140 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2024
    1. By eleven o’clock the next day we were well upon our way to the old English capital. Holmes had been buried in the morning papers all the way down, but after we had passed the Hampshire border he threw them down and began to admire the scenery. It was an ideal spring day, a light blue sky, flecked with little fleecy white clouds drifting across from west to east. The sun was shining very brightly, and yet there was an exhilarating nip in the air, which set an edge to a man’s energy. All over the countryside, away to the rolling hills around Aldershot, the little red and grey roofs of the farm-steadings peeped out from amid the light green of the new foliage. “Are they not fresh and beautiful?” I cried with all the enthusiasm of a man fresh from the fogs of Baker Street. But Holmes shook his head gravely. “Do you know, Watson,” said he, “that it is one of the curses of a mind with a turn like mine that I must look at everything with reference to my own special subject. You look at these scattered houses, and you are impressed by their beauty. I look at them, and the only thought which comes to me is a feeling of their isolation and of the impunity with which crime may be committed there.” “Good heavens!” I cried. “Who would associate crime with these dear old homesteads?” “They always fill me with a certain horror. It is my belief, Watson, founded upon my experience, that the lowest and vilest alleys in London do not present a more dreadful record of sin than does the smiling and beautiful countryside.” “You horrify me!” “But the reason is very obvious. The pressure of public opinion can do in the town what the law cannot accomplish. There is no lane so vile that the scream of a tortured child, or the thud of a drunkard’s blow, does not beget sympathy and indignation among the neighbours, and then the whole machinery of justice is ever so close that a word of complaint can set it going, and there is but a step between the crime and the dock. But look at these lonely houses, each in its own fields, filled for the most part with poor ignorant folk who know little of the law. Think of the deeds of hellish cruelty, the hidden wickedness which may go on, year in, year out, in such places, and none the wiser.
  2. Feb 2024
    1. Michel Forst, UN-Berichterstatter zur Aarhus-Konvention, hat die europäischen Regierungen aufgefordert, Klima-Aktivist:innen zu unterstützen statt sie zu kriminalisieren. Die zunehmende Repression gefährde das Erreichen der Pariser Klimaziele und Demokratie und Menschenrechte in Europa. Forst erwartet, dass Protest und direkte Aktion zunehmen, weil die aktuelle Politik vieler europäischer Regierungen die wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisse zu globaler Erhitzung, Biodiversitätsverlust und Umweltverschmutzung nicht respektiert. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2024/feb/28/european-nations-must-end-repression-of-peaceful-climate-protest-says-un-expert

      Positionspapier von Michel Forst: https://unece.org/sites/default/files/2024-02/UNSR_EnvDefenders_Aarhus_Position_Paper_Civil_Disobedience_EN.pdf

  3. Dec 2023
  4. Oct 2023
  5. May 2023
    1. Discussing the documentary system of surveillance, Foucault points toa “partly official, partly secret hierarchy” in Paris that had been using a card index to managedata on suspects and criminals at least since 1833.

      source apparently from: “Apparition de la fiche et constitution des sciences humaines: encore une invention que les historiens célèbrent peu.” Michel Foucault, Surveillir et punir. Naissance de la prison (Paris: Gallimard, 1975), 287, referring to A. Bonneville, De la recidive (Paris, 1844), 92–93.

  6. Feb 2023
    1. What the two fictions share is a solitary, restless, irritable hero and a feeling for the feverish, crowded streets and dives of St. Petersburg—an atmosphere of careless improvidence, neglect, self-neglect, cruelty, even sordidness.

      What a beautiful way to describe the connection between Crime and Punishment and Notes from Underground.

  7. Jan 2023
    1. T he REVELATIONS about the possible complicity of the Bulgarian secret police in the shooting of the Pope have produced a grudging admission, even in previously skeptical quarters, that the Soviet Union may be involved in international terrorism. Some patterns have emerged in the past few years that tell us some- thing about the extent to which the Kremlin may use terrorism as an instrument of policy. A great deal of information has lately come to light, some of it accurate, some of it not. One of the most interesting developments appears to be the emergence of a close working relation- ship between organized crime (especially drug smug- glers and dealers) and some of the principal groups in the terrorist network.

  8. Dec 2022
    1. to lowered economic productivity through reduced earnings. In addition,increased health costs amount to $192 billion, whereas costs associated withincreased crime and incarceration (increased victimization costs of street crime;increased corrections and crime deterrence; increased social costs of incarcer-ation) total $406 billion.

      Childhood poverty results in an annual loss of $294 billion due...

  9. Oct 2022
    1. Earlier this year, Police Commissioner James O'Neill admitted that a "theft of services" arrest (the legal code name for turnstile jumping) could in fact lead to an immigrant getting deported. And earlier this month, a series of bills the City Council passed last year encouraging the use of civil summonses instead of arrests for quality of life crimes like public drinking, public urination and littering went into effect.

      Excusing criminality in a matter of deference to foreign nationals who are unlawfully present in the United States is perverse. The immigration laws have many provisions by design to ensure that foreign nationals who violate the laws of the United States in certain ways are not allowed to remain and harm the safety of Americans.

    2. The change in how turnstile jumping will be prosecuted comes at a time when the city's reliance on Broken Windows policing is under fire because of its impact on New York's low-income non-white community

      Crime has a significant effect on the entire New York City community, but especially on the low income community. Many NYC officials prioritize minimizing the effect of the law on criminals over minimizing the effect of criminals on law-abiding citizens.

