298 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2020
    1. I was… not one of those assigned to watch our chosen one, so I can’t say much about exactly what happened within the walls of that house, but it seems the fight scarred the place in a way far deeper than simple fire. A scar in reality, that I believe has since been compounded by the interferences of other powers.
    1. Tuples are sequence of values. Tuples are immutable. Bracket operator indexes an element,slice,relational operators which work on lists aslo work on tuples. Built-in function divmod takes two arguments and returns a tuple of two values as quotient and remainder. If you have a sequence of values you can use * operator to pass it to asunction as multiplue arguments. Operation that collects multiple arguments into a tuple is known as 'gather'. Operation which makes a sequence behave like multiple arguments is called 'scatter'. Zip is a built-in function in the lists and tuples takes two or more sequences and interleaves them.If the sequences are not of same length, the result has the length of the shorter one. Tuples has built-in funtions sorted and reversed as it does not provide methods like sort an reverse which work as the same.

  2. Aug 2020
    1. Walls, A. C., Fiala, B., Schäfer, A., Wrenn, S., Pham, M. N., Murphy, M., Tse, L. V., Shehata, L., O’Connor, M. A., Chen, C., Navarro, M. J., Miranda, M. C., Pettie, D., Ravichandran, R., Kraft, J. C., Ogohara, C., Palser, A., Chalk, S., Lee, E.-C., … King, N. P. (2020). Elicitation of potent neutralizing antibody responses by designed protein nanoparticle vaccines for SARS-CoV-2. BioRxiv, 2020.08.11.247395. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.11.247395

  3. Jul 2020
    1. Corbett, K. S., Edwards, D., Leist, S. R., Abiona, O. M., Boyoglu-Barnum, S., Gillespie, R. A., Himansu, S., Schäfer, A., Ziwawo, C. T., DiPiazza, A. T., Dinnon, K. H., Elbashir, S. M., Shaw, C. A., Woods, A., Fritch, E. J., Martinez, D. R., Bock, K. W., Minai, M., Nagata, B. M., … Graham, B. S. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine Development Enabled by Prototype Pathogen Preparedness. BioRxiv, 2020.06.11.145920. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.11.145920

  4. Jun 2020
  5. May 2020
  6. Mar 2020
    1. Hugo takes a template and all the content of the website in a markup format and converts it to the HTML that can be hosted as is.

      content + template→html

  7. Feb 2020
    1. How does Perma.cc work? You give Perma.cc the URL of the page you want to preserve and cite. Our software visits that URL, preserves what's there, deposits it into our collection, and gives you a unique URL (e.g. "perma.cc/ABCD-1234") - a "Perma Link" - that points to the record in our collection. You then can use that Perma Link in your citation to give readers access to a stable, accurate record of the source you referenced, even if the original disappears from the web.

      how does this compare to other web archive tools? is it really "permanent"? any disadvantages of this tool?

    1. why is board game so popular in Germany? does this award contribute to the healthy development of this market?

    1. Planning

      A very transparent way of author-reader communication, really give readers great anticipation. the whole website feels like a open-source project, with various media input (fan pic, character design, spotify play list)

  8. Dec 2019
    1. For the first time, a nonresident alien can take an equity stake in an S corporation, albeit indirectly as a trust beneficiary, without terminating the ESBT and S corporation statuses. This change presents a new opportunity for a nonresident alien to invest in an S corporation without compromising the entity's S corporation status. To be clear, the long-standing prohibition on a nonresident alien's being a direct S corporation shareholder (Sec. 1361(b)(1)(C)) was left intact. Accordingly, it is still necessary to ensure that under no circumstance could the trust distribute S corporation shares to a nonresident alien beneficiary, as such a distribution would jeopardize the trust's status as an ESBT as well as the S corporation status.
  9. Aug 2019
    1. ObamaCare, is the product of a Conservative Think-Tank. 60% of citizens get private insurance from their employers, 15% receive Medicare (65 and older), and the federal gov’t funds Medicaid for low-income families (the allocation to this fund has been declining).

      Lucky, Trump removed that

    2. United States and its Health care:      The gov’t has some government-run programs and private insurance.

      U.S. health care system

  10. Jul 2019
    1. but the old and diseased among them are supported by hospitals; for begging is a trade unknown in this empire.

      this sounds like a sort of utopia, their government supports people who need help such as those who are old or sick

  11. Mar 2019
    1. involves a complex interaction of conscious and unconscious processes.

      Ruiz, J. G., MD, Mintzer, M. J., MD, & Leipzig, R. M., MD, PhD. (2006) discuss the learning processes required to succeed in medical school. As of late, medical schools have implemented e-learning into their programs, which require many hours of study to appropriately learn material. "While e-learning should not be a substitute, it greatly compliments the learning process. -Ruiz, J. G., MD, Mintzer, M. J., MD, & Leipzig, R. M., MD, PhD. (2006)

    1. latent learning

      Question: When observing a friend shoot a basketball, and you're waiting your turn, you are given the ball and told to shoot but its your first time. After you shoot, the ball goes in and you're bamboozled as to how this happened. What type of learning was applied?

      Answer: Latent learning, which occurs when there is a reason to do a task.

    2. Remember, the best way to teach a person or animal a behavior is to use positive reinforcement

      Question: What is positive reinforcement, and what is an example from your own life?

      Answer: the addition of a reward following a behavior. An example of my personal life, would be earning money when mowing my parents yard without being asked.

    3. Why is shaping needed?

      An interesting TED talks about this can be found at:

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qXz2bcbivXw

    4. In his operant conditioning experiments, Skinner often used an approach called shaping

      Question: What is shaping, and what is its purpose when learning?

      Answer: Shaping is the process where you are rewarded through small steps that lead to the end goal of learning an objective. Its purpose is to learn the process of systems in a learning objective one small portion at a time.

    5. In discussing operant conditioning, we use several everyday words—positive, negative, reinforcement, and punishment—in a specialized manner. In operant conditioning, positive and negative do not mean good and bad

      Swanberg, A. B. (2010) discusses the positive and negative effects of personality traits in her" article. This applies directly to operant conditioning because once we have displayed certain traits in the classroom, or not showing up to the classroom, we begin to see the effects of operant conditioning. Once our grades start to slip, we will most likely become aware and not skip anymore, thus proves operant learning. Swanberg, A. B. (2010) states that "that there is a correlation between conscientiousness and academics."

      At WSU, you can learn more from operant learning at their lab, found at:

      https://labs.wsu.edu/operant-conditioning/

    1. There are specific steps in the process of modeling that must be followed if learning is to be successful.

      This simple fact is well portrayed in Steffens, K. (2006) article about self imposed learning, and what it takes to be successful at it. The link between the two isn't necessarily observing, but rather observing and then applying what we have learned. Steffens, K. (2006) writes beautifully regarding the potential for learning simply from observing and applying TELE systems.

      An additional resource and example of this can be found at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3YIWd8Hx26A

    2. It was then that Claire knew she wanted to discipline her children in a different manner.

      Darling-Hammond, L., & Richardson, N. (2009) have explained this theory of observational learning well in their article, which explains teachers observing higher educators from test groups and their teaching methods. While observing it was said that "an understanding came for teaching effectively, but maybe not meeting learning standards." Darling-Hammond, L., & Richardson, N. (2009).

      An example resource of this found at WSU can be located at,

      https://opentext.wsu.edu/ldaffin/chapter/module-10-non-operant-procedures-respondent-conditioning-and-observational-learning/

  12. Sep 2018
  13. Aug 2018
    1. Open Access journals

      Would the definition here be "all content in the journal must follow the oa principles set forth by plan s" or "the journal offers oa possibilities". I would guess the former due to the highlighted section below about publication paywalls.

