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  2. eleftheriaonline.gr eleftheriaonline.gr
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    2. περνάειμιαομάδατουςγιαΓιουγκοσλάβουςκαιαιχμαλωτίζεται


    3. Ηδύναμητου 4ουΣυντάγματοςΟυσσάρωνεξουδετερώνεταιαπότηνεμπροσθοφυλακήτης5ηςΤεθωρακισμένηςΜεραρχίαςκαιδυνάμειςπεζικού

      Που ανηκουν αυτές οι δυναμεις?

  3. Apr 2021
    1. The form of the obelus as a horizontal line with a dot above and a dot below, ÷, was first used as a symbol for division by the Swiss mathematician Johann Rahn in his book Teutsche Algebra in 1659.
    1. This documentary speaks a lot, not only about the Greeks, but also about its creators!

      • 12:40: "the communists had destroyed Papandreou's 1st government ..."

        Talks about the Dekemvriana, where on 3rdof December 1944, 3 months after the country had been liberated from Germans, the police gendarmes under Papandreou's government and backed by British troops and Nazi collaborationists killed 100's of unarmed demonstrators in front of the parliament, signalling the start of the White Terror against the anti-Nazi warriors - most of them from the Left.

      • 19:20: "The MPs are the surgeons, that must cure the victims of a broken down bureaucracy, and a society that has outgrown most of its institutions"

        Again, no mention of the fact that this system was established by foreign powers (UK and then US) against the will of the people after WWII.<br> While DURING THE WARR, people of Greec had elected and run their own government (ΠΕΕΑ), running liberated parts of the country. The members of that government had been motivated and worked with unselfishness for the benefit of the people, had even constituted the legality of female voting, and had built roads and communication networks, all while the Nazi still occupied Greece. That was the "Pillars of Greece" that the British had to bring down in order to establish the loyalist government of Papandreou and subsequent conservative governments.

      • 12:40: one of the rare moments where the newspaper mogul Ελενη Βλαχου talks to the camera. Her opinion apears twice in this documentary, signifying her unconstitutional power ove Greece at that time.

      • 28:00: the greek elites were already accusing the people they were suspicious that their government worked against them...which was, of course, pretty true. Very few cases of pro-people decisions had been made till the documentary was filmed, and most conservative politicians had been starving for more and more power, in the hope that this will transform into wealth.

      • 36:00: shameless propaganda for private education (Doxiadis's university) - nowdays nobody remebers this institute ever existed.

      • 45:30: again, resignation of A.Papandreou's is given out-of-the-blue: it was the palace that accused him and a bunch of high-ranking generals of plotting to establish a communist dictatorship in Greece. A false accusation that led to the Junta, after 3 years of king's puppet-governments. But it was not not the King this time, but the CIA-led Colonels who did the Coup d'état.

    1. Clicking on a permalink didn’t take you anywhere, you just ended up roughly where you were before, only in a more stable form.

      Stability is obviously an important thing.

    1. Τα φορολογικά έσοδα από τις ναυτιλιακές εταιρείες μειώθηκαν από 109 εκατομμύρια δραχμές το 1968 σε 29 εκατομμύρια το 1972 (μείωση 73%!), περίοδος κατά την οποία ο ελληνικός στόλος αυξήθηκε κατά 16,7 εκατομμύρια τόνους.

      Εξωφρενικές Φοροαπαλαγες σε Εφοπλιστες.

    2. Σε έξι χρόνια οι χουντικοί έκαναν το χρέος 1,5 φορά µεγαλύτερο απ’ όσο είχε αυξηθεί σε διάστηµα 145 χρόνων!

      Χρέος: ~x3

    3. Το έλλειµµα του εµπορικού ισοζυγίου από 745 εκατ. δολάρια προβλέπεται ότι θα φτάσει τελικά το τέλος του 1973 τα 2.600 εκατ. δολάρια, δηλαδή περίπου θα τετραπλασιασθεί»…

      Εμπορικό έλλειμα: x3

    4. Ήταν τόσο «τίμιοι» και αντικομφορμιστές όσο και οι τρεις βίλες του Παπαδόπουλου: Μια στο Ψυχικό, μία την Πάρνηθα και μια Τρίτη το Λαγονήσι (η τελευταία ήταν προσφορά του Ωνάση). Ήταν τόσο «πατριώτες» που – εκτός του μέγιστου εγκλήματος κατά της Κύπρου – το βοούν και οι ληστρικές συμβάσεις με «Litton», «Μακντόναλντ», «Τομ Πάππας» και «Ζήμενς» – πάντα η… «Ζήμενς». Ήταν τόσο θεομπαίχτες που έφτασαν να βουτάνε λεφτά ακόμα και από το… παγκάρι! Γνωστή η ιστορία με την ανέγερση του «θαυματουργού» (καθότι… αόρατος) Ναού του Σωτήρως. Μόνο από εκεί, από έναν προϋπολογισμό ύψους 450 εκατομμυρίων, φαγώθηκαν τα 400… 

      Μεγα-σκανδαλα της Χούντας (περα των σαπιων κρεάτων).

    1. Μέσα σε αυτά τα «ιερά» σχέδια συντελέστηκε το θαύμα: είχαν εξαφανιστεί 406 εκατ. δρχ., φυσικά πέρασαν στις τσέπες των επιτήδειων, αρεστών και «ημετέρων» του καθεστώτος – στην υγεία των «κορόιδων».

      406εκ σκανδαλο με δωρεές πιστών και πολιτών φαγανε τα λαμόγια της Χούντας.

    1. Ο κόσμος φοβάται. Οχι μόνο λόγω πανδημίας. Ουσιαστικά, ο φόβος στην Ελλάδα δεν έπαψε ποτέ να υπάρχει.

      Σημαντική διαπίστωση, πως ο φοβος ενυπαρχει ακόμα στους Αριστερούς εν Ελλαδι, από καποια που εζησε τη Χούντα.

