119 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2022
  2. Oct 2022
    1. Eventually, as the cards fall into groups accordingto subject or person or chronological sequence, the pattern of mystory will emerge.

      For creating narrative, Barbara Tuchman apparently relied on grouping her note cards by subject, person, or chronological sequence.

    1. i want to begin by talking about the imagine nature which is the first of those three natures um it's really tempting when i look at a flower like a rose um a nice red rose 00:35:22 to think that the color the redness is right on the rose unless you are extremely accomplished when you look at a red rose you see the color right out there in the rose and 00:35:34 you assume that your eyes are simply detecting color that is in the rose actually that can't possibly be true color is something that emerges um as 00:35:45 john pointed out this morning through the interaction of our sense faculties and whatever is happening outside of them and the color emerges in our minds but we imagine things to exist outside of consciousness just as we perceive 00:35:58 them and that nature that we ascribe to the objects of our experience is their imagined nature it's an imagined nature because we project it out there even though on reflection we each know 00:36:11 that the redness can't possibly be painted out there in the rose footnote it's uh equally stupid to think that when we detect the redness we're detecting in inner red paint that 00:36:23 somehow um is just detected by an inner eye i assure you that when you look inside your brain you will find no such inner red paint

      !- critical insight for : existentialism, existence of objects - color is perfect example to demonstrate that what we experience and construct in our body is not what exists as a property of the object

    1. Built and assembled without anyparticular significance or any value, Walter de Maria's Boxes for MeaninglessWork could also be an echo of Duchamp's sound strategies. In aparallel project, Robert Morris realized Card File (1962-3), a series ofcards on which a series of hazy concepts are written and laid out alphabetically on a vertical support. Through this initial process, Morriscreated a description of the necessary stages required to achieve thework. The terms used in this file include such things as accidents,alphabets, cards, categories, conception, criticism, or decisions, dissatisfactions, durations, forms, future, interruptions, names, numbers,possibilities, prices, purchases, owners, and signature. As a result, thework had no content other than the circumstances of its execution.Through this piece, Morris also asserted that if one wished to understand and penetrate all subtleties of the work, one would have toconsider all the methods used in bringing it forth. The status of thework of art is immediately called into question, because the range ofcards can undergo a change:In a broad sense art has always been on object, static and final, eventhough structurally it may have been a depiction or existed as afragment. What is being attacked, however, is something more thanart as icon. Under attack is the rationalistic notion that art is a formof work that results in a finished product. Duchamp, of course,attacked the Marxist notion that labor was an index of value, butReadymades are traditionally iconic art objects. What art now has inits hand ismutable stuffwhich need not arrive at the point of beingfinalized with respect to either time or space. The notion thatworkis an irreversible process ending in a static icon-object no longer hasmuch relevance.25Marcel Duchamp's musical and "Dismountable approximation" illustrate this process perfectly. John Cage recalled that "for his final opus,Given: 1. The Waterfall, 2. The Illuminating Gas, exhibited in Philadelphia, [Duchamp] wrote a book [the "Dismountable approximation"]that provided a blueprint for dismantling the work and rebuilding it.26It also provided information on how to proceed, as well as the only definition of the musical notation, isn't that so? So it is a musical work ofart; because when you follow the instructions you produce sounds."27But Given: 1. The Waterfall, 2. The Illuminating Gas was never createdas a musical piece, even though it is entirely "possible to do it. . . .Andif one takes it like a musical piece, one gets the piece [that Duchamp]This content downloaded from 194.27.18.18 on Fri, 18 Dec 2015 12:35:27 UTCAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

      card file as art!

    1. Goutor only mentions two potential organizational patterns for creating output with one's card index: either by chronological order or topical order. (p34) This might be typical for a historian who is likely to be more interested in chronologies and who would have likely noted down dates within their notes.