  14. May 2018
  15. Jan 2018
  16. Dec 2017
    1. Expressed in the most general terms, the Heisenberg effect refers to those research occasions in which the very act of measurement or observation directly alters the phenomenon under investigation. Although most sciences assume that the properties of an entity can be assessed without changing the nature of that entity with respect to those assessed properties, the idea of the Heisenberg effect suggests that this assumption is often violated. In a sense, to measure or observe instantaneously renders the corresponding measurement or observation obsolete. Because reality is not separable from the observer, the process of doing science contaminates reality.

      definition of the Heisenberg (observer) Effect in research

  17. Nov 2017
    1. Whistle-blowers and dissidents might need to use a different platform.)

      The way that he casually mentions whistle blowers and dissidents is troubling to say the least. Also, will dig up studies, but removing anonymity hasn't really shown to decrease trolling or other bad behavior. Also, "privacy" anyone?

      http://theweek.com/articles/632929/problem-internet-trolls-isnt-anonymity

  18. Oct 2017
    1. len

      len(s) is built-in function

      Return the length (the number of items) of an object. The argument may be a sequence (such as a string, bytes, tuple, list, or range) or a collection (such as a dictionary, set, or frozen set).

  19. Sep 2017
  20. Apr 2017
    1. This ability to focus one’s attention is essential for effective performance of many of life’s necessary and daily activities, such as acquiring and using selected information; making and carrying out plans; and self-regulation of responses and behavior to meet desired goals (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1982). Direct attention is, therefore, an important cognitive skill required on a daily basis for students processing multiple sources of information, and working towards their academic goals at universities.

      In contrast with the concept of "involuntary attention". Both types of attention utilize different sections of the brain and perform their tasks with incredible difference. Despite GSU students generally lacking a space to induce involuntary attention for rejuvination, I'd like to question and understand how our urban environment shapes the brains of our students differently than those with access to green spaces. How has prolonged direct attention created a difference in urban campus students compared to classic university students.

    2. Attention Restoration Theory

      defined as, "suggests that mental fatigue and concentration can be improved by time spent in, or looking at nature."

      Regardless of the parks avaliable to GSU students, none seem to specifically meet the standards set by Kaplan to maximize benefit: "-Extent (the scope to feel immersed in the environment)

      -Being away (providing an escape from habitual activities)

      -Soft fascination (aspects of the environment that capture attention effortlessly)

      -Compatibility (individuals must want to be exposed to, and appreciate, the environment"

      Immediatley avaliable green spaces within Atlanta hardly separate themselves from their own city envirlonment and meerly provide a small area recreational area rather than an escape. http://www.ecehh.org/research-projects/attention-restoration-theory-a-systematic-review/


      In relation to GSU's severe lack of student avaliable green space, "The natural world has previously been depicted as a restorative environment that replenishes ones resources and urban environments such as cityscapes have been seen to potentially reduce attentional capacity."

      https://positivepsychologyprogram.com/attention-restoration-theory-nature-lets-solve-problems/

    3. “natural scenery employs the mind without fatigue and yet exercises it; tranquilizes it and yet enlivens it; and thus through the influence of the mind over the body, gives the effect of refreshing rest and reinvigorating to the whole system

      This idea sums up the focus of this paper; the impact of natural spaces on the mind of students and how open green space revigorates mental fatigue. Many large closed campus schools (UGA, Georgia Tech, Berry, etc) feature the beauty and vigor of their campus' alongside their academic triumphs. The campus of a university must allow itself to create differentiated spaces based on necessities for relaxation versus work. Georgia State struggles with this concept by consistently immersing it's students within a bustling city life with fairly little down time.

    4. open spaces have not been systematically examined for their potential in replenishing cognitive functioning for attentional fatigued students

      What quality of open spaces replenishes cognitive function? How does this tie into Georgia States "cramped" campus?


      REVISION & RESPONSE: open, specifically natural, spaces replenish cognitive function by relaxing the brain and thought processes of a student. These spaces are less visually intensive than the typical information overload of a student's standard day. Georgia State, despite a severe lack of open space, does offer Hurt and Woodruff parks as alternative green areas to relax within. This lack of open space is an important issue within the built environment of GSU, as we lack a scientifically backed attribute of student success that most closed campus universities can offer.

    5. increased technology use within today’s multitasking society is likely to hijack a student’s attentional resource placing her/him at risk of underachieving academic learning goals and undermining success at a university

      Arguably bold claim; regardless of backing source for information, how do students perform on average with an explosion of technological progress over the past 20 years compared to before smartphones were widely popularized?

      Technology absolutely depletes student's "attentional resource", yet we see an increased trend in technological innovation within classroom spaces; is this setting students up for failure by providing distractions from their work?

      Technology has arguably also greatly enhanced the students ability to learn, share resources, and more accurately/timely locate information beneficial to their success rather than simply create distraction.

    6. . Today’s university must be resilient spaces in which the learning environment encompasses more than technology upgrades, classroom additions, and its academic buildings – in fact, the entire campus, including its open spaces, must be perceived as a holistic learning space that provides a holistic learning experience

      Does GSU conform to this standard? Is it necessary/true? How does GSU make up for a lack of "open spaces" utilizing it's built environment to establish a holistic learning space?


      Georiga State strays from Scholl/Gulwadi's ideals; establishing an interconnected learning environment through downtown Atlanta by creating a community of students who not only share like minded goals but also campus space together. Although the city lacks the natural relaxation nature can provide to alleviate stress, I believe students find solace in the student body culture of the university.

  21. Feb 2017
    1. increased technology use within today’s multitasking society is likely to hijack a student’s attentional resource placing her/him at risk of underachieving academic learning goals and undermining success at a university

      What role does technology play in the promotion or degradation of our learning and how does this tie in with how our attention is directed?


      Revision + Response: As technology becomes increasingly intertwined with all aspects of life, including education, concern should be raised as to how being consistently connected to an online space not only distracts us, but prevents natural attention rejuvination from students specifically, furthering levels of fatigue. As the evolution of education ties itself closer to technology and reliance on online spaces, it seems like the system is setting itself up for failure in the long run by breaking the division between educational spaces and natural/recreational ones.

    2. Learning is a lifelong and year-round pursuit, which takes place throughout the campus, not just fragmented indoors in designated instructional spaces

      This is extremely important to the general thesis of the piece and summarizes all the information before this statement well. How is learning facilitated outside of classrooms on campus? What creates a "holistic" learning space? How does a campus teach outside of it's classrooms?


      Revision + Response: A holistic learning space/experience details the entire daily process of a student's day, and their interactions in space between classrooms + nature. The process of learning expands beyond taking in information; internalizing ideas through natural experiences. Holistic learning experiences create a balance between work, extra curricular activities, and student social lives which allows them to continue education through an optimal, healthy process.

    3. we propose that the natural landscape of a university campus is an attentional learning resource for its students.

      Thesis statement of the piece. What is an "attentional learning resource"? What is a "natural landscape" How do these concepts interact with one another.


      Revision + Response: The natural landscape of a university refers to the "green space" of a campus and it's relationship with the buildings that surround it. The natural landscape being an attentional learning resource outlines how learning and attention are facilitated outside of a classroom; the greenspace of a campus rejuvinates the mind allowing for students to relax but also mentally prepares them to continue their learning experience with less fatigue. The natural landscape of a campus is integral to the continued learning experience of it's students as it subconciously decompiles stress/depression.

    4. Direct attention requires mental effort and cognitive control for an individual to sustain focus and prevent distracting stimuli from interfering with an intended activity

      Describes what I am currently struggling with

    5. Many university founders desired to create an ideal community that was a place apart, secluded from city distraction but still open to the larger community, enabling their students and faculty to devote unlimited time and attention for classical or divinity learning, personal growth, and free intellectual inquiry

      How does this relate to the "perfect" built environment for learning? How does GSU defy these standards? How does GSU refute this claim

    6. diverse and evolving needs

      What are those needs? In what ways are they "diverse" and "evolving"? This sentence assumes "holistic learning spaces" are "good." Here's a source that outlines a debate about "holistic education"

  22. Jan 2017
  23. Dec 2016
  24. Nov 2016
    1. The 1620 agreement (first called the Mayflower Compact in 1793) was a legal instrument that bound the Pilgrims together when they arrived in New England. The core members of the Pilgrims' immigrant group were Separatists, members of a Puritan sect that had split from the Church of England, the only legal church in England at that time. Others in the group, however, had remained part of the Church of England, so not all of the Pilgrims shared the same religion.

