, Signals and Noise. In it he has a lot of interesting tidbits about language and structure from an engineering perspective including the reason why crossword puzzles work.

      close reading, distant reading, corpus linguistics

  22. Sep 2019
    1. He is now intending to collaborate with Bourne on a series of articles about the find. “Having these annotations might allow us to identify further books that have been annotated by Milton,” he said. “This is evidence of how digital technology and the opening up of libraries [could] transform our knowledge of this period.”
  23. Aug 2019
  24. languagedev.wikispaces.com languagedev.wikispaces.com
    1. Laban's

      kids who are in a kindergarten program that provides good language input have better later vocabularies, more complex sentences, higher reading and writing competencies

    2. Children who have had frequent storybook internet ions wilh a wide variety of types of texts (or genres) will develop an aware· ness of how language is used in oach type of discourse

      importance of reading to kids so that they are exposed to more than just one type of language input

    3. meaningful phrases.

      syntactic knowledge=being able to create meaningful sentences/phrases

    4. Prosodic fealures in a languago represent the wa)~sometl1h.!_g is said

      intonation/ inflection involved here

    5. honological knowledge refers to knowledge about sound-symbol relations in a language. A phoneme is the smallest linguistic unit of sound, which is combined with other phonemes lo form words. Phonemes consist of sounds that are considered to be a single perceptual unit by a listener, such as th

      phonological knowledge= different from phonetics.

    6. It forms the foundation of our perceptions, com-municntion!f and daily interactions.

      Interesting question: does language shape reality or does reality shape language?

    7. attention to lan8!!Q.@_ a~municg_li9Il..!J!!.J1er than a fo_cus on spi3_e.ch_pro_ctu<1tion ~nd..th~_.de.v.elopment of articulation. This approach recognizes that language is a medium of communi-cation with ot

      this is important, and I relate this to my studies as a linguistics minor: language/studying language is not necessarily about speaking correctly, but in how we communicate naturally

  25. Apr 2019
    1. Digital sociology needs more big theory as well as testable theory.

      I can't help but think here about the application of digital technology to large bodies of literature in the creation of the field of corpus linguistics.

      If traditional sociology means anything, then a digital incarnation of it should create physical and trackable means that can potentially be more easily studied as a result. Just the same way that Mark Dredze has been able to look at Twitter data to analyze public health data like influenza, we should be able to more easily quantify sociological phenomenon in aggregate by looking at larger and richer data sets of online interactions.

      There's also likely some value in studying the quantities of digital exhaust that companies like Google, Amazon, Facebook, etc. are using for surveillance capitalism.

  26. Nov 2018
  27. Oct 2018
    1. It was the schoolteacher and writer Anne Fisher whose English primer of 1745 began the notion that it's somehow bad to use they in the plural and that he stands for both men and women.
  28. Feb 2018
  29. Sep 2017
    1. “It is also important to note that what we are doing now is in some ways fulfilling a number of longstanding principles that other presidents have always talked about.”

      Neomi Rao, newly confirmed administrator of White House Information and Regulatory affairs attempts here to renounce personal ownership of deregulation efforts instead framing the current move as the continuation of an existing motion present in previous leadership. She attempts to insure the rational saliency of deregulation through this logic of a theoretical continuum.

  30. Mar 2017
    1. This implies that there is no such thing as a code-organon of it-erability-which could be structurally secret.

      It's interesting with examples of current undeciphered writing, such as the Voynich Manuscript and the Beale cipher, since it implies they're all crackable so long as they are not nonsense. The following sentence feels like something important to that, that languages are constituted as an iterable network, a sustained internal logic.

  31. Feb 2017
    1. which they may be most readily put together

      It's interesting how natively some of these things come to us, even though the order of language is based mostly on arbitrary cues, as demonstrated by how other languages don't follow these rules. It reminds me of Blair, who concluded that there had to be some sense of taste because he "knew," and his audience "knew," that they had to have some means that made them better than the foreigners.

  32. Jan 2017
    1. Many people implicitly or explicitly use this cognitive outsourcing model to think about augmentation. It's commonly used in press accounts, for instance. It is also, I believe, a common way for programmers to think about augmentation. In this essay, we've seen a different way of thinking about augmentation. Rather than just solving problems expressed in terms we already understand, the goal is to change the thoughts we can think:

      Good distinctions here. Cf. also what happens when one begins to master the heptapod language in "Story of Your Life." It's Whorf-Sapir, but a "soft" Whorf-Sapir. So I'd say, anyhow. Relevant too that Engelbart discusses Whorf-Sapir.

  33. Dec 2016
    1. The team on Google Translate has developed a neural network that can translate language pairs for which it has not been directly trained. "For example, if the neural network has been taught to translate between English and Japanese, and English and Korean, it can also translate between Japanese and Korean without first going through English."

  34. Dec 2015
    1. The Book of Human Emotions, Tiffany Watt Smith

      Emotions are not just biological, but cultural. Different societies have unique concepts for combinations of feelings in particular circumstances.

      If you know a word for an emotion, you can more easily recognize it, control it -- and perhaps feel it more intensely.

      Emotions and how they are valued also varies across time as well as space. Sadness was valued in Renaissance Europe: they felt it made you closer to God. Today we value happiness, and we may value it too much. Emodiversity is the idea that feeling a wide range of emotions is good for you mentally and physically.

  35. Nov 2013