    2. Πρώτον, να μην το βάζεις κάτω. Και, δεύτερον, να επικοινωνήσεις όλα τα προβλήματα της κοινωνίας, όχι μόνο τα δικά σου. Η αμφισβήτηση και η αντίδραση είναι η μόνη διέξοδος!

      Απλή συμβουλή από καποιον που δομικαστηκε στη δυσκλία της Δικτατορίας: don't stop!

    3. Διότι πρέπει να έχουμε στο μπροστινό μέρος της εικόνας (και όχι στο πίσω μέρος του μυαλού μας) πως το 2015 τον Γενάρη, αν μετρήσουμε το σώμα των ψήφων που πήρε συνολικά η Δεξιά είναι καταθλιπτικό - σε πλακώνει: πήρε 36% (με τη Χ.Α.) και αν βάλουμε και Καμμένο και ΠΑΣΟΚ, πάμε σχεδόν στο 50%. Ο ένας στους δύο Ελληνες είχε ψηφίζει Δεξιά ή μνημονιακά κόμματα! Αυτό δεν παλεύεται μόνο με ένα καλό ιδεολογικό και οικονομικό πρόγραμμα.

      Η Δεξιά ειναι ριζωμένη στα μυαλά των ανθρώπων, οπως φαινεται από ΌΛΕΣ τις εκλογικές αναμετρήσεις μέχρι σήμερα.

    1. συνέβαλαν τελικά με έμμεσο τρόπο στον ραγδαίο αξιακό και πολιτισμικό εκσυγχρονισμό της. Ιδωμένη λοιπόν από την οπτική του παρόντος, η δικτατορία είτε δεν εμπόδισε τον πολιτικό και κοινωνικό εκσυγχρονισμό της χώρας είτε τον υποβοήθησε, χωρίς βέβαια να επιδιώκει κάτι τέτοιο.

      Εντυπωσιακό ξεπλυμα της Χούντας νο 2.

    2. Η χώρα αστικοποιήθηκε, η οικοδομική δραστηριότητα γνώρισε δόξες, το οδικό δίκτυο επεκτάθηκε, ο εξηλεκτρισμός της χώρας ολοκληρώθηκε και πραγματοποιήθηκαν μεγάλης κλίμακας ξένες επενδύσεις. Παρά τις αυταρχικές πρακτικές του καθεστώτος, πολλές τέχνες άνθησαν και η νεολαία προσέγγισε μαζικά τα δυτικά πρότυπα διασκέδασης, κατανάλωσης και ζωής. Η κοινωνία του 1974 μικρή σχέση είχε με αυτή του 1964.

      3η εξωφρενική προταση-ξεπλυμα της Χούντας.

    3. οι πραξικοπηματίες συνέβαλαν τελικά στον πλήρη εκδημοκρατισμό της Δεξιάς και διαμέσου αυτής και της χώρας.

      Ιστορική ακροβασία ξεπλύματος των χουντικών από τις λίγες!

    4. η νέα μεσαία τάξη που αναδύθηκε την περίοδο εκείνη απαίτησε, όταν ήρθε η στιγμή, τον απογαλακτισμό της από το καθεστώς που την ανέδειξε

      Η Χούντα γεννησε τη Μεσαία Ταξη στη Ελλάδα!!??!

    5. Η δικτατορία ξεπεράστηκε εύκολα και γρήγορα. Ισως γιατί υπήρξε ένα μικρό διάλειμμα δίχως μεγάλη σημασία.

      Ειναι εκτός τόπο και χρόνου με τη Ελληνική πραγματικότητα ο ξενοτραφής καθηγητής.

    1. Binstock: You once referred to computing as pop culture. Kay: It is. Complete pop culture. I’m not against pop culture. Developed music, for instance, needs a pop culture. There’s a tendency to over-develop. Brahms and Dvorak needed gypsy music badly by the end of the nineteenth century. The big problem with our culture is that it’s being dominated, because the electronic media we have is so much better suited for transmitting pop-culture content than it is for high-culture content. I consider jazz to be a developed part of high culture. Anything that’s been worked on and developed and you [can] go to the next couple levels. Binstock: One thing about jazz aficionados is that they take deep pleasure in knowing the history of jazz. Kay: Yes! Classical music is like that, too. But pop culture holds a disdain for history. Pop culture is all about identity and feeling like you’re participating. It has nothing to do with cooperation, the past or the future—it’s living in the present. I think the same is true of most people who write code for money. They have no idea where [their culture came from]—and the Internet was done so well that most people think of it as a natural resource like the Pacific Ocean, rather than something that was man-made. When was the last time a technology with a scale like that was so error-free? The Web, in comparison, is a joke. The Web was done by amateurs.

      This is a great definition of pop culture and a good contrast to high-culture.

      Here's the link to the entire interview: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/bbm%3A978-3-319-90008-7%2F1.pdf

    1. I really like the ideas in this game: the theme, what it's trying to accomplish (explore the problems with imperialism, if I understood correctly), the game board, the game in general. I want to like it.

      but, I don't think I would like this one enough due to the luck and relying on other players' whims (trading) mechanisms:

      • Dice Rolling
      • Push Your Luck

      You can risk a lot getting an expensive estate, but if you push your luck too much, your risk/gamble won't pay off and you'll permanently lose that [pawn] and those victory points.

