492 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2022
    1. Can copyright vest in an AI? The primary objective of intellectual property law is to protect the rights of the creators of intellectual property.10 Copyright laws specifically aim to: (i) promote creativity and encourage authors, composers, artists and designers to create original works by affording them the exclusive right to exploit such work for monetary gain for a limited period; and (ii) protect the creators of the original works from unauthorised reproduction or exploitation of those works.

      Can copyright vest in an AI?

      The primary objective of intellectual property law is to protect the rights of the creators of intellectual property.10 Copyright laws specifically aim to: (i) promote creativity and encourage authors, composers, artists and designers to create original works by affording them the exclusive right to exploit such work for monetary gain for a limited period; and (ii) protect the creators of the original works from unauthorised reproduction or exploitation of those works.

    1. To my knowledge, conferring copyright in works generated by artificial intelligence has never been specifically prohibited. However, there are indications that the laws of many countries are not amenable to non-human copyright. In the United States, for example, the Copyright Office has declared that it will “register an original work of authorship, provided that the work was created by a human being.” This stance flows from case law (e.g. Feist Publications v Rural Telephone Service Company, Inc. 499 U.S. 340 (1991)) which specifies that copyright law only protects “the fruits of intellectual labor” that “are founded in the creative powers of the mind.” Similarly, in a recent Australian case (Acohs Pty Ltd v Ucorp Pty Ltd), a court declared that a work generated with the intervention of a computer could not be protected by copyright because it was not produced by a human.

      To my knowledge, conferring copyright in works generated by artificial intelligence has never been specifically prohibited. However, there are indications that the laws of many countries are not amenable to non-human copyright. In the United States, for example, the Copyright Office has declared that it will “register an original work of authorship, provided that the work was created by a human being.” This stance flows from case law (e.g. Feist Publications v Rural Telephone Service Company, Inc. 499 U.S. 340 (1991)) which specifies that copyright law only protects “the fruits of intellectual labor” that “are founded in the creative powers of the mind.” Similarly, in a recent Australian case (Acohs Pty Ltd v Ucorp Pty Ltd), a court declared that a work generated with the intervention of a computer could not be protected by copyright because it was not produced by a human.

    1. With the advent of AI software, computers — not monkeys — will potentially create millions of original works that may then be protected by copyright, under current law, for more than 100 years.

      With the advent of AI software, computers — not monkeys — will potentially create millions of original works that may then be protected by copyright, under current law, for more than 100 years.

    1. Running this simulation over many time steps, Lilian Weng of OSoMe found that as agents' attention became increasingly limited, the propagation of memes came to reflect the power-law distribution of actual social media: the probability that a meme would be shared a given number of times was roughly an inverse power of that number. For example, the likelihood of a meme being shared three times was approximately nine times less than that of its being shared once.
    1. Integrative Lawyers are reflective.Integrative Lawyers are values and purpose-based.Integrative Lawyers are system and design thinkers.Integrative Lawyers are harbingers of evolutionary consciousness.

      !- values : integrative lawyer - design contracts for regular people, not lawyers

  2. www.justine-haupt.com www.justine-haupt.com
    1. We need police.

      We need security, but they do a terrible job of providing it.

      We also need to be free of a lot of things they always do: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rTOP-twoWj0

      So maybe we need the good things police do (that all people may do) without the bad things they do, like murdering people without accountability and enforcing dumb laws (because it's easier than catching murderers).

    1. copyright laws (the Dwarfelles are used as substitutes for the original Dwarfs, since Disney owns the Dwarf characters, and this is not a Disney film).
  3. Aug 2022
    1. Zeynep's law: Until there is substantial and repeated evidence otherwise, assume counterintuitive findings to be false, and second-order effects to be dwarfed by first-order ones in magnitude.
    1. There is nothing at all absurd in theconclusion. It seems to me quite possible that at that particular moment in thedevelopment of Western thought there was the possibility for the birth of a sci-ence of psychology of a sort that still does not exist, a psychology that beginswith the problem of characterizing various systems of human knowledge andbelief, the concepts in terms of which they are organized and the principles thatunderlie them, and that only then turns to the study of how these systems mighthave developed through some combination of innate structure and organism –environment interaction. Such a psychology would contrast rather sharply withthe approach to human intelligence that begins by postulating, on a priorigrounds, certain specific mechanisms that, it is claimed, must be those underly-ing the acquisition of all knowledge and belief. The distinction is one to whichI will return in a subsequent lecture.

      a building block approach?

