101 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2022
    1. Do they perform better or worse in the long-term on cognitive tests? Do they have more or less inflammation? Do they need less recovery sleep over time?

      this is a great question - reminder to self to do more research on this

    2. Someone in r/BipolarReddit asked: How many do you sleep when stable vs (hypo)manic? Depressed?

      While this is interesting analysis, I wonder if it's close to the best data we have on this.

      Personally as a bipolar person, I can say this definitely correlates with my experience! You could maybe add my experience to the data: + Severe mania - 0-3 hours avg (often in involuntary naps) + Hypomania - 1-5 hours avg (w/ all-nighters) + Elevated/sub-hypomania - 5 hours avg + Stable - 6-8 hours avg + Depressive - 8-10 hours avg + Severe depression - 10-16 hours avg

    3. Think about sleep 10,000 ago.

      while this is a good list and a valuable thought experiment, it also misses the features that made sleep 10,000 years ago easier and more effective: + Far better diets on average than Western person + No blue light / constant digital stimulation + Extremely active lifestyles with lots of exercise, makes sleep easier + Natural attunement to circadian rhythms that comes with waking up & sleeping w/ dusk & dawn + Lower stress and lower levels of psychopathology on average? Better resilience to stress? + Other things

      This may explain why we "need" the hyper-comfortable modern sleep, more than we used to need it

    4. Modern sleep, in its infinite comfort, is an unnatural superstimulus that overwhelms our brains with pleasure

      This sounds a bit hyperbolic, unlikely a scientific paper would use this language. Also unclear what it means for brains to be "overwhelmed with pleasure," or what objective scientific criteria for what shows something is a "superstimulus" are.

    1. Nursing professionals are facing with severe sleep problems during the covid 19 pandemic time. Nurses were asked to work in an environment that had a more increased level of risk than ever before. Depression and anxiety from the workplace could affect the confidence of healthcare workers in themselves as well as general trust in the healthcare system. This will lead to their turnover intention which may undermine the efforts of the governments to control the COVID-19 pandemic. The rising concern may change the working schedules of healthcare workers, offering more occupational healthcare support.

  2. Jan 2022
  3. Dec 2021
    1. In contrast, short afternoon naps at the workplace improved an overall index of outcomes by 0.12 standard deviations, with significant increases in productivity, psychological well-being, and cognition, but a decrease in work time.

      Short afternoon naps at the workplace lead to significant increases in productivity, psychological well-being and cognition. In contrast, an extra 30 minutes sleep at night shows no similar improvements. [Pedro Bessone]

  4. Nov 2021
    1. Seeing this, long-suffering great Odysseus was happy,and lay down in the middle, and made a pile of leaves over him.

      What was the Greek for "happy" here? Despite all of the foregoing descriptions of exhaustion and his history of "long-suffering" Odysseus is "happy" for a rest in the least of possibly dangerous and lethal surroundings.

      Even the idea of sleep on travel is life-threatening to Odysseus here.

    2. As when a man buries a burning log in a black ash heapon the island of the Phaiakiansin a remote place in the country, where none live near as neighbors, 490and saves the seed of fire, having no other place to get a light from, soOdysseus buried himself in the leaves, and Athene shed a sleep on his eyesso as most quickly to quit him,by veiling his eyes, from the exhaustion of his hard labors.

      Wonderful analogy, particularly given the value of storing the heat and spark of fire in the wilderness at the time of the poem's composition.

      This is an interesting use of the verb "to quit". I'm curious what the sense of the original Greek was. Who/what is quitting who/what?

      Also interesting given his weakened state that he would need the help of Athene to fall asleep.

  5. Oct 2021
    1. Sleep was then impaired during withdrawal, as indicated by decreased duration and poorer subjective quality, being worst on the 3rd withdrawal night.

      My guess is that this is caused by a sleep surplus. I'd analogize it to the CBT-i recommendation to avoid napping because it will impair sleep drive that night.