    1. Unfortunately, there is some urgency to this effort. As Shashi Tharoor writes in his book Inglorious Empire (2018), over the past 30 years, there has been a tremendous bout of collective amnesia, espeically in the UK, about the history of empire and its consequences. Into this vacuum, revisionist historians of the worst kind like Niall Ferguson have capitalized on historical blind spots of people living today to make an absurd case for the benefits of empire. This cannot be allowed to happen. Tharoor believes that one of the best bulwarks against this erasure is to do the work of inquiry and to make the history of empire accessible and apparent to the widest audience. It is into this effort that I submit my work. John Company is an unsparing portrait that hopefully will give its players a sense of the nature of empire and the long half-life of its cultural production. It is certainly not the only way to make a game about empire, but I hope that it does its part in adding to our understanding of that subject and its continued legacy.
    1. the term historical revisionism identifies the re-interpretation of a historical account.[1] It usually involves challenging the orthodox (established, accepted or traditional) views held by professional scholars about an historical event or time-span or phenomenon, introducing contrary evidence, or reinterpreting the motivations and decisions of the people involved.
    1. In many computing contexts, "TTY" has become the name for any text terminal, such as an external console device, a user dialing into the system on a modem on a serial port device, a printing or graphical computer terminal on a computer's serial port or the RS-232 port on a USB-to-RS-232 converter attached to a computer's USB port, or even a terminal emulator application in the window system using a pseudoterminal device.

      It's still confusing, but this at least helps/tries to clarify.

    1. Some add a wildcard character to the name to make an abbreviation like "Un*x"[2] or "*nix", since Unix-like systems often have Unix-like names such as AIX, A/UX, HP-UX, IRIX, Linux, Minix, Ultrix, Xenix, and XNU. These patterns do not literally match many system names, but are still generally recognized to refer to any UNIX system, descendant, or work-alike, even those with completely dissimilar names such as Darwin/macOS, illumos/Solaris or FreeBSD.
    1. Amazing how many muslim temples existed in Athens circa 1831, as shown in this drawing about king Otto's marriage in Greece.

    1. But in ancient Mesopotamia, beginning around five thousand years ago, people used clay tokens to record transactions involving agricultural produce like barley or wool, or metals such as silver. Such tablets performed much the same function as a banknote. Often, through the centuries, traders have devised such tokens or bills without government involvement, especially at times when coins have been in short supply or debased and devalued.

      more BTC historical context.

    2. What is the right historical analogy for all this? Allen Farrington argues that Bitcoin is to the system of fiat currencies centered around the dollar what medieval Venice once was to the remnants of the western Roman Empire, as superior an economic operating system as commercial capitalism was to feudalism. Another possibility is that the advent of blockchain-based finance is as revolutionary as that of fractional reserve banking, bond and stock markets in the great Anglo-Dutch financial revolution of the 18th century.

      Historical context for bitcoin

    1. Although the art of mnemonics goes back to ancient Greece (theterm comes fromMnemosyne, the Greek goddess of memory), it wasnot until 1634 that a Frenchman named Pierre Hrigone published inParis hisCursus Mathematici,which contained an ingenious systemfor memorizing numbers.

      Curious what sort of research he may have done to date this back to Pierre Hérigone? Looking at many of his sources, I've seen many of the same. I love that he's used the same 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica that I've also run across.



  4. Mar 2021
    1. Μια πειστική αντίληψη διαβλέπει στην αδυναμία των πολιτικών ελίτ να λειτουργήσουν συναινετικά στο πρώτο μισό της δεκαετίας του ’60 το βασικό αίτιο της εκτροπής.

      Οι ελιτ που ριξαν την Κυβερνηση Κεντρου ηταν ο βασιλιας...σίγουρα, δεν ηθελε τθ συναικτική λειτουργία της χώρας!

    1. Βαζει στο "ιστορικό" μπλέντερρ:

      • το παρακρατος της Δεξιας το '60,
      • το ανταρτικο πολης το '80, και
      • τη λαϊκή βια των διαδηλωσεων του Γρηγορόπουλου Μνημονίων.

      Και καταλήγει πως η Αστυνομία των Πανεπιστημίων & η δυσμενής μεταχείριση του Κουφοντίνα ειναι καλά.

    1. Είτε ξεπλένει τη χούντα (18/6/2017) είτε το προδικτατορικό «λεγόμενο παρακράτος» (7/3/2021)
    2. προβληματική καταμέτρηση των εκατέρωθεν θυμάτων σε 57 όλα κι όλα χωριά της άκρως συντηρητικής Αργολίδας, σε ενάμισι μόνο από τα τέσσερα χρόνια της Κατοχής.

      Κριτική για το εργο του «Κόκκινος Τρόμος: αριστερή βία στη διάρκεια της Κατοχής» (2000).

    1. The internet is not the first promising technology to have quickly turned dystopian. In the early 20th century, radio was greeted with as much enthusiasm as the internet was in the early 21st. Radio will “fuse together all mankind” wrote Velimir Khlebnikov, a Russian futurist poet, in the 1920s. Radio would connect people, end war, promote peace!Almost immediately, a generation of authoritarians learned how to use radio for hate propaganda and social control. In the Soviet Union, radio speakers in apartments and on street corners blared Communist agitprop. The Nazis introduced the Volksempfänger, a cheap wireless radio, to broadcast Hitler’s speeches; in the 1930s, Germany had more radios per capita than anywhere else in the world.** In America, the new information sphere was taken over not by the state but by private media companies chasing ratings—and one of the best ways to get ratings was to promote hatred. Every week, more than 30 million would tune in to the pro-Hitler, anti-Semitic radio broadcasts of Father Charles Coughlin, the Detroit priest who eventually turned against American democracy itself.

      There is definitely a history of fast enthusiasm marked by misuse and abuse for many communication technologies.

    1. από το να μνημονεύουμε απλά τους ήρωες, να εξαίρουμε τα κατορθώματά τους και να εκφωνούμε πανηγυρικούς.

      Μαρξιστική ιστορία

    2. Για ν’ απελευθερωθούν οι άνθρωποι απ’ τα πολιτικά δεσμά, πρέπει ν’ απελευθερωθούν πρώτα απ’ τα πνευματικά τους δεσμά.

      1ο συμπέρασμα

    3. Πως κανένας σημαντικός εθνικός στόχος και καμιά εθνική υπόθεση δεν μπορούν να κερδηθούν δίχως να κερδηθεί και η διεθνής κοινή γνώμη, δίχως να πειστεί για τον δίκαιο χαρακτήρα τους, δίχως τελικά να οικοδομηθούν κάποιες διεθνείς συμμαχίες.

