95 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2019
  2. Jan 2019
  3. Nov 2018
  4. Oct 2018
    1. Where you stand on this debate ultimately depends, like many fraught issues, not so much on facts but on ideas and ideology, and how you think about race, about fairness, about meritocracy.

      Pathos wins out.

  5. Sep 2018
  6. Jun 2018
    1. Please. It’s an intellectual heirloom: cherished by those who can afford such baubles but disposable in the eyes of others.

      Bruni's snark and irreverence in the opening paragraph is a quick way to identify his audience. We're grouped in with him, rolling our eyes with exasperation about the state of higher thinking, implying that we are the intellectual elite who "cherish" what others might call "baubles," if they were cultured enough to understand the metaphor. But there's a sort of self-awareness in this as well, a poking fun at ourselves for our own snobbery. We NYT readers and subscribers "can afford" to place value in such things. There's a sort of balancing act taking place between the snobs on both sides of the intellectual v. practical education debate, which eventually trickles down into the article. During the argument, we never leave the position of being the privileged cultural elite, but we are encouraged to have practical answers for questions about why "nonvocational" majors are of value.

    2. I worry that there’s a false promise being made. The world now changes at warp speed. Colleges move glacially.

      The pathos here is appealing to an older audience, not the undergraduate student but the adult who has some life experience and can relate to the feelings a "false promise" provokes, and have a frame of reference for how the "world now" differs from the world of the past. It's another powerful reference for who Bruni's intended audience is, and helps that audience attach to the article on a more emotional level.

  7. Feb 2018
    1. But within the context of contemporary politics this minor event points toward a larger and more pressing concern: as the old manual trades die away, what symbols do we have to convey a sense of collective identity as laborers within the machinery of capitalism?

      Another personal aspect of the writer personal life to further his argument. Growing up farming this cultural portrayal of machetes as weapons undermines his identity. A traditionalist view on the matter shows that the culture that the writer grew up in is being over taken by a violent and terror fantasia that is infecting the the idealism of his identity. He is also trying to gain sympathy with the audience, portraying his old livelihood being destroyed in front of his every eyes. Using pathos to persuade his audience of this cultural take over.

  8. Oct 2017
    1. You make us all proud
    2. You know a while back I met a young man named Shamus in a VFW Hall in East Moline, Illinois.  He was a good-looking kid, six-two, six-three, clear eyed, with an easy smile.  He told me he’d joined the Marines and was heading to Iraq the following week.  And as I listened to him explain why he’d enlisted, the absolute faith he had in our country and its leaders, his devotion to duty and service, I thought this young man was all any of us might ever hope for in a child.  But then I asked myself: Are we serving Shamus as well as he's serving us?  I thought of the 900 men and women, sons and daughters, husbands and wives, friends and neighbors, who won’t be returning to their own hometowns.  I thought of families I had met who were struggling to get by without a loved one’s full income, or whose loved ones had returned with a limb missing or nerves shattered, but still lacked long-term health benefits because they were reservists.  When we send our young men and women into harm’s way, we have a solemn obligation not to fudge the numbers or shade the truth about why they’re going, to care for their families while they’re gone, to tend to the soldiers upon their return, and to never ever go to war without enough troops to win the war, secure the peace, and earn the respect of the world.
    3. More to do for the father that I met who was losing his job and choking back the tears,
    4. Hope in the face of difficulty.  Hope in the face of uncertainty.  The audacity of hope!
    5. Our pride is based on a very simple premise, summed up in a declaration made over two hundred years ago, “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.  That they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights.  That among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.”
    6. And yet, I know that on this night, they look down on me with great pride
  9. May 2017
    1. the aesthetic benefits to the mental perks, there's a reason why 19 million people finished races in the US last year.

      statistically show the amount of people who finished races last year to show popularity of being a running.

    1. This study used preventing death to measure the benefit of running, but it’s not the most typical reason for running. “Many dedicated long-term runners do not run because they want to live longer,” Dr. Baggish notes. “They run because it makes them feel better on a daily basis. There is a mood elevating, quality-of-life benefit that comes from being a regular exerciser.”

      pathos: feeling better from running. mood elevation appeals to audience.