    3. Vance announced in a press release this morning that his office "will no longer prosecute the overwhelming majority of individuals charged with Theft of Services for subway-related offenses, unless there is a demonstrated public safety reason to do so," starting in September of this year.

      DA Vance ignoring the possibility that people who engage in theft of public services are more likely to present a risk to public safety than those who do not.

    1. Currently, most theft-of-service cases are handled with summonses and rarely reach prosecution, according to a spokesman for the Brooklyn District Attorney’s Office. Manhattan District Attorney Alvin Bragg does not prosecute fare beaters, according to a spokesman for his office.

      DA Alvin Bragg continuing Cyrus Vance's policy of declining to enforce theft of public services law.

    2. “We have seen over a 55% increase of assaults on officers this year,” NYPD Transit Chief Jason Wilcox said. “The majority of these assaults began as they were engaging persons who have committed fare evasion or other quality of life violations on the trains and stations.”

      Violent incidents wherein officers are attacked trying to issue summonses to criminals engaging in turnstile jumping.

    3. NYPD enforcement is also up. Police have issued 45, 667 summonses for fare beating this year, up from 36,669 in 2021, according to an NYPD spokesperson. Other transit crimes that have been a growing issue are grand larceny, robbery, and felony assault, according to Comp Stat figures.

      Increase in summonses for fare evasion in 2022 over 2021.

    4. In just the first three months of this year, the MTA has lost $62 million in revenue from turnstile jumpers and an additional $57 million from passengers taking free bus rides, according to MTA data.

      MTA's 2022 statistics on money lost to fare evasion.

    1. A 17-year-old wanted for murder was arrested when authorities caught him trying to get through a Brooklyn subway turnstile without paying, sources said.

      This story highlights that policing turnstile jumping is not only an issue of fairness for law-abiding fare-paying MTA customers, but also a matter for the security of all New Yorkers. People inclined toward violence and other crimes are not likely to pay fares for Subways and buses. Policing the turnstile offers an opportunity to stop them for fare-beating and make it more difficult to victimize people on trains and across New York City.

    1. Fortunately, there are other ways to protect the transit system’s revenue stream and promote orderly conduct without jeopardizing the personal liberty of riders. In Washington, D.C., the city council voted to decriminalize fare evasion, overriding the mayor’s veto.

      Unclear why Washington DC, which is one of the highest crime jurisdictions in the United States and has serious financial issues, is a model to follow.

    2. The crackdown should concern New Yorkers, because fare evasion enforcement is highly disproportionate. According to the most recent NYPD data, 92% of the 481 fare evasion arrests in the fourth quarter of 2019 were of non-white riders; 60% were black. Data like that led New York Attorney General Letitia James to announce a probe of racial disparities in fare evasion stops.

      There's an unexplained assumption that people NYC-wide crime statistics should mirror population statistics. This is not the case with many crimes where enforcement disparities would have no effect, homicides being one example.

    1. Ind ividua ls a re not pe rmitted to ente r the Ne w Y ork Cit y Tr an sit subw ay sys tem or bu se s without pa yment ofthe fa re. Th is in clude s instan ce s when you r Metr o Ca rd is not fun ct ion ing pr ope rly

      Providing for $100 fine for fare evasion.

    2. No person shall use or enter upon the facilities or conv eyances of the authorit y, for any purpose,without the pa yment of the fare or tender of other v a lid fa r e m ed ia u s ed i n a cc or danc e wi th an yc ond i t i ons and r e s tric t i on s im po s ed by the authori t y . Fo r the purpos es of th is sect ion, it sha ll bec onsi de r ed an ent r anc e i nto a fa cili t y o r c onv ey an c e w henev e r a pe rs on pass es th r ough a po int atwh ic h a fa re is requ ired o r co lle cted. No pe rson s ha ll, fo r pu rpo se s of ga in ing entry into a facility,p r oc eed o v e r o r unde r an y tu r n s t il e or othe rwis e p r o c eed i n any othe r unauthoriz ed m anner th r oughan e xi t gate or th r ough o r pa s t any othe r po i nt at w h ic h a fa r e is r equir ed or c o lle c ted and i t s ha ll beno defens e to a c ha r ge of a vi o l at i on of th is s ubd ivisi on that fa re med ia, a fa re med ia sa les device o ra fa r e c o ll e c t ion devic e w as m a l func t i on ing

      NYC guidance on fare evasion.

    1. Meantime, Lieber says that fare-beaters cost Gotham about $180 million in the last six months. The MTA suspects that in the fourth quarter of 2021, about 7.9 percent of riders did not pay, during which time bus nonpayment was anticipated to be more than 26 percent. Both Lieber and Mayor Eric Adams have observed that a small number of evaders are stopped and even fewer are issued summonses—in no small part because the Manhattan and Brooklyn district attorneys refuse to prosecute these cases.

      Cost of fare evasion. Note that by 2022, Brooklyn DA had joined Manhattan in refusing to prosecute fare beating.

    1. By the end of the day, Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo weighed in with a statement urging “all parties” to find “balance” — but declining to take a side.

      Former Governor Cuomo, who went on to sign the bail reform law, refusing to support Mayor de Blasio on the importance of policing fare evasion in 2018.