      3ο συμπέρασμα

    4. Το αποδεικνύουν οι πολιτικές εξεγέρσεις όπως αυτή του 1843 για την καθιέρωση του Συντάγματος ή εκείνη του 1862 που οδήγησε στην έξωση του Οθωνα. Το μαρτυρά με τον πλέον εκκωφαντικό τρόπο η εξαιρετικά πρωτοπόρα για την εποχή, σε σχέση με το διεθνές πλαίσιο, de facto καθιέρωση του καθολικού εκλογικού δικαιώματος (για τους άνδρες) στη χώρα μας ήδη από το 1844, κάτι που θα κατοχυρωθεί και συνταγματικά δύο δεκαετίες αργότερα. Το υπενθυμίζουν και ορισμένες άλλες θεσμικές αποτυπώσεις, όπως η καθιέρωση της Αρχής της Δεδηλωμένης το 1875, καθώς και κοινωνικές μεταρρυθμίσεις όπως η διανομή των εθνικών γαιών σε ακτήμονες το 1871.

      Απαριθμηση των βασικών συνταγματικών αγώνων στην Ελλάδα του 19ου.

    1. «Οι Μοραΐτες ελύσαξαν από τα πολλά πλούτη, τα οποία ήρπασαν από τους Τούρκους της Τριπολιτσάς, του Ναυπλίου, του Λάλα, της Κορίνθου, της Μονεμβασιάς, του Νεοκάστρου και των λοιπών μερών και έγιναν ντερμπέηδες και προσπαθούν να αντικαταστήσουν τον Κιαμήλ Μπέη και τους λοιπούς μπέηδες και αγάδες. Και εσείς τρέχετε αυτού, χωρίς ψωμί, χωρίς τσαρούχι, χωρίς φορέματα, με μια παλιοκάπα, καταβασίνεζσθε. Τι λοιπόν περιμένετε; Άλλην αρμοδιωτέραν και ευτυχεστέραν δια σας περίστασιν δεν θέλει εύρητε ποτέ δια να πλουτίσετε μικροί και μεγάλοι. Τώρα άνοιξαν δια εσάς δυο πηγαί πλούτου, οι λίρες του δανείου και τα πλούσια λάφυρα του Μωρέως. Τι άλλο πλέον επιθυμείτε;»  Την επιστολή τη μάθαμε, εμείς οι νεοέλ
    1. But after Lenin's death in 1923, says Wolff, Stalin short-circuited those plans by simply declaring the Soviet Union a communist-socialist state.

      R.Wolff describes how Stalin declared SU had reched Communism.

    1. στην πορεία υπέστησαν πολλά βασανιστήρια  απειλές, ξυλοδαρμούς

      Eπιχειρήματα που αντικρούουν τους ισχυρισμούς για βασανιστηρια δινει ο oberon (κόκκινος φακελος), μαζί με φωτογραφίες των ναζί από τα πτώματα των νεκρών της εκρηξης (κατά πάσα πιθανότητα). Μονη ασαφής αναφορά, στον Ριζοσπαστη.

    1. he Cyborg Manifesto, Donna Haraway talks about the possibility of networks. While the Facebook of 2021 strings us out along a spectrum and pushes us to either end, Haraway’s conception of a network in 1985 is “the profusion of space and identities and the permeability of boundaries in the personal body and the body politic.” I

      An interesting data point in the evolution of networks

    1. Promoting the idea of a more inclusive calendar that marks the rise of humanity as the year zero, so that we have a better overall view of human progress.

      Uses the idea of HE (human era) instead of BCE, CE, etc.

    2. <small><cite class='h-cite via'> <span class='p-author h-card'>Murray Adcock</span> in theAdhocracy (<time class='dt-published'>03/15/2021 16:10:45</time>)</cite></small>

    1. Athena is still in production use at MIT. It works as software (currently a set of Debian packages)[2] that makes a machine a thin client, that will download educational applications from the MIT servers on demand
    1. It’s grand larceny and, as usual, what is being stolen is power.

      This is a striking last sentence; his representation of the recent voter suppression tactics as theft is a powerful symbolism. His connection to the past, "another of history's racist robberies", also appeals to the audience emotionally since the topic of past racism is touchy and logic; no one denies that these events happened in the past.

  5. Feb 2021
    1. In history, for example, he told me, “history was taught from the perspective that America was wrong – and always wrong and … uniquely evil, uniquely pernicious, never ever morally right, never ever justified in any decision that we ever made.”

      I'd be curious to see Miller take his high school textbook and point to specific phrasing to back this up. Even now most US History textbooks are espousing American exceptionalism.

    2. He was so deeply offended and concerned by the notion that somehow it was America’s fault that a group of radical, violent Islamist terrorists killed nearly 3,000 Americans that it opened his eyes to the indoctrination that was happening in his classes.

      This seems to be true revisionist history. No one I've come across took a "blame America first" approach. Gingrich and Miller would be incredibly hard pressed to come up with contemporaneous statements that back up this proposition.

    3. He is seriously concerned – as many of us are – about the destructive repercussions of identity politics, the censorship of dissenting opinion, and the rewriting of American history.

      A lot of inflammatory dog whistle rhetoric here (not to mention the poor use of en dashes posing as em dashes).

      He calls out destructive repercussions of identity politics, but fails to notice that everyone wants to feel safe in their identity, not just cis-gendered white male Republicans.

      He calls out censorship of dissenting opinion while writing on his own website. When did the government censor his opinions or any other opinions? Republicans are so pro-corporation and pro-enterprise, but then get upset when those same great companies enforce basic social norms?

      And then, in the same breath: "rewriting American history?!" Perhaps we just taking a more nuanced perspective of the actual truths? Maybe we're hearing the stories and perspectives of those who's dissenting opinions have been not only been censored out of the media, but never allowed in for almost 250 years?