    2. The new study focused on a group of more than 55,000 men and women ages 18 to 100. About a quarter of them were runners. Over 15 years, those who ran just 50 minutes a week or fewer at a moderate pace were less likely to die from either cardiovascular disease or any cause, compared with those who didn’t run at all.

      experimental proven evidence (ethos). also appeal to audience through people who are at risk for cardiovascular diseases/ other.

    1. Many say they are at their most creative and lucid, even meditative, during their runs, as the worries of the day slip away.

      also connection to previous paragraph. promoting creativity

    2. an opportunity to spend a little time with yourself and your thoughts, a chance to develop an increased self-awareness.

      spritual aspect?? pathos

    3. You've probably started running for the physical benefits, but you will quickly discover other, more metaphysical rewards.

      the "rewards" attracts the audience through pathos. Generally people like rewards. i can make personal connections to this to build my credibility

    4. You'll likely find yourself with fewer headaches and more energy, patience, humor and creativity.

      effects why audience should start running

    5. Your stamina will increase. You'll lose weight; most beginners lose nearly a pound a week.

      pathos includes pathos to the audience stating "you".

  10. Feb 2017
    1. Most of our color have dragged out a miscrublc existence of servitude from the cradle to the grave

      Stewart does a great job of employing pathos and appealing to the emotions of her audience through vivid, honest language. This sentence in particular struck me, as I imagine it did her audience when she gave this impassioned speech.

    1. pathos

      This answers my earlier question about his use of pathetic, despite knowing that it has a context contrary to his desired meaning.

    2. pathe-tic,

      If he's aware that impassioned is the better word, why does he us pathetic in the first place? Is he wanting to build on the Greek pathos?

      Edit: the context of his later invocation of pathos seems to indicate that was, indeed, his thought.

  11. Sep 2016
    1. You see it in Cristian Miguel Soler, a young man who became the first of his family to travel here after 50 years.  And meeting relatives for the first time, he said, “I realized that family is family no matter the distance between us.”

      This uses testimony as well as pathos. It draws upon the common bond of family that was so often broken by our relation with Cuba. President Obama uses this testimony to make a connection to the audience, especially since he may not have been directly affected by this issue.

    2. I want to comment on the terrorist attacks that have taken place in Brussels.  The thoughts and the prayers of the American people are with the people of Belgium.

      President Obama used two different rhetorical strategies in these couple sentences. First, he used the term "terrorist attack" which is an example of loaded diction. He does this in order to get the audience's attention and sway them in a way. He then follows up this use of loaded diction with pathos. By saying "thoughts and prayers of the American people," he is appealing to the emotions of the audience.

    3. You see it in Melinda Lopez, who came to her family’s old home.  And as she was walking the streets, an elderly woman recognized her as her mother’s daughter, and began to cry.  She took her into her home and showed her a pile of photos that included Melinda’s baby picture, which her mother had sent 50 years ago.  Melinda later said, “So many of us are now getting so much back.”

      This is example of pathos because it appeals to your emotion and makes you feel for the person.

    4. But I also know that Cuba will always stand out because of the talent, hard work, and pride of the Cuban people. 

      invoking pride in the audience to garner support and mend bridges

    5. But, in America, it's still possible for somebody like me -- a child who was raised by a single mom, a child of mixed race who did not have a lot of mone

      Using pathos and the image of the "American Dream" to inspire listeners and gain approval

    6. We can make this journey as friends, and as neighbors, and as family -- together.  Si se puede.  Muchas gracias. 

      Obama wraps up his speech with emotional appeal. He shows his willingness to come together as one in english and then says something similar in Spanish. " Si se puede" means " yes we can", showing the belief that although it may be difficult at first it is the willingness to unite as one that will bring us together.

    7. ou see it in Gloria Gonzalez, who traveled here in 2013 for the first time after 61 years of separation, and was met by her sister, Llorca.

