56 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2019
  2. Feb 2019
    1. certain and undoubted

      "Certain and undoubted" brings to mind the classical sense of logos, where it's meaning isn't logic or reasoning (as we tend to think of it now) but is more about the commonly accepted truth. It's a truth that people believe--but that doesn't make it correct. Locke undoubtedly is not intending this meaning but is instead calling for an objective Truth.

  3. Jan 2019
    1. indeliblylinguistic:dialectic.

      The dialectic is logos, linguistic.

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  4. Oct 2018
    1. o it is difficultfor the judges to determine justice and benefits fairly; but most important of all, because the judgment of a lawmaker is not about aparticular case but about what lies in the future and in general, whilethe assemblyman and the juror are actually judging present andspecific cases.

      Logos, Aristole makes a logical argument and also an interesting one that I may agree with

  5. Sep 2018
    1. soul uing the body as an instrument of perception. Why put a divine logos in a body? This line in Phaedo suggests the soul has a practical use for having a body, that it uses the body to see or hear

  6. Oct 2017
    1. Are we serving Shamus as well as he's serving us?
    2. Do we participate in a politics of cynicism or do we participate in a politics of hope?
    3. Now don’t get me wrong.  The people I meet in small towns and big cities, in diners and office parks, they don’t expect government to solve all their problems.  They know they have to work hard to get ahead and they want to.  Go into the collar counties around Chicago, and people will tell you they don’t want their tax money wasted by a welfare agency or by the Pentagon.  Go into any inner city neighborhood, and folks will tell you that government alone can’t teach our kids to learn.  They know that parents have to teach, that children can’t achieve unless we raise their expectations and turn off the television sets and eradicate the slander that says a black youth with a book is acting white.  They know those things.  People don’t expect government to solve all their problems.  But they sense, deep in their bones, that with just a slight change in priorities, we can make sure that every child in America has a decent shot at life, and that the doors of opportunity remain open to all.  They know we can do better.  And they want that choice
    4. we have more work to do.  More work to do for the workers I met in Galesburg, Illinois, who are losing their union jobs at the Maytag plant that’s moving to Mexico, and now are having to compete with their own children for jobs that pay seven bucks an hour.  More to do for the father that I met who was losing his job and choking back the tears, wondering how he would pay $4,500 a month for the drugs his son needs without the health benefits that he counted on.  More to do for the young woman in East St. Louis, and thousands more like her, who has the grades, has the drive, has the will, but doesn’t have the money to go to college

      Logos

      16r

  7. May 2017
  8. Jan 2017
  9. Sep 2016
    1. Use of private prisons in the United States has coincided with the widelycited rapid growth of the number of inmates: “The population grew more than400% from less than 320,000 in 1980 to nearly 1.4 million at the end of 2002.

      extreme growth in number of prisons after privatization

    1. 11.7 million Mexican-born individuals living in the United States, almost half (5.6 million) have no legal authorization

      LOGOS - builds credibility through ample research (Pew Research)

    2. about 150,000 to 200,000 Mexicans cross the border each year heading north, and about as many head south

      LOGOS

  10. Apr 2016
  11. Feb 2016
    1. Those who are more thrifty (as I must confess the times require) mayflay the carcass; the skin of which artificially dressed* will make admirablegloves for ladies, and summer boots for fine gentlemen.
    2. and help to pay their landlord’s rent, their corn andcattle being already seized and money a thing unknown
    3. Infant’s flesh will be in season throughout the year, but more plentifulin March, and a little before and after. For we are told by a grave author,an eminent French physician [François Rabelais], that fish being a prolific
    4. Thirdly, whereas the maintenance of an hundred thousand children,from two years old and upwards, cannot be computed at less than tenshillings a piece per annum, the nation’s stock will be thereby increasedfifty thousand pounds per annum, besides the profit of a new dish intro-duced to the tables of all gentlemen of fortune in the kingdom who haveany refinement in taste. And the money will circulate among ourselves,the goods being entirely of our own growth and manufacture.
    5. I do therefore humbly offer it to public consideration that of the hun-dred and twenty thousand children, already computed, twenty thousandmay be reserved for breed, whereof only one fourth part to be males,which is more than we allow to sheep, black cattle, or swine; and myreason is that these children are seldom the fuits of marriage, a circum-stance not much reagarded by our savages, therefore one male will besufficient to serve four females. That the remaining hundred thousandmay at a year old be offered in sale to the persons of quality and fortunethrough the kingdom, always advising the mother to let them suck plen-tifully in the last month, so as to render them plump and fat for a goodtable. A child will make two dishes at an entertainment for friends; andwhen the family dines alone, the fore or hind quarter will make a reason-able dish, and seasoned with a little pepper or salt will be very good boildedon the fourth day, especially in winter.
    6. I have been assured by a very knowing American of my acquaintance inLondon, that a young healthy child well nursed is at a year old a mostdelicious, nourishing, and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked,or boiled; and I make no doubt that it will equally serve in a fricassee or aragout*.