    1. He pointed out that the Web still lacks nearly every one of the advanced features he and his colleagues were trying to realize. There is no transclusion. There is no way to create links inside other writers' documents. There is no way to follow all the references to a specific document.

      Shortcomings of today's WWWeb in comparison to what Xanadu has visioned.

    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2021, January 18). Calling lawyers, historians, and political scientists. A thread on the value of life. I’m still stunned by Lord Sumption, ex-judge on UK’s Supreme Court, now anti-lockdown campaigner, publicly stating that the life of a woman with stage 4 bowel cancer was ‘less valuable’ 1/4 [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1351118909886312449

    1. With the introduction of CPUs which ran faster than the original 4.77 MHz Intel 8088 used in the IBM Personal Computer, programs which relied on the CPU's frequency for timing were executing faster than intended. Games in particular were often rendered unplayable. To provide some compatibility, the "turbo" button was added. Engaging turbo mode slows the system down to a state compatible with original 8086/8088 chips.
    1. Extropians and other early transhumanists also had a longstandinginterest in self-historicisation. Theyseemed to have a feeling that what they were doing at the time was important and that one day people would want to know about it.

      Well, I think anyone reading this book certainly does.

    2. In retrospect, such a meme, then all in fun,now seems to pose a significant PR problem for transhumanists. Despite their youthfully optimistic parties and wordplay, extropianism always had a serious and strongly academic side and, over time, in keeping with its principle of self-transformation, the handshakes and the outfits fell away. This is perhaps part of the reason that some former extropians and early transhumanists, who remain active transhumanists today, rarely mention Machado and her antics when reflecting on the early days of transhumanism.

      Suspect the rationalists will encounter Many Such Cases as time goes on.

    3. Marvin Minskysaid of the extropians, with whom he often associated,“they’re extremists... but that’s the way you get good ideas.”

      "Eclecticism may be defined as the practice of choosing apparently irreconcilable doctrines from antagonistic schools and constructing therefrom a composite philosophic system in harmony with the convictions of the eclectic himself. Eclecticism can scarcely be considered philosophically or logically sound, for as individual schools arrive at their conclusions by different methods of reasoning, so the philosophic product of fragments from these schools must necessarily be built upon the foundation of conflicting premises. Eclecticism, accordingly, has been designated the layman's cult. In the Roman Empire little thought was devoted to philosophic theory; consequently most of its thinkers were of the eclectic type. Cicero is the outstanding example of early Eclecticism, for his writings are a veritable potpourri of invaluable fragments from earlier schools of thought. Eclecticism appears to have had its inception at the moment when men first doubted the possibility of discovering ultimate truth. Observing all so-called knowledge to be mere opinion at best, the less studious furthermore concluded that the wiser course to pursue was to accept that which appeared to be the most reasonable of the teachings of any school or individual. From this practice, however, arose a pseudo-broadmindedness devoid of the element of preciseness found in true logic and philosophy."

      — Manly P. Hall, The Secret Teachings Of All Ages

    4. These ideals were first promoted by The Church of Venturism, which was founded in 1986. However, the ‘Church,’ which promoted rational thinking and decried mysticism, soon changed itsname tothe Society for Venturism.

      "Society for" is an interesting replacement for "Church of".

    5. To all this, the extropians said no. There is more to come, and better things lie on the horizon. Evolution mandates change, and “in the long run the positive potentials for intelligent beings are virtually limitless.” Believing that they were theagents of their own destiny, extropians aimed to be catalysts for progressive change, adopting “a positive, dynamic, empowering attitude,” while rejecting, “gloom, defeatism, and the typical focus on the negatives.”

      Interesting to note that this was the plank where Eliezer Yudkowsky couldn't find himself agreeing (and I don't entirely blame him). Seems like a situation where the status quo is so astonishingly broken that just reversing it seems like a useful thing to do, but then that doesn't actually get you something philosophically coherent except in the context that the status quo exists to moderate its influence.

    6. Extropymag was one of the two main mediums in which extropian ideas were circulated—the other was, of course, the Internet. The first issue of Extropyin 1988 had a print run of 50 and interest was scant. Speaking about the first editions, More recalls, “we basically forced them on people.”444By 1992,the editors were churning out 750 copies,445and in the subsequent Winter/Spring edition of 1993, the output more than trebled to 2,500.446In 1992 a separate newsletter, Exponent, was launched and circulated bi-monthly, and in 1993 Extropywas printed in colour for the first time. By 1995, the print run per issue was 4,500.447Althoughthese are ultimately small print numbers, every increase was seen by Extropy’s founding editors as an important milestone in the pursuit of what More referred to as the “inexorable advance”448of extropianism.

      These are interesting numbers to contemplate in terms of how few people have actually heard these ideas and arguments before in a serious way.

    7. While still a student at MIT, a young Eric Drexler met O’Neill, for whom he worked as a research assistantat Princeton in the summer of 1974, funded by the wealthy patron and influential space colonisation spokeswoman, Barbara Marx Hubbard(another devotee of Teilhard’s ideas).408Drexler“went on to develop plans for lunar factories, solar sails, and methods to mine asteroids for mineral resources” and “was one of the L5 Society’s most articulate and vocal advocates for an expanded human presence in space.”409Butby the late 70s,Drexler began to turn his attentionto a new concept, nanotechnology, which fed into the space colonisation dream, but also broadened the emphasis of the L5 space-age, human potential movement, into something that underpinned cryonics and life-extensionist ambitions,and other facets of what later became a distinctly transhumanist vision of the future.

      Clear connection between transition from SL2 to SL3.

    8. Although Haldaneobserved thatthe progress of science had been staggeringly rapid in the last hundred and forty years, he considered it, “quite as likely as not that scientific research may ultimately bestrangled in some such way as this before mankind has learned to control its own evolution.”