  6. Sep 2021
    1. All individual parameters (Items 1 to 8) were also significantly improved from baseline after 6 weeks of IQP-AO-101 intake. Analysis of variance with baseline values as covariates showed statistically significant improvements across all individual parameters for IQP-AO-101 when compared to placebo.

      That's quite impressive. It's worth noting that benefits accrued throughout the entire study duration. There's likely further benefits over longer durations. I take the benefit to be from antioxidants.

    1. ethodists, the Evangelicals took up the theme. Hannah More contributed her own imperishable lines on "Early Rising": Thou silent murderer, Sloth, no more My mind imprison'd keep; Nor let me waste another hour With thee, thou felon Sleep.10

      The number of quotes and passages here makes me wonder what his sources were and how he came to them?

      Did he keep a commonplace book and collect references on time? Find them via other's or from published collections? The number and types of them, particularly in the non-technical literature he's citing makes me think that something like a commonplace pattern is being leveraged here.

    2. ties. So also is "that slothful spending the Morning in Bed": The necessity of early rising would reduce the poor to a necessity of going to Bed betime; and thereby prevent the Danger of Midnight revels. Early rising would also "introduce an exact Regularity into their Families, a wonderful Order into their Oeconomy". The catalogue is

      I wonder what effects this shift in time and industry had on causing the disappearance of the idea of first and second sleeps?

      Cross reference: https://www.sciencealert.com/humans-used-to-sleep-in-two-shifts-maybe-we-should-again

    1. sildenafil and vardenafil, caused a significant improvement in sleep quality and depression in this cohort of HD patients with ED.

      These are the effects I was expecting to find. cGMP plays a role in SCN nighttime signalling, though I expect it has other mechanisms as well.

  7. Aug 2021
    1. No significant differences were found for HRV in SCHypo. No association was found between HRV and SCHyper or SCHypo compared to euthyroid subjects in this sample of apparently healthy subjects.

      This confirms that thyroid function probably lacks any (direct) effect sleep. Of course, not this evidence alone, but rather this combined with "Effects of Supraphysiological Doses of Levothyroxine on Sleep in Healthy Subjects: A Prospective Polysomnography Study"

    1. In both healthy and insomnia subjects, there was a significant improvement in the sleep parameters in the Ashwagandha root extract supplemented group. The improvement was found more significant in insomnia subjects than healthy subjects.

      Benefits accrued throughout the 8 weeks. I recall reading on Longecity forum that ashwagandha takes a month for benefits to kick in. This study demonstrates that benefits continue to increase over two months. I suspect they continue even further than that.

      Interestingly, this is pretty similar to the two placebo controlled studies on antioxidants for sleep. Thus, I wonder of the benefits of ashwaganha extract are largely antioxidant capacity. This would be a bit surprising because the ORAC of dried ashwaganda is just slightly above raw pinto beans. Based on the recommended doses, the extract isn't vastly more potent than the whole root. Though, this comment saying that the Withanolide/Withaferin A (edit: withaferin A is purportedly cytotoxic) reside mostly in the leaves has greatly confused me. Either the extract has more antioxidant activity than I realize (directly or indirectly), or the benefits come primarily from the purported mechanisms of ashwagandha (which include cortisol reduction and GABAergic activity). Edit: the full text mentions a 15 to 1 extract ratio, which is enough to put the antioxidant mechanism back on the table. It's probably a partial explanation, but after seeing the full text I think the benefits are too great to be simply from antioxidants.

      I see no mention of the time of day of administration. I'm assuming it was in the morning, which contrasts with the near bedtime dosing in the antioxidant studies. If I later find out that antioxidants in the morning don't help with sleep, then that will suggest ashwagandha works by other mechanisms. However, I expect antioxidants at any time of day help with sleep. Nonetheless, I'm not discounting that ashwagandha may work by other mechanisms.