      Gall's law

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. "It's difficult because we can't tell people exactly what's allowed and not allowed," said Chris Castelli, a manager for the Department of State Lands. "It's even tougher for law enforcement that gets called out to very heated disputes and doesn't have strict laws they can apply." 
    1. The extent of public use varies, with Montana affording the greatest access. Rafters can float and fishermen can wade in rivers that flow through private land so long as they enter from public property. They can even leave the river and walk up to the high-water mark.
  4. Jul 2022
    1. ; until, in 1907, eachclass had come to be dealt with according to principles which wereobviously very different from those of 1834. The report of this investi¬gation was presented to the Poor Law Commission, with the interest¬ing result that we heard no more of the “ principles of 1834 ”! It wassubsequently published as English Poor Law Policy (1910).

      Beatrice Webb studied the effects of the British "principles of 1834" and how they were carried out (differently) from area to area to see the overall effects through 1907. The result of her study apparently showed what a poor policy it had been to the point that no one mentioned the old "principles of 1834" again.

      How might this sort of sociological study be carried out on the effects of laws within the United States now in terms of economics and equality for various movements like redlining, abortion, etc.? Is anyone doing this sort of work?


      There is an example of the Eviction Lab at Princeton has some of this sort of data and analysis. https://evictionlab.org/map

    1. Harold Jarche looked at his most visited blog postings over the years, and concludes his blog conforms to Sturgeon’s Revelation that 90% of everything is crap. I recognise much of what Harold writes. I suspect this is also what feeds impostor syndrome. You see the very mixed bag of results from your own efforts, and how most of it is ‘crap’. The few ‘hits’ for which you get positive feedback are then either ‘luck’ or should be normal, not sparse. Others of course forget most if not all of your less stellar products and remember mostly the ones that stood out. Only you are in a position to compare what others respond to with your internal perspective.

      The cumulative effect of one's perception of Sturgeon's law may be a driving force underlying imposter syndrome.

      While one see's the entirety of their own creation process and realizes that only a small fraction of it is truly useful, it's much harder seeing only the finished product of others. The impression one is left with by availability heuristic is that there are thousands of geniuses in the world with excellent, refined products or ideas while one's own contribution is miniscule in comparison.


      Contrast this with Matt Ridley's broad perspective in The Rational Optimist which shows the power of cumulative breeding and evolution of ideas. One person can make their own stone hand axe, but no one person can make their own toaster oven or computer mouse alone.

      Link to: - lone genius myth (eg. Einstein's special relativity did not spring fully formed from the head of Zeus, there was a long train of work and thought which we don't see the context of)

    1. Under this test, a transaction is deemed an investment contract if a person,

      Howey Test for determining if something is a security

      "Invest his money in a common enterprise "and is led to expect profits solely from the efforts "of the promoter or a third party."

  5. Jun 2022
    1. Data protection authorities have found that the U.S. legal system does not guarantee the same standards of protection as the EU. The situation stems from a set of U.S. laws that allow government organizations to request access to consumers’ personal data from US-based services, regardless of where the data centers or servers are located. In light of this, NOYB filed 101 complaints with European DPAs to find that transferring European users’ data to the U.S. was unlawful. The decisions, which have noted the illegitimacy of the transfers, focus on the analysis of additional technical, contractual and organizational measures.
    1. I used to tell students (including PhD students) that 90% of what they will write will not be any good. But the only way they will get to the 10% that is good is by writing the 90% that isn't. So, they'd better start writing now! ;-)
    2. This can also be considered The Iceberg Principle. The 10% (really 9%) you do see is only visible because of the 90% (really 91%) you don't see. Without that 90% you don't get the 10%.

      Often you may need to dig below the surface of something to find it's real value.

      This is related to quotes about being able to find something interesting, redeeming, valuable about bad books as well as being able to learn from the fool.

    3. "Sturgeon's Law". According to those who were there, Theodore Sturgeon the SF author made this comment at a convention in 1953. it is that:90% of everything is crud, and it's the 10% that isn't crud that is important.

      I've also heard a version of this that relates to only 1% of what's in the Library of Congress being widely known or read.

      Related to: - Pareto principle - iceberg principle

    1. Das gerichtliche Aktenzeichen dient der Kennzeichnung eines Dokuments und geht auf die Aktenordnung (AktO) vom 28. November 1934 und ihre Vorgänger zurück.[4]

      The court file number is used to identify a document and goes back to the file regulations (AktO) of November 28, 1934 and its predecessors.

      The German "file number" (aktenzeichen) is a unique identification of a file, commonly used in their court system and predecessors as well as file numbers in public administration since at least 1934.

      Niklas Luhmann studied law at the University of Freiburg from 1946 to 1949, when he obtained a law degree, before beginning a career in Lüneburg's public administration where he stayed in civil service until 1962. Given this fact, it's very likely that Luhmann had in-depth experience with these sorts of file numbers as location identifiers for files and documents.