      Obama shares an experience for emotional appeal to the audience.

    8. Look at Papito Valladeres, a barber, whose success allowed him to improve conditions in his neighborhood.

      Obama shares an experience of triumph and uses him as an example for the Cuban people and government to lead. Obama shares this experience for an emotional appeal showing there is hope for the Cuban people. People are doing great things in their country.

    9. We stand in solidarity with them in condemning these outrageous attacks against innocent people.  We will do whatever is necessary to support our friend and ally, Belgium, in bringing to justice those who are responsible.  And this is yet another reminder that the world must unite, we must be together, regardless of nationality, or race, or faith, in fighting against the scourge of terrorism.  We can -- and will -- defeat those who threaten the safety and security of people all around the world.

      This introduction to President Obama's speech seemed like an anaphora, because of the repetition of "we" followed by an action verb. It evoked an emotional appeal, pathos, because it was directed toward a suffering Belgium.

  12. Aug 2016
    1. The first two methods of discrimination have received sustained attention from legal scholars; the third form, which I refer to as architecture, has not. This Part departs from tradition by focusing on architecture instead of ordinances and social norms.

      Their is still a subliminal way the government goes about hiding racism and segregation . The architecture of building cities is a way we can still be segregated with out the government having to face discrimination claims.

  13. Feb 2016
    1. Fifthly, this food would likewise bring great custom to taverns, wherethe vintners will certainly be so prudent as to procure the best receipts fordressing it to perfection, and consequently have their houses frequentedby all the fine gentlemen, who justly value themselves upon their knowl-edge in good eating; and a skillful cook, who understands how to obligehis guests, will contrive to make it as expensive as they please.
    2. I do therefore humbly offer it to public consideration that of the hun-dred and twenty thousand children, already computed, twenty thousandmay be reserved for breed, whereof only one fourth part to be males,which is more than we allow to sheep, black cattle, or swine; and myreason is that these children are seldom the fuits of marriage, a circum-stance not much reagarded by our savages, therefore one male will besufficient to serve four females. That the remaining hundred thousandmay at a year old be offered in sale to the persons of quality and fortunethrough the kingdom, always advising the mother to let them suck plen-tifully in the last month, so as to render them plump and fat for a goodtable. A child will make two dishes at an entertainment for friends; andwhen the family dines alone, the fore or hind quarter will make a reason-able dish, and seasoned with a little pepper or salt will be very good boildedon the fourth day, especially in winter.
    3. This is also pathos, but with a little logos thrown in to reveal that a logical effect of this poverty is beggary and indentured servitude.

    4. The number of souls in this kingdom* being usually reckoned one mil-lion and a half, of these I calculate there may be about two hundred thou-sand couple whose wives are breeders; from which number I subtract thirtythousand couples who are able to maintain their own children, although Iapprehend there cannot be so many under th present distress of the king-dom; but this being granted, thre will remain an hundred seventy thou-sand breeders. I again subtract fifty thousand for those women who mis-carry, or whose children die by accident or disease within the year. Thereonly remain an hundred and twenty thousand children of poor parentsannually born.
  14. Nov 2013
    1. The whole of the following sixth book is taken up with the arts for stirring the emotions and causing delight; here nothing is the property of dialectic or of rhetoric. Since rhetoric and di-alectic are general arts, they should therefore be explained in a general fashion, the one in respect to style and delivery, the other in respect to in-vention and arrangement.

      I disagree. The arts of "stirring the emotions" show how to produce this effect in style and delivery. In the end, good rhetoric should "stir the emotions," no matter what the subject or emotion.

    2. And so, all you dialecticians - that is, whoever can form a judgment about this question with truth and constancy - come here, pay at-tention, sharpen your wits, drive far away from you (in case passions of this kind have been ready to seize your minds), drive far away, I say, love, hate, prejudice, levity, fickleness, and rashness

      Denouncing pathos, embracing logos

    3. supreme help

      Ramus is full of emotionally heavy words. Really tried to play on the impact of the words to persuade us.