      Again considering Hall's Where Is My Flying Car? one could argue that this is exactly what has happened with respect to nuclear power and the original acceleration we were heading for that stalled in the 20th century.

    9. It may be urged that they are only fit to be placed in the hands of a being who has learned to control himself, and that man armed with science is like a baby with a box of matches.

      Giving society cheap, abundant energy would be the equivalent of giving an idiot child a machine gun.

      — Paul Ehrlich

    10. John Burdon Sanderson Haldane was the son of the leading Scottish physiologist, John Scott Haldane, from whom J.B.S. learned “the fundamentals of science,”an education that began very early in his life.Throughout the younger Haldane’s youth, the pair undertook many “legendary and daring physiological experiments,”

      Another father-son pair.

    11. Teilhard consistentlyargued that,“the main movement in the universe has been, and is, a groping towards consciousness.”262Evolution, in hisview, exhibits a tendency towards increasing complexity and “cerebralisation.”263To date, this process has resulted in the emergence of humans, highly complex creatures thathave in turn given rise to a new “‘thinking layer,’” or noosphere—the complex web of collective thought and technologies that have dramatically extended humanity’s reach within the biosphere.264

      The tendency to ascribe a telos to evolution is an interesting trend here. It's essentially anthropomorphizing Darwin's ideas in ways that don't really track the reality. Natural selection is after what is adaptive in a particular context, it does not actually have to trend towards greater complexity and greater minds.

    12. The most impressive, I might say startling, of these changes have been brought about in the course of the last two centuries; while a right comprehension of the process of life and of the means of influencing its manifestations is only just dawning upon us.

      In the 19th century it was often believed that we were on the verge of completely unlocking the secrets of life, such that we would gain the ability to create and modify it to our specifications.

      The late 18th and early 19th century research along these lines was the basic inspiration for Mary Shelley's Frankenstein.

    13. TheIndustrial Revolution isthe first strong historical analog for the modern phenomenonof a quantum leap in human progress, resulting in radically altered ways of life in a short span of time.

      As Hall points out in Where Is My Flying Car? there is a strong argument to be made that the industrial revolution was a social chain reaction that had already set off an exponential improvement process on its way to 'singularity', this was disrupted in the 20th century however. But prior to that it had been ongoing for 300 years at a steady average rate of 7% more usable power annually.

    1. 21st Century Economics (USA)

      Economic Theory of a Market Economy, Characteristics, Pros, and Cons

      Americans and the World believe or want to believe that the United States is built upon a Market Economy.

      Historical context validates a classic Market Economy theory as directed by our Founding Fathers and Constitution. We clearly do not have a pure Market Economy today (2021).

      • To Big to Fail - (Bailouts)
      • Farm Subsidies
      • Political Influence (money, lobbying, tenure)
      • Government Agencies
      • Military/Industrial Complex
      • Federal Reserve (Central Banking)
      • Social Security
      • Medicare
      • Other

      Most Americans lump (through education) the concept of economics and government together, into 3 basic categories; Capitalism, Socialism and Communism.

      The U.S. is a Capitalist Nation with a corresponding market economy.

      Is this statement Fact or Hypothesis ?

      Can we still rely on textbook economic models in the 21st Century?

    1. Book in Smyrna during 1764-1922 reveal that it wasn't a "greek city" at those time where thnic states had not yet materialized.

    1. Commonplacing was like quilting: it produced pictures, some more beautiful than others, but each of them interesting in its own way. The assembled texts reveal patterns of culture: the segments that went into it, the stitching that connected them, the tears that pulled them apart, and the common cloth of which they were composed.

      A nice little analogy here.

    2. Foucault probably offers the most helpful theoretical approach. His “archaeology of knowledge” suggests a way to study texts as sites that bear the marks of epistemological activity, and it has the advantage of doing justice to the social dimension of thought.

    1. Αυτή η ανισορροπία δεν θα κατορθώσει να συνεχιστεί, εκτός αν η Ευρώπη γίνει ένα αστυνομοκρατούμενο φρούριο.
    2. η Eλλάδα θα γίνει ένα τουριστικό ξενοδοχείο ας πούμε. Tα σημαντικά πράγματα θα πέσουν στα χέρια ξένων εταιριών, οι Έλληνες θα είναι διευθυντές ξενοδοχείων και γκαρσόνια, χορευτές στα καμπαρέ κ.λπ.
    3. Ενόψει μιας παγκόσμιας οικολογικής καταστροφής, παραδείγματος χάριν, κάποιος/κάποια μπορεί πολύ εύκολα να δει αυταρχικά καθεστώτα να επιβάλλουν  δρακόντειους περιορισμούς σε έναν πανικόβλητο και απαθή πληθυσμό.
    4. Το να πούμε, όπως λέχθηκε απ’ όσους υπέγραψαν την «Έκκληση της Χαϊλδεβέργης» (την οποία, από την πλευρά μου, μάλλον θα ονόμαζα Έκκληση της Νυρεμβέργης), ότι η επιστήμη και μόνο η επιστήμη μπορεί να λύσει όλα τα προβλήματα, είναι αποκαρδιωτικό.
    1. The author's hierarchical tags are delimited by dashes(-). I do it by dots(.). That's a convention we have to decide.

    1. Skinner’s reinforcement theory was used to create carefully constructed self­-instructional materials

      I always wondered about the beginning of Instuctional Design, and it is nice to understand that Skinnerian psychology had a part in forming the foundation of Instuctional Design We know today.

    1. Was it not too much, to combine the vaccines for three different illnesses at once? Was there a chance Tobie could get these diseases from the vaccines themselves? Given that he was premature, given that he was so tiny, wouldn’t the vaccines be even harder for him to take than they’d be for a full-term baby? Why immunize him against diseases that we no longer see? If vaccines were as good as doctors seemed to think they were, why were there so many websites warning against them?

      Questions worth to test the doctors to answer.

    2. “Often the first question that I address with parents is: What’s your opinion about vaccines for your baby?” he said. “What do you think?”