    2. “The New York miracle, if you will, began with fare evasion — fare evasion enforcement on the subway 25 years ago,” Mr. Bratton said in February 2014, when he was newly appointed by Mr. de Blasio as commissioner. “We’re still at it.”

      Former NYPD Commissioner Bill Bratton on the significance of policing fare evasion to New York City's revival in the 1990s.

    3. Mr. de Blasio, a champion of improving the lot of poor New Yorkers, has adamantly defended the police practice of using evasion of the $2.75 fare as a means for officers to check the names and warrants of those they stop, most of whom are black or Hispanic.He has been unpersuaded by critics on the left who believe the approach — pioneered in the 1990s by William J. Bratton, Mr. de Blasio’s first police commissioner — is a form of biased and overly aggressive policing akin to stop-and-frisk. And he does not think most are motivated by poverty.“A lot of people who commit fare evasion and the police encounter have a lot of money on them,” Mr. de Blasio said during a news conference at Police Headquarters on Tuesday. “I think I have a lot of validity on the question of income inequality and how we fight it, but you never heard me say, you know, open up the gates of the subway for free. That’s chaos.”

      Former Mayor de Blasio making a terrific point about the importance of policing fare evasion, an issue he understood despite not always acting in accordance with his correct statements.

    1. nd another population that both our mayor and governor have spoken passionately about protecting would stand to suffer greatly as a result of a new enforcement policy: immigrants. Immigrants who have even minor contact with the criminal justice system face far more drastic consequences. Under the Trump administration, an arrest for jumping a turnstile or even a criminal summons could result in deportation, family separation, and destroyed lives.

      If a foreign national who is in the United States without legal authorization does something stupid and is required to appear in Court as a result, he or she may be more likely to come to the attention of immigration authorities. As an initial matter, the solution is to not violate the immigration laws of the United States. However, if one chooses to violate the immigration laws, he or she ought to avoid doing things like jumping turnstyles. Many Americans likely avoid taking certain liberties that they do in the United States when they are traveling in foreign countries.

    2. Poor black and brown people should not take the fall for the sins of politicians who have allowed the MTA to become a laughing stock. Arrests won’t solve the MTA’s problems, but they could devastate New Yorkers.

      It is unclear to me how the MTA's own incompetence exonerates people from stealing public services. I am confident that fare beaters, black, brown, white, or anything else, are stealing public services because the MTA is a train-wreck. Both issues contribute to the current mess in the NYC Subway system, but they are not otherwise related.

    3. Years of grappling with the ripple effects of Broken Windows policing have shown us that arrests are not the way to deal with minor offenses, like riding your bike on the sidewalk, having an open container of alcohol, smoking marijuana, or jumping a turnstile. An uptick in enforcement would reverse the recent positive trend of fewer fare evasion arrests. Through October, police have made 5,236 arrests for fare evasion. That is still 5,236 arrests too many, but it represents a 66 percent drop compared to the same period last year.

      Not prosecuting crimes is a positive trend, apparently. This disregards how NYC transformed itself in the 90s and 00s under the leadership of Mayors Giuliani and Bloomberg, and how that success was maintained at least when former Mayor de Blasio wisely chose William Bratton as NYPD Commissioner.

    4. An analysis of New York Division of Criminal Justice Services data from the last four years by the Marshall Project shows that nearly 90 percent of people arrested for turnstile jumping were black or Hispanic. Given the NYPD’s history of targeting people of color for arrests and summonses for low-level offenses, let’s call the new proposal to crack down on fare evasion what it is: a plan that would funnel thousands more black and brown New Yorkers into the criminal justice system, and to scapegoat people of color for the decades of underfunding and mismanagement that are responsible for the MTA’s current problems.

      This must be it. There are no alternative explanations such as the possibility that certain crimes may be disproportionately committed by people who share one characteristic and not another (see NYC homicide statistics). Moreover, it is unclear to me why the writer is lumping "black and Hispanic" people together since, if this is purely a race-based claim against the NYPD, there may be different statistics for these two very broad groups.

    5. Police resources must be spent on working with the community and identifying the types of behaviors that cause the most harm—not physically harmless fare evasion.

      This disregards the fact that there is a high correlation between "behaviors that cause the most harm" and "fare evasion," lest the author would suggest that of people who commit crimes on transit, a meaningful number of them pay the fare.

    6. The MTA claims that fare evasion is robbing the agency of $215 million a year, though how it actually reached that number is lacking in clarity and validity. The transit authority appears determined to pin the blame for its precarious financial position on poor black and Latinx people who, history tells us, will suffer the most from any increase in fare evasion arrests.

      This bizarre passage appears to argue that if more people of certain races or ethnicities are arrested or cited for a specific crime, the crime itself and the enforcement thereof is presumptively illegitimate - without any consideration of whether the arrests and citations may correlate to the number of actual offenders.

    7. The MTA and NYPD pledged last week to crack down on fare evaders. The MTA’s plan is to send agency executives and NYPD officers to subway stations and bus stops across the city. The executives will stand at subway turnstiles and on busses to create body blockades to bar anyone trying to get in without a Metrocard. More armed police officers at subway stations make an already harrowing commute for New Yorkers even more intolerable, and for many, will serve to add unnecessary fear into the way they start or end their day.

      I will venture that most New Yorkers are more concerned about lawless behavior on subways than by the presence of uniformed police.