      The Mayflower compact was a signature sheet that would be used for the signers to go to America for religious freedom.

  25. Oct 2016
    1. direct and indirect attention and restoration

      What I am curious about is how indirect attention and restoration can be used to create new college campuses? What does that entail?

    2. One way to examine this potential is to consider the entire campus with its buildings, roads and natural open spaces as a well-networked landscape system that supports student learning experiences.

      I totally agree with this statement but how exactly are they going to do it?

    3. we propose that the natural landscape of a university campus is an attentional learning resource for its students.

      This sentence is consider the thesis statement. It talks about how the landscape of a university campus could effect the learning of a student. Which connects to the whole essay.

    4. permeable

      the word permeable means capable of being permeated : penetrable; especially : having pores or openings that permit liquids or gases to pass through according to the Marriam Webster dictionary http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/permeable

    5. It is this holistic view of a campus’ spatial patterning and the student’s relationship with the natural and built environment or its landscape that is capable of having an effect on student learning

      If this is so, then why is the majority of classrooms (if not all) inside? Wouldn't this actually be a distraction for the student in a learning environment? Since there is to many things happening around the student might not be concentrated.

    6. Today the campus open space still remains a significant center for teaching and learning for students in natural resources management, sustainability/ecology, agriculture, forestry, etc. and more recently, a focus on environmental education and sustainable practices

      This topic sentence relates to the essay because it depicts how the students need to interact with nature, and a whole community outside of classrooms. As mentioned, the student is not closed up in a room where ideas cannot be created or found. It is good for the student to get some learning outside of a classroom, especially if it has to do with their major.

    7. holistic

      relating to or concerned with complete systems rather than with individual parts http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/holistic

    8. spatial patterning

      a perceptual structure, placement, or arrangement of objects on Earth. It also includes the space in between those objects. Patterns may be recognized because of their arrangement; maybe in a line or by a clustering of points. https://www.una.edu/geography/lights_night/step_1.htm

    9. These features can help enable and enhance a sense of being away and thereby lead to attention restoration

      These features help students forget that their at a college campus and helps them become more attentive, for example hurt park located at Georgia State.

    10. conceptualization

      to form in to a concept or make a concept of someting. http://www.dictionary.com/browse/conceptualization

    11. Defining “nature” can pose a bit of problem however.

      Many people have different perceptions of what nature is , it could refer to anything green for some or open spaces for others.

    12. Now as climate change is a major scientific and political issue, a renewed commitment to sustainability is evident in campus planning efforts to integrate built and open spaces within “green infrastructure”

      This is very important and is mostly applicable to colleges located somewhere urban such as Georgia State where global warming would pose more of a threat.

    13. Early American colleges and universities were self-sufficient and often built in rural locations with dormitories, dining halls and recreation facilities

      Many of these "early" colleges are still present today.They were probably built in rural locations to help students avoid distractions.

    14. 1). Well-designed and connected networks of indoor and open spaces on campuses can be key, yet typically overlooked catalysts, in student learning and a strong influence on students’ initial and longstanding experiences that promote a sense of belonging to the learning community

      A perfect example to support this statement,is the Georgia State plaza,Its an open space where students can go sit during class break.It gives students a sense of community as you're surrounded by your peers.

    15. The college experience is a stimulating and demanding time in a student’s life where a multitude of curricular and extra-curricular situations require frequent and heavy use of direct, focused attention and concentration (Wentworth & Middleton, 2014

      I couldn't agree with this statement more.College is definitely one of the most challenging times in a student's life.

    16. Americans expect a university campus to look different than other places (Gumprecht, 2007) and that the campus “expresses something about the quality of academic life, as well as its role as a citizen of the community in which it is located”

      This statement illustrates how the design of a campus plays an important part on whether students choose to attend it or not.

    17. American higher education institutions face unique twenty-first century changes and challenges in providing good, holistic learning spaces for the diverse and evolving needs of today’s college student

      This represents the main claim of the article and gives an insight on what the article is about.

    18. The college experience is a stimulating and demanding time in a student’s life where a multitude of curricular and extra-curricular situations require frequent and heavy use of direct, focused attention and concentration (Wentworth & Middleton, 2014). Thus, university students as a group are at a higher risk of attentional fatigue. Furthermore, increased technology use within today’s multitasking society is likely to hijack a student’s attentional resource placing her/him at risk of underachieving academic learning goals and undermining success at a university

      This could be a double edged sword like the statement describes. On one hand the use of technology has shown to decrease the students attention space with "something more interesting" in the palm of the students hand, but some students work better in this condition. The student will just have to know themselves and their own limitations to base their future classes on that.

    19. “one fifth of a student’s time is spent in the classroom, contributing about one quarter of the total learning variance

      With the digital age now approaching I think this may slightly change. Some students like the classroom because it's a time for them to meet other people and interact. Maybe some kids like the alone time with nature and over time with both opinions of in class or online classes.

    20. American higher education institutions face unique twenty-first century changes and challenges in providing good, holistic learning spaces for the diverse and evolving needs of today’s college student

      This is an interesting statement to make seeing that many students do tend to lean towards the digital age. It also acknowledges the fact that the new generation does have additional methods of learning in the day and age.

    21. Americans expect a university campus to look different than other places (Gumprecht, 2007) and that the campus “expresses something about the quality of academic life, as well as its role as a citizen of the community in which it is located”

      I feel like to a certain extent everyone feels as if their particular University should offer a certain feel to it. May it be a foreign University of a national one. For example, I love the city and I love Atlanta. The combination of store fronts in between classes the plethora of different types of people is actually exciting to me.

    22. we propose that the natural landscape of a university campus is an attentional learning resource for its students.

      This statement doesn't really apply to me. I honestly like the feel of the "concrete jungle" that GSU offers. I feel as if the change in landscape wouldn't help me learn any better.

    23. Position Piece

      Position piece means there will be a call to action!

    24. uch an approach also goes beyond advertising the aesthetic value of the campus open spaces for student recruitment purposes to recognizing the entire campus landscape as a learning space and advertising its educational value – that is emphasizes something deeper than what meets the eye.

      This is an annotation about the entire piece: I find it strange that this entire article fails to mention the rise of online learning. Online learning from my personal experience requires even more direct attention than learning in a traditional classroom setting, thus making the need for nature restoration even more crucial.

    25. The preservation of open space is vital to the maintenance and effective functioning of a quality university learning environment

      The authors brought up their claim again in the conclusion to remind readers. For me, the article was quite repetitive and at some points I read the words without fully capturing the content. But I do understand their claim for the importance of nature on college campuses.

    26. traditional instructional classrooms (where students’ direct attention is most required) that are primarily structured for the visual mode of learning (e.g., whiteboards on designated walls, seating that faces the instructor)

      Traditional form of learning is also vital, it is like going back to the basics. Traditional learning can help with the hollistic learning also. I believe both are important, it is just some need to use one form more than the other. I would like to use the hollistic form but I need the traditional form more at times.

    27. Indoor (mostly built) Views to outside areas or wall photos/ murals Foliage or flowering plants indoors Greenhouse used for botany classes Plants within buildings Living laboratories Indoor fountains, aquariums Size, shape and location of windows Density and proximity of buildings Management of outdoor areas Quality of indoor and outdoor lighting

      I work better in the indoor nature settings because it is more private and not too overwhelming. I am not a fan of bugs and grass makes me itch so I enjoy being inside even though I still appreciate nature. Having plants and other natural resources inside is a great balance.