      We know these numbering methods in public administration date back to as early as Vienna, Austria in the 1770s.


      The missing piece now is who/where did Luhmann learn his note taking and excerpting practice from? Alberto Cevolini argues that Niklas Luhmann was unaware of the prior tradition of excerpting, though note taking on index cards or slips had been commonplace in academic circles for quite some time and would have been reasonably commonplace during his student years.

      Are there handbooks, guides, or manuals in the early 1900's that detail these sorts of note taking practices?

      Perhaps something along the lines of Antonin Sertillanges’ book The Intellectual Life (1921) or Paul Chavigny's Organisation du travail intellectuel: recettes pratiques à l’usage des étudiants de toutes les facultés et de tous les travailleurs (in French) (Delagrave, 1918)?

      Further recall that Bruno Winck has linked some of the note taking using index cards to legal studies to Roland Claude's 1961 text:

      I checked Chavigny’s book on the BNF site. He insists on the use of index cards (‘fiches’), how to index them, one idea per card but not how to connect between the cards and allow navigation between them.

      Mind that it’s written in 1919, in Strasbourg (my hometown) just one year after it returned to France. So between students who used this book and Luhmann in Freiburg it’s not far away. My mother taught me how to use cards for my studies back in 1977, I still have the book where she learn the method, as Law student in Strasbourg “Comment se documenter”, by Roland Claude, 1961. Page 25 describes a way to build secondary index to receive all cards relatives to a topic by their number. Still Luhmann system seems easier to maintain but very near.


      <small><cite class='h-cite via'> <span class='p-author h-card'> Scott P. Scheper </span> in Scott P. Scheper on Twitter: "The origins of the Zettelkasten's numeric-alpha card addresses seem to derive from Niklas Luhmann's early work as a legal clerk. The filing scheme used is called "Aktenzeichen" - See https://t.co/4mQklgSG5u. cc @ChrisAldrich" / Twitter (<time class='dt-published'>06/28/2022 11:29:18</time>)</cite></small>


      Link to: - https://hypothes.is/a/Jlnn3IfSEey_-3uboxHsOA - https://hypothes.is/a/4jtT0FqsEeyXFzP-AuDIAA

    1. Unsurprisingly, each system often tries to prevent the princi-ples it holds dear from being changed, and even attempts to make anyeffort to challenge them illegal.
    2. 18. The success of the referendum orga nized by Uber and Lyft to preserve their ex-tremely precarious model in California in 2020 illustrates the limits of an idyllic visionof direct democracy, as well as the need to reconceive a salarial status that makes it pos-sible to reconcile protection and autonomy.
    1. Expected to come into force on June 27, India's new data retention law will force VPN companies to keep users' data - like IP addresses, real names and usage patterns - for up to five years. They will also be required to hand this information over to authorities upon request. 

      Some draconian Indian data-retention laws are coming.

    1. Gall's Law is a rule of thumb for systems design from Gall's book Systemantics: How Systems Really Work and How They Fail. It states: .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}A complex system that works is invariably found to have evolved from a simple system that worked. A complex system designed from scratch never works and cannot be patched up to make it work. You have to start over with a working simple system.

      This feels like an underlying and underpinning principle of how the IndieWeb which focuses on working real world examples which are able to build up more complex systems instead of theoretical architecture astronomy which goes no where.

      Reference: John Gall (1975) Systemantics: How Systems Really Work and How They Fail p. 71

  6. May 2022
    1. Since there is no Maritime law in Liechtenstein, Nicolas Reithner, Hannes Mähr, and Mario Frick, the attorneys who wrote this book, left most of the pages blank indicating in bold in the front matter:

      Please use the remaining pages of this work as a notebook.

      Source

      This is by far the funniest law book out there pic.twitter.com/zWYOAsMIOM

      — Nicole A. Rizza (JD Era) 🏳️‍⚧️ (@NicoleARizza) May 25, 2022
      <script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>
    1. Frank Wilhot's: "Conservatism consists of exactly one proposition, to wit: There must be in-groups whom the law protects but does not bind, alongside out-groups whom the law binds but does not protect." https://crookedtimber.org/2018/03/21/liberals-against-progressives/
    1. By 1860, the American Medical Association sought to end legal abortion. The Comstock Law of 1873 criminalized attaining, producing or publishing information about contraception, sexually transmitted infections and diseases, and how to procure an abortion.
    1. If you are using RDFa within your pages, you can use the resource attribute to indicate that you are linking to a piece of legislation while including a link to another source of information. For example,

      html The <a rel="cite" resource="http://www.legislation.gov.uk/id/ukpga/1999/17" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disability_Rights_Commission_Act_1999">Disability Rights Commission Act 1999</a> replaced the National Disability Council with the Disability Rights Commission (DRC). will generate the triple

      <> xhv:cite <http://www.legislation.gov.uk/id/ukpga/1999/17>

  7. Apr 2022
    1. Assignment

      Assignment provisions of a contract tend to have to do with transferring rights between different parties.