    8. The authority’s latest excuse is that poor people who jump turnstiles are responsible for the MTA’s financial woes. The MTA and the politicians and bureaucrats who control it should take responsibility for their own actions -- and inactions -- that have led to the city’s mass transit decline. Instead, the MTA seems to want to pit New Yorkers against each other.

      The MTA, for all of its faults, is not "pit[ting] New Yorkers against each other by highlighting fare evasion." Those who are stealing public services are pitting themselves against law-abiding New Yorkers through "their own actions."

    1. “Fare beating places a burden on law-abiding transit customers who do pay the fare, including low-income citizens who despite financial challenges, still respect the rule of law and their obligation to pay their way,” wrote Lhota. “Further, it seems reasonable to expect your policy will increase fare beating, not only in your jurisdiction, but elsewhere, emboldening fare beaters in subways and buses across the city.”

      Former MTA Chairman Lhota was correct to note that fare-beaters burden low-income New Yorkers by stealing public services and contributing to subsequent fare increases. However, the unfairness applies regardless of income and regardless of whether one uses the MTA at all.

    1. “If we start saying it’s alright for you to jump the turnstile, we are creating an environment where any and everything goes,” the mayor warned. “It’s a crime. Now, you could defer prosecution, you could people in programs, you could do all sorts of things, but let’s not ignore it, and that’s what’s happening to our subway system.”

      Mayor Adams was correct to the extent that he noted that turnstyle jumping is a crime and should not be permitted - however, he has not used all of tools at his disposal to police the Subways against the opposition of the District Attorneys.

    1. At least fifty-six New Yorkers have been pushed onto subway tracks over the past two years. Subway crimes have more than doubled, so far, this year, compared with the same time last year. According to MTA board member Andrew Albert, another major issue is turnstile jumping. 99.99% of people that are committing crimes in the subways did not pay their fare. If we can stop that at the turnstiles, we've not only helped the MTA bottom line, but we've stopped crime in its tracks.

      This is a very important point. Policing fare evasion is not only a financial issue or a fairness question, it is a matter of public safety. It is true that not every person who engages in theft of public services is violent, but as Andrew Albert notes, violent felons are overwhelmingly likely to not pay MTA fares.

    1. Now, though, Vance’s office is voicing its displeasure with the fact that the NYPD has continued to arrest turnstile-jumpers. But how can Vance deter people from farebeating through diversion or dropped charges, and see if this approach yields better results for everyone—particularly the public—if police never arrest fare evaders in the first place?

      This is a very interesting passage. It highlights that the NYPD is free to enforce the law and make arrests notwithstanding the efforts of District Attorneys to rewrite the law through the refusal to prosecute laws that they do not like. Former DA Vance's "displeasure" highlights that the NYPD and Mayor are not helpless - and that they can put pressure on lawless District Attorneys by continuing to enforce the law. The refusal of the Mayor and the NYPD leadership to use the tools in their toolbox has been a driving force in the increase in fare-beating.

    2. Deterring people from stealing from the MTA keeps mass transit safe and improves the lives of everyone who rides.

      Well said.

    3. The DA’s reasoning is that this misdemeanor charge—called theft of services for transit—can carry a punishment of up to a year in jail. The misdemeanor conviction, so the argument goes, victimizes otherwise law-abiding people too poor to afford the subway fare, burdening them with a criminal record as they seek employment or housing.

      Theft of public services, like other kinds of theft, does have the potential to "burden" offenders with a criminal record.

    1. Some transit advocates say a far bigger factor in the agency’s projected deficits is riders fleeing the system because of poor service.

      One reason that people are fleeing the trains is because a lack of law enforcement contributes to making the trains something to avoid.

    2. "The problem is people are not paying,” MTA Board Member Larry Schwartz said. “And that is not fair to the people that are paying."

      That allowing fare-beating is unfair to paying, law-abiding commuters should go without saying.

    3. The NYPD also has eased enforcement, issuing civil summonses to the majority of turnstile jumpers instead of arresting them, focusing instead on more serious crimes.

      It was an error by the NYPD to allow the District Attorneys to dictate policing priorities.

    4. They say fare-beating increased after the Manhattan District Attorney last year stopped prosecuting most cases, a response to concerns that black and Latino violators were being disproportionally singled out.

      The Manhattan DA"s policy to ignore NY law and to de facto legalize fare evasion based on strange premise that there is a cosmic rule that the race/ethnicity of criminal offenders for a particular offense must reflect NYC demographic statistics. No explanation for why this is so was provided.

    5. NYPD numbers show more than 10,000 fewer arrests for fare-beating since January, compared to the same period last year, a decline of more than 66 percent.

      Move by DAs to refuse fare evasion cases led to sharp decrease in enforcement.

    1. Cuomo, who effectively controls the MTA, thanked the authority for the resolution and called for the "strictest penalties possible" for such criminals.

      Former Governor Cuomo was correct here - which makes it all the more depressing that he went on to make his request impossible by signing the bail reform law shortly after this was published.

    2. “The difficulty is unless we characterize this extraordinarily narrowly, we’re going to end up sweeping in people and make it almost certain they’re going to return to the life of crime because they won’t have any transportation options,” Jones said. 

      This concern is misguided. David Jones prioritizes criminals and fare-beaters in expressing concerns about preventing criminals from using the Subways with impunity. The primary concern should be the safety of the law-abiding tax-paying citizens in New York City.