    1. Conclusions: Chronic vitamin E administration improves the ratio of cardiac sympathetic to parasympathetic tone in patients with type 2 diabetes. Such an effect might be mediated by a decline in oxidative stress.

      This is plausibly the reason why antioxidants enhance sleep. Though it is likely that there are other mechanisms as well, such as reduced neuroinflammation. Come to think of it, given that ME/CFS appears to be caused by high sympathetic tone during sleep, antioxidants are the perfect treatment. Antioxidants are proven in placebo-controlled trials to help with sleep in healthy subjects and insomniacs alike. I doubt that antioxidants can cure ME/CFS, but I'm confident they will help.

  8. Jul 2021
    1. ConclusionThere is autonomic dysfunction in children with ADHD - reduction in overall HRV with sympathovagal imbalance with sympathetic dominance.

      Unsurprising. This supports my hypothesis that ADHD is a sleep disorder. This hypothesis should hold sound regardless of EEG. That said, I also expect to find EEG disturbance during sleep in ADHD.

    1. Desperate for rest in a frenzied world, at least 8.6 million Americans take prescription sleeping pills to catch some Zzzs, according to the first federal health study to focus on actual use.Between 2005 and 2010, about 4 percent of U.S. adults aged 20 and older popped popular prescription drugs such as Lunesta and Ambien in the previous month, say government researchers who tracked 17,000 people to their homes and peered into their medicine cabinets.

      8.6m americans. 4% of population 20 and older

  9. Jun 2021
    1. Anne: And how long have you been back?Mike: Since October. So like eight, nine months, right? October, November, December.Anne: So what is it like here?Mike: I can't say it's been bad, but it's really hard to try to adjust to everything. My kids are the thing that really hits me. It’s the hardest at night—just knowing that you used to sleep everyday with them in your bed. And just when you're alone in that bed, just thinking about everything, that's when it really hits you. It just like bop right in the face.

      Return to Mexico, Challenges, Family separation

  10. May 2021
    1. Franceschini, C., Musetti, A., Zenesini, C., Palagini, L., Pelosi, A., Quattropani, M. C., Lenzo, V., Freda, M. F., Lemmo, D., Vegni, E., Borghi, L., Saita, E., Cattivelli, R., De Gennaro, L., Plazzi, G., Riemann, D., & Castelnuovo, G. (2020). Poor quality of sleep and its consequences on mental health during COVID-19 lockdown in Italy [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/ah6j3

  11. Apr 2021
    1. In seven out of the eleven subjects in whom core body temperature could be sampled, the nadir of body temperature was advanced during L-T4 intake by 15 minutes to 270 minutes.

      This supports my speculation from another study, found here.

    1. Using this data, a large international team was able to pinpoint 114 specific loci – locations in the human genome – that contribute to risk of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and four genome regions that contribute to differences in the biology of the two disorders.

      This is exactly what I expected. In fact, I would have been extremely surprised if this weren't the case. I just google "schizophrenia bipolar genes" expecting this result.

      I had the thought a few minutes ago, and google it right away. This means that I wasn't able to write it down as a prediction. Nonetheless, I think this points in favor of my prediction abilities. My confidence was inordinately high (i.e. on the order of 90%) even before collecting any evidence. Compare that to other high confidence beliefs (e.g. CFS is caused partly by blood volume), for which I have confidence on the order of 95%, but I have good evidence for that belief. Thus, this instance provides data that my confidence meter is reliable. I'll continue to make an effort to write down predictions ahead of time (to eliminate publication bias).