      Image Description

    7. and myreason is that these children are seldom the fuits of marriage, a circum-stance not much reagarded by our savages, therefore one male will besufficient to serve four females. That the remaining hundred thousandmay at a year old be offered in sale to the persons of quality and fortunethrough the kingdom, always advising the mother to let them suck plen-tifully in the last month, so as to render them plump and fat for a goodtable.
    8. It is true, a child just dropped from its dam may be supported by hermilk for a solar year, with little other nourishment; at most not above thevalue of two shillings, which the mother may certainly get, or the value inscraps, by her lawful occupation of begging; and it is exactly at one yearold that I propose to provide for them in such a manner as instead ofbeing a charge upon their parents or the parish, or wanting food andraiment for the rest of their lives, they shall on the contrary contribute tothe feeding, and partly to the clothing, of many thousands.
    9. So far,Swift is loading up logos in order to make a case for why his argument makes the most sense.

    10. Swift is looking at this purely from an impersonal, statistical viewpoint.

  12. Nov 2013
    1. unwavering reaso
    2. And so, all you dialecticians - that is, whoever can form a judgment about this question with truth and constancy - come here, pay at-tention, sharpen your wits, drive far away from you (in case passions of this kind have been ready to seize your minds), drive far away, I say, love, hate, prejudice, levity, fickleness, and rashness

      Denouncing pathos, embracing logos

  13. Oct 2013
    1. The second is how to set these facts out in language.

      organization and arrangement, placing of emphasis, us of technique to derive desired affect

    1. Thirdly, persuasion is effected through the speech itself when we have proved a truth or an apparent truth by means of the persuasive arguments suitable to the case in question.
    2. There are, then, these three means of effecting persuasion. The man who is to be in command of them must, it is clear, be able (1) to reason logically, (2) to understand human character and goodness in their various forms, and (3) to understand the emotions-that is, to name them and describe them, to know their causes and the way in which they are excited.

      Three means of persuasion: logos, pathos, and ethos.

    1. it has three divisions -- (1) the speaker's power of evincing a personal character which will make his speech credible (ethos ); (2) his power of stirring the emotions of his hearers (pathos ); (3) his power of proving a truth, or an apparent truth, by means of persuasive arguments (logos ).

      Three divisions.

    1. The truth is, as indeed we have said already, that rhetoric is a combination of the science of logic and of the ethical branch of politics; and it is partly like dialectic, partly like sophistical reasoning.
  14. Sep 2013
    1. There are, then, these three means of effecting persuasion. The man who is to be in command of them must, it is clear, be able (1) to reason logically, (2) to understand human character and goodness in their various forms, and (3) to understand the emotions-that is, to name them and describe them, to know their causes and the way in which they are excited.

      means of persuasion: ethos, logos, pathos

    2. Of the modes of persuasion furnished by the spoken word there are three kinds. The first kind depends on the personal character of the speaker; the second on putting the audience into a certain frame of mind; the third on the proof, or apparent proof, provided by the words of the speech itself

      Are there really only three appeals, or do we fit everything else into these three labels because Aristotle laid it out that way?

    1. The reason for this is that in political oratory there is less inducement to talk about nonessentials. Political oratory is less given to unscrupulous practices than forensic, because it treats of wider issues. In a political debate the man who is forming a judgement is making a decision about his own vital interests. There is no need, therefore, to prove anything except that the facts are what the supporter of a measure maintains they are. In forensic oratory this is not enough; to conciliate the listener is what pays here.

      Defines useful types of rhetoric for forensics vs. political arenas.

    1. (3) his power of proving a truth, or an apparent truth, by means of persuasive arguments (logos ).

      mehtod of logos

    2. (1) the speaker's power of evincing a personal character which will make his speech credible (ethos ); (2) his power of stirring the emotions of his hearers (pathos ); (3) his power of proving a truth, or an apparent truth, by means of persuasive arguments (logos )
    3. it must adapt itself to an audience of untrained thinkers who cannot follow a long train of reasoning.

      Interesting. Rhetoric must be able to act as a means to persuade those who cannot follow complex arguments, implying that the purest form of persuasion is totally based in logic.

    4. The former kind he must provide himself; and it has three divisions -- (1) the speaker's power of evincing a personal character which will make his speech credible (ethos ); (2) his power of stirring the emotions of his hearers (pathos ); (3) his power of proving a truth, or an apparent truth, by means of persuasive arguments (logos ). Hence rhetoric may be regarded as an offshoot of dialectic, and also of ethical (or political) studies.
    1. For, although he undertook most of his wars without support from the city, he brought them all to a successful issue, and convinced all the Hellenes that he won them justly. And what greater or clearer proof of his wise judgement could one adduce than this fact?