    3. Feinberg also helped usher in a new resolution Monday that called for an authority-wide ban on criminal recidivists.

      Banning recidivist fare-beating offenders from the Subway is unlikely realistic - key is having police monitoring the entrances to Subway stations.

    4. The MTA estimates that it lost about $225 million in potential revenue from fare evasion in 2018. But critics argue the authority’s method for tracking fare dodging — monitoring specific stations and buses and applying that data more broadly — is flawed and that the board’s focus on the crime is a distraction from more pervasive management issues.

      Debate over MTA fare-beating statistics.

    5. “I would like to see us capture this behavior on camera and then posting it publicly, whether on our YouTube channel or what,” said Sarah Feinberg, a fairly recent Gov. Andrew Cuomo appointee who chairs the MTA board’s Transit Committee. “That is important to me because when people are publicly embarrassed by this kind of behavior, it helps address it.”

      A good, but not sufficient, idea for discouraging fare-beating in NYC subways.

    1. Perhaps realizing that harassing poor people and charging them with hundreds of thousands of misdemeanors is a suboptimal use of government resources, Manhattan District Attorney Cy Vance announced last year that his office would limit its prosecutions of fare evasion to repeat offenders. For everyone else, turnstile jumping is a civil infraction—akin to a parking ticket—that carries a $100 fine and does not otherwise involve the criminal-justice system. You wouldn't glean any of this from this bit of quasi-propaganda, though, which limits itself to the sort of gratuitous public shaming that serves only to outrage viewers at home without providing any useful information of note.

      That this was written in 2019, prior to the rapid deterioration of the MTA post-2020, is remarkable.

    2. Inside Edition's treatment of the subject also calls to mind the notorious "broken windows" theory of policing, which posits that evidence of unaddressed minor criminal activity signals to would-be criminals that cops will tolerate more serious crimes, too—and therefore that cracking down on things like turnstile jumping, graffiti, and public urination will prevent such crimes from occurring in the first place. The broken-windows theory was pioneered by former New York City Transit Police commissioner Bill Bratton in the early 1990s, and became the city's dominant law-enforcement philosophy after newly elected mayor Rudy Giuliani promoted Bratton to NYPD commissioner in 1993. There is, in other words, a gross history in New York City associated with the stigmatization of fare beating; it will probably not surprise you to learn that although the efficacy of broken-windows policing is, at best, debatable, its discriminatory impact on low-income people and communities of color is not.

      Broken windows policing is the "notorious" theory which drove New York City's revival under former Mayor Giuliani in the 1990s.

    3. Generally, paying for the use of goods and services is something people should do. The problem with Inside Edition's stunt, however, is that it frames fare evasion as the root cause of the system's problems, dramatically noting that the practice cost an estimated $215 million in 2018. This narrative omits, for example, that the MTA expects to face a billion-dollar annual deficit by 2022, and that its president has warned that the system will go into a "death spiral" unless state lawmakers find $40 billion to invest in its crumbling infrastructure. It breathes no word of Governor Andrew Cuomo's staunch refusal to consider raising funds via, say, the imposition of a "millionaires tax" on the city's wealthiest residents.

      The MTA's chronic mismanagement is one of the "root causes" of the MTA's problems, but the decision of the New York State and City governments to permit large-scale fare beating and stick law abiding citizens with the bill is also a root problem - certainly much more than questions about the top tax rate.

    4. The confrontations the show chose to air are laced with exactly the sort of things you'd expect from busy New Yorkers who are suddenly confronted by a giant television camera over $2.75: a mix of irritation, incredulousness, and outright scorn. After careful consideration, I have determined that the award for best response shall be shared by the woman who calmly asks, "Are you going to arrest me? Are you going to give me a ticket? So what are you going to do?" and the man who says, "You guys aren't cops, right? Okay, excuse me," and then walks away from the microphone in the middle of the reporter's sentence.

      It says something about this author at GQ that he thinks the real problem in a report on mass theft of public services in NYC Subways is reporting on it.

    1. anonyma vittnen
    2. kriminalisering av deltagande i kriminella gäng

      Undrar om ekonomisk brottslighet menas. Den utgör minst 100 miljarder kronor per år, alltså minst 1,8% av sveriges BNP, medan flyktingimmigration kostar cirka 1,0% av sveriges BNP; observera att flyktingimmigration bidrar till sveriges BNP, vilket ekonomisk brottslighet aldrig gör.

    3. dubbla straff för gängkriminella

      All vetenskap pekar på faktum, nämligen högre straff inte sänker brottslighet. Läs Henrik Tham, professor emeritus i kriminologi, som 2022-09-05 skrev "Straff har blivit målet istället för medlet".

      Från artikeln:

      Vilka förväntningar kan vi då ha på mer straff? Forskning från Sverige, Norden och andra länder visar entydigt att längre straff inte har en avskräckande effekt. Det betraktas som ett kriminologiskt grundfaktum. Behandling kan i bästa fall ge små positiva effekter i form av minskat återfall för mindre grupper men påverkar inte brottsnivån. Enskilda gärningspersoner kan oskadliggöras genom långa frihetsstraff, men inkapacitering bestämmer inte våldsnivån i samhället. Brottsligheten avgörs helt enkelt inte av variationer i straff. I Sverige har brottsligheten historiskt bestämts av förhållanden som befolkningsutveckling, svält och varubrist, migration, alkoholpolitik, tillgång på konsumtionsvaror och arbetsmarknad.