  8. Mar 2022
    1. Gall’s Law, which states that a complex system that works is invariably found to have evolved from a simple system that worked. Contrast this with a complex system designed from scratch, which never works and cannot be patched up to make it work.

      Gall's Law: Working complex systems invariably evolve from simple systems which actually worked.

      It is rare to find working complex systems designed from scratch. They rarely work and are incredibly difficult to patch to make them work.

    1. ReconfigBehSci on Twitter: ‘@STWorg @ProfColinDavis @rpancost @chrisdc77 @syrpis this is the most in depth treatment of the impact of equalities law on pandemic policy that I’ve been able to find- it would seem to underscore that there is a legal need for impact assessments that ask (some) of these questions https://t.co/auiApVC0TW’ / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved 22 March 2022, from https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1485927221449613314

    1. nonexclusive, nontransferable, limited license

      A license of this type means that the licensee, or the person that is granted a license to use the service, cannot limit whom the licensor (e.g., the service provider) allows to also use the service.

      Note: This is information is intended to be educational rather than informative. It is NOT intended to be, nor should it be treated as legal advice, and is not intended to provide any indication that an attorney-client relationship is being sought or being established. Before you do anything that could have an impact on your legal or equitable rights, you should always retain counsel in your jurisdiction, after carefully considering the merits and qualifications of that counsel.

  9. Feb 2022
    1. Because of the constantly growing number of volumes, and to minimize coordination issues, Gottfried van Swieten emphasizes a set of instructions for registering all the books of the court library. Written instructions are by no means common prior to the end of the eighteenth century. Until then, cataloging takes place under the supervision of a librarian who instructs scriptors orally, pointing out problems and corrections as every-one goes along.

      Unlike prior (oral) efforts, Gottfried van Swieten created a writtten set of instructions for cataloging texts at the Austrian National Library. This helped to minimize coordination issues as well as time to teach and perfect the system.


      Written rules, laws, and algorithms help to create self-organization. This is done by saving time and energy that would have gone into the work of directed building of a system instead. The saved work can then be directed towards something else potentially more productive or regenerative.

    1. Many American employers continue to make their job offers contingent on fine-print conditions, such as noncompete clauses and forced arbitration, that can make it almost impossible to jump to a better workplace or hold management accountable when things go wrong. They seek out foreign workers who often, in theory or practice, lack the legal protections of U.S. citizens. They argue that they aren’t liable for any mistreatment of their subcontracted staff by the companies that technically employ those workers. And they charge staff for equipment or training essential to their duties, establishing a cycle of debt that, in conjunction with low wages, tends to build on itself
    1. Namibian society is fairly conservative, particularly where issues of morality, customs and family values are concerned

      familial law and culture are not in line with legal provisions

    2. customary law survives only to the extent that it does not confl ict with the Constitution

      customary law does not outweigh the constitution, government over culture

    3. Women’s rights and family matters
    4. Namibian government currently does not recognise polygamous marriages

      not recognized but still occurs, not outlawed

    5. Therefore, any law, custom, stereotype or belief that oppresses or deprives women of their inherent right to reach their full potential cannot be binding on any person at all
    6. Land rights and property
    7. Customary marriages
    8. most prominent within the sphere of the family household.

      Even though customary law may not enforce these practices, they persist nonetheless

    9. matters that pertain to the children.
    10. the maintenance of such gender and role conceptions in Namibian society at large

      patriarchal stereotypes of men and women throughout Namibia, but they vary from each individual culture in specifics

    11. the eldest son makes all the major decisions

      male authority trumps parental/age authority of a woman

    12. one of the few constitutions in the world that uses gender-neutral language throughout,

      equal consideration of men and women under their constitution, sets culture up to modify towards gender equality

  10. Jan 2022
    1. Goodhart's law is an adage often stated as "When a measure becomes a target, it ceases to be a good measure".[1] It is named after British economist Charles Goodhart, who advanced the idea in a 1975 article on monetary policy in the United Kingdom:[2][3] .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}Any observed statistical regularity will tend to collapse once pressure is placed upon it for control purposes.

      We measure what we find important.