    2. Goutor doesn't specifically cover the process, but ostensibly after one has categorized content notes, they are filed together in one's box under that heading. (p34) As a result, there is no specific indexing or cross-indexing of cards or ideas which might be filed under multiple headings. In fact, he doesn't approach the idea of filing under multiple headings at all, while authors like Heyde (1931) obsess over it. Goutor's method also presumes that the creation of some of the subject headings is to be done in the planning stages of the project, though in practice some may arise as one works. This process is more similar to that seen in Robert Greene's commonplacing method using index cards.

    3. Unlike many manuals on note taking, Goutor suggest a few methods of note categorization beyond adding typical headwords. These include adding top or side edge notches using a paper punch, colored cards, or adding colored flags. However he does note some potential problems and limitations of these methods including being cumbersome or limiting (by colors available, for example). (p31-32)

    4. Goutor breaks down the post-processing of notes into two phases: "coding" (tagging or categorization) and "cross-referencing". (p31).

    5. Goutor recommended using subject headings as a marginal annotations on one's note cards to "indicate[s] the preliminary coding to be used in classifying" a note. (p21)

    1. I failed to notice that, unlike the Whiz, which has the same distribution settings as a Scotts push spreader (i.e., settings 2 - 9 with half- and quarter-steps between) and which all products you use in a spreader, Scotts or not, conforms to in their instructions for telling you what to set the spreader at, the Whirl does NOT have these settings, meaning there's no way to follow directions on the packages of products you'll be using the Whirl spreader for, not even on the packages of products made by Scotts itself. That makes knowing what to set it at total guesswork, stabbing in the dark, which, as anyone knows who has ever burned their lawn with fertilizer knows, is very risky and potentially very costly. All Scotts gives you with the Whirl, after giving a disclaimer that you must "READ AND FOLLOW ALL LABEL DIRECTIONS OF THE PRODUCT YOU ARE APPLYING," which of course you can't do because those label directions give you a spreader setting that does NOT apply to this spreader, is generic instructions that say to set it at 1 for light seed, 3 for moderate fertilizer, and 5 for heavy ice-melt, only that's all very subjective and products, like fertilizers (even Scotts' own), don't all provide the same spreader setting by type but vary, meaning one fertalizer will tell you to set a standard spreader at 3 3/4, but another will tell you to set it at 5, while if you put any fertalizer on your lawn as heavily as you put ice-melt down, which is what the Whirl suggests for ice-melt, you'll burn your lawn.
  3. Sep 2022
    1. For instance, particular insights related to the sun or the moon may be filed under the(foreign) keyword “Astronomie” [Astronomy] or under the (German) keyword “Sternkunde”[Science of the Stars]. This can happen even more easily when using just one language, e.g.when notes related to the sociological term “Bund” [Association] are not just filed under“Bund” but also under “Gemeinschaft” [Community] or “Gesellschaft” [Society]. Againstthis one can protect by using dictionaries of synonyms and then create enough referencesheets (e.g. Astronomy: cf. Science of the Stars)

      related, but not drawn from as I've been thinking about the continuum of taxonomies and subject headings for a while...

      On the Spectrum of Topic Headings in note making

      Any reasonable note one may take will likely have a hierarchical chain of tags/subject headings/keywords going from the broad to the very specific. One might start out with something broad like "humanities" (as opposed to science), and proceed into "history", "anthropology", "biological anthropology", "evolution", and even more specific. At the bottom of the chain is the specific atomic idea on the card itself. Each of the subject headings helps to situate the idea and provide the context in which it sits, but how useful within a note taking system is having one or more of these tags on it? What about overlaps with other broader subjects (one will note that "evolution" might also sit under "science" / "biology" as well), but that note may have a different tone and perspective than the prior one.

      This becomes an interesting problem or issue as one explores ideas in a pre-designed note taking system. As a student just beginning to explore anthropology, one may tag hundreds of notes with anthropology to the point that the meaning of the tag is so diluted that a search of the index becomes useless as there's too much to sort through underneath it. But as one continues their studies in the topic further branches and sub headings will appear to better differentiate the ideas. This process will continue as the space further differentiates. Of course one may continue their research into areas that don't have a specific subject heading until they accumulate enough ideas within that space. (Take for example Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky's work which is now known under the heading of Behavioral Economics, a subject which broadly didn't exist before their work.) The note taker might also leverage this idea as they tag their own work as specifically as they might so as not to pollute their system as it grows without bound (or at least to the end of their lifetime).