    1. Manne Gerell, docent i kriminologi vid Malmö universitet, forskar bland annat kring gängvåld och utsatta områden och även kring polisens brottsförebyggande arbete.– Visitationszoner har införts i till exempel Danmark och England, men forskningen kring det visar att de inte gett någon större effekt på gängbrottsligheten. Inte heller har nämnvärt fler beslag av vapen och droger gjorts jämfört med tidigare, säger han.
    1. Vilka förväntningar kan vi då ha på mer straff? Forskning från Sverige, Norden och andra länder visar entydigt att längre straff inte har en avskräckande effekt. Det betraktas som ett kriminologiskt grundfaktum. Behandling kan i bästa fall ge små positiva effekter i form av minskat återfall för mindre grupper men påverkar inte brottsnivån. Enskilda gärningspersoner kan oskadliggöras genom långa frihetsstraff, men inkapacitering bestämmer inte våldsnivån i samhället. Brottsligheten avgörs helt enkelt inte av variationer i straff. I Sverige har brottsligheten historiskt bestämts av förhållanden som befolkningsutveckling, svält och varubrist, migration, alkoholpolitik, tillgång på konsumtionsvaror och arbetsmarknad.

      Detta motbevisar Moderaternas pressmeddelande från 2022-10-14, där de beskriver att Moderaterna, Sverigedemokraterna, Kristdemokraterna och Liberalerna kommer att framtvinga "dubbla straff för gängkriminella", vilket är antiintellektuellt och antivetenskapligt.

    1. Marvin Gaye has a brief six-page file, which details an incident that followed him not being paid for a concert. Jimi Hendrix has a file including documents related to a pot bust in Canada. Mariam Makeba, an anti-apartheid activist who was married to Stokely Carmichael,  has a 292-page file which details the couple’s every move, including buying new home appliances.
    2. From 1967 to 2007, the Federal Bureau of Investigation methodically collected information about Aretha Franklin using false phone calls, surveillance, infiltration, and highly-placed sources, according to the documents obtained in September by Rolling Stone.  Franklin’s FBI file — first requested in via the Freedom of Information Act on Aug. 17, 2018 —  is 270 pages long, peppered with phrases like “Black extremists,” “pro-communist,” “hate America,” “radical,” “racial violence,” and “militant Black power” and overflowing with suspicion about the singer, her work, and the other activists and entertainers with whom she she spent time. Some documents are heavily redacted and others indicate that there may be additional materials in the FBI’s possession. Rolling Stone has requested the FBI make available any and all additional records.
  10. Sep 2022
    1. Sverigedemokraterna

      Number of parliamentary candidates that are connected to criminal biker gangs. This is only for the parliamentary election in 2022.

      Sverigedemokraterna make up 59% of the list; see the table on page 16 of this report.

    2. De politiska partierna

      Number of parliamentary candidates that were connected to criminal biker gangs in the last five elections.

      Sverigedemokraterna make up 58% of the list.

    1. Fraud is an unavoidable part of commerce in a society that values any sort of lower friction transactions. Companies accept differing amounts of fraud depending on the nature of the business. Fraud prevention and punishment is more external to government than other types of crime.

    1. With his head all smashed to peices,And his pockets riffted out,‘There wes the marks ahont tha rad,

      provides further information of the crime and the evidence that led Pickett and Carey to be found guilty.

    2. ‘Theninaditchon theThursdaymorning,

      after his murder, he was found by a neighbor in a ditch (two or three days later).

    3. bewasfollowedfromthathouse,

      back to the actual event of the crime, where Pickett and Carey followed him from the public house.

    4. “At thepublic-househecalledforale,

      returns back to before the murder, where Stevenson was at the "public house" (bar).

    5. robbed and murdered him,‘And left his body in a ditch.

      description of the actual event of the murder.

    6. hey

      referring to Pickett and Carey, who were his murderers.

    7. for his money—

      motive for the murder = money.

    8. e at the “Ship,”some ti

      figure out what the "ship" is.. foreshadowing? (as it was maybe irregular for him not to return directly home).

    9. left his home on Monday morning,‘And to Boston Market made his way,

      Stevenson lived in the village. he left his home to go to the market prior to the murder.

  11. Jul 2022
    1. Efforts to use AI to predict crime have been fraught with controversy due to the potential to replicate existing biases in policing. But a new system powered by machine learning holds the promise of not only making better predictions but also highlighting these biases.
  12. Jun 2022
    1. As SherlockHolmes says to Watson on a famous occasion: "If page 534 findsus only in Chapter Two, the length of the first one must have beenreally intolerable."

      Interesting to see Barzun quote Arthur Conan Doyle here. Not surprising given his penchant for mystery novels however.

    1. My own copy of A Catalogue of Crime certainly fits that description, even though I generally disagree with many of its harsh judgments on modern crime fiction. Barzun and Taylor definitely prefer classic whodunits, especially those written with wit, panache, and, above all, cleverness. The Catalogue lists more than 5,000 novel-length mysteries, collections of detective stories, true-crime books, and assorted volumes celebrating the delights of detection. Every entry is annotated, and a succinct critical judgment given.

      While this excerpt doesn't indicate the index card origin of the published book, it does indicate that it has descriptions of more than 5,000 novel-length mysteries, detective stories, etc. which includes annotations and critical judgements of each.

      One can thus draw the conclusion that this shared index card collection of details was used to publish a subsequent book.