      First question to ask.

    1. Ah, the old advertising games... It's kind of hard to explain for new generation of players, but back in the days we had games fully dedicated to certain brands. And they wanted us to pay for them. Don't get me wrong, I'm not talking about games like Zool and Biker Mice from Mars that used to include excessive product placement. Even some Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles games had it. I'm talking about games that were created solely to promote a certain brand. Like Pepsiman, where we played as that weird Pepsi mascot, or Avoid the Noid with the scary bunny-like... creature from Domino's (there was actually another game about him, but it was just a “hack” of somewhat popular Famicom game Kamen no Ninja: Hanamaru). Like I've said, it's kind of hard to explain, but back in the days, kids were less sarcastic, while Ads were... well, a bit more than just Ads.With no Internet, with TV being way more than it's today and with way, WAY less rules applied (because SEGA does what Nintendon't), Ads were more than just that annoying thing that interrupts Rhett and Link on YouTube. Those were almost art on their own. And the perfect scenario for a brand was to create the mascots so cool that everybody would want to buy merchandise with it. I mean, aside from the main product. Like, everybody loves Cap'n Crunch (huge fan here). But would you also pay for a PEZ dispenser with the man? Would you like a T-shirt? That's how it worked back in the days. And with video games starting to recover from large-scale recession of early 80s, when crappy products like Pepsi Invaders almost killed the entire market, we've got ourselves advertising games... that were actually quite good.Believe it, or not, but the games about 7-Up's Spot, Cheetos' Chester Cheetah and even McDonald's Ronald McDonald were actually pretty solid. And sometimes there were even games that tried to achieve more than that. From a fourth generation platformer with kickass soundtrack called Global Gladiators that used to include McDonald's kids Mick and Mack (previously included in the game called MC Kids, which wasn't as good) to a weird 3D action game called Darkened Skye, which featured magic system based on Skittles. Let's just say that advertising games were not as simple as you may think. And this one? Not only it's my most favorite game of the kind, it's, like, one of my most favorite puzzle games... ever. Together with The Incredible Machines, Supaplex and so on. It's that good.First of all, Pushover is a game that was made to promote a popular British snack Quavers (they're so curly!). Quavers are the curly potato puffs and their mascot, Colin Curly... just lost all of them. So, as Colin's ant friend, we need to go down through the ant hill to some caves (because reasons) and get them back. That's pretty much all the background we've got here. Nothing big, nothing really interesting, but... it doesn't matter. Like... at all. The thing is – Pushover is an action puzzle game, the story doesn't really matter in that genre, while gameplay-wise... well, like I've said, this game is totally awesome.Long story short, Pushover is all about the domino effect. You push (hence the title) one block and watch the others falling. Naturally, your goal is to drop all the blocks on level during the limited amount of time. After that, you'll be able to exit the current level and get the password for the next one. Which will be very useful, since the game comes with the whooping 100 levels, some of which will be pretty tricky. Sounds pretty dull, though, can't argue with that. I mean, who cares about domino, right? Pushing blocks on 100 levels... sounds boring, right? But it's not that simple.See, there are ten different types of blocks in this game. All with their own unique properties. And trying to figure out how to drop all blocks on the levels with just a couple of pushes? It's just fun. Very, very fun. So fun that I actually love this game more than Lemmings. And everybody knows just how fun Lemmings game is. Pushover is just... well, it's hard to explain, but it's one of those games, which just “click”. It's one of those games, in which “stars” aligned perfectly. Controls are simple enough, the puzzles are very interesting and tricky (but not too tricky to make you feel bad), the graphics is very cute, the sound has that awesome “Sound Blaster” feeling... Pushover is just one of those games that you can't stop playing. 28 years later? I still can't get enough of it. And it's not just me. Even though the game was ported to quite a lot of systems (there was even SNES version with all Quavers Ads completely removed), there was a fan-made remake released in 2006. Guess, it says something.What we have here is a 100% original (not remade) DOS version (runs through DOSBox), but guess what? No complains here. Even though very often Amiga versions had better music, Pushover was not one of such games (I totally prefer the DOS sound), while all “big three” versions (Amiga, Atari ST and DOS) look almost identical and I'm not a big fan of those “filters” from fan-made remake. I mean... it's pretty cool version and stuff, but... there's nothing like the original.So, yeah. I can't recommend this game enough. Pushover is charming, cute, smart and extremely addicting puzzle game from early nineties. You like games like Lemmings, Bomberman, Wrecking Crew and so on? You should totally check this one out. Like the original Goonies (which also got fan-made remake, by the way), this game is a forgotten gem from the past. It's in my Steam favorites and it'll stay there forever. I love it that much. Dixi.
  6. Jan 2021
    1. I've seen prior references to Italians, Irish, and others which were considered non-white in the late 1800's and early 1900's and which are now broadly considered white in the late 1900's. Now this seems to indicate something similar for Jews in America.

      I'm curious what lessons could be drawn here for anti-racism?

    1. There was no awareness that any kind of coherent history of the periods before the development of writing was possible at all. In the words of the Danish scholar Rasmus Nyerup (1759–1829): Everything which has come down to us from heathen-dom is wrapped in a thick fog; it belongs to a space of time which we cannot measure. We know that it is older than Christendom, but whether by a couple of years or a couple of centuries, or even by more than a millennium, we can do no more than guess.

      This is particularly interesting in light of the research of Charles Darwin and Charles Lyell who within about 50 years dramatically changed the viewpoint of history.



    1. Twitter threads gave illness a name and a face, grounding the dread in particular bodies and disparate — if often overlapping — experiences. They placed these experiences in history, creating an archive of disease, fear, rage, and hope that will persist even as these feelings — and some of these people — have passed.