      The design of one's note taking system should take these eventualities into account and more easily allow the user to start out broad, but slowly hone in on direct specificity.

      Some of this principle of atomicity of ideas and the growth from broad to specific can be seen in Luhmann's zettelkasten (especially ZK II) which starts out fairly broad and branches into the more specific. The index reflects this as well and each index heading ideally points to the most specific sub-card which begins the discussion of that particular topic.

      Perhaps it was this narrowing of specificity which encouraged Luhmann to start ZKII after years of building ZKII which had a broader variety of topics?

    2. Who can say whether I will actually be searchingfor e.g. the note on the relation between freedom of will and responsibility by looking at itunder the keyword “Verantwortlichkeit” [Responsibility]? What if, as is only natural, I willbe unable to remember the keyword and instead search for “Willensfreiheit” [Freedom ofWill] or “Freiheit” [Freedom], hoping to find the entry? This seems to be the biggestcomplaint about the entire system of the sheet box and its merit.

      Heyde specifically highlights that planning for one's future search efforts by choosing the right keyword or even multiple keywords "seems to be the biggest complaint about the entire system of the slip box and its merit."

      Niklas Luhmann apparently spent some time thinking about this, or perhaps even practicing it, before changing his system so that the issue was no longer a problem. As a result, Luhmann's system is much simpler to use and maintain.

      Given his primary use of his slip box for academic research and writing, perhaps his solution was in part motivated by putting the notes and ideas exactly where he would both be able to easily find them, but also exactly where he would need them for creating final products in journal articles and books.

    3. For the sheets that are filled with content on one side however, the most most importantaspect is its actual “address”, which at the same time gives it its title by which it can alwaysbe found among its comrades: the keyword belongs to the upper row of the sheet, as thegraphic shows.

      With respect to Niklas Luhmann's zettelkasten, it seems he eschewed the Heyde's advice to use subject headings as the Anschrift (address). Instead, much like a physical street address or card card catalog system, he substituted a card address instead. This freed him up from needing to copy cards multiple times to insert them in different places as well as needing to create multiple cards to properly index the ideas and their locations.

      Without this subtle change Luhmann's 90,000 card collection could have easily been 4-5 times its size.

    1. So entstanden 98 Bände, hergestellt nach einem Zettelkasten-System (Verne hinterließ 25 000 Stichwort-Karten), zum größeren Teil geschrieben in dem Turm zu Amiens, den Verne innen wie ein Schiff ausgestattet hatte.

      https://www.spiegel.de/kultur/zukunft-im-zettelkasten-a-75d23643-0002-0001-0000-000046407320?context=issue

      Google translation:

      The result was 98 volumes, produced according to a Zettelkasten system (Verne left 25,000 keyword cards), mostly written in the tower at Amiens, the interior of which Verne had decorated like a ship.

      Jules Verne had a zettelkasten which he used to write 98 volumes.

      Given that he was French we should cross check his name with "fichier boîte".

    1. Tagsare simple yet powerful forms of categorizing used in social mediathat further organize categorical information according to user needsand preferences (Shimic, 2008). Tags help people find and situateideas, providing a mode of peripheral social collaborativeparticipation (Lave & Wenger, 2012). Tags also create flexiblesearch tools, not available with traditional annotation tools, thatsupport reading-for-writing by making the process of retrieval fasterand more straightforward.

      This discussion seems to miss the broader intellectual historical background of tags in prior generations. There's not even a nod to commonplaces, topic headings, subject headings, indices, etc.