  13. May 2022
    1. The Seattle Times turns off comments on “stories that are of a sensitive nature,” said Michelle Matassa Flores, executive editor of The Seattle Times. “People can’t behave on any story that has to do with race.” Comments are turned off on stories about race, immigration, and crime, for instance.

      The Seattle Times turns off comments on stories about race, immigration, and crime because as their executive editor Michelle Matassa Flores says, "People can't behave on any story that has to do with race."

  14. Apr 2022
    1. Withthemit’snotmankinddevelopingallalonginahistorical,livingwaythatwillfinallyturnbyitselfintoanormalsociety,but,onthecontrary,asocialsystem,comingoutofsomemathematicalhead,willatonceorganizethewholeofmankindandinstantlymakeitrighteousandsinless,soonerthananylivingprocess,withoutanyhistoricalandlivingway!

      This "mathematical head" sounds to me like they'd be an extraordinary person... maybe even an extraordinary man!

      Having further context for the novel here helps but it's so interesting seeing the ideas of the extraordinary man being fleshed out slowly before getting to the conversation we know and love. It seems like this is the hook for an analytical essay about saving mankind. Even though the conversation is yet to happen about Rasko's ideas regarding the extraordinary man, it's easy to see how Dostoevsky it guiding the reader by planting the seed. In a funny way, it's his way of highlighting the absurd aspects of the idea before Rasko offers his own commentary on the issues. It's also key to note how right after there is a mention of a "instinctive dislike of history." This sounds like commentary from the author about the controversial views that many have on whether historical figures are truly "extraordinary" or not. When there is a later mention of Napoleon and others like Muhammad, it's clear that he is nodding towards figures that not all audiences would agree on, just not Rasko makes claims that not everyone is quick to concur with.

  15. Mar 2022
  16. Jan 2022
    1. The safety and security of our employees continues to be our top priority

      If the safety and security of their employees was truly their top priority, then why didn't they have any security present to prevent this?

      This is because they are lying and have higher priorities than the safety and security of their employees.

    2. outside of Columbus

      Columbus is a municipal corporation. This address lies within the boundaries of Columbus.

      Stating that this branch was "outside of Columbus" is false.

    3. Police are searching for the suspect

      Seems like it'd be important to alert the public to the suspect description so they could help locate them. Why is public safety being obscured by secrecy?

  17. Dec 2021
    1. you've used this word evil and you've used the word crime why I have used those words? Why do you think that's appropriate at this point ? it's a crime. It's a crime against humanity. It's actually a crime against all humanity, right? If we start calling it a crime as it is, I call it the crime of all time. 00:28:27 Then, at least we will switch the discussion to a level that people can actually understand, right? You can give people all these numbers but they're just numbers. You can show people graphs but they're just graphs, right? We are now, our business model are perverse, irrational economics, it's destroying us! 00:28:52 It's destroying the planet! Disrupting all the oceans, poisoning the oceans. The entire oceans with acidification with heating, which disturbs and breaks down all the healthy, ocean, currents, and deoxygenation. This is evil! If you don't act against that evil, if you don't call that evil, evil 00:29:20 you are complicit and that's an enormously powerful and emotional realization and I think you're dead right

      Using ethically charged words such as evil and crime shift the paradigm.

  18. Nov 2021
    1.    Art. 17 - Não se pune a tentativa quando, por ineficácia absoluta do meio ou por absoluta impropriedade do objeto, é impossível consumar-se o crime

      absoluta => teoria OBJETIVA TEMPERADA ( V )

      absoluto + relativo => teoria OBJETIVA PURA ( X )

  19. Jul 2021
    1. Sergio: So, do you think a lot of deportees, when they return, turn to crime?Rodolfo: When they return to what, I'm sorry?Sergio: To Mexico.Rodolfo: I think a lot of the deportees, when they come back, yes. But I think more about their family—the inability to help your family member, the person who you love is one of the most horrible... it's a horrible feeling, not being able to help, let alone help one of your family members.

      Return to Mexico, challenges

  20. Jun 2021
    1. One time I remember my friend went into a gas station and stole some cigarettes, which is—how do you grab the cigarettes in the back counter? And I was with that guy. Fights. I also loved fighting. It's just a way of me just getting my anger out.

      Time in US - crime - fights - theft - gang affiliation - comradery - arrests - time in the US

    2. When I was really young, I had gotten accident that required surgery and I needed to get that surgery done, so when I went to the hospital and get it done there was actually a couple of people from a criminal organization that were supposed to, I guess, kill somebody in there. I remember this like it was yesterday. I had a little breathing mask on and the doctor was telling me to breathe when he counted the eight, I could just hear the gunshots.

      Mexico/ before the US, Migration from Mexico, Reasons, Violence

  21. May 2021
  22. Apr 2021
  23. Mar 2021
    1. It’s grand larceny and, as usual, what is being stolen is power.

      This is a striking last sentence; his representation of the recent voter suppression tactics as theft is a powerful symbolism. His connection to the past, "another of history's racist robberies", also appeals to the audience emotionally since the topic of past racism is touchy and logic; no one denies that these events happened in the past.

  24. Feb 2021
    1. Those who are responsible for upholding this system profess to want to fight crime, but they do so by destroying communities.

      This is an obviously emotional appeal that would affect anyone in the audience since most everyone has a sense of community somewhere. This statement also boldly shades those who uphold the system; including judges, cops, lawyers, and politicians.