      Measures can and often become self-fulfilling targets. (read: Rankings and Reactivity by W. Espeland and M. Sauder https://www.stmarys-ca.edu/sites/default/files/attachments/files/rankings-and-reactivity-2007.pdf)

      When a measure becomes a target it ceases to be a good measure.

      So why measure?


      Is observation and measurement part of a larger complex process which isn't finished until the process itself is finished?


      This seems related to the measurement problem in quantum mechanics, Schrödinger's cat, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, and the observer effect).

    1. As Goodhart’s law suggests, metrics can fail if given too much power, and over-emphasizing metrics can lead to gaming, manipulation, or “a myopic focus on short-term goals.” Many of the most important parts of digital well-being cannot be captured by quantitative

      Goodhart's Law is an adage often stated as "When a measure becomes a target, it ceases to be a good measure". It is named after British economist Charles Goodhart, who advanced the idea in a 1975 article on monetary policy in the United Kingdom:

      Any observed statistical regularity will tend to collapse once pressure is placed upon it for control purposes.

    1. This document describes a Uniform Resource Name (URN) Namespace Identification (NID) convention as prescribed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for identifying, naming, assigning, and managing persistent resources in the legal domain.
    1. The English common law was "immemorial" custom which ran to a "time whereof the memory of man runneth not to the contrary." "In the profound ignorance of letters which formerly overspread the whole west- em world," Sir William Blackstone noted in 1765, "letters were intirely traditional, for this plain reason, that the nations among which they pre- vailed had but little idea of writing. Thus the British as well as the Gallic druids committed all their laws as well as learning to memory; and it is said of the primitive Saxons here, as well as their brethren on the conti- nent, that leges

      sola memoria et usu retinebant.

  11. Dec 2021
    1. The possibility of arbitrary internal branching.

      Modern digital zettelkasten don't force the same sort of digital internal branching process that is described by Niklas Luhmann. Internal branching in these contexts is wholly reliant on the user to create it.

      Many digital systems will create a concrete identifier to fix the idea within the system, but this runs the risk of ending up with a useless scrap heap.

      Some modern systems provide the ability for one to add taxonomies like subject headings in a commonplace book tradition, which adds some level of linking. But if we take the fact that well interlinked cards are the most valuable in such a system then creating several links upfront may be a bit more work, but it provides more value in the long run.

      Upfront links also don't require quite as much work at the card's initial creation as the creator already has the broader context of the idea. Creating links at a future date requires the reloading into their working memory of the card's idea and broader context.

      Of course there may also be side benefits (including to memory) brought by the spaced repetition of the card's ideas as well as potential new contexts gained in the interim which may help add previously unconsidered links.

      It can certainly be possible that at some level of linking, there is a law of diminishing returns the decreases the value of a card and its idea.

      One of the benefits of physical card systems like Luhmann's is that the user is forced to add the card somewhere, thus making the first link of the idea into the system. Luhmann's system in particular creates a parent/sibling relation to other cards or starts a brand new branch.

    1. Our notion that everyone is equal before the law,for instance, originally traces back to the idea that everyone is equalbefore the king, or emperor: since if one man is invested withabsolute power, then obviously everyone else is equal incomparison.
  12. Nov 2021
    1. ένα αποκλειστικά λευκό σώμα ενόρκων

      Η επιλογή των ενόρκων πρεπει να ειναι τυχαία ή σταθμισμένη (όπως γινόταν με τις "φυλές" της αρχαίας Αθήνας)? Κι ας έχουμε εδώ κ την ανάποδη ένδειξη, όπου 10 λευκοί + 1 μαύρος ένορκοι καταδίκασαν 3 λευκούς φονιάδες.

    1. Η σύνθεση του δικαστηρίου που αποφυλάκισε τον Πατέλη: πρόεδρος Κουζέλη Ουρανία, μέλη Πολέμη Μόσχα, Κοτσίφη Ευτέρπη, Τρίκα Μαρία, Ρουσέα Αριστέα (όπως είπαμε, μία από τις δύο τελευταίες εφέτες, που αντικατέστησαν αυτοεξαιρεθέντες συναδέλφους τους, ψήφισε κατά της αποφυλάκισης Πατέλη). Εισαγγελέας Κούτρας Ιωάννης.

      Μα τι συντηρητικά που ειναι τα μικρά ονόματα των γυναικών δικαστικών? Ευτέρπη, Ουρανία, Αριστέα...λες κι ειμαστε σε ταινία του [[Σακελλάριος]], το '50! Μηπως το "επαγγελμα του Δικαστή" πάει σόι στην Ελλάδα? Μηπως πρεπει να σπασει το άβατο με ενορκους?