  4. Aug 2022
    1. Another prime object in making notes is tohave record in the most convenient or effectiveway of the data or “ facts ” found in sources ofinformation, or the conclusions built from suchfindings. The results reached in pursuit of thisobject may properly be called subject notes.

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. While Heyde outlines using keywords/subject headings and dates on the bottom of cards with multiple copies using carbon paper, we're left with the question of where Luhmann pulled his particular non-topical ordering as well as his numbering scheme.

      While it's highly likely that Luhmann would have been familiar with the German practice of Aktenzeichen ("file numbers") and may have gotten some interesting ideas about organization from the closing sections of the "Die Kartei" section 1.2 of the book, which discusses library organization and the Dewey Decimal system, we're still left with the bigger question of organization.

      It's obvious that Luhmann didn't follow the heavy use of subject headings nor the advice about multiple copies of cards in various portions of an alphabetical index.

      While the Dewey Decimal System set up described is indicative of some of the numbering practices, it doesn't get us the entirety of his numbering system and practice.

      One need only take a look at the Inhalt (table of contents) of Heyde's book! The outline portion of the contents displays a very traditional branching tree structure of ideas. Further, the outline is very specifically and similarly numbered to that of Luhmann's zettelkasten. This structure and numbering system is highly suggestive of branching ideas where each branch builds on the ideas immediately above it or on the ideas at the next section above that level.

      Just as one can add an infinite number of books into the Dewey Decimal system in a way that similar ideas are relatively close together to provide serendipity for both search and idea development, one can continue adding ideas to this branching structure so they're near their colleagues.

      Thus it's highly possible that the confluence of descriptions with the book and the outline of the table of contents itself suggested a better method of note keeping to Luhmann. Doing this solves the issue of needing to create multiple copies of note cards as well as trying to find cards in various places throughout the overall collection, not to mention slimming down the collection immensely. Searching for and finding a place to put new cards ensures not only that one places one's ideas into a growing logical structure, but it also ensures that one doesn't duplicate information that may already exist within one's over-arching outline. From an indexing perspective, it also solves the problem of cross referencing information along the axes of the source author, source title, and a large variety of potential subject headings.

      And of course if we add even a soupcon of domain expertise in systems theory to the mix...


      While thinking about Aktenzeichen, keep in mind that it was used in German public administration since at least 1934, only a few years following Heyde's first edition, but would have been more heavily used by the late 1940's when Luhmann would have begun his law studies.

      https://hypothes.is/a/CqGhGvchEey6heekrEJ9WA


      When thinking about taking notes for creating output, one can follow one thought with another logically both within one's card index not only to write an actual paper, but the collection and development happens the same way one is filling in an invisible outline which builds itself over time.

      Linking different ideas to other ideas separate from one chain of thought also provides the ability to create multiple of these invisible, but organically growing outlines.

    1. one can protect by using dictionaries of synonyms and then create enough referencesheets (e.g. Astronomy: cf. Science of the Stars). The only premise for this is that one knowsbeforehand the one location where the sheet belongs in the box.

      use of theausaurus to limit subject headings...

    2. Apart from a higher probability to retrieve particular note sheets, that advantage lies in thecircumstance that notes having a similar keyword will, as the box grows, find themselves atthe same location because of the alphabetical structure. That means not only an automaticcollection of content, but also a comparative review of those related note sheets, which inturn leads to new thoughts basd on the relation between the note sheets with identicalkeywords
    1. Don’t worry about organization…at least at first. I get a lot of emails from people asking me what categories I organize my notes in. Guess what? It doesn’t matter. The information I personally find is what dictates my categories. Your search will dictate your own. Focus on finding good stuff and the themes will reveal themselves.

      Ryan Holiday's experience and advice indicates that he does little organization and doesn't put emphasis on categories for organization. He advises "Focus on finding good stuff and the themes will reveal themselves."

      This puts him on a very particular part of the spectrum in terms of his practice.

  5. Jun 2022
    1. First, while using the previous retrieval methods, it is a good ideato keep your focus a little broad. Don’t begin and end your searchwith only the specific folder that matches your criteria.