  25. Nov 2020
  26. Jul 2020
    1. The most controversial crime-related posts get the most engagement. In turn, these posts are featured the most in users’ notifications because the algorithm knows those posts attract lots of likes, comments, and clicks.

      I wonder if this also increases the availability heuristic implicit and makes people think there is more crime in their neighborhood than there actually is?

  27. Jun 2020
  28. Apr 2020
    1. While these particular indictments refer to credit card data, the laws do also reference authentication features. Two of the key points here are knowingly and with intent to defraud.
    2. I could have released this data anonymously like everyone else does but why should I have to? I clearly have no criminal intent here. It is beyond all reason that any researcher, student, or journalist have to be afraid of law enforcement agencies that are supposed to be protecting us instead of trying to find ways to use the laws against us.
    3. For now the laws are on my side because there has to be intent to commit or facilitate a crime
  29. Feb 2020
    1. (Återkommande forskning visar att 85-90 procent av tonårskillar begår brott. Allt från snatteri upp till rån och mord. Och det oavsett om de har invandrarbakgrund eller inte. Cirka 97-98 procent av de här killarna blir sedan skötsamma arbetande vuxna medborgare – som beklagar sig över ungdomsbrottsligheten.)
  30. Jan 2020
    1. By some estimates, more than 50,000 pieces of artwork are stolen each year, amounting to annual losses of around $6 to $8 billion globally. This makes art theft one of the most valuable criminal enterprises around, exceeded only by drug trafficking and arms dealing.

      Art crime is even more serious than we think

  31. Dec 2019
  32. Jul 2019
    1. According to Shoshana Zuboff, professor emerita at Harvard Business School, the Cambridge Analytica scandal was a landmark moment, because it revealed a micro version “of the larger phenomenon that is surveillance capitalism”. Zuboff is responsible for formulating the concept of surveillance capitalism, and published a magisterial, indispensible book with that title soon after the scandal broke. In the book, Zuboff creates a framework and a language for understanding this new world. She believes The Great Hack is an important landmark in terms of public understanding, and that Noujaim and Amer capture “what living under the conditions of surveillance capitalism means. That every action is being repurposed as raw material for behavioural data. And that these data are being lifted from our lives in ways that are systematically engineered to be invisible. And therefore we can never resist.”

      Shoshana Zuboff's comments on The Great Hack.

    1. A new study published this year in the American Psychologist finds that this well-established bystander effect may largely be a myth. The study uses footage of more than 200 incidents from surveillance cameras in Amsterdam; Cape Town; and Lancaster, England.

      The study suggests that people are willing to self-police to protect their communities and others.

    2. It’s one of the most enduring urban myths of all: If you get in trouble, don’t count on anyone nearby to help. Research dating back to the late 1960s documents how the great majority of people who witness crimes or violent behavior refuse to intervene.
  33. Jun 2019
    1. P.B

      a young Native was denied marriage to a "squaw", who was instead "given" to a "half-breed" - the Native shot the half-breed, escaped custody and is at large



  34. May 2019
    1. Unsurprisingly living up to its reputation, Facebook refuses to comply with my GDPR Subject Access Requests in an appropriate manner.

      Facebook never has cared about privacy of individuals. This is highly interesting.

  35. Apr 2019
    1. In a new article, the New York Times details a little-known technique increasingly used by law enforcement to figure out everyone who might have been within certain geographic areas during specific time periods in the past. The technique relies on detailed location data collected by Google from most Android devices as well as iPhones and iPads that have Google Maps and other apps installed. This data resides in a Google-maintained database called “Sensorvault,” and because Google stores this data indefinitely, Sensorvault “includes detailed location records involving at least hundreds of millions of devices worldwide and dating back nearly a decade.”

      Google is passing on location data to law enforcement without letting users know.

    1. “Prison labor” is usually associated with physical work, but inmates at two prisons in Finland are doing a new type of labor: classifying data to train artificial intelligence algorithms for a startup. Though the startup in question, Vainu, sees the partnership as a kind of prison reform that teaches valuable skills, other experts say it plays into the exploitative economics of prisoners being required to work for very low wages.

      Naturally, this is exploitative; the inmates do not learn a skill that they can take out into the real world.

      I'd be surprised if they'd not have to sign a NDA for this.

  36. Aug 2018
  37. May 2018
  38. Aug 2017
  39. Jul 2017
  40. Oct 2016
    1. we are more likely to be killed by law enforcement than any other group

      This article seems to be the source of this statistic. As they note, it's a hard number to come by because the crime is neither well-covered in the media nor well-reported by the authorities. Regardless, though, given the centuries-long and wildly painful indigenous struggle in the US, this certainly deserves our attention.

  41. Feb 2014
    1. killed Candaules as he slept. Thus he made himself master of the king's wife and sovereignty

      Hdt. 1.12 Gyges took the city and Candaules's wife for assassinating him; not a crime.

  42. Oct 2013
    1. the better sort of man will be just without being forced to be so, and the written laws depend on force while the unwritten ones do not

      Can a person, like in the above scenario, actually be forced to be just? Who determines what's equal, what's fair when it's not a black-and-white situation ("failing to do them good")?

    2. the crime is worse which breaks the written laws

      Whole point.

  43. Sep 2013
    1. The worse of two acts of wrong done to others is that which is prompted by the worse disposition.

      So it's not the crime committed, but the state-of-mind that produced the crime?