    2. «Τι πάει να πει δημοσιογράφος; Οποτε υπάρχουν δημοσιογράφοι πρέπει η κοινωνία να κάθεται σούζα; Εμείς κάνουμε τη δουλειά μας ανεξάρτητα και εκπροσωπούμε σήμερα το ανώτερο δικαστήριο της χώρας σε επίπεδο ουσίας. Γίνανε όλοι αγωνιστές. Φερόμενοι αγωνιστές βέβαια, οι πραγματικοί είναι άλλοι».

      Το προβλημα στον εκφασισμό της ελληνικής Δικαιοσύνης ειναι ο θεσμός των εισσαγγελέων - πρεπει να αντικατασταθεί απο συμβούλια πολιτών, με συμμετοχή νομικών. Και οι πρόεδροι δεν πανε πισω βεβαια...

      (web archive link)

    1. δεν υπάρχει πίσω από αυτή την υπόθεση μια ισχυρή φαμίλια που έχει χάσει τον άνθρωπό της – υπάρχει μια λαϊκή οικογένεια από το Κερατσίνι. Δεν υπάρχει η πρεσβεία μιας ισχυρής χώρας που να τρώει τον κόσμο με τα τηλέφωνά της – υπάρχει μόνο η φωνή του αντιφασιστικού κινήματος. Δεν υπάρχει το φόβητρο της αντιτρομοκρατικής και των εισαγγελέων της

      Ο αγωνας ειναι ανισος, αλλα κ ασσυμετρος - όσο δεν ητταται το αντιφασιστικό από τη συντονισμενη επιθεση φασιτών-αστυνομίας-εισσαγελέων, κερδιζει.

    1. Οι ίδιες χώρες που μάχονται υπέρ του λιγότερου κράτους απαιτούν περισσότερο κράτος προκειμένου να συγκαλύψουν και να συγκρατήσουν τις επιζήμιες κοινωνικές συνέπειες που έχει στις κατώτερες περιοχές του κοινωνικού χώρου, η απορρύθμιση της μισθωτής εργασίας και η υποβάθμιση της κοινωνικής προστασίας. Η «μηδενική ανοχή» είναι μια φιλοσοφία φιλελεύθερη και μη παρεμβατική προς τα πάνω, σε ότι αφορά κυρίως τη φορολογία και την απασχόληση, αδιάλλακτη και παρεμβατική προς τα κάτω, σε ότι αφορά τη δημόσια συμπεριφορά των μελών των λαϊκών τάξεων, που είναι πιασμένα στη μέγγενη από τη μια μεριά της γενικευμένης υπο-απασχόλησης και της προσωρινής μισθωτής εργασίας και από την άλλη της ύφεσης της κοινωνικής προστασίας και της πενίας των δημοσίων υπηρεσιών.

      Αναπαντεχα ταξική τοποθετηση κορυφαίου δικαστικού της χώρας μας.

    2. εργασία των Georg Rusche και Otto Kirscheimer

      "Punishment and Social Structure" , a book written by Georg Rusche and Otto Kirchheimer, is the seminal Marxian analysis of punishment as a social institution (from wikipedia).

    3. η διάδοση και η καθιέρωση του δόγματος της «μηδενικής ανοχής», που πέρασε στα τέλη του 20ου αιώνα από τις ΗΠΑ στην Ευρώπη, εκφράζει τη ρητορική που εξομοιώνει τους παραβάτες – άστεγους, ζητιάνους, περιθωριακούς- με τους ξένους επιδρομείς, επιτάσσει χαλάρωση της νομικής διάκρισης ανηλίκων και ενηλίκων δραστών, ζητά περισσότερες προϋποθέσεις για την υφ’ όρον απόλυση. Αναπροσδιορίζει το ρόλο του κράτους, το οποίο αποσύρεται από την οικονομία και μειώνει τον κοινωνικό του ρόλο ενώ αντίθετα διευρύνει και σκληραίνει την ποινική του παρέμβαση.

      Ξεκαθαρη τοποθέτηση του πρόδερου δικαστών Σεβαστίδη για το ιδεολογικό πρόσημο του [[δόγμα μηδενικής ανοχής]].

  13. Oct 2021
  14. Sep 2021
    1. Commenting on a recent case from the Washington State Court of Appeals, it says that the outcome “signals a strong return to the legal principle of caveat emptor – otherwise known as ‘buyer beware’.” This ruling is interpreted to mean that “the seller may now intentionally conceal a defect and lie about it, and as long as the buyer’s inspector has some indication of a potential problem and the buyer fails to investigate further, the seller will survive a lawsuit.”
    1. 2015, c. 3, s. 110

      Miscellaneous Statute Law Amendment Act, 2014, SC 2015, c 3, https://canlii.ca/t/52m35, s. 110, amends IRPA s. 63(2) and (3) to read:

      Right to appeal — visa and removal order

      (2) A foreign national who holds a permanent resident visa may appeal to the Immigration Appeal Division against a decision to make a removal order against them made under subsection 44(2) or made at an admissibility hearing.