  15. Oct 2013
    1. I need not go over all the other things that can be done by powerful eloquence to move the minds of the hearers, not telling them what they ought to do, but urging them to do what they already know ought to be done.
    2. the hearers require to be roused rather than instructed, in order that they may be diligent to do what they already know, and to bring their feelings into harmony with the truths they admit, greater vigor of speech is needed.

      Pathos utilized and advanced.

    3. If, however, the hearers require to be roused rather than instructed, in order that they may be diligent to do what they already know, and to bring their feelings into harmony with the truths they admit, greater vigor of speech is needed. Here entreaties and reproaches, exhortations and upbraidings, and all the other means of rousing the emotions, are necessary.
    1. while my alleged activities in the law-courts would stir up your anger and hate; and when judges are affected by these very passions, they are most severe upon those who are on trial.
    1. For the mind of Persuasion was able ... and even if necessity ... the form will have ... it has the same power. For discourse was the persuader of the soul, which it persuaded and compelled to believe the things that were said and to agree to the things that were done.
    1. But let masters, also, desire to be heard themselves with attention and modesty, for the master ought not to speak to suit the taste of his pupils, but the pupils to suit that of the master.

      Similar to Aristotle's stirring-emotions-idea.

    1. how persuasion can be produced from the facts themselves.

      first form of persuasion is to determine how compelling or persuasive are the facts, and how the facts will be perceived by the audience.

    1. Men do speak in this strain when they are deeply stirred, and so, once the audience is in a like state of feeling, approval of course follows. This is why such language is fitting in poetry, which is an inspired thing.

      emphatic, colorful, and exaggerated expressions of speech

    1. In chapters 2-11, the various emotions are defined, and are also discussed (with incidental observations) from the three points of view just indicated. In chapter 2, Anger is the subject. The orator must so speak as to make his hearers angry with his opponents.
    2. it is especially important that he should be able to influence the emotions, or moral affections
    3. In regard to each emotion we must consider (a) the states of mind in which it is felt; (b) the people towards whom it is felt; (c) the grounds on which it is felt.

      Various emotions.

    1. The written style is the more finished: the spoken better admits of dramatic delivery -- like the kind of oratory that reflects character and the kind that reflects emotion.
    1. Secondly, persuasion may come through the hearers, when the speech stirs their emotions. Our judgements when we are pleased and friendly are not the same as when we are pained and hostile. It is towards producing these effects, as we maintain, that present-day writers on rhetoric direct the whole of their efforts. This subject shall be treated in detail when we come to speak of the emotions.
    2. There are, then, these three means of effecting persuasion. The man who is to be in command of them must, it is clear, be able (1) to reason logically, (2) to understand human character and goodness in their various forms, and (3) to understand the emotions-that is, to name them and describe them, to know their causes and the way in which they are excited.

      Three means of persuasion: logos, pathos, and ethos.

    1. They will often have allowed themselves to be so much influenced by feelings of friendship or hatred or self-interest that they lose any clear vision of the truth and have their judgement obscured by considerations of personal pleasure or pain.
    2. The arousing of prejudice, pity, anger, and similar emotions has nothing to do with the essential facts

      ...and apparently have everything to do with rhetoric.

    1. it has three divisions -- (1) the speaker's power of evincing a personal character which will make his speech credible (ethos ); (2) his power of stirring the emotions of his hearers (pathos ); (3) his power of proving a truth, or an apparent truth, by means of persuasive arguments (logos ).

      Three divisions.

  16. Sep 2013
    1. In regard to each emotion we must consider (a) the states of mind in which it is felt; (b) the people towards whom it is felt; (c) the grounds on which it is felt.

      Detailed attention to the psychology of one's audience.

    2. In regard to each emotion we must consider (a) the states of mind in which it is felt; (b) the people towards whom it is felt; (c) the grounds on which it is felt.

      Grounding the argument in a tone reflective of the conditions and circumstances at hand with regard to "influencing the emotions [and] moral affections" in political and forensic demonstration.