      Archives are only worth their weight in water if interested parties can find what they're looking for. When artifacts aren't gathered and curated into public-facing unities or collections, then history elides them until further notice. These threads are still floating in the sprawl of the Twitterverse, placed into history and drowned out by an ocean of pure, frantic noise. What this piece makes evident to me is the need for restoration: that they need to be resurfaced, preserved, made visible again.

    1. He attended naval college as a teenager and served in the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force during the First World War.

      His service history

    1. Godwin wasn’t convinced. Hiscounterargument, neatly summarised by Porter, was that “such a threat would be averted by the simultaneous withering away of sexual desires—a proposal which notoriously reduced Malthus to guffaws.”

      I'd have laughed too, but for the present moment this seems to in fact be the case.

    2. Another thinkerof the period, whose life also extended into the nineteenth century,was the British philosopher and novelist William Godwin (1756-1836). Godwin was the father of Mary Shelley, the author ofthe classic gothic novel,Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus(1823). Hewasalsoan ardent believer in the power of reason and mind to improve the human condition. According to the Stanford Encyclopediaof Philosophy, Godwinwas a prolongevist who:... looked forward to a period in which the dominance of mind over matter would be so complete that mental perfectibility would take a physical form, allowingus to control illness and ageing and become immortal.

      Oddly enough Montillo's account of how Frankenstein was written fails to mention this about Godwin. An even stranger omission when you realize that, at least to my memory, Shelley would hide as a child in the living room and eavesdrop on her fathers conversations.

    3. O that moral science were in as fair a way of improvement, that men would cease to be wolves to one another, and the human beings would at length learn what they now improperly call humanity!
    4. Today, Mr. Machine, as La Mettrie mechanically dubbed himself, finally has his audience.

      Or as he might be termed today, Mr. Robot.

    5. 14Like all other ideas and movements, transhumanism is a product of its time. Transhumanist ambitions of radical life extension, brain uploading, intelligence augmentation, and space colonisation, could not be taken seriously as realisticprojectsbefore the invention of modern computers and rockets, the discovery of DNA, or the rapid increases in computing power and the declining cost of computation—all of which took place in the twentieth century

      On the one hand there's definitely a lot of truth to this, on the other hand interest in this kind of project has waxed and waned since at least the middle ages. Roger Bacon believed that alchemy would allow humans to prolong life using the same mechanism as the Christian resurrection.


      I explore the prehistory of transhumanism in some detail here:


    1. its people have shared a history of common struggle and achievement, from carving communities out of a vast, untamed wilderness, to winning independence and forming a new government, through wars, industrialization

      We gotta do this clause by clause:

      • "its people have shared a history of common struggle and achievement" - no. Aside from the long history of dispute about who born in the United States really "counts" as an "American", there has never been a common struggle.
      • "carving communities out of a vast, untamed wilderness" - no. As of this writing I have finished reading the first half of the document and there has, as yet, been no mention of Indigenous peoples. (Also, see the vast literature on the relationship between expansionism, the "frontier", and American exceptionalism.)
      • "winning independence and forming a new government" - dramatic oversimplification. Interesting fact about this document: in contains almost no references to state government.
      • "wars, industrialization, waves of immigration, technological progress, and political change" - not highlighting this because it's wrong, but because it implies a strictly linear progress of history that is typical of American exceptionalism and intellectual arguments for racism, colonialism, etc.

      All in all, what Luke said.

    1. History repeatedly documents the death knells that never came. Writing destroys the mind! Books destroy the mind! Radio destroys the mind! TV destroys the mind! The world wide web destroys the mind! Social media destroys the mind! Except they didn’t and probably don’t. What new mediums do destroy is the primacy of older ones.
    1. Prior to the adoption of the Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) standard, JSONP was the only option to get a JSON response from a server of a different origin.
    1. Johnson: Earlier I interviewed you about patrilocal residence patterns and how that alters women’s sexual choices. In contrast, matrilocal societies are more likely to be egalitarian. What are the factors that lead to the differences between these two systems?Hrdy: I think in societies where women have more say, and that does tend to be in societies that are matrilocal and with matrilineal descent or where, as it is among many small scale hunter-gatherers, you have porous social boundaries and flexible residence patterns. If I had to say what kind of residence patterns our ancestors had it would have been very flexible, what Frank Marlowe calls multilocal.

      Matrilocality, matrilinearity and egailitarianism.

  7. Dec 2020
    1. The length of the Ark gives him occasion to discussthe membership of the Church (who are the occupants of the different chambers of thetriple-decked Ark) through three divisions of time: the age of nature, the age of law, andthe age of grace, in a concise chronological summary of spiritual history (paras. 11–13).

      spiritual history

    1. Nevertheless, the limits of freedom are apparent in the response toNizardo’s own petition. The town council rejected it because the lot wasnot located“near where the other free blacks are.”As early as the mid-sixteenth century, the local authorities of Havana were crafting a socialand residential urban layout that identified blackness with certain areasof the emerging city.



  8. Nov 2020
    1. “So I mean there are enormous chunks of our own history that are just missing. It’s no wonder that the people in our state have an identity crisis; we don’t know our own story. If you don’t know your own story, how can you determine what you are?” said Chuck Keeney.
    1. They are often cited as the first website to feature banner ads.

      If, indeed, Wired invented the banner ad, it is also worth mentioning that wired.com was one of the last websites to be rendered completely unusable by them (when it was still running on the old CMS. idk about now.)

      I love @LaurenGoode and find her insight very worthwhile even in this format, but I really wish the platform on which it now resides (Wired's CMS) wasn't *completely* and *entirely* broken. Chorus should've been a package deal. https://t.co/OweeG30jR6

      — ※ David Blue ※ (@NeoYokel) July 13, 2019
      <script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>

    2. The first Wired website, therefore, has a unique distinction of being an unofficial, amateur project led by two people from a different country uploading copyrighted content they didn’t own to a site that lacked any of the panache, glitz, or unconventional charm that had made Wired famous.

      Not sure how to feel about this...

      Now that I have read the story this way, I'm wondering...

      Might one