      Right to appeal removal order

      (3) A permanent resident or a protected person may appeal to the Immigration Appeal Division against a decision to make a removal order against them made under subsection 44(2) or made at an admissibility hearing.

      Previously they had read:

      Right to appeal — visa and removal order

      (2) A foreign national who holds a permanent resident visa may appeal to the Immigration Appeal Division against a decision at an examination or admissibility hearing to make a removal order against them.

      Right to appeal — removal order

      (3) A permanent resident or a protected person may appeal to the Immigration Appeal Division against a decision at an examination or admissibility hearing to make a removal order against them.

    2. 2015, c. 3, s. 109(E)

      Miscellaneous Statute Law Amendment Act, 2014, SC 2015, c 3, https://canlii.ca/t/52m35, s. 109(E) amends the English version of IRPA s. 37(1)(b) to read:

      (b) engaging, in the context of transnational crime, in activities such as people smuggling, trafficking in persons or laundering of money or other proceeds of crime.

      Previously it had read:

      (b) engaging, in the context of transnational crime, in activities such as people smuggling, trafficking in persons or money laundering.

    3. 2015, c. 3, s. 108(E)

      Miscellaneous Statute Law Amendment Act, 2014, SC 2015, c 3, https://canlii.ca/t/52m35, s. 108(E) amends the English version of IRPA s. 16(3) to read:

      Evidence relating to identity (3) An officer may require or obtain from a permanent resident or a foreign national who is arrested, detained, subject to an examination or subject to a removal order, any evidence — photographic, fingerprint or otherwise — that may be used to establish their identity or compliance with this Act.

      Previously it had read:

      Evidence relating to identity (3) An officer may require or obtain from a permanent resident or a foreign national who is arrested, detained or subject to a removal order, any evidence — photographic, fingerprint or otherwise — that may be used to establish their identity or compliance with this Act.

  15. Aug 2021
    1. The Attack on "Critical Race Theory": What's Going on?

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P35YrabkpGk

      Lately, a lot of people have been very upset about “critical race theory.” Back in September 2020, the former president directed federal agencies to cut funding for training programs that refer to “white privilege” or “critical race theory, declaring such programs “un-American propaganda” and “a sickness that cannot be allowed to continue.” In the last few months, at least eight states have passed legislation banning the teaching of CRT in schools and some 20 more have similar bills in the pipeline or plans to introduce them. What’s going on?

      Join us for a conversation that situates the current battle about “critical race theory” in the context of a much longer war over the relationship between our racial present and racial past, and the role of culture, institutions, laws, policies and “systems” in shaping both. As members of families and communities, as adults in the lives of the children who will have to live with the consequences of these struggles, how do we understand what's at stake and how we can usefully weigh in?

      Hosts: Melissa Giraud & Andrew Grant-Thomas

      Guests: Shee Covarrubias, Kerry-Ann Escayg,

      Some core ideas of critical race theory:

      • racial realism
        • racism is normal
      • interest convergence
        • racial equity only occurs when white self interest is being considered (Brown v. Board of Education as an example to portray US in a better light with respect to the Cold War)
      • Whiteness as property
        • Cheryl Harris' work
        • White people have privilege in the law
        • myth of meritocracy
      • Intersectionality

      People would rather be spoon fed rather than do the work themselves. Sadly this is being encouraged in the media.

      Short summary of CRT: How laws have been written to institutionalize racism.

      Culturally Responsive Teaching (also has the initials CRT).

      KAE tries to use an anti-racist critical pedagogy in her teaching.

      SC: Story about a book Something Happened in Our Town (book).

      • Law enforcement got upset and the school district
      • Response video of threat, intimidation, emotional blackmail by local sheriff's department.
      • Intent versus impact - the superintendent may not have had a bad intent when providing an apology, but the impact was painful

      It's not really a battle about or against CRT, it's an attempt to further whitewash American history. (synopsis of SC)

      What are you afraid of?