    28. Traditional campus indoor spaces, by necessity and function, provide ample opportunities for structured learning experiences that draw upon students’ direct attention. However, a student’s learning experience is not often balanced by unstructured or structured opportunities for drawing forth effortless, indirect attention that occur in human-nature interactions (Valles-Planells, et. al, 2014)

      Even if we try to act as if what surround us doesn't affect how we act, our surroundings play a huge role in our actions and even in our education as it is argued in this piece.

    29. Most American universities are situated on large number of acres (up to 28,000 acres) and function like miniature cities in their complexity of urban-natural configurations to provide a dynamic sensory experience

      I've been to many universities that are not large in size, but they still function like a small city so size is does not really affect how they function. Their operating system is what determines how they function.

    30. Interaction with natural environments (especially green nature) employs faculties of concentration not normally used – involuntary ones – thus allowing the neural mechanisms underlying directed attention a chance to rest and replenish.

      Some people like having things on standby just in case they want to use it and this is the case with the green spaces. Sometimes, professors want to do things out of the ordinary and take class outside.

    31. Subsequently, we expand the campus ‘learning environment’ to also include a university’s open space, we also include in our definition of nature, the concept of a “landscape.” Valles-Planells, Galinan, & Van Eetvelde (2014) define a landscape as a “holistic, spatial, and mental dynamic entity, which is the result of people-place interactions” (p. 1).

      This phrase says "we" as a generalization of everyone and i disagree because everyone has different interpretations of landscape.

    32. As an influential landscape designer of early campuses, Fredrick Law Olmstead worked with the philosophy that the physical landscape features had a direct impact on shaping human behavior, and offer students an active, experiential education versus passive or theoretical learning.

      In this part of the class, I now know that this quote is really true because we have been studying in this class how landscapes affect human behavior.

    33. By preserving and suitably integrating open spaces into the green infrastructure, universities can add value and quality to the campus environment by: forging a campus identity, creating a sense of community, curbing escalating campus density, serving social and recreational needs, providing environmental benefits, and facilitating fundraising and recruitment of both faculty and students (Griffith, 1994).

      I think that it is unfair for students to have to pay more for their education based on the looks of the school rather than the quality of their education.

    34. Today the campus open space still remains a significant center for teaching and learning for students in natural resources management, sustainability/ecology, agriculture, forestry, etc. and more recently, a focus on environmental education and sustainable practices (Painter, et. al., 2013).

      Once again, a lot of students won't focused on these characteristics unless they are in a special field or unless students really care about open spaces for recreational activities.

    35. The advent of land-grant institutions through the Morrill Act of 1862 required new buildings to be built with laboratories and observatory space for agricultural, technical education, and scientific research (Eckert, 2012; Turner, 1984).

      Unless students are going into a major that requires the use of laboratories, students won't pay attention to the quality of their school's laboratory.

    36. The college experience is a stimulating and demanding time in a student’s life where a multitude of curricular and extra-curricular situations require frequent and heavy use of direct, focused attention and concentration (Wentworth & Middleton, 2014).

      The college life is one of the most exciting experiences that a person will have in their life. In both small and big campuses, there are always actives happening on the daily basis and many students look for a campus that is correctly built for these activities.

    37. Kathleen G Scholl, Gowri Betrabet Gulwadi

      What is their relevance to this topic? No title present means lack of credibility for the author.

    38. Such an approach also goes beyond advertising the aesthetic value of the campus open spaces for student recruitment purposes to recognizing the entire campus landscape as a learning space and advertising its educational value – that is emphasizes something deeper than what meets the eye.

      It is not merely an "aesthetic" approach to campus design, is is enhancing educational value. This is important to remember when writing the summary.

    39. Well-designed and connected networks of indoor and open spaces on campuses can be key, yet typically overlooked catalysts, in student learning and a strong influence on students’ initial and longstanding experiences that promote a sense of belonging to the learning community (Boyer, 1987; Greene, 2013).

      Now that I think about it, if a student plans to live on campus, the design of the building is really important to him or her because those buildings will be the buildings were they will spend their college careers.

    40. Americans expect a university campus to look different than other places (Gumprecht, 2007) and that the campus “expresses something about the quality of academic life, as well as its role as a citizen of the community in which it is located” (Dober, 1996, p.47).

      If you plan to attend a university or college outside of your home city or state, then you should expect a difference in design. However, if you plan to attend a university or college inside your home city or state, the design will remain the same for the most part.

    41. provide visionary and heuristic scenarios for a university of the future, we need a vision for integrating a systemic view of what these integrated campus nature networks would like in the future. In addition, there is a need to conduct more focused and nuanced research on identifying the human-nature mechanisms that lead to (among others) attentional resource benefits.

      Here is the call to action! We "need" and "there is a need."

    42. However, a student’s learning experience is not often balanced by unstructured or structured opportunities for drawing forth effortless, indirect attention that occur in human-nature interactions (Valles-Planells, et. al, 2014).

      I must have missed something because I read this article as a bunch of examples of how college campuses are designed to create a balance. I will have to reread to understand the aspect of unbalance.

    43. Therefore, we propose that the natural landscape of a university campus is an attentional learning resource for its students.
      • As a student, I pay more attention to the quality of the education that I am receiving. Is the landscape really important when you’re getting an education?
    44. Interaction with natural environments (especially green nature) employs faculties of concentration not normally used – involuntary ones – thus allowing the neural mechanisms underlying directed attention a chance to rest and replenish.

      This is so interesting. Going to school in the city, it is much harder achieve this because of constant stimulation. I struggle with this on a daily basis and often times be as drastic to leave the city on vacation in order to reset.

    45. After a period of prolonged cognitive demands and mental saturation, difficulties in concentrating, reduced performance on tasks, higher rates of irritability and tension, and more impulsive and hostile behavior may arise

      My theory is, the point in which people start to have trouble paying attention after a prolonged period of cognitive demands, reflects a bell curve in relevance to age. A young elementary aged child can only pay attention for so long before he/she becomes distracted. The length becomes longer and longer through adolescence and college age and most of adult life, and then once a person starts to become elderly, it declines.

    46. nature or natural environment as the… “physical features and processes of nonhuman origin that people ordinarily can perceive, including the “living nature” of flora and fauna, together with still and running water, qualities of air and weather, and the landscapes that comprise these and show the influences of geological processes” (Hartig, et al., 2014, p. 21.2)

      Operational definition of nature

    47. Furthermore there is a subjective component to the concept

      There is pretty much a subjective definition to everything. The definition of any single word can be defined subjectively based on a persons personal experience of that word.

    48. there is a need to conduct more focused and nuanced research on identifying the human-nature mechanisms that lead to (among others) attentional resource benefits.

      This is implying that campuses or at least areas designed for students to study are needed to often allow them to balance out their minds and relax while working to keep them in a set pace where they don't feel obligated or frustrated inside a building or type of closed-in room.

    49. After a period of prolonged cognitive demands and mental saturation, difficulties in concentrating, reduced performance on tasks, higher rates of irritability and tension, and more impulsive and hostile behavior may arise

      Feeling constantly stressed out can cause a student or a person to latch out in assertive behavior.

    50. Interaction with nature, in particular, can help to maintain or restore cognitive function such as direct attention, problem solving, focus and concentration, impulse inhibition, and memory, which can become depleted from fatigue or with overuse

      Human to nature interaction usually can reflect from one another as the human becomes almost "one with nature" being able to communicate and circulate through it whereas if the human was in a structured environment, they almost feel as though they are a bird caged.

    51. natural scenery employs the mind without fatigue and yet exercises it; tranquilizes it and yet enlivens it; and thus through the influence of the mind over the body, gives the effect of refreshing rest and reinvigorating to the whole system

      This implies that a natural environment instead of a structured one urges to ease the mind to be open and circulate, not feel closed up or to cause any pain to it.

    52. The inclusion of the automobile on campus resulted in parking lots claiming large areas of natural open space within a “ring road” type of plan, in which vehicles were mostly kept outside the pedestrian oriented campus core

      Because most campuses were designed for students being capable to travel by foot or through pavement, the parking lots or decks or garages for those who either commute to campus or the faculty and staff of the campus are usually placed in the outer barrier of the campus because of the structure that has been already primarily set. Plus, in a way to eliminate any danger of those traveling to class being struck by a vehicle on the way.