      There are several reasons I suspected this would be the case. Firstly, personal subjective experience; that's what gave me the first inkling. Secondly, the connection of mania with long periods of sleeplessness. If the sleep deprivation causes the mania, then bipolar may be a sleep disorder. This is backed up by the sleep deprivation therapy for depression. Additionally, the connection of depression to sleep disturbance implies that sleep may also be causal in low mood. Furthermore, given that schizophrenia is associated with disrupted sleep spindles, it follows that the two sleep disorders, namely schizophrenia and bipolar, may be closely related genetically (via sleep regulating genes). Moreover, I knew that schizophrenia and bipolar were two of the most heritable psychological conditions; given that both are highly genetic and both involve sleep, it follows that they would likely be closely linked. Finally, I know mania can be associated with delusions, so there are several symptom crossovers. All in all, it is highly surprising that I have not seen this discussed before. Neither documentaries on schizophrenia nor documentaries on manic depression/bipolar have mentioned a link. Nor have studies I've read (admittedly few on this particular topic) mentioned anything of the sort. I shall have to look through the literature to see if this idea has been around for long.

    1. Exercise can tackle symptoms of schizophrenia

      Not only am I unsurprised by this, but I'd be surprised if it were otherwise. The logic is that schizophrenia is a sleep disorder, and exercise enhances sleep. Additionally, lack of movement is one of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Therefore, this poverty of movement may play a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia symptoms.

      I need to start a google search document with predictions prior to actually searching. It will slow down my research speed, but it is necessary in order to provide unbiased data on my intuitive understanding of diseases. It seems like the majority of my strong intuitions are true. Edit: I'll just record the search phrase in my hypothes.is notes. This one was "exercise schizophrenia"

  12. Mar 2021
    1. People diagnosed with REM sleep behaviour syndrome have an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease.

      According to this statement, those who are diagnosed with RME sleep behavior syndrome have an increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. A number of questions arise from this statement.

      • What are the characteristics of REM sleep behavior syndrome? How does it manifest itself? How often does it manifest itself? Do those individuals in which it manifests itself more frequently have an increased chance of developing Parkinson’s disease?
      • What is the neurological mechanism that is causing REM sleep behavior syndrome? Is the mechanism that is causing this the actual cause of the reduction of dopamine production that is characteristic of Parkinson’s disease?
  13. Feb 2021
    1. Scientists break through the wall of sleep to the untapped world of dreams
      • Neuroscientists achieve the unthinkable - talking to someone who’s asleep, and they’ve already done it with several people.
      • Cross-national research team demonstrated two-way communication with lucid dreamers in the REM (rapid eye movement) sleep phase.
      • Eye movements generate current, which is recorded by electrodes placed around the eyes, and the signals are translated to dialogue.
      • Studying the mind during sleep used to be limited to people telling stories about their dreams after waking up, so this is a big gamechanger.
      • Psychology experiments with sleeping people are now possible, and it could greatly enhance our understanding of consciousness and the mind’s abilities.
    1. 'Night owls' may be twice as likely as morning 'larks' to underperform at work
      • Whether you perform best in the morning or evening depends on your chronotype - ‘larks’ work early, ‘night owls’ work late.
      • Because night owls go to sleep later but have to get up early with everyone else, they incur sleep debt and need catch-up sleep on non-work days, which is bad for health.
      • To explore this, researchers used data from a 1966 Finland birth cohort study, initially consisting of 12,058 children.
      • At age 46, 2672 men and 3159 women from the study were questioned about their chronotypes in 2012, and monitored for 4 years afterwards.
      • Compared to larks, owls had worse ratings for variables related to sleep and health, and were twice more likely to underperform at work.
  14. Jan 2021
    1. Nonetheless, enhancement of cannabinergic function may not be the only mechanism by which OA alters sleep, as it can act synergistically with subthreshold doses of triazolam (0.125 μg) to reduce sleep latency.

      I'm moderately certain that cannabinoid receptor agonism is not the primary mechanism. However, I'll need to check whether THC synergizes with benzos to see if their logic holds up. I bet it doesn't follow (meaning I expect THC to synergize).

  15. Dec 2020
    1. In contrast, ritanserin did not impair driving performance or affect objectively measured daytime sleepiness, while subjects reported to feel more alert during daytime.

      Fascinating. This increased subjective alertness is probably due to enhanced sleep.