    1. There are, then, these three means of effecting persuasion. The man who is to be in command of them must, it is clear, be able (1) to reason logically, (2) to understand human character and goodness in their various forms, and (3) to understand the emotions-that is, to name them and describe them, to know their causes and the way in which they are excited.

      means of persuasion: ethos, logos, pathos

    2. Of the modes of persuasion furnished by the spoken word there are three kinds. The first kind depends on the personal character of the speaker; the second on putting the audience into a certain frame of mind; the third on the proof, or apparent proof, provided by the words of the speech itself

      Are there really only three appeals, or do we fit everything else into these three labels because Aristotle laid it out that way?

    1. The reason for this is that in political oratory there is less inducement to talk about nonessentials. Political oratory is less given to unscrupulous practices than forensic, because it treats of wider issues. In a political debate the man who is forming a judgement is making a decision about his own vital interests. There is no need, therefore, to prove anything except that the facts are what the supporter of a measure maintains they are. In forensic oratory this is not enough; to conciliate the listener is what pays here.

      Defines useful types of rhetoric for forensics vs. political arenas.

    2. It is not right to pervert the judge by moving him to anger or envy or pity -- one might as well warp a carpenter's rule before using it.

      In favor of modes of persuasion over emotional appeal, distinguishing proper and improper methods.

    3. These writers, however, say nothing about enthymemes, which are the substance of rhetorical persuasion, but deal mainly with non-essentials. The arousing of prejudice, pity, anger, and similar emotions has nothing to do with the essential facts, but is merely a personal appeal to the man who is judging the case.

      still not grasping "enthymemes"

    4. It is not right to pervert the judge by moving him to anger or envy or pity -- one might as well warp a carpenter's rule before using it.
    5. The weightiest reason of all is that the decision of the lawgiver is not particular but prospective and general, whereas members of the assembly and the jury find it their duty to decide on definite cases brought before them. They will often have allowed themselves to be so much influenced by feelings of friendship or hatred or self-interest that they lose any clear vision of the truth and have their judgement obscured by considerations of personal pleasure or pain.

      Emphasizes our modernized call for Voir Dires and randomly selected jurors.

    6. It is not right to pervert the judge by moving him to anger or envy or pity -- one might as well warp a carpenter's rule before using it. Again, a litigant has clearly nothing to do but to show that the alleged fact is so or is not so, that it has or has not happened. As to whether a thing is important or unimportant, just or unjust, the judge must surely refuse to take his instructions from the litigants: he must decide for himself all such points as the law-giver has not already defined for him.

      I can see why he/they would want litigants to refrain from utilizing any manipulative pathos. Yet, at the same time, I cannot. It's an interesting conundrum that asks a judge to be essentially not human by denying litigants the ability to treat him like one.

    1. (2) his power of stirring the emotions of his hearers (pathos )

      method of pathos

    2. (1) the speaker's power of evincing a personal character which will make his speech credible (ethos ); (2) his power of stirring the emotions of his hearers (pathos ); (3) his power of proving a truth, or an apparent truth, by means of persuasive arguments (logos )
    3. (1) the speaker's power of evincing a personal character which will make his speech credible (ethos ); (2) his power of stirring the emotions of his hearers (pathos ); (3) his power of proving a truth, or an apparent truth, by means of persuasive arguments (logos )

      The necessary parts for rhetoric. Is rhetoric still effective if it's missing one of these? For instance, not appealing to pathos.

    4. The former kind he must provide himself; and it has three divisions -- (1) the speaker's power of evincing a personal character which will make his speech credible (ethos ); (2) his power of stirring the emotions of his hearers (pathos ); (3) his power of proving a truth, or an apparent truth, by means of persuasive arguments (logos ). Hence rhetoric may be regarded as an offshoot of dialectic, and also of ethical (or political) studies.
    1. the emotion of anger: here we must discover (1) what the state of mind of angry people is, (2) who the people are with whom they usually get angry, and (3) on what grounds they get angry with them. It is not enough to know one or even two of these points; unless we know all three, we shall be unable to arouse anger in any one.