    53. Open space and “zones” for disciplines became far more common than closely clustered buildings previously designed to protect students from the lures of the outside world

      Traditional college campuses that have been around for nearly over centuries were created in rural territories to keep students in separating them from the "outside world" while living amongst it. Recently, newer college campuses are built in either urban or suburban areas to expose the student to the world around them. For example, when I previously went to Valdosta State, the school campus is all in one area and the city of Valdosta surrounds it making the campus the center of the city. Transferring to Georgia State, the campus is so expanded that it takes 15 minutes for me to walk from my dorm to the classroom buildings whereas it was a quick 5 minute walk from my dorm that was across campus from the classroom buildings back in Valdosta.

    54. increased technology use within today’s multitasking society is likely to hijack a student’s attentional resource placing her/him at risk of underachieving academic learning goals and undermining success at a university

      This I don't believe to be true. Mainly because the advancement of technology has made it quicker and easier for the student to be able to obtain information especially because "back in the day" it was difficult to get so much information all at once because the researching process was brutal. Being able to "google" a research thesis for a certain type of project gives the student immediate access to what they need and are looking for. It cuts the research process down nearly 5x.

    55. Thus, university students as a group are at a higher risk of attentional fatigue.

      This is true, and I'm not just saying as a college student myself although the personal connection is intact. Even though adults with families and labor jobs are more likely to go through the same thing, I believe personally it is true for college students because of the pressure of having to attain a degree to get a "good-working" job, and then financial struggles of being a college student due to loans if taken and the cost of supplies for certain classes and courses.

    56. in fact, the entire campus, including its open spaces, must be perceived as a holistic learning space that provides a holistic learning experience

      This is implying that the structure of a college campus must be almost closed in to be a "proper" learning environment for its students.

    57. American higher education institutions face unique twenty-first century changes and challenges in providing good, holistic learning spaces for the diverse and evolving needs of today’s college student.

      These changes include how the environment and structure of such colleges and universities have changed.

    58. American higher education institutions face unique twenty-first century changes and challenges in providing good, holistic learning spaces for the diverse and evolving needs of today’s college student

      Being a student at Georgia State, a school that has been listed as one of the top 5 most innovative universities in America, I've noticed that this claim holds much truth. Georgia State's continuous innovation caught my attention in 2015, thus being the reason I chose to attend the university. Here is the article listing Georgia State as one of The US's most innovative universities: http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-colleges/rankings/national-universities/innovative

    59. effective functioning

      "Effective functioning" goes back to the authors belief that campuses must respond to the prevailing philosophy of education.

    60. reconceptualize

      The process of re capturing an idea from a different perspective.

    61. Students spend most of their tightly structured learning time indoors

      Being indoors in a classroom makes me feel confined to the space and as a student being in a tight space with droopy colors it tends to make me feel less comfortable and I lose interest in the lesson.

    62. Most American universities are situated on large number of acres (up to 28,000 acres) and function like miniature cities

      This statement is very true colleges are like mini cities they usually function in towns where they are the only thing out there and populations are larger then the city itself.

    1. First Read's Morning Clips: It's Nev-ADDD-ah, not Nev-AHHHH-dah Share Share Tweet Share Email Print Comment advertisement OFF TO THE RACES: It's Nev-ADDD-ah, not Nev-AHHHH-dah Donald Trump's attempt to pronounce "Nevada" in the Silver State last night didn't go well. Tim Kaine praised his own Tuesday night debate performance. Trump says he's "getting a lot of credit" after Mike Pence's widely-praised debate. Pence is taking heat from Latinos after his "Mexican thing" remark. From the Washington Post: "Sen. Tim Kaine may have awakened Wednesday to poor reviews after the first and only vice-presidential debate, but his acerbic performance in Farmville, Va., revealed that the Clinton campaign's strategy for these debates extends far beyond the stage. Armed with pre-planned Web videos, television ads and tweets, the campaign has used key debate moments this week and last as a cudgel against the Republican ticket, showing a level of discipline and organization largely absent from Donald Trump and Indiana Gov. Mike Pence's campaign." Trump said yesterday: "They say Donald Trump loves Putin. I don't love, I don't hate. We'll see how it works." And here's Trump on the issue of Yucca Mountain: "Number one is safety and it is a little too close to major population, so I will take a look at it and I will have an opinion." The New York Times does a deep dive into Trump's business ventures. "Of the roughly 60 endeavors started or promoted by Mr. Trump during the period analyzed, The Times found few that went off without a hitch. One-third of them either never got off the ground or soon petered out. Another third delivered a measure of what was promised — buildings were built, courses taught, a product introduced — but they also encountered substantial problems, like lawsuits, government investigations, partnership woes or market downturns." Here's how Pennsylvania boosted its swing-state status, according to the Washington Post. An interesting data point from PRRI/The Atlantic: "White likely voters who still live in their hometown strongly prefer Donald Trump over Hillary Clinton (57 percent vs. 31 percent), while nearly half (46 percent) of those who live more than a two-hour drive away from their hometown are supporting Clinton compared to 40 percent who are supporting Trump." The Atlantic endorsed Hillary Clinton, only the third time it has weighed in on a presidential election since 1857. Via POLITICO: With hopes in Pennsylvania fading, Trump is hoping to make gains in the Mountain West. From the AP: "Donald Trump once called data "overrated" in politics. But with Election Day swiftly approaching, the Republican presidential nominee is spending millions of dollars on data and digital services in an effort to land donations and win over voters. Ushering Trump toward a more analytical approach are Jared Kushner, Trump's son-in-law and adviser, and Brad Parscale, the campaign's digital director and a veteran Trump Organization consultant." Sean Hannity is accusing Megyn Kelly of supporting Hillary Clinton. "Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump has throughout his career given campaign contributions to state attorneys general while they weighed decisions affecting his business, a review of his political donations shows," notes the Wall Street Journal. From the New York Times yesterday: "The F.B.I. secretly arrested a former National Security Agency contractor in August and, according to law enforcement officials, is investigating whether he stole and disclosed highly classified computer code developed by the agency to hack into the networks of foreign governments. The arrest raises the embarrassing prospect that for the second time in three years, a contractor for the consulting company Booz Allen Hamilton managed to steal highly damaging secret information while working for the N.S.A." What will happen to Merrick Garland's nomination in December? The

      The first thing i noticed when i got to the NBC website was that all of the political articles are about Trump. That really says something about the style of politics that are alive in the U.S. today. Although the article title talks about "Nevada" and how Trump says the State's name, it actually takes a deeper look into Trump's past business dealings and political affiliations. As opposed to the Fox news article that actually did focus on his pronunciation of Nevada. On top of that the author in this article goes after Trump's VP candidate as well as others that are in Trump's campaign committee. This article seemed more like an attack on trump rather than a criticism.

  26. Sep 2016
    1. This ability to focus one’s attention is essential for effective performance of many of life’s necessary and daily activities, such as acquiring and using selected information; making and carrying out plans; and self-regulation of responses and behavior to meet desired goals

      This type of learning reminds me of elementary, middle, and high school when teachers would "teach to the test." There would be no stimulating and "outside of the box teaching". Teachers drilled facts and vocabulary as a result learning fatigue sat in.

    2. that open space must be treated as a scarce resource

      Let us remember that GSU understands the importance of green spaces. Kell Hall is going to be demolished soon and a green space will be developed in that space for GSU students.

    3. climate change

      Climate change, also called global warming, refers to the rise in average surface temperatures on Earth. An overwhelming scientific consensus maintains that climate change is due primarily to the human use of fossil fuels, which releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the air. The gases trap heat within the atmosphere, which can have a range of effects on ecosystems, including rising sea levels, severe weather events, and droughts that render landscapes more susceptible to wildfires.