    1. blue light has been found to have the strongest impact on your natural production of melatonin, filtering it out when you’re using devices at night can make it easier to fall asleep, according to a recent study published in the Journal of Applied Psychology. But even here, experts see a more mundane connection between devices and comfort: “Most of the negative impact of electronics on sleep and on your circadian clock is not due to the light. It’s due to the fact that these things are engineered to keep you awake and entertained and engaged in what you’re doing for an extended period of time,”

      Finding it hard to sleep might be either because of the blue light or the psychological effect of screens on us

  16. Nov 2020
  17. Oct 2020
    1. Rather than the night before a quiz or exam, it may be more important to sleep well for the duration of the time when the topics tested were taught. The implications of these findings are that, at least in the context of an academic assessment, the role of sleep is crucial during the time the content itself is learned, and simply getting good sleep the night before may not be as helpful.
    1. Daydreaming at Work Can Fuel Creativity

      Summary of the article:

      • We spend nearly half of each day daydreaming, and usually think that it’s a bad thing, but it turns out that highly demanding tasks make us daydream more.
      • It allows us to turn off our surroundings, and can be a way of imagining solutions to the problem at hand.
      • To find this out, researchers did two studies of employees and managers in South America, including mainly surveys about daydreaming.
      • Daydreaming turned out to happen more when the tasks required a lot of focus - it can boost creative problem-solving as long as we’re personally invested in our work.
      • However, for people who don’t identify with their work, daydreaming was linked to worse performance.
    1. Why, though, do we not romanticize our preservation? The same matter of chance, of the fleeting nature of fate exists on the other side of the coin. What would have happened if we were better rested, if our energy was better preserved, if we managed our time and said what we really mean? Rarely do we approach whether we get eight hours of sleep with the same guilt as we do whether or not we attended a party, even when, according to sleep expert Matthew Walker, sleep deprivation prevents the brain from remembering information, creating new memories, and sustaining emotional well-being.

      A great observation!

  18. Sep 2020
    1. 7 Best Sleep Apps to Get a Good Night’s Rest

      our list of the best sleep apps of 2020. Whether you want to track your sleep or have nights of sound sleep, these sleep apps will surely make the positive difference in your life.

  19. Jul 2020
    1. To facilitate the TDI protocol, an interdisciplinary team at the Media Lab designed and developed Dormio, a sleep-tracking device that can alter dreams by tracking hypnagogia and then delivering audio cues based on incoming physiological data, at precise times in the sleep cycle, to make dream direction possible. Upon awakening, a person’s guided dream content can be used to complete tasks such as creative story writing, and compared experimentally to waking thought content.

      Dormio - new device to achieve TDI protocol

    2. Previous neuroscience studies from researchers such as sleep and cognitive sciences expert Stickgold show that hypnagogia (the earliest sleep stage) is similar to the REM stage in terms of brainwaves and experience; however, unlike REM, individuals can still hear audio during hypnagogia while they dream. 

      Hypnagogia vs REM phase of your dream

    3. In a new paper, researchers from the Media Lab’s Fluid Interfaces group introduce a novel method called “Targeted Dream Incubation” (TDI). This protocol, implemented through an app in conjunction with a wearable sleep-tracking sensor device, not only helps record dream reports, but also guides dreams toward particular themes by repeating targeted information at sleep onset, thereby enabling incorporation of this information into dream content. The TDI method and accompanying technology serve as tools for controlled experimentation in dream study, widening avenues for research into how dreams impact emotion, creativity, memory, and beyond.

      TDI - new protocol to record your dreams and guide them toward particular themes

  20. Jun 2020
  21. May 2020
    1. Haight, T. A. P. A. gratefully acknowledges R. S., PsyD, psychologist, a V. clinical, Saskin, P., PhD, Breathing, clinical director of the M. P. C. for, City, S. D. in K., & sheet, M. for contributing to this fact. (n.d.). Getting a good night’s sleep. Https://Www.Apa.Org. Retrieved April 9, 2020, from https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/sleep-disorders

  22. Apr 2020
  23. Mar 2020
    1. sleep Student's Sleep Data

      Data which show the effect of two soporific drugs (increase in hours of sleep compared to control) on 10 patients.