      The area of serendipity becomes much more powerful when one has ideas both directly interlinked, ideas categorized with subject headings or tags, or when one can have affordances like auto-complete.

      The method Forte suggests and outlines allows for some serendipity, but not as much as other methods with additional refinements. Serendipity in Forte's method isn't as strong as in others.

      In this section he's talking about some of the true "magic of note taking" which is discussed by Luhmann and others.

      link to:<br /> Luhmann's writings on serendipity and surprise when using his zettelkasten (Communication with the Slipbox...)<br /> Ahrens mentions of this effect

    2. How to Resurface and Reuse Your Past Work

      Coming back to the beginning of this section. He talks about tags, solely after-the-fact instead of when taking notes on the fly. While it might seem that he would have been using tags as subject headings in a traditional commonplace book, he really isn't. This is a significant departure from the historical method!! It's also ill advised not to be either tagging/categorizing as one goes along to make searching and linking things together dramatically easier.

      How has he missed the power of this from the start?! This is really a massive flaw in his method from my perspective, particularly as he quotes John Locke's work on the topic.

      Did I maybe miss some of this in earlier sections when he quoted John Locke? Double check, just in case, but this is certainly the section of the book to discuss using these ideas!

    3. Tags can overcomethis limitation by infusing your Second Brain with connections,making it easier to see cross-disciplinary themes and patterns thatdefy simple categorization.

      Forte frames things primarily from a digital perspective so he talks about folders and tags, but seems to wholly forget the grand power of having an subject index. While they're broadly the same, it's as if he's forgoing two thousand years of rhetorical tradition to have something that seems new and innovative, but which are paths that are incredibly well travelled.

    1. You may prefer notebooks to cards for note taking-very well:use what you like, but invariably; it will save you time andannoyance. If you use cards , use small ones (3" x 5") so that youuse a separate card for each fact, title, or memorandum toyourself. The cards are then easily shuffled for grouping. If youuse a notebook, leave a margin for the key word, letter, or num-ber which you will insert later as an index to the contents.
  6. Apr 2022
    1. Francis Bacon explained succinctlythat notes could be made either “by epitome or abridgement” (that is, by sum-marizing the source) or “by heads or commonplaces” (that is, by copying a pas-sage verbatim or nearly so and storing it in a notebook under a commonplaceheading for later retrieval and use). Bacon considered the latter method “of farmore profit and use,” and most note-taking advice focused on this practice of ex-cerpting.46

      This quote is worth looking up and checking its context. Particularly I'm interested to know if the purpose of summarizing the source is to check one's understanding of the ideas as is done in the Feynman technique, or if the purpose is a reminder summary of the piece itself?


      Link to Ahrens mentions of this technique for checking understanding. (Did he use the phrase Feynman in his text?)

  7. Mar 2022
    1. Lemmata from the main text are underlined in red, and the commentary is provided after.

      : lemmata ; a heading indicating the subject or argument of a literary composition, an annotation, or a dictionary entry.

  8. Feb 2022
    1. The second reason might support positive change. The existence of tokens and decentralization means that it’s possible to build resilient open source communities where early contributors and supporters benefit handsomely over time. No one owns these communities, and we can hope that these communities will work hard to serve themselves and their users, not the capital markets or other short-term players.

      Capitalism's subject is Capital, not the bourgeoisie or an owner class. "Open source communities" are still corporations.

  9. Jun 2021
  10. May 2021
  11. Jan 2021
    1. Between the first days of the European Invasion of North America and the ratification of the constitution there were both winners and losers here. List, in rank order, the most significant groups of winners and losers. What factors best explain the relative conditions of the groups on your lists? Connect causes and consequences to each. Were these outcomes inevitable? If so, why?