    1. Das Verbot für den öffentlichen Raum insgesamt wird gestrichen.
    2. dass viele Geschäfte, Gaststätten, Kultur- und Freizeiteinrichtungen zur Eindämmung der Pandemie mindestens bis zum 7. März geschlossen bleiben müssen.
    1. Wer sich nicht daran hält, kann mit einer Strafe belegt werden. In Frankreich werden zwischen 38 und 135 Euro fällig. Auch Haftstrafen sind möglich.
    2. Wer rausgeht, muss auf einem Formular den Grund für das Verlassen des Hauses angegeben.
    3. Erlaubt bleibt weiterhin, Lebensmittel und Medikamente einzukaufen, zur Arbeit oder zum Arzt zu gehen. wer Ältere, Kinder oder Hilfsbedürftige betreuen muss, darf auch hierfür sein Zuhause verlassen.
    4. In Bezug auf die Coronakrise etwa müssen die Spanier und Italiener während des Alarmzustands möglichst zu Hause bleiben.
    1. Wohnungsbesichtigungen sind hingegen keine in der Verordnung berücksichtigen Ausnahmen.
    2. Es ist also zum Beispiel möglich, gemeinsam mit dem Partner in einer anderen Wohnung als der eigenen Meldeadresse zu leben.
    3. Es ist jedoch nicht jeder gezwungen, sich an seiner Meldeadresse aufzuhalten.
    1. Im Außenbereich der Gastronomie kann der Mindestabstand unterschritten werden, "sofern der Schutz vor Tröpfcheninfektionen und Aerosolen sichergestellt ist"
    1. Wegen des erneuten Anstiegs der Corona-Neuinfektionen, gelten ab Samstag in Krankenhäusern neue Besuchsregeln.
    1. Sollten sich Gäste nicht an die Regelungen halten, droht im schlimmsten Fall ein Bußgeld. Der Gastwirt darf von seinem Hausrecht Gebrauch machen.
    2. Die Kontrolle der Angaben obliegt in Berlin den Ordnungsämtern, in Brandenburg ist der Gaststättenbetreiber dazu verpflichtet, "die Angaben der Gäste auf Plausibilität zu überprüfen."
    1. William Ross Ashby (1903-1972) was a British pioneer in the fields of cybernetics and systems theory. He is best known for proposing the law of requisite variety, the principle of self-organization, intelligence amplification, the good regulator theorem, building the automatically stabilizing Homeostat, and his books Design for a Brain (1952) and An Introduction to Cybernetics (1956).

    1. Assessing staff solely on the basis of quantitative metrics is never acceptable, no matter what type of metric is being used

      See Goodhart's Law and some background on why these kinds of measurements are difficult.

  16. Jul 2021
    1. BlackRock employs a stable of former policymakers, underscoring the importance the company occupies in both financial and policymaking ecosystems, in something akin to a shadow government entity.[157] Good government groups have documented 118 examples of “revolving door” activity by the company—cases in which a government official joined BlackRock’s roster, or vice versa.[158] In one particularly troubling example of how Washington’s revolving door operates, in 2017, a former BlackRock executive was put in charge of reviewing the FSOC’s work for the Treasury Department.[159] Unsurprisingly, the Department’s conclusion was that FSOC should “prioritize its efforts to address risks to financial stability through a process that emphasizes an activities-based or industry-wide approach,” the company’s preferred position.[160] This conclusion all but ensures that BlackRock will not be designated for greater regulation by the FSOC under the Trump administration.

      To Big To Fail? Above The Law? Shadow Government?

      The term "shadow government" comes up often when investigating Revolving Door partnerships between corporations and former government policymakers. One particular public corporation, BlackRock Investments is the poster child of revolving door activity and comparisons to a shadow government.

      BlackRock is front and center in the manipulation of todays Real Estate bubble.

      BlackRock should be marketed as;*The Largest Asset Manager and Keeper of The Neo-liberal Flame; We Kill Children to Make You Money and We Enjoy Doing It!*

    1. Crenshaw and her classmates asked 12 scholars of color to come to campus and lead discussions about Bell’s book Race, Racism, and American Law. With that, critical race theory began in earnest.
    1. Nach einer Niederlage des Landes Berlin vor dem Verwaltungsgericht kehren die Schulen ab dem 09.06.2021 zum Regelunterricht zurück. Das gilt dann für die beiden letzten Wochen des Schuljahres vor den Sommerferien.
    2. Corona Regeln Berlin: Schulen kehren noch vor den Sommerferien in den Präsenzunterricht zurück
    3. Flohmärkte und Kunstmärkte sowie Spezialmärkte dürfen öffnen.
    4. Gesamter Einzelhandel ohne Testpflicht.
    1. Im Einzelhandel entfällt die Pflicht zur Terminvergabe und zur Anwesenheitsdokumentation. Damit müssen die Kontaktdaten wie die Adresse des Kunden zum Beispiel beim Einkaufen im Elektronikmarkt nicht mehr per App oder schriftlich auf Papier erfasst werden. Das betrifft auch unter anderem Museen, Galerien und Bibliotheken.
  17. www.berlin.de www.berlin.de