  24. Feb 2020
    1. Surprisingly, treatment with supraphysiological doses of L-T4 did not cause significant effects on sleep architecture. However, the increase in body movements and REM density was close to reaching statistical significance.

      This is just as I expected, though I'd also be unsupervised by opposite findings. I'm yet to find why symptoms such as insomnia are so often cited for hyperthyroidism. I see a few possibilities. One is that it's very slow onset effect that takes more than 2 months to develop (personally, this seems unlikely). Another is that it only effects people with preexisting anxiety or hyper-arousal (strikes me as a likely partial explanation). A third is that it only effects people with the most extreme hyperthyroidism (also strikes me as partial explanation). Finally, it's possible that the entire thing is a myth. Authors of another study from 2011 noted that "[sleep] is being characterized as poor without further elaboration." I think it may be the case that people are just assuming patient's sleep issues are caused thyrotoxicosis because it seems like it would, when in fact only a small fraction actually are. Perhaps thyrotoxicosis even turns depressive insomnia into anxious insomnia, thereby confusing physicians.

      The next question is whether treating light to moderate hyperthyroidism would resolve insomnia. This would answer some of the above possibilities. However, I'm uninterested in severe hyperthyroidism because it is above the maximum treatment dose I commonly see, namely 500 mcg thyroxine.

  25. Jan 2020
    1. 22.3 per cent (−10.7; 95% CI, −15.6 to −5.7) in the diet group

      Interesting that the diet group worked better. I'd like to see if it's statistically significantly better than the drug group. It's also worth asking whether sodium was the only important dietary change, or if avoiding sodium caused many other dietary improvements.

    2. Sleepiness and neck circumference were significantly reduced only in the diet group (p = .007 and p < .001 for the time × group interactions, respectively).

      Fascinating. Neck circumference suggests that sodium intake may indeed be the significant dietary factor. The recommended diet wasn't even very restricted in sodium.

    1. This review evidence that adults with obstructive sleep apnea may demonstrate diminished vagal tone and higher sympathetic responsiveness.

      This seems like an obsurdly obvious prediction to me. Is also lends credence to the idea of positive feedback loops in sleep disorders, particularly insomnia. That is to say, sleep insufficiency can be expected to increase arousal rather than increase sleepiness. This is also supported by the data that sleep deprivation increases evening cortisol the following evening.

  26. Dec 2019
    1. The sodium-restricted diet group received a regimen aiming a maximum intake of 3 g of sodium per day (equivalent to 7.5 g of sodium chloride).

      That sounds incredibly high to me. 3000 mg is the absolute maximum intake that could ever be considered 'low' sodium. Under 1500 is usually considered ideal. Would, then, a diet aiming for half the sodium be twice as effective?

    1. RESULTS: We observed that poor sleep quality was correlated to low total BMD and legs BMD in middle-aged women after adjusting for potential confounders. Furthermore, when we reran the regression models based on menopausal status in middle-aged women, significant associations between BMD and sleep quality were observed in premenopausal and early postmenopausal groups.

      This is exactly what I expected to find. This is why I doubt that there is significant risk to high dose T3 taken in the morning. In fact, given that hypothyroidism is also associated with increased fracture, I'm inclined to think that thyroid hormones per se play no role whatsoever, but rather the downstream effects. That is to say, hyperthyroidism disturbs sleep, thus harming bones. I conclude, then, that so long as sleep quality is maintained, hyperthyroidism is plausibly safe for the bones.