      Source,, http://www.takepart.com/flashcards/what-is-climate-change

    4. personal growth

      I went back to this sentence because "personal growth" stood out. How can a university promote personal growth if it is in a secluded area? I look at personal growth as having an opportunity to explore many aspects of learning. Being in a secluded area, does not offer these opportunities..

    5. American higher education institutions face unique twenty-first century changes and challenges in providing good, holistic learning spaces for the diverse and evolving needs of today’s college student.

      Scholl and Gulwadi present the issue at hand in this first sentence. Colleges and universities lack stimulating learning spaces that appeal to this generation of college students.

    6. Many university founders desired to create an ideal community that was a place apart, secluded from city distraction but still open to the larger community, enabling their students and faculty to devote unlimited time and attention for classical or divinity learning, personal growth, and free intellectual inquiry

      Does this sentence suggest that universities were built on the classical learning theory, i.e., learning takes place by making a new association between events in the environment? If so, this is what the authors are suggesting in this article. The environment needs to be conducive for attentional learning.

    7. Radloff

      Peter Radloff advances the idea of "learning ecology". A learning ecology is an environment that is consist with how learners learn. Radloff questions whether we treat time and space seriously enough in teaching and learning.

      Source: https://search.oecd.org/edu/innovation-education/2675768.pdf

    8. Before we outline each concept and propose their integration in this paper, we go back in time for a historical perspective of the evolution of campus open space.

      The authors open the article with the important issue of meeting " diverse and evolving needs of today’s college student". It is important to look at the history of the evolution of campus open spaces in order to understand where universities started and the direction that they need to go..

    9. Furthermore, increased technology use within today’s multitasking society is likely to hijack a student’s attentional resource placing her/him at risk of underachieving academic learning goals and undermining success at a university

      As a student, I agree with this statement. Instead of exploring a concept in a hands- on manner, we use search engines because they are at our fingertips. For example, a student maybe exploring the effects of sap on trees but instead of going outside looking at the sap, students google it. This does not give students the live experience.

    10. The college experience is a stimulating and demanding time in a student’s life where a multitude of curricular and extra-curricular situations require frequent and heavy use of direct, focused attention and concentration

      Studies show that students that are involved in extra-curricular activities are more successful in college. Becoming involved in organizations,allow students to get hands-on experience in the field they will be working in.

    11. “expresses something about the quality of academic life, as well as its role as a citizen of the community in which it is located”

      Georgia State is located in downtown Atlanta. The universitie's structure resembles its downtown location, e.g., tall buildings that were once downtown offices. This makes Georgia State a part of the downtown community. Downtown and Georgia State have a relationship. Different tourist attractions welcome GSU students and give special discounts to them

    12. Many university founders desired to create an ideal community that was a place apart, secluded from city distraction but still open to the larger community, enabling their students and faculty to devote unlimited time and attention for classical or divinity learning, personal growth, and free intellectual inquiry

      many times towns developed around universities

    13. Furthermore, increased technology use within today’s multitasking society is likely to hijack a student’s attentional resource placing her/him at risk of underachieving academic learning goals and undermining success at a university (

      From personal experience, this is true. Very, very true.

    14. Although university culture places demands on students’ cognitive abilities, campus natural open spaces have not been systematically examined for their potential in replenishing cognitive functioning for attentional fatigued students

      My suspicion is that there really isn't one

    15. The college experience is a stimulating and demanding time in a student’s life where a multitude of curricular and extra-curricular situations require frequent and heavy use of direct, focused attention and concentration

      And extreme amounts of stress, many times to the point of getting in the way of learning

    16. Learning is a lifelong and year-round pursuit

      Truer words have never been said

    17. the entire campus, including its open spaces, must be perceived as a holistic learning space that provides a holistic learning experience

      With the modern university environment, I find this to be, for lack of a better word, rubbish

    18. natural landscape of a university campus is an attentional learning resource for its students

      While having a well landscaped campus is always a nice thing to have, I'm not sure I agree that it is essential to a good learning environment

    19. enrollments are expected to rise

      the real challenge will be expanding the educational program while maintaining quality of education

    20. financial challenges

      the expenses of books alone at universities is significant

    21. American higher education institutions face unique twenty-first century changes and challenges in providing good, holistic learning spaces for the diverse and evolving needs of today’s college student

      while adapting to new generations is always something that needs to happen, I'm personally not so sure the twenty-first century digital age is entirely conducive to learning

    22. Continued enrollment growth, societal and technological changes, financial challenges, and a need for increased universal and open access create ever more diverse, changing and complex US university systems.

      The qualifications for merit based scholarships that are state funded are becoming steeper, e.g., The Zell Miller Scholarship. This makes it difficult for students to receive scholarships that were once readily available.

    23. Morrill Act of 1862 required new buildings to be built with laboratories and observatory space for agricultural, technical education, and scientific research

      This is shocking to me that the shift from classical learning to a more science based learning happened so early in history. I began to research classical learning in America and this article makes it seem as if the 19th century was still heavily practicing classical learning. Therefore, this paragraph is misleading.

    24. university founders desired to create an ideal community that was a place apart, secluded from city distraction but still open to the larger community, enabling their students and faculty to devote unlimited time and attention for classical or divinity learning, personal growth, and free intellectual inquiry

      This is the historical goal when planning and building campuses. Interesting to read while being a student at Georgia State University, a school placed in the middle of a busy city. The every day distractions brought about by being in the city may be hurting us more than most think. Also, the term "unlimited time" is particularly captivating. I cannot think of any person who devotes "unlimited time" to college and learning, which is quite sad!

    25. two concepts that have been addressed in two different domains, bringing them together to help conceptualize future campus planning in relation to student learning.

      The point of the article is to explain ways to "conceptualize future campus planning" remember this quote when writing summary

    26. “one fifth of a student’s time is spent in the classroom, contributing about one quarter of the total learning variance (Radloff, 1998, p. 1).

      With the growing popularity of online learning, it is reasonable to conclude that the amount of time spent outside of the classroom will continue to increase. Thus increasing the importance of other campus space.

    27. Questions of where, when, how, and with whom today’s college students learn, confront the traditional notions of how university spaces are designed and used for effectiveness (Hashimshony & Haina, 2006

      What makes a college campus effective? I would operationally define "effective" in this article as: a campus that facilitates learning and student social and academic engagement.

    28. 2013 provides us a unique opportunity to reconceptualize the campus landscape of the future as an attentional resource.

      The campus landscapes of the future should have some type of student input in my opinion because we have to spend the majority of our time in there and we know what would allow for the best learning in the digital era.

    29. Students spend most of their tightly structured learning time indoors

      I believe that if some classes were outdoors it would help with the students mental fatigue especially with the lighting of the classrooms. i remember last year i had a couple classes outside on the roof of urban life and it was just refreshing to get into a new space.

    30. Urban (mostly built) Viewing a roof garden from the windows of a student lounge Mural of a landscape scene on the wall of a tunnel or walkway Outdoor plaza used for art classes Spaces between campus buildings Outdoor water features Green roofs Rain gardens Height of buildings Complexity and ornamentation of façade Sense of enclosure (no blocked views)

      This category is exactly how GSU is built but i believe the university is making strides to have a little bit more green spaces for us on campus.

    31. Involuntary attention occurs when individuals are presented with stimuli that are “inherently intriguing” (p.124).

      the term involuntary attention is one that strikes me as being funny because i can see this happening in my astrology class something interesting will be going on in plaza and i just stare out her window.

    32. Interaction with nature, in particular, can help to maintain or restore cognitive function such as direct attention, problem solving, focus and concentration, impulse inhibition, and memory, which can become depleted from fatigue or with overuse

      who is to say that a student learns better on a traditional campus than an urban one? i for one feel like its a better space to see the things i learn about in action which helps me retain the knowledge better .

    33. Defining “nature” can pose a bit of problem however.

      It is a problem to try and define nature because most people view nature as grass and trees but nature can in fact be the buildings that surround a person in the city.