      End justifying the means.

    2. But you have heard also from my accuser that I have received many great presents from Nicocles, the king of the Salaminians.39 And yet, can any one of you be persuaded that Nicocles made me these presents in order that he might learn how to plead cases in court—he who dispensed justice, like a master, to others in their disputes? So, from what my accuser has himself said, it is easy for you to conclude that I have nothing to do with litigation.
    3. You can judge this from my habits of life, from which, indeed, you can get at the truth much better than from the lips of my accusers; for no one is, I think, blind to the fact that all people are wont to spend their time in the places where they elect to gain their livelihood. And you will observe that those who live upon your contracts and the litigation connected with them are all but domiciled in the courts of law, while no one has ever seen me either at the council-board, or at the preliminaries,35 or in the courts,36 or before the arbitrators 37; on the contrary, I have kept aloof from all these more than any of my fellow-citizens

      A sort of mix of ethos and logos. He attempts to build up his own credibility using reason.

    4. for if any man had been wronged by me, even though he might have held his tongue up till now, he would not have neglected the present opportunity, but would have come forward to denounce me or bear witness against me. For when one who has never in his life heard a single disparaging word from me has put me in so great peril, depend upon it, had any suffered injury at my hands, they would now attempt to have their revenge.

      Makes sense, however, this assumes he is telling the truth about never having hurt anyone with his speaking or writing.

    5. A solid defense- that the supposed victims of Isocrates, according to him, are on his side of this trial.

    6. ou should remember this and not trust too hastily the assertions of the accuser nor hear the defendant in uproar and anger.19 Ours is a shameful state of inconsistency; for while it is acknowledged that in our life in general we are the most merciful20 and gentle of all the Hellenes, yet in the conduct of our trials here we manifestly give the lie to this reputation

      logos

    1. they attempt to persuade our young men that if they will only study under them they will know what to do in life and through this knowledge will become happy and prosperous

      What he means by pretending to know the future?

    2. I think all intelligent people will agree with me that while many of those who have pursued philosophy have remained in private life,(16) others, on the other hand, who have never taken lessons from any one of the sophists have become able orators and statesmen.

      Officially switching gears here. We're talking over the laymen, who were probably never invited to engage in this discourse beyond being an example, and now appealing to the truly intelligent. Who were most likely the target audience all along.

    1. whereas nature herself intimates that it is just for the better to have more than the worse, the more powerful than the weaker; and in many ways she shows, among men as well as among animals, and indeed among whole cities and races, that justice consists in the superior ruling over and having more than the inferior.

      reference to 'survival of the fittest' philosphy

    2. For, as Euripides says, 'Every man shines in that and pursues that, and devotes the greatest portion of the day to that in which he most excels,'
    3. And this I take to be the sentiment of Pindar, when he says in his poem, that 'Law is the king of all, of mortals as well as of immortals;' this, as he says, 'Makes might to be right,

      A bit of citation here. While poor (also read: pitiable) Polus tried the raw, emotional approach to busting down Socrates, Callicles seems to be taking the more intellectual route.

    4. Then why, if you call rhetoric the art which treats of discourse, and all the other arts treat of discourse, do you not call them arts of rhetoric?

      it is a fine distinction to classify art and other forms of expression as "arts of rhetoric". "A picture paints a thousand words"

    5. And music is concerned with the composition of melodies?

      Setting Up Repetition. If one agrees with A and believes in B etc etc then you will agree with the main point made. It's a logical fallacy, but a debate tactic we commonly see. It can be an effective tactic in relation to logic (seems paradoxical).

    1. For it is clear that her mother was Leda and her father was in fact the god, but said to be mortal, Tyndareus and Zeus--of whom the one, by being, seemed, while the other, by speech, was disproved--and the one was the mightiest of men while the other was tyrant over all. Born of such parentage, she had godlike beauty, which having received she not inconspicuously retained.

      Gorgias uses logos in an attempt to convince the audience that it was not, or could not have been, Helen's fault that she was "cursed" with such beauty. This implicitly places blame on the men who were tempted by her beauty.

    2. if one must attribute responsibility to Fortune and the god, one must acquit Helen of infamy.

      And if you don't, she remains infamous all the same.

    3. Now in the first case, the responsible party deserves the responsibility. For the will of a god cannot be hindered by human forethought. For it is not natural for the superior to be hindered by the inferior, but for the inferior to be ruled and led by the superior--for the superior to lead and the inferior to follow. And a god is superior to a human being in force, intelligence, etcetera. Accordingly, if one must attribute responsibility to Fortune and the god, one must acquit Helen of infamy.

      Appeal to logos