  27. Nov 2019
    1. The average American adult is sleeping 6 hours and 31 minutes per night 

      Average sleep duration

    2. A tiny percentage of people have the DEC2 gene, a genetic mutation that produces a short sleeping phenotype“The probability that you are a DEC2 carrier is very low… You’re far more likely to be struck by lightning in your lifetime.” – Dr. Matthew WalkerPeople with the DEC2 gene only need ~6.25 hours of sleep per night

      A very tiny percentage of the population having the DEC2 gene is okay with sleeping only 6 hours.

  28. Oct 2019
    1. Summary: Napping
      • good siesta can double creative productivity
      • siesta should be taken 7-8 hours from natural waking
      • alarm clock undermines the value of napping
      • caffeine before the nap undermines the value of napping
      • caffeine after the nap may boost the effect of napping
      • one nap per day is optimum
      • habitual nappers improve nap quality over years of the habit
      • nap compensate slow-wave sleep needs in roughly 1:3 duration ratio
      • short night sleep may be a sign of bad health, aging, or a sign of good sleep (see: How long should we sleep?)
    2. NapNumber = 5.6 - 0.8*CoreSleep

      Nap number formula

    3. NapDuration = (SleepRequired - SleepObtained) / 3

      Nap duration formula (holds only for properly timed naps)

    4. Six naps no sleep; 4 naps one-point-five hours sleep; 3 naps three hours sleep; 2 naps four-point-five hours sleep; one nap six hours sleep*.

      PureDoxyk Law

    5. "Everyman sleep schedule". Were it not for that gravitation and a tendency to take a "core sleep", I might even suspect that the inventor of the Uberman sleep cycle suffered from a rare mutation that causes circadian arrhythmicity. People with that disorder cannot sleep well in a long block over the night and take multiple naps during the day

      Some people simply cannot sleep well in a long block over the night

    6. Even though naps provide an excellent compensation for lost sleep in the night, they cannot provide a full functional replacement. To achieve your maximum cognitive capacity, you need to run your night sleep uninterrupted until completion!

      Don't try to fully replace your night time sleep with naps!

    7. Early naps will not provide full compensation. Late naps will last longer and will shorten sleep in the following night

      Consequence of early and late naps

    8. For a nap to express its full power, the following conditions must be met (in order of importance): it should take place at the center of the midday circadian nadir (see: Best nap timing). This corresponds with Mediterranean siesta it cannot be regulated with alarm clocks, caffeine, or other sleep "tricks". Coffee naps are a good idea for people in a hurry, not for those who care about brain productivity it should be the only nap of the day (i.e. it cannot be part of a polyphasic sleep schedule) it works best in free running sleep with no sleep deficit it works best in people with no physical or mental health issues it works best in habitual nappers who improved the quality of their naps from month to month by adjusting and perfecting little details in their surroundings. Beginners are often too anxious to fall asleep

      How to correctly perform a power nap

    9. each hour of lost night sleep requires 20 min. of replacement nap time

      60 minutes of lost night sleep = 20 minutes of nap time

    10. The art of napping has the power to double creative productivity. Churchill was a famous biphasic sleeper. His naps let him squeeze two productive days into 24 hours

      Nap can let you be creative twice in 24 hours

  29. Jun 2019
    1. Sleep: What is the biological function of sleep? Why do we dream? What are the underlying brain mechanisms? What is its relation to anesthesia?

      This may be the biggest problem. What is/are the factors that increase or decrease the need to sleep? How can we push against natural fatigue and its causes? How can we give people more wakefulness / conscious life per day? (without suffering significant debuffs)

  30. Apr 2019
    1. Yup, three years later, I have the exact same problem still with my otherwise great Surface Book 1. This has made me distrust Microsoft hardware, and yes, windows machines as a whole. Especially as my previous Dell laptop was also unreliable in this regard. Such a shame, because otherwise it's a fantastic piece of kit.

  31. Feb 2019
  32. Jan 2019
    1. Clonidine is associated with diminished susceptibility to hypocapnic central apnoea without significant effect on ventilation or upper airway mechanics.

      In other words, clonidine elevates CO2. I'm not yet sure whether this is a good thing.