    34. miniature cities

      Like University of Georgia (UGA). It's all the way in Athens in a very quite, not fully developed city. It can feel lonely there. Its a completely enclosed campus. Its just like a miniature city.

    35. Fringe(nature dominant)

      Nature dominant campuses I feel like can really exclude students from the outside world. Being surrounded by nature can really be challenging because that is not what they will get it in the real world. Unless you decide to live up in the mountains then that it a different case.

    36. Student perception of the surrounding campus landscape and the opportunities it offers for intentional and unintentional learning or recreational engagement/activity might influence their overall campus experience

      I agree with this statement completely. In open campuses you get more career and job opportunities and you can easily find connections being in the same vicinity as other business buildings and such. This is yet another example that ties greatly with GSU.

    37. “nature”

      in todays generation, nature is anything green.

    38. tranquilizes it and yet enlivens it; and thus through the influence of the mind over the body, gives the effect of refreshing rest and reinvigorating to the whole system

      maybe its just me but I disagree with this completely. I think natural scenery is nice and all but it gets boring after a while. There is not much you can do other than just look at it and take pictures. what he describes sounds like a nice getaway but in real life no one wants to be around trees all the time. City life can be refreshing as well. It gives you a real life experience and its nice to be around a lot of people.

    39. that open space must be treated as a scarce resource”

      enclosed campuses with open spaces is a great advantage of secluded college campuses. It gives students opportunities to do activities or do experiments that are otherwise not possible in open campuses like GSU.

    40. newer campus designs are more amorphous and integrative.

      example: Georgia State University and Georgia Tech. These two are great examples of an amorphous campus, spread out with no designated enclosed space.

    41. Many university founders desired to create an ideal community that was a place apart, secluded from city distraction but still open to the larger community, enabling their students and faculty to devote unlimited time and attention for classical or divinity learning, personal growth, and free intellectual inquiry

      Having colleges being excluded can be a good and bad thing. Good thing because obviously students can pay attention more and focus only on school. It can be a bad thing because it narrows it down to a certain few who can afford to go that college because it forces you to pay for housing and food rather than having the option to commute and living in the comfort of your own house.

    42. Americans expect a university campus to look different than other places

      This is very true not only for Americans but for foreigners as well. They expect all college campuses to look like Harvard or Princeton, but these are just stereotypes. For example Georgia State University is not your average college campus. Its in the heart of Downtown with buildings and classes scattered all over.

    43. The college experience is a stimulating and demanding time in a student’s life

      The college experience I feel like is different for everyone mainly because we all have different backgrounds, goals, financial situations, work ethic, and time management skills. We all have our strengths and weaknesses. College experience for some people is partying and having a great time; for others is working hard to get an education and get a great job with great pay.

    44. Well-designed and connected networks of indoor and open spaces on campuses can be key

      By having resources for students nearby makes it easier to get help and succeed.

    45. Students spend most of their tightly structured learning time indoors

      Sometimes being indoor getting boring because there's no excitement in the room like colors or posters. I get sleepy by starring at blank walls.

    46. amorphous

      meaning without a clearly defined shape or form.

    47. Learning is a lifelong and year-round pursuit

      Knowledge is power.

    48. Americans expect a university campus to look different than other places

      Why just "Americans"?

    49. We do suggest that regular cognitive breaks from direct attention in natural settings can help students regulate, replenish, and strengthen cognitive function and ability to prepare for either the next round of classes or improve the effectiveness and efficiency of an independent study period.

      I support this statement. After class, I like to sit in the courtyard and relax. It gets me prepared for my next class, because the tension from my last class is gone. It also helps clear my mind.

    50. increased technology use within today’s multitasking society is likely to hijack a student’s attentional resource placing her/him at risk of underachieving academic learning goals and undermining success at a university

      This is somewhat true and not true. Technology has been helping me without losing my attention span. For example, I am doing annotations on my computer and looking up definitions to different things in the article on my phone. Sometimes I can get side tracked but it depends on the assignment I'm working on.

    51. Earth Day

      Earth Day is an annual event, celebrated on April 22, on which day events worldwide are held to demonstrate support for environmental protection. It was first celebrated in 1970, and is now coordinated globally by the Earth Day Network and celebrated in more than 193 countries each year. #BEGREEN

    52. Such an approach also goes beyond advertising the aesthetic value of the campus

      Aesthetic means concerned with beauty or the appreciation of beauty. So this quote means it goes beyond the beauty of the campus.

    53. reconceptualize

      (something) again or in a new way

    54. Most American universities are situated on large number of acres (up to 28,000 acres) and function like miniature cities

      I find this statement somewhat true. Colleges or Universities do function like miniature cities. When I was visiting different college campuses, it felt as if I was visiting another life.

    55. Urban (mostly built)

      As I read the different descriptions, I noticed that Georgia State would fit in that category.It is mostly built.

    56. Student perception of the surrounding campus landscape and the opportunities it offers for intentional and unintentional learning or recreational engagement/activity might influence their overall campus experience.

      I find this statement true. I came to Georgia State University because of the job opportunities.

    57. Direct attention requires mental effort and cognitive control for an individual to sustain focus and prevent distracting stimuli from interfering with an intended activity

      This is telling why people has short attention span and how people start looking into something else and get distracted easily.

    58. provide more options for regulating learning and restoration cycles

      Where is the proof?

    59. Student-nature interactions during study breaks help restore attention (Felsten, 2009).

      Or perhaps the students get back to class or studying and are still distracted by what was going on while they were outside. Maybe they are more focused on the game they were playing or what they will do during their next break.

    60. Morrill Act of 1862

      Also known as Land-Grant College Act of 1862 provided grants of land to states to finance the establishment of colleges specializing in “agriculture and the mechanic arts.”

      https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=morrill+act+of+1862

    61. Everyday campus spaces include other physical design features empirically associated with attention restoration –height of surrounding buildings -the fewer floors the better (Lindal & Hartig, 2013); extent of naturalness of views from windows -more natural the better (Matsuoka, 2010); and proximity-awareness of nearby nature impacts its use and effectiveness

      If students wanted to attend a college surrounded by nature, they would do so. If they wanted to be at a school in the city, like Georgia State, then that is where they would be. I feel like it is all about personal preference. Also, students don't tend to choose schools based on if they are close to nature or not, but how good the school is, what majors they have, and those sorts of things.

    62. Americans expect a university campus to look different than other places (Gumprecht, 2007) and that the campus “expresses something about the quality of academic life, as well as its role as a citizen of the community in which it is located”

      Every college campus has their own design. The article states "...set apart from the community..". Some colleges is not close to nature nor is it set apart from a community. For example, East Georgia State College is located in Swainsboro, Ga. It is set apart from the community and surrounded by nature. Georgia State University is located in Atlanta, Ga. It is apart of a community, and it isn't full of nature. #DifferentColleges #DifferentEnvironments

    63. For example, more than two-thirds of the Cornell University campus is open space

      Not all colleges have the space to proved open space, some only have a certain amount of land, which is often used for all the buildings the school requires.

    64. his in turn can benefit performance on other tasks, delay gratification, and perhaps even regulate levels of depression and stress. Therefore, providing opportunities for interactions that draw upon involuntary attention could be impactful on university campuses for attentional, fatigued students and their learning mechanisms. A wide range of natural settings in and around a college campus can play a role in student learning and engagement. Perceived greenness of different campus spaces can influence students’ perceived restorativeness in them

      Studies done about this would have been very informative in the part of the article, as here this is one of the few places that does not have citations. Have there been any studies done pertaining to this? Is there any evidence of this claim?

    65. “Attentive efficiency can be recovered after a period of rest and regeneration, obtained through the activation of involuntary attention” (Barbiero, Berto, Freire, Ferrando, & Camino, 2014, p. 32).

      The authors seem to believe that this restoration is only achieve by being in nature though.