      Subject = American Conquest EQ = Who won and lost and why? Activities:

  12. Nov 2020
  13. Oct 2020
    1. You can think of this as a single speaker talking at a microphone in a room full of people. Their message (the subject) is being delivered to many (multicast) people (the observers) at once.
  14. Jul 2020
  15. Apr 2020
  16. Mar 2020
  17. Feb 2020
    1. Send one email per subject as multiple items in one email will cause delays (have to respond to everything) or misses (forgot one of the items).
    1. If you wanted to design a statue honoring soccer dads, it could be based loosely on the famous Iwo Jima statue, except instead of courageous young Marines struggling to raise a flagpole, it would be middle-aged men wrestling with what appears to be a huge mutant bat.

      Barry again exaggerates the struggles of soccer dads through imagery to emphasize that even though they may do only minimal things that aren't actually that important, their desire to help the team and do what they can is honorable in itself.

    2. But it’s my fellow dads I want to talk about here.

      Barry makes it clear that his subject is soccer dads, not soccer moms (though he does repsect them as well).

    3. We’ve watched a million games from our folding chairs on the sideline. We’ve been rained on more than a Vietnamese rubber plantation. We’ve cheered our girls when they won, and we’ve hugged them when they lost

      Barry is emphasizing the sacrifices and hard work that he has put in as a soccer dad to support his daughter in order to acknowledge all soccer dads that make a commitment to their daughter's love of soccer and their ability to grow from it. Readers can discern that the subject/topic of this article is not simply soccer dads, but it is the love, support, and sacrifice that they give for their daughters and how they need to be recognized for this on Father's Day.

    4. We’ve been through a lot together: We’ve driven countless miles to games and tournaments, and we’ve spent many nights in hotels with questionable hygiene standards

      Barry is emphasizing the sacrifices and hard work that he has put in as a soccer dad to support his daughter in order to acknowledge all soccer dads that make a commitment to their daughter's love of soccer and their ability to grow from it. Readers can discern that the subject/topic of this article is not simply soccer dads, but it is the love, support, and sacrifice that they give for their daughters and how they need to be recognized for this on Father's Day.

    5. As years passed, Sophie’s soccer skills greatly improved

      Is the subject of the article how the role of soccer dad's is to support their girls as they grow? Or does Barry include this line to show the benefits of being a soccer dad, seeing your daughter grow into a confident young warrior?

    6. I am one.

      Readers can predict that Barry will write to soccer parents in a relatable and understanding way. Barry also can be considered biased on the subject since he is a soccer dad, and may advocate more strongly for their recognition and support.

    7. This Father’s Day I want to sing the praises of soccer dads

      Barry introduces this article by acknowledging Father's Day, which reveals that this article is written for dads and their children, specifically children who play soccer. The basic subject is soccer dads.

  18. Jan 2020
  19. Jan 2019
    1. likeness

      Likeness: The external form or outward appearance of something; esp. a shape, form, or appearance which resembles that of a particular thing; a guise, a semblance.

      http://www.oed.com.ezp.slu.edu/view/Entry/108318?redirectedFrom=likeness#eid

      ...as opposed to...

      Real: Having an objective existence; actually existing physically as a thing, substantial; not imaginary.

      http://www.oed.com.ezp.slu.edu/view/Entry/158926?rskey=pC6mXz&result=3&isAdvanced=false#eid

      Interesting that "objective existence" requires separation, removal from others, where likeness requires a subject to be modeled after.

  20. Jan 2018
  21. Nov 2017
  22. Mar 2017
    1. I ~hould have preferred to be enveloped by speech, and carried away well beyond all possible beginnings, rather than have to begin it myself. I should have preferred to be-come aware that a nameless voice was already speaking long before me, so that I should only have needed to join in

      This narrative voice is interesting, considering the way he considers the problems of the author/narrator in the previous pages.