    1. ConclusionsThese findings suggest that in patients with HF, sodium intake plays a role in the pathogenesis of SA.

      The question remains, then, for the general population with SA.

    1. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that pharyngeal edema contributes to sleep-disordered breathing in obese patients with severe OSA, hypertension, and diastolic heart failure. Upper airway edema may contribute to the frequent occurrence of OSA in patients with heart disease.

      I suspect it also plays a role in UARS. This study probably selected people with heart failure because the fluid retention leads to a more dramatic response. Hypertension was likely a neccesary ethical consideration. Hypotension is common in UARS; therefore, one is unlikely to find a study administering diuretics to UARS patients. That leaves correlation as the only tool available to confirm this suspicion.

    1. 50 mg naltrexone at bed-time.

      Interesting. Conventional doses of naltrexone appear effective for sleep apnea. I'll be interested in seeing if LDN fairs well.

    1. So if you are tired during the day, check that you’re giving yourself the opportunity to get 7 to 9 hours.

      This is super helpful. Bold

    2. So if you are tired during the day, check that you’re giving yourself the opportunity to get 7 to 9 hours.

      This is super helpful.

  33. Nov 2018
    1. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis confirms a medium effect (SMD = 0.62) of sleep deprivation on pain perception. As this meta-analysis is based on experimental studies in healthy subjects, the clinical relevance should be clarified.

      I'll have to look at this meta-analysis more closely, but they are likely looking at total sleep deprivation for one night, or partial sleep deprivation for one or several nights. Partial sleep deprivation tends to deprive more REM sleep via early awaking. I'd expect the greatest effect from SWS deprivation.

  34. Oct 2018
    1. SWS was generally not affected. It is concluded that beta 1 neurotransmission is directly involved in the regulation of PS.

      Full text summary: Beta 1 but not beta 2 is involved in REM sleep generation. High dose propranolol (which is not selective) practically obliterated REM sleep. Selective beta 1 agonism restored REM, while selective beta 2 agonism did not.

    1. Low BP was more prevalent in subjects with upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) (23%) than in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) (0.06%), parasomnia (0.7%), restless leg syndrome (0.9%), or psychological insomnia (0.9%).

      That's an extremely high rate of hypotension in UARS. This may be what I have. If UARS causes hypotension, then sleep apnea (SA) may be different because of its link to obesity.

  35. Sep 2018
    1. Ritanserin, 5 mg, produced a substantially larger increase in SWS (51.4%) than either ketanserin, 20 mg (17.2%) or ketanserin, 40 mg (24.4%). Ritanserin has a significantly higher affinity than ketanserin for 5-HT2C receptor binding sites in the human brain and, based on estimates of per cent occupancy by the two compounds at brain 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors, we conclude that SWS in humans is primarily regulated by 5-HT2C receptors.

      This doesn't quite clarify the effect of 5HT2C antagonism in the absence of 5HT2A antagonism.

  36. Oct 2017
    1. Beta blockers have long been associated with sleep disturbances such as difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, and insomnia. They have been shown to reduce the production of melatonin via specific inhibition of beta-1 adrenergic receptors. Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland in the brain, and helps in maintaining normal circadian rhythms.6,20-21 People with hypertension already have a lower melatonin production rate than those with normal blood pressure.22

      The question becomes, then, do beta blockers impair sleep when exogenous melatonin is administered concurrently?

  37. Feb 2016
    1. To test this notion, a recent study investigated the consequences of perturbing slow wave activity. During sleep, EEG was used to record the ongoing brain activity. When slow wave activity increased above a certain threshold, a device started to play sounds. These sounds served to reduce the slow wave activity. After sleep the brain activation following the recall of memories recently acquired was tested. The study demonstrated that MTL activation probed by the memory recall was reduced following the slow wave intervention (Van Der Werf et al., 2009). Using this type of BSDS, it was concluded that slow wave sleep is causally related to memory formation.