    66. Interaction with nature, in particular, can help to maintain or restore cognitive function such as direct attention, problem solving, focus and concentration, impulse inhibition, and memory, which can become depleted from fatigue or with overuse (Hartig, et al., 2014; Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989)

      Who though, does nature help? Is it everyone, or a select group? Or does it perhaps differ from person to person?

    67. holistic learning

      Holistic education aims to call forth from people an intrinsic reverence for life and a passionate love of learning.” ( Ron Miller) Read more about Ron Miller. Holistic education is concerned with the development of a person's intellectual, emotional, social, physical, artistic, creative and spiritual potentials.

      https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=holistic%20learning

    68. Therefore, this paper will define nature or natural environment as the… “physical features and processes of nonhuman origin that people ordinarily can perceive, including the “living nature” of flora and fauna, together with still and running water, qualities of air and weather, and the landscapes that comprise these and show the influences of geological processes” (Hartig, et al., 2014, p. 21.2).

      They don't define nature fully in their own words, I feel like they use so many references that their meanings don't come through clearly.

    69. and offer students an active, experiential education versus passive or theoretical learning.

      Why is in class learning considered "passive or theoretical?" You can do interactive activities in many classes in an classroom setting.

    70. Today the campus open space still remains a significant center for teaching and learning for students in natural resources management, sustainability/ecology, agriculture, forestry, etc. and more recently, a focus on environmental education and sustainable practices

      Sure this pertains to students with these specific types of majors, many of whom would choose to attend an agricultural based college, but what about students with other degree programs in mind?

    71. and new federal grant-supported scientific research programs created a frenzied need to invest in new facilities. College presidents approved filling existing campus open space with large, stand-alone structures that typically did not cohere or unify with the existing campus style (Turner, 1984). The inclusion of the automobile on campus resulted in parking lots claiming large areas of natural open space within a “ring road” type of plan, in which vehicles were mostly kept outside the pedestrian oriented campus core (Bowman, 2011, p. 27).

      So universities had to evolve as the world evolved, if they hadn't imagine how hard going to college would be. I know there are some schools that don't allow freshman to have cars with them on campus, imagine how difficult that could make school if it were a campus set apart from the city.

    72. Unlike the classic designs of America’s first institutions, the physical campus of the land grant university was designed to significantly contribute to student learning through its working farms, forests, arboretums, greenhouses, gardens

      It seems that the authors are in full support of classes that require such things as greenhouses and gardens and such, but what about classes that don'n need these things? What about math or government? I wonder what their opinions would be of classes that need only be inside.

    73. One way to examine this potential is to consider the entire campus with its buildings, roads and natural open spaces as a well-networked landscape system that supports student learning experiences. In doing so, we highlight two concepts that have been addressed in two different domains, bringing them together to help conceptualize future campus planning in relation to student learning. The concepts are – 1) direct and indirect attention and restoration, and 2) a holistic landscape. Before we outline each concept and propose their integration in this paper, we go back in time for a historical perspective of the evolution of campus open space.

      The location of the thesis and its premises is similar to the style I was taught in grade school.

    74. The college experience is a stimulating and demanding time in a student’s life where a multitude of curricular and extra-curricular situations require frequent and heavy use of direct, focused attention and concentration (Wentworth & Middleton, 2014). Thus, university students as a group are at a higher risk of attentional fatigue.

      In addition to that fact that students are forced to take pointless classes that have no relation to their major, students are always influenced to get involved in many different activities on campus, and it can be really wearing on one's attention. Planning and time management are some of the most crucial skills needed in college which most students come o college without.

    75. Today’s university must be resilient spaces in which the learning environment encompasses more than technology upgrades, classroom additions, and its academic buildings – in fact, the entire campus, including its open spaces, must be perceived as a holistic learning space that provides a holistic learning experience

      I'd be hard pressed to view GSU as a "holistic learning space" over its entire expanse. However, some do believe every environment can be and aid to learning. I just don't see how an open campus in the middle of a city with so many different people and so many different things happening daily isn't sometimes a detriment to learning.

    76. Many university founders desired to create an ideal community that was a place apart, secluded from city distraction but still open to the larger community

      I am not sure how they was a university secluded but open. It feels like a contradiction to me. Take Spartanburg's women's college Converse College for example. It is in a nice sized city, but not within walking distance of most places in the city because it is placed on the outskirts, so it is essentially secluded. To add to that, the school is surrounded by brick walls and elaborate fences. I have been there quite a few times, and I do not see how it is open to the community. This is unlike Georgia State, which is integrated into the city, making many things easily accessible for students and professors alike.

    77. all campus spaces, whether indoor or outdoor, instructional or non-instructional, become significant components of a student’s everyday experience.

      As a GSU student experiencing the indoor and outdoor environment is what makes GSU that much greater

    78. Early American colleges and universities were self-sufficient and often built in rural locations with dormitories, dining halls and recreation facilities

      I feel as though the key word here is "early." Though this may have been true for universities years ago, it does not reflect many universities today. Universities are so much more than just dorms, dining halls, and rec centers now.

    79. Furthermore, increased technology use within today’s multitasking society is likely to hijack a student’s attentional resource placing her/him at risk of underachieving academic learning goals and undermining success at a university

      I think that this statement has two sides, and this article is only demonstrating the negative. Technology can be very distracting, that is true. It can also be so helpful. If one just says "I am going to do this work I have to do until I am done" and sticks to it, without browsing things unrelated to the work at hand, doing work is much easier than not having the availability that technology provides. To say technology only hinders is not accurate.

    80. Such an approach also goes beyond advertising the aesthetic value of the campus

      Meaning it goes beyond than just adversing the beauty and the structure of the campus.

    81. Furthermore, increased technology use within today’s multitasking society is likely to hijack a student’s attentional resource placing her/him at risk of underachieving academic learning goals and undermining success at a university

      I can't disagree with this more. If i were to sit in my room our outside and attempt to study I would still get distracted by things around me. I can't imagine how hard studying is for someone who has ADHD. Technology can be distracting if it is not being used for the purpose of learning, but so can anything else surrounding one in the outside world. Not to mention most classes, even at the middle school level, require the use of technology in many day to day activities.

    82. Learning is a lifelong and year-round pursuit, which takes place throughout the campus, not just fragmented indoors in designated instructional spaces

      While it is true that learning does not take place only indoors, as some students do study outside, a majority of students study and do work inside and save the outdoors for recreational activities. Also, students tend to have access to such a wide variety of study spaces that them being indoors does not pose a problem.

    83. Student perception of the surrounding campus landscape and the opportunities it offers for intentional and unintentional learning or recreational engagement/activity might influence their overall campus experience.

      Universities around the country each have a level of opportunities. For example, GSU is surrounded by big corporations, which makes it easier to find a job in your field of study rather than a school located in the middle of nowhere.

    84. Americans expect a university campus to look different than other places (Gumprecht, 2007) and that the campus “expresses something about the quality of academic life, as well as its role as a citizen of the community in which it is located”

      Sure, students expect university's to differ from your average high school, but not necessarily in the way this article describes university's campuses. This article talks about a campus set apart from the community, something close to nature. How, in being set apart from the community, does this demonstrate "its role as a citizen of the community in which it is located?"

    85. Therefore, we propose that the natural landscape of a university campus is an attentional learning resource for its students.

      This is the thesis of the article, it can also be found in the conclusion.

    86. “that open space must be treated as a scarce resource”

      Since GSU is in downtown Atlanta, space is highly limited. They use every possible space to create something new for the school.

    87. Kathleen G Scholl, Gowri Betrabet Gulwadi

      In the Schindler piece, the article has a list of credentials beside the authors name to help establish credibility, but here it does not. Though the are both professors, they do not provide any sort of ethos. Compare to Sarah Schindler, “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination And Segregation Through Physical Design Of The Built Environment,” in Yale Law Journal.

    88. “nature”

      Nature can be a calm place, and a place where you can get a lot done while listening to the different sounds surrounding them. This can play as a positive learning environment for students.