  23. May 2016
    1. Additive manufacturing poses a number of challenges to conventional understandings of materiality, including the so-called archaeological record. In particular, concepts such as real, virtual, and authentic are becoming increasingly unstable, as archaeological artefacts and assemblages can be digitalised, reiterated, extended and distributed through time and space as 3D printable entities. This paper argues that additive manufacturing represents a ‘grand disciplinary challenge’ to archaeological practice by offering a radical new generative framework within which to recontextualise and reconsider the nature of archaeological entities specifically within the domain of digital archaeology
  24. Mar 2016
  25. Oct 2015
    1. he
    2. you
    3. guns
    4. guns
    5. ownership
    6. they
    7. that
    8. guns
    9. Obama
    10. he
    11. you
    12. you
    13. you
    14. this
    15. Conscience-in-Chief
    16. things
    17. who
    18. laws
    19. who
    20. he
    21. conversations
    22. You
    23. You
    24. you
    25. who
    26. you
    27. all
    28. you
    29. America
    30. call
    31. you
    32. you
    33. advocates
    34. it
    35. People
    36. class
    37. piffle
    38. implication
    39. shibboleths
    40. decorum
    41. he
    42. I
    43. shooting
  26. Jul 2015
    1. −0.30

      Saffer and Chaloupka (1999) applied data from the Drug Enforcement Agency, the Inter-City Cost of Living Index, and the 1988, 1990, and 1991 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse

      The average price elasticity of demand for alcohol was found to be

    2. −0.35

      Chaloupka, Grossman, & Saffer, 2002). Clements, Yang, and Zheng (1997) estimated the price elasticities for beer

      based on data from seven countries, excluding the United States

    3. −0.3

      Leung and Phelps (1999) found that the price elasticity of demand was approximately for beer

    4. −1.69

      mean price elasticity of demand combined group of all other drinkers

    5. −1.11

      mean price elasticity of demand for hard liquor drinkers

    6. −1.14

      mean price elasticity of demand for regular beer drinkers

    7. −0.79

      mean price elasticity of demand for MLB drinkers

  27. Nov 2013
    1. and that the question of which of these perceptions of the world is the more correct one is quite meaningless, for this would have to have been decided previously in accordance with the criterion of the correct perception, which means, in accordance with a criterion which is not available. But in any case it seems to me that "the correct perception"-which would mean "the adequate expression of an object in the subject"-is a contradictory impossibility.

      Even if we could glimpse what lies "beyond" we have no context with which to contain or express things objectively.

    1. The whole of the following sixth book is taken up with the arts for stirring the emotions and causing delight; here nothing is the property of dialectic or of rhetoric. Since rhetoric and di-alectic are general arts, they should therefore be explained in a general fashion, the one in respect to style and delivery, the other in respect to in-vention and arrangement.

      I disagree. The arts of "stirring the emotions" show how to produce this effect in style and delivery. In the end, good rhetoric should "stir the emotions," no matter what the subject or emotion.

    2. But indeed I shall instead agree with Quinti-lian's opinion that rhetoric is defined as the sci-ence of speaking well, not about this or that, but about all subjects. Rhetoric therefore requires no partition of its areas of investigation

      What, he agrees on something? Rhetoric covers all subject matter

    3. The parts of the material which belong to the art of rhetoric are only two, style and delivery

      Again this seems limiting

  28. Oct 2013
    1. It is a remark constantly made by some that an orator must be skilled in all arts if he is to speak upon all subjects. I might reply to this in the words of Cicero, in whom I find this passage: "In my opinion, no man can become a thoroughly accomplished orator unless he shall have attained a knowledge of every subject of importance and of all the liberal arts," but for my argument, it is sufficient that an orator be acquainted with the subject on which he has to speak.

      So the orator does not have to have mastery over that which he speaks, but have thoroughly researched it.

    2. He has not a knowledge of all causes, and yet he ought to be able to speak upon all.
    1. They speak falsely, however, in this respect likewise, for we have already shown that oratory has an end and have stated what that end is, an end which the true orator will always attain, for he will always speak well.

      Refuting past philosophers, especially Plato. It has a subject and end, both of which are speaking well

  29. Sep 2013
    1. that any one in my house might put any question to him, and that he would answer.

      Goes back to the 'being knowledgeable on all subjects'