      The only way to control emotions is through knowledge and study

    1. The people to whom he does it are those who have what he wants himself, whether this means necessities or luxuries and materials for enjoyment. His victims may be far off or near at hand. If they are near, he gets his profit quickly; if they are far off, vengeance is slow, as those think who plunder the Carthaginians. They may be those who are trustful instead of being cautious and watchful, since all such people are easy to elude. Or those who are too easy-going to have enough energy to prosecute an offender. Or sensitive people, who are not apt to show fight over questions of money.
    2. Their confidence is greatest if they personally possess the advantages mentioned: but even without them they are satisfied if they have friends or supporters or partners who do possess them: they can thus both commit their crimes and escape being found out and punished for committing them. They are also safe, they think, if they are on good terms with their victims or with the judges who try them. Their victims will in that case not be on their guard against being wronged, and will make some arrangement with them instead of prosecuting; while their judges will favour them because they like them, either letting them off altogether or imposing light sentences.

      An exterior rhetoric of sorts. Having the aforementioned advantages produces a level of persuasion that makes the individual more likable.

    1. to inspire them to a life of valor and of dangers endured for their country; whether I should justly be punished for the words which have been read, or whether, on the contrary, I deserve to have your deepest gratitude for having so glorified Athens and our ancestors and the wars which were fought in those days
    2. I deserve to have your deepest gratitude for having so glorified Athens and our ancestors and the wars which were fought in those days that the orators who had composed discourses on this theme have destroyed them all,

      Wow. What an emotional appeal. He just needs to add "and I saved lots of sad little puppies!"

    3. I seem to be unfortunate, and that these people appear to be boorish and churlish toward their fellow-citizens

      appeal to Pity

    4. An appeal to the emotions of the judges, then? A passionate display of pathos to enrage Isocrates' jury?

    5. in a word, it smothers truth, and pouring false ideas into our ears, it leaves no man among our citizens secure from an unjust death

      Slippery slope fallacy. Motivating by fear

    6. I who have lived to this advanced age without complaint from anyone could not be in greater jeopardy if I had wronged all the world.

      Reoccuring theme: referencing his age and (up till now) his innocent dealings throughout his life.

    1. promise to make their disciples all but immortal!

      ...by claiming the education will insure a prosperous future for the student.

    2. But these professors have gone so far in their lack of scruple that they attempt to persuade our young men that if they will only study under them they will know what to do in life and through this knowledge will become happy and prosperous.

      His main point, I think, is that the "education" that a sophist professes to impart on the student is a useful commodity and worthy of payment based on the assertion that it will benefit the student in the "future". His tone seems intent on stirring discontent, to raise an emotional response.

    1. Do you know any other effect of rhetoric over and above that of producing persuasion?

      Rhetoric as solely the art of persuasion

    2. And here let me assure you that I have your interest in view as well as my own

      not arguing for the sake of argument, but clearly in pursuit of truth - the psychology of his approach - his method

    1. If Love, <being> a god, <has> the divine power of gods, how could the weaker being have the power to reject this and to ward it off?

      More of that faulting divinity instead of ourselves.

    2. If it was love that brought all these things to pass, she escapes without difficulty from the blame for the sin alleged to have taken place.

      Love DOES conquer all, apparently.

    3. For he did terrible things; she was the victim; it is accordingly fair to pity her and hate him.
    4. For the will of a god cannot be hindered by human forethought.

      More shifting of the blame. It's all the Gods' fault, isn't it?

    5. Born of such parentage, she had godlike beauty

      We're shifting the blame here. Apparently it was divinity's fault that men couldn't help themselves around her.

    6. Accordingly the barbarian assailant deserves to meet with barbarous assault, by speech and custom and deed--deserves to be blamed in speech, dishonored by custom, and penalized indeed. She who was forced and bereft of fatherland and orphaned of friends--how is she not to be pitied rather than reviled? For he did terrible things; she was the victim; it is accordingly fair to pity her and hate him.

      Vilifying an imaginary perpetrator and portraying her as (a "possible") victim . Seems to be intending to stir up some pathos and